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Chapter 5: Thermochemistry

Thermochemistr
y
Kinetic Energy
Thermal Energy
Potential Energy
Chemical Energy
Phase Energy
Work
Heat
Temperature
Internal Energy
Endothermic
Exothermic
Closed System
Enthalpy
Pressure-Volume
Work
Specific Heat
Heat Capacity
Molar heat
capacity
Calorimetry

The study of energy changes in physical and chemical


processes
Energy associated with the motion of particles
Energy associated with kinetic energy
Energy associated with the composition and arrangement of
particles
The potential energy a substance has to undergo a chemical
reaction
Energy associated with the position of particles
Energy used to cause an object to move against force
Energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one.
Based on the motion (speed) of particles
The total energy stored within a system (sum of Eth, Eph, Ech)
System absorbs heat from surroundings (+q)
System loses or releases heat to the surroundings (-q)
Particles cannot enter or leave, the system but energy can
The amount of energy transferred when the system is under
constant pressure and the only type of work is P-V work
Work done by a gas at constant pressure
The amount of energy required to raise one gram of a sample
by 1 C
The amount of energy required to raise a sample 1 C
The amount of heat required to raise one mole of a sample 1 C
The process used to measure heat change in a physical or
chemical process
The enthalpy change that accompanies a chemical equation

Enthalpy

Kinetic Energy:

Change in Internal Energy:

E=q+w
P-V Work:

W = -P

Hrxn = Hproducts - Hreactants


Fist Law of Thermodynamics:

Energy is conserved in physical and chemical processes.


w (-)

System

w (+) Surroundings

Enthalpy Diagrams
Products

Reactants

Reactants

Products

Endothermic

Exothermic

Units of Energy:
SI unit for Energy = Joule (J)
1 kJ = 1000J
1 cal = 4.184 J
1 Cal = 1kcal = 1000 cal
-

Enthalpy is an extensive property


Reverse reactions have the same magnitude but opposite sign
Enthalpy depends on physical states

Equation of Heat:

q = mC

q= heat m= mass C= specific heat

Hess Law
Hess Law states that if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, the change in
heat of the reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual
steps.

Enthalpies of Formulas
-

the enthalpy of formation is the enthalpy change associated with the


formation of a compound from its constituent elements
standard enthalpy of formation is the enthalpy formation of 1 mol of a
substance from its elements in their standard states
the standard state of a substance is its pure form at 1atm and 25C (298K)
the standard enthalpy of rxn is the enthalpy change when all reactants and
products are in their standard states.