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Chapter 4: Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Solution
Solute
Solvent
Electrolyte
Strong Electrolytes
Weak Electrolytes
Hydration
Nonelectrolytes
Solubility
Soluble
Insoluble
Acids
Bases
Precipitation Reactions
Precipitation
Monoprotic Acids
Diprotic Acids
Triprotic Acids
Acid-Base/ Neutralization
Reactions
Oxidation Reduction
Reactions
Concentration
Concentrated
Dilute
Molarity
Titration
Standard Solution
Equivalence Point
Acid-Base Indicator
End Point
Spectator Ions
Net Ionic Equation

Homogenous mixture
Substance that is dissolved
Substance that acts as dissolving medium
Substance that produces ions in a solution and
conducts electricity
Electrolytes that completely dissociate (break apart)
Electrolytes that partially dissociate
Water molecules surround ions in solutions
Molecular compounds
The amount of a substance that can dissolve in a
given quantity of solvent
Can dissolve in a given solvent
Cannot dissolve in a given solvent
Produce H+ ions in solution
Accept H+ in solution and produce OHReaction that produces a precipitate
Insoluble ionic solid
Have one H+
Have two H+
Have three H+
Reactions between an acid and a base to form water
and a salt
Transfer of eThe amount of solute in a given quantity of solvent
Relatively high amount of solute
Relatively low amount of solute
Unit of concentration that indicates mol solute for
every IL solute
Process used to identify the concentration of a
solution by reacting it with a known quantity of
another
Solution with known concentration
Where two solutions have completely reacted
Substance that changes color based on pH
Where the indicator changes color (used to
approximate equivalence point)
Ions that play no role in the reaction
The equation without all the spectator ions

Electrolytes
-

All ionic compounds are electrolytes


Strong Acids are strong electrolytes
Strong Based are strong electrolytes
Weak Acids are weak electrolytes
Weak Bases are weak electrolytes

Strong Acids- HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4


Weak Bases- NH3

* Ionic compounds, strong acids, and strong bases completely dissociate so they are
represented as ions in Net Ionic Equation
* Weak acids and weak bases only dissociate to a small extent so they are not
represented as separate ions in Net Ionic Equation
Oxidation Numbers
Rules:
1. A neutral element has an oxidation # of 0
2. A monatomic ion has an oxidation # same as its charge
3. Some common oxidation #s:
- H is usually +1, but can be -1 as a hydride
- O is usually -2, but can be -1 as a peroxide
- F is always -1
4. The Sum of the oxidation #s of all the elements in a compound must
equal its overall charge.
Activity Series
Lists elements according to ease of oxidation standard reduction potential
(upside down activity series has elements at the bottom most easily oxidized)
Balancing Redox in Acidic Solution
1. Write half reactions
2. Balance Half Reactions
- elements other that O and H
- H using H+
- 0 using H20
- charge using e3. Multiply Reactions by integer so e- cancel
4. Add half reactions and cancel species on both sides
5. Check balanced equations including eBalancing Redox in Basic Solution
4b. Add OH- to both sides to combine with H+ for H2O
Molarity
M = mol solute
L solvent
Dilution:
Mol = MV
M1V1 = M2V2
Solution Stoichiometry
Mass A

Mass B
Moles A

Molarity of Volume A

Moles B
Molarity of Volume B