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1.

Argument structure
an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate,
and in this regard, the complement is a closely related concept. Most predicates
take one, two, or three arguments. A predicate and its arguments form a
predicate-argument structure.
2. Theta Role or -role
a theta role or -role is the formal device for representing syntactic
argument structure (the number and type of noun phrases) required
syntactically by a particular verb. For example, the verb put requires three
arguments (i.e., it is trivalent). The formal mechanism for implementing this
requirement is based in theta roles.
3. Locality and Thematic Structure
locality refers to the proximity of elements in a linguistic structure.
Constraints on locality limit the span over which rules can apply to a
particular structure.