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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture - 05
Analysis and Design of Two-way Slab
System without Beams
(Flat Plates and Flat Slabs)
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
www.drqaisarali.com

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Session I: Flexural Analysis of Two-Way Slab System


without Beams (Direct Design Method)

Session II: Shear Design for Two-Way Slab System


without Beams (Flat Plates and Flat Slabs)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Session I

Flexural Analysis and Design of TwoWay Slab System without Beams


(Direct Design Method)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed
Background
Introduction to Direct Design Method (DDM)
Frame Analysis Steps using Direct Design Method (DDM)
Example 1
Two Way Slabs (Other Requirements of ACI)
Example 2
Example 3
Summary of Direct Design Method (DDM)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
In previous lectures, a 90 60 Hall was analyzed as a
one-way slab system as shown below.

Option 02

Option 01
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
Also, in previous lecture, the slab of 100 60
commercial building was analyzed as slab with beams
using Moment coefficient method.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
In the same 100 60 commercial building, if there are
shallow or no beams, Moment Coefficient Method cannot
be used.
Direct Design Method (DDM) can be used for such cases.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
Direct Design Method (DDM) is one of the method for
flexural analysis of two-way slabs with or without beams.
DDM is relatively difficult for slabs with beams or walls
therefore we will use it only for slabs without beams.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
In DDM, frames rather than panels are analyzed.

Exterior Frame
Interior Frame

Interior Frame

Exterior Frame

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
For complete analysis of slab system frames, are
analyzed in E-W and N-S directions.

E-W Frames

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
For complete analysis of slab system frames, are
analyzed in E-W and N-S directions.

N-S Frames

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
Limitations

Though DDM is useful for analysis of slabs, specially


without beams, the method is applicable with some
limitations as discussed next.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
Limitations (ACI 13.6.1):
Uniformly distributed loading (L/D 2)

l1

2l1 /3

l1

Three or more spans

l2

Rectangular slab
panels (2 or less:1)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Column offset
l2 /10

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 01: Sizes
ACI table 9.5 (a) and (c) are used for finding the slab thickness.

Slab with Beams

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Slab without Beams

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 02: Loads
The slab load is calculated in usual manner.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

Step I: a) Marking E-W Frame (Interior Frame)

Panel Centerline

Interior Frame

Col Centerline
Panel Centerline

l1

l2

Half width of panel


on one side
Half width of panel
on other side

According to ACI 13.6.2.3: Where the transverse span of panels on either side of the
centerline of supports varies, l2 shall be taken as the average of adjacent transverse spans.
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

Step I: b) Marking E-W Frame (Exterior Frame)

h2/2

Exterior Frame

Half width of panel


on one side

l2

l1

l2 = Panel width/2 +h2/2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

17

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

Step II: a) Marking Column Strip (For Interior Frame)


b) Marking Middle Strip (For Interior Frame)

l2
Half Column strip

CS/2
CS/2

M.S/2
C.S
M.S/2

CS/2 = Least of l1/4 or l2/4


ln
l1

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

Step II: a) Marking Column Strip (For Interior Frame)


b) Marking Middle Strip (For Interior Frame)

l2
Half Column Strip

5
5

5
10
5

For l1 = 25 and l2 = 20, CS


and MS widths are given as
follows:

ln

CS/2 = Least of l1/4 or l2/4

l1

l2/4 = 20/4 = 5
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

19

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

Step II: c) Marking Column Strip (For Exterior Frame)


d) Marking Middle Strip (For Exterior Frame)
h/2

CS

Min. Panel Width/4

l2

MS

CS = Min. Panel Width/4 + (Col.


Size)
MS = l2 - CS
For Given Frame:
CS and MS widths are given as
follows:

ln

l2 = (20) + (14/12) = 10.58

l1

CS = (20/4) + (14/12) = 5.58


MS = 10.58 5.58 = 5
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step III: Calculate Static Moment (Mo) for interior span of frame.

Span of frame

wu l2 ln2
Mo =

Mo

8
ln

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

l2

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step IV: Longitudinal Distribution of Static Moment (Mo).

M+

M = 0.65Mo
M + = 0.35Mo

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step V: Lateral Distribution to column and middle strips.

M = 0.65Mo

0.60M +
0.75M

M + = 0.35Mo

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

0.75M

23

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step III: Calculate Static Moment (Mo) for exterior span of frame.
25'-0"

Mo =

25'-0"

wu l2 ln2

25'-0"

25'-0"

Span of frame
20'-0"

Mo
ln

l2
20'-0"

20'-0"

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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12

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution of static moment (Mo).

Mext = 0.26Mo
M ext+ = 0.52Mo

Mext
+

Mext

Mint

Mint- = 0.70Mo

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step V: Lateral Distribution to column and middle strips.

Mext- = 0.26Mo
M ext+ = 0.52Mo

1.00Mext
0.75Mint
0.60Mext
+

Mint- = 0.70Mo

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

26

13

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step V: Lateral Distribution to column and middle strips.

Mext- = 0.26Mo
Mext+ = 0.52Mo
Mint- = 0.70Mo

0.60M+
1.00Mext
0.75Mint
0.60Mext
0.75M
0.75M
+

M- = 0.65Mo
M+ = 0.35Mo

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

27

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Example 1:
Analyze the flat plate shown below using DDM. The slab supports a
live load of 144 psf. All columns are 14 square. Take fc = 4 ksi and fy
= 60 ksi.
25

25

25

25

20

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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14

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 01: Sizes
ACI table 9.5 (c) is used for finding flat plate and flat slab
thickness.

hmin = 5 inches (slabs without drop panels)

hmin = 4 inches (slabs with drop panels)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

29

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 01: Sizes

Exterior panel governs. Therefore,

hf = ln/30 = [{25 (2 14/2)/12}/30] 12 = 9.53 (ACI minimum


requirement)

Take hf = 10

For #6 bars: d = hf 0.75 0.75 = 8.5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 02: Loads

Service Dead Load (D.L) = slabhf


= 0.15 (10/12) = 0.125 ksf

Superimposed Dead Load (SDL) = Nil

Service Live Load (L.L) = 144 psf or 0.144 ksf

Factored Load (wu) = 1.2D.L + 1.6L.L


= 1.2 0.125 + 1.6 0.144 = 0.3804 ksf

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

31

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step I: Marking E-W Interior Frame.

25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

20'-0"

Panel Centerline

Interior Frame

l2

Col Centerline
Panel Centerline

l1

20'-0"

Half width of panel


on one side
Half width of panel
on other side

20'-0"

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

32

16

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step II: Marking column and middle strips.
a) Marking Column Strip
25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

b) Middle Strip
l2
Half Column strip

20'-0"

5
5

5
10
5

20'-0"

CS/2 = Least of l1/4 or l2/4

ln

l2/4 = 20/4 = 5

l1

20'-0"

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

33

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step III: Static Moment (Mo) calculation.
25

25

25

25

Mo = wul2ln2/8
= 540 ft-kip

20

Mo = 540 ft-k

Mo = 540 ft-k
l2
20

ln =23.83
l1

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

20

34

17

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution of Static Moment (Mo).
25

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378
M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

25

25

20

M+

Mext+
Mext

Mint- M

M
20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

35

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution of Static Moment (Mo).

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378
M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

25

281

189

25

25

20

140

378

351

351
20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

36

18

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

25

20
0.75Mint 0.75M

1.00Mext
0.60Mext

0.75M
0.60M+

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

37

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

0.75Mint 0.75M

140

0.75M
0.60M+

20

100 % of M ext- goes to


column strip and
remaining to middle strip

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

25

20

0.60Mext

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

20

Reinforced Concrete Design II

38

19

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

25

20
0.75Mint 0.75M

140
169

0.75M
113

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

20

60 % of Mext+ & M + goes


to column strip and
remaining to middle strip

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

39

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

20
284

140
168

263

263
113

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

20

75 % of Mint- goes to
column strip and
remaining to middle strip

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

25

20

Reinforced Concrete Design II

40

20

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mext = 0.26Mo = 140


Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

20
0

112/2

94/2
283

140

88/2

112/2

76/2

88/2
263

263

168

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

113
94/2

88/2

76/2

88/2

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

41

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

25

25

25

20

Mu (per foot width)


= M / strip width

112/2
11.2

9.4
94/2
283
28.3

140
14.0
168
16.8

88/2
8.8

76/2
7.6

8.8
88/2

5 half middle strip

263
26.3

263
26.3
11.3
113

10 column strip
5 half middle strip

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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21

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

Step I: Marking E-W Exterior Frame


h2/2

Exterior Frame

l2

Half width of panel


on one side

l1

l2 = Panel width/2 +h2/2


l2 = (20) + (14/12)
= 10.58

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

43

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

Step II: Marking Column and Middle Strips


h/2

CS

Min. Panel Width/4

l2

MS

CS = Min. Panel Width/4 + (Col.


Size)
MS = l2 - CS
For Given Frame:
CS and MS widths are given as
follows:
l2 = (20) + (14/12) = 10.58
CS = (20/4) + (14/12) = 5.58
MS = 10.58 5.58 = 5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

44

22

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step III: Calculation of static moment, Mo
25

Mo =

25

wul2ln2/8

= 285.68 ft-kip

Mo = 285.68 ft-k

25

25

Mo = 285.68 ft-k
20

l2 =10.58

ln =23.83

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

45

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

25

25

M+

Mext+
Mext

25

Mint-

20

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

46

23

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

25

148
74

25

25

100
200

186

186

20

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

47

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip

1.00Mext

0.60Mext+

25
0.75Mint

0.75M

0.60M+

25

25

0.75M

20

Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

48

24

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip

25

25

74

89

150

140

60

140

59

50

46

40

46

25

20

Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

49

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips (per strip width)
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip

25

25

13.26

15.94

26.8

25.1

10.75

25.1

11.87

10

9.2

9.2

Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

25

CS
MS

20

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100
l2 = (20) + (14/12) = 10.58

20

CS = (20/4) + (14/12) = 5.58


MS = 10.58 5.58 = 5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

50

25

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Interior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments
25

Mo = 421.5 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 110
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 219
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 295
M - = 0.65Mo = 274
M + = 0.35Mo = 148

74/2

25
110

131

88/2

25

20

221
206

59/2

25

69/2

20

88.8
206

69/2

20

l2 =25

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

51

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Interior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments (Per Strip Width)
25

Mo = 421.5 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 110
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 219
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 295
M - = 0.65Mo = 274
M + = 0.35Mo = 148

4.9

25
11.0

13.1

5.8

20

4.6

20

8.88
20.6

4.6

l2 =25

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

25

22.1
20.6

3.9

25

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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52

26

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Exterior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments
25

Mo = 220.5 ft-kip
Mext = 0.26Mo = 58
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 114
Mint = 0.70Mo = 154
M = 0.65Mo = 143
M + = 0.35Mo = 77

58

69

45

115.5

25

25

25

20

38.5

107.3 35.75
46.2

20

30.8

107.3 35.75

l2 =13.08

20

l2 = (25) + (14/12)
= 13.08
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

53

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Exterior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments (Per Strip Width)
25

25

25

25

Mo = 220.5 ft-kip
Mext = 0.26Mo = 58
Mext+ = 0.50Mo = 110
Mint = 0.70Mo = 154
M = 0.65Mo = 143
M + = 0.35Mo = 77
Column Strip Width
= (20/4) + (14/12)
= 5.58
MS = 13.08 5.58
= 7.5

10.4

20

12.32 6
20.69

5.13

19.2

4.76

8.27

4.12

19.2

4.76

20

20

l2 =13.08

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

54

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Direction Moments)
25
13.26
0

25

15.94

26.8

25.1

10.75

25.1

11.87

10

9.2

9.2

9.4

28.3

14.0

25

20

7.6
26.3

26.3

16.8
0

25

11.3
8.8

11.2

8.8

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

55

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Direction Moments)
25
10.4

00

11.0

8.8

13.1

8.8

5.13 4.9

22.1

12.32 6
20.69

25

19.2

4.76

4.6

20.6

8.27

4.12

3.9

8.88

19.2

4.76

4.6

20.6

25

25

20

4.6

20
4.6

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

56

28

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 04: Design (E-W Direction)
25
13.26
0

25

15.94

26.8

25.1

10.75

25.1

11.87

10

9.2

9.2

9.4

25

20

7.6

28.3

14.0

26.3

26.3

16.8
0

25

11.3
8.8

11.2

8.8

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

57

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 04: Design (E-W Direction)
25
B

25

25

C
A

A
C
C

A = #5 @ 4 c/c
B = #5 @ 8 c/c
C = #5 @ 12 c/c

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

20

B
C

25

Reinforced Concrete Design II

20

20

58

29

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 04: Design (N-S Direction)
25
B

25

4.9

3.9

25

25

20

A = #5 @ 6 c/c
B = #5 @ 9 c/c
C = #5 @ 12 c/c
D = #5 @ 15 c/c

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

59

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement requirement:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Maximum spacing (ACI 13.3.2):

smax = 2 hf in each direction.

Minimum Reinforcement (ACI 7.12.2.1):

Asmin = 0.0018 bhf for grade 60.

Asmin = 0.002 bhf for grade 40 and 50.

Reinforced Concrete Design II

60

30

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

At least 3/4 cover for fire or corrosion protection.

Slab

3/4

Support

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

61

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Reinforcement placement: In case of two way slabs supported on


beams, short-direction bars are normally placed closer to the top
or bottom surface of the slab, with the larger effective depth
because of greater moment in short direction.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

62

31

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Reinforcement

placement:

However

in

the

case

of

flat

plates/slabs, the long-direction negative and positive bars, in both


middle and column strips, are placed closer to the top or bottom
surface of the slab, respectively, with the larger effective depth
because of greater moment in long direction.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

63

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Splicing: ACI 13.3.8.5 requires that all bottom bars within the
column strip in each direction be continuous or spliced with length
equal to 1.0 ld, (For development length see ACI 12.2.3 or Nelson
13th Ed, page 172 chapter 5 or mechanical or welded splices)

For #7 or larger no. of bars of fy = 60 ksi, and normal weight,


uncoated concrete of fc = 4 ksi:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

ld = 47 db

Reinforced Concrete Design II

64

32

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Continuity of bars: At least two of the column strip bars in each


direction must pass within the column core and must be anchored
at exterior supports (ACI 13.3.8.5).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

65

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Standard Bar Cut off Points (Practical Recommendation) for column


and middle strips both.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

66

33

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Two Way Slabs


(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for
column supported two-way slabs:
Reinforcement at Exterior Corners:

Reinforcement

should

be

provided

at

exterior corners in both the bottom and top

l /5

l /5

of the slab, for a distance in each direction


from the corner equal to one-fifth the longer
span of the corner panel as shown in figure.

The positive and negative reinforcement


should be of size and spacing equivalent to
that

required

for

maximum

positive

l = longer clear span

moments (per foot of width) in the panel


(ACI 13.3.6.1)
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

67

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
Homework: Analysis results of the slab shown below using DDM are
presented next. The slab supports a live load of 60 psf. Superimposed
dead load is equal to 40 psf. All columns are 14 square. Take fc = 3 ksi
and fy = 40 ksi.
25

25

25

25

20

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

68

34

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
Calculation summary

Slab thickness hf = 10

Factored load (wu) = 0.294 ksf

Column strip width = 5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

69

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft)

25
57.4
0

25

68.9

116

107.6

46.4

107.6

45.9

38.6

35.9

30.9

35.9

36.5

219

108.6

43.4

25

20

29.2
204

204

130
0

25

88
33.9

33.9

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

70

35

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
25
10.3
0

25

12.3

20.8

19.3

8.3

19.3

9.2

7.7

7.2

6.2

7.2

7.3

21.9

10.9

25

20

5.8
20.4

20.4

13.0
0

25

8.8
6.8

8.7

6.8

20

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

71

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft)

25
44.3

53.2
89.5

84.7

35.5

101

33.9

29.8 4.9
28.5

171

83.1

27.7

35.8

23.9

83.1

27.7

00

25

159
22.8
3.9

25

20

26.5

20

68.4
159

25

26.5

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

72

36

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
25
7.9

9.5

4.7

16.0

4.0

14.9

3.7

6.4

3.2

14.9

3.7

25

00

8.5

10.1

4.5

4.9
3.8

25

25

20

17.1
15.9

3.0
3.9

3.5

20

6.8
15.9

3.5

20

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

73

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
Homework: Analysis results of the slab shown below using DDM are
presented next. The slab supports a live load of 60 psf. Superimposed
dead load is equal to 40 psf. All columns are 12 square. Take fc = 3 ksi
and fy = 40 ksi.
20

20

20

20

15

15

15

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

74

37

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
Calculation summary

Slab thickness hf = 8

Factored load (wu) = 0.264 ksf

Column strip width = 3.75

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

75

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft)

20
24.8
0

20

29.7

50

46.5

20

46.5

19.8

16.7

15.5

13.3

15.5

15.6

93.8

46.5

18.6

20

15

12.5
87.1

87.1

55.8
0

20

37.5
14.5

14.5

15

15

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

76

38

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
20
5.8
0

20

7.0

11.8

10.9

4.7

10.9

5.3

4.5

4.1

3.6

4.1

4.2

12.5

6.2

20

15

3.3
11.6

11.6

7.4
0

20

5.0
3.9

5.0

3.9

15

15

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

77

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft)

20
17.7

21.2
35.7

33.6

14.1

40.4

13.5

11.9 4.9
11.3

67.9

33.1

11.0

14.3

9.5

33.1

11.0

00

20

63.1
9.1
3.9

20

15

10.5

15

27.2
63.1

20

10.5

15

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

78

39

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
20
17.7

21.2
35.7

4.5

2.26

5.4

2.2

1.90 4.9
1.8

9.5

33.1

1.77

14.3

1.52

33.1

1.77

00

20

8.4
1.4
3.9

20

20

1.7

15

3.6
8.4

15

1.7

15

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

79

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Summary of Direct Design Method

Decide about sizes of slab and columns. The slab depth can
be calculated from ACI table 9.5 (c).

Find Load on slab (wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL)

On given column plan of building, decide about location and


dimensions of all frames (exterior and interior)

For a particular span of frame, find static moment (Mo =


wul2ln2/8).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

80

40

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Summary of Direct Design Method

Find longitudinal distribution of static moment:

Exterior span (Mext - = 0.26Mo; M ext + = 0.52Mo; Mint - = 0.70Mo)

Interior span (Mint - = 0.65Mo; M int + = 0.35Mo)

Find lateral Distribution of each longitudinal moment:

100 % of Mext goes to column strip

60 % of Mext + and Mint+ goes to column strip

75 % of Mint goes to column strip

The remaining moments goes to middle strips

Design and apply reinforcement requirements (smax = 2hf)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

81

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Session II

Shear Design for Two-Way Slab


System without Beams
(Flat Plates and Flat Slabs)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

82

41

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed
Introduction
Various Design Options
Design Example

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

83

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Flat Plates and Flat Slabs

These are the most common types of two-way slab system, which are commonly
used in multi-story construction.

They render low story heights and have easy construction and formwork.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

84

42

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Behavior

When two-way slabs are directly supported by columns, shear near the column
(punching shear) is of critical importance.

Therefore, in addition to flexure, flat plates shall also be designed for two way
shear (punch out shear) stresses.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

85

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Punching Shear in Flat Plates

Punching shear occurs at column support points in flat plates and flat slabs.

Shear crack

Punch Out

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

86

43

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Critical Section for Punching Shear

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

87

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Critical Section for Shear Design

In shear design of beams, the critical section is taken at a distance d


from the face of the support.

Shear
crack
Beam
d

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

88

44

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Critical Section for Shear Design

In shear design of flat plates, the critical section is an area taken at a


distance d/2 from all face of the support.

Column

Critical perimeter

Slab
Tributary Area, At

d/2
d/2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Slab thickness (h)


d = h cover

89

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Punching Shear: Critical Perimeter, bo

c1,S

d/2

c1,L

d/2

bo = 2(c1,S + d) + 2(c1,L + d)
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

90

45

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Punching Shear: Critical Perimeter, bo

c1,S

d/2

c1,L

d/2

bo = 2(c1,S + d/2) + (c1,L + d)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

91

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Punching Shear: Critical Perimeter, bo

c1,L

d/2

c1,S

d/2

bo = (c1,S + d/2) + (c1,L + d/2)


Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

92

46

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction
Punching Shear Demand (Vu): For Square Column

Critical Perimeter, bo:


bo = 4(c + d)
Area Contributing to Load
(Excluding Area of bo), At :

l2

At = (l1 l2) (c + d)2 / 144


[l1 & l2 are in ft. units and c & d are in
inches]

l1

Punching Shear Demand:


Vu = W u At

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

93

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Capacity of Slab in Punching Shear:

Vn = Vc + Vs

Vc is least of:

4 (fc)bod

(2 + 4/c) (fc)bod

{(sd/bo +2} (fc)bod

c = longer side of column/shorter side of column


s = 40 for interior column, 30 for edge column, 20 for corner columns

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

94

47

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options

When Vc Vu ( = 0.75): Nothing is required.

When Vc < Vu, then we need to increase the punching shear capacity of the
slab.

Punching shear capacity of the flat plates can be increased by either of the
following ways:
i.

Increasing d ,depth of slab: This can be done by increasing the slab depth as a
whole or in the vicinity of column (Drop Panel)

ii.

Increasing bo, critical shear perimeter: This can be done by increasing column size
as a whole or by increasing size of column head (Column capital)

iii.

Increasing fc (high Strength Concrete)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

95

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options

And/ or provide shear reinforcement (Vs) in the form of:

Integral beams

Bent Bars

Shear heads

Shear studs

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

96

48

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options

Drop Panels (ACI 9.5.3.2 and 13.3.7):

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

97

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options

Column Capital:

ACI 13.1.2 requires the column capital should be oriented no greater than 450 to the axis of the
column.

ACI 6.4.6 requires that the capital concrete be placed at the same time as the slab concrete. As a
result, the floor forming becomes considerably more complicated and expensive.

The increased perimeter can be computed by equating Vu to Vc and simplifying the resulting
equation for b0

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

98

49

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options

Integral Beam and Bent Bars:

In case of integral beam or bent bar reinforcement following must be


satisfied.

ACI 11.11.3 requires the slab effective depth d to be at least 6 in., but not
less than 16 times the diameter of the shear reinforcement.

When bent bars and integral beams are to be used, ACI 11.11.3 reduces
Vc by 2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

99

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options


Integral Beams
Integral Beams require the design of two main components:
i.

Vertical stirrups

ii. Horizontal bars radiating outward from column faces.

Vertical Stirrups

Horizontal Bars

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

100

50

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options


Integral Beams (Vertical Stirrups)
Vertical stirrups are used in
conjunction with supplementary
horizontal bars radiating outward
in two perpendicular directions
from the support to form what are
termed integral beams contained
entirely within the slab thickness.
In such a way, critical perimeter
is increased
Increased

Vertical stirrups

Critical

For 4 sides, total stirrup area is 4 times

Perimeter, bo
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

individual 2 legged stirrup area


101

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options


Integral Beams (Horizontal Bars)

Critical Perimeter, bo

How much should be the length of the horizontal


bars, lv

lv can be determined using the critical perimeter


bo

(lv c/2)

Distance from the face of column to the boundary


of critical perimeter = (lv c/2)

lv
R

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

X = (lv c/2)

X = (lv c/2)

Reinforced Concrete Design II

bo = 4R + 4c

102

51

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Various Design Options


Various Design Options
Integral Beams

Critical Perimeter,
bo

(lv c/2)

For Square Column of Size c:

bo = 4R + 4c ........ (1)

R = (X 2 + X 2 ) = (2) X

Eq (1) => bo = 4 (2) X + 4c

putting value of lv : bo = 4 (2){(3/4)(lv c1/2)} + 4c


after simplification, we get: bo = 4.24 lv + 1.88c

X = (lv c/2)

The above equation can be used for determining the


length up to which the horizontal bars should be extended
beyond the face of column.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

X = (lv c/2)

103

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Step 01: Calculate Punching Shear Demand, Vu

Critical Perimeter, bo :
bo = 4(c + d)
= 4(14 + 8.5) = 90

Tributary Area (Excluding Area


of bo), At :
At = (25 20) (14 + 8.5)2 /144

20

25

= 496.5 ft2

Punching Shear Demand, Vu :


Wu = 0.3804 ksf
Vu = At Wu
= 496.5 0.3804 = 189 kips

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

104

52

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Calculation of Punching shear capacity (Vc):

Checking the punching shear


capacity of concrete:

fc bo d = 4000 90 8.5 / 1000 = 48 k

20

Vc is least of:

4 fc bod = 145 k

25

(2 + 4 / c) fc bod = 216 k
{(s d/bo +2} fc bod = 208 k

Therefore,

Vc = 145 k < Vu (189 k)


Shear reinforcement is required.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

105

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 01): Drop panels

In drop panels, the slab thickness in the vicinity of the columns is increased to
increase the shear capacity (Vc = 4 (fc)bod) of concrete.

The increased thickness can be computed by equating Vu to Vc

and

simplifying the resulting equation for d to calculate hTotal.


(hTotal = hSlab + hDrop Panle = hf + hDP)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

106

53

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 01): Drop panels

Equate Vu to Vc:
Vu = Vc
189 = 0.75 4 (fc) 90 d
d = 11.07

25/6 = 4.25
20/6 = 3.5

Therefore, hTotal = d +1.5 12.6

7
8.5

This gives 2.6 drop panel.

According to ACI, minimum


thickness of drop panel = hf/4 =
10/4 = 2.5, So using 2.6 thick
drop panel.

Drop Panel dimensions:


25/6 4.25; 20/6 3.5

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

107

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 02): Column Capitals

Equate Vu to Vc:
Vu = Vc
189 = 0.75 4 (fc) bo 8.5
bo = 117.20
Now,
bo = 4 (c + d)
117.20 = 4(c + 8.5)
Simplification gives,
c = 20.8 21

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

108

54

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 02): Column Capitals

According to ACI code, < 45o


y = 3.5/ tan
Let = 30o, then y 6.06
c = 21

For = 20o, y 9.62


3.5

capital

14
column

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

109

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 03): Integral Beams (Vertical Stirrups)

Vc = 145 kips

When integral beams are to be used, ACI 11.12.3 reduces Vc by 2. Therefore


Vc = 145/2 = 72.5 kips

Using 3/8 , 2 legged (0.22 in2), 4 (side) = 4 0.22 = 0.88 in2

Spacing (s) = Avfyd/ (Vu Vc)


s = 0.75 0.88 60 8.5/ (189 72.5) = 2.89 3

Maximum spacing allowed d/2 = 8.5/2 = 4.25

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Hence spacing of 3 is within allowable limits.

Using #3, 2 legged stirrups @ 3 c/c

Reinforced Concrete Design II

110

55

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 03): Integral Beams (Horizontal Bars)

Four #5 bars are to be provided in each direction to hold the stirrups. We know
minimum bo = 117.10

Using the equation bo = 4.24lv + 1.88c, we get:


lv 20

Hence the horizontal bars need to be extended beyond the center of the column up to
at least 20 (We will use 24)

First stirrup should be provided at a distance


not more than d/2 from the face of column up
to distance of d/2 from boundary of critical
perimeter.

It must be noted that integral beams along with


stirrups will shift the critical perimeter. Beams
alone cannot shift the critical perimeter.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

111

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 03): Integral Beams details.

Total length of horizontal bars is 4 in both directions.


4 #5 bars are used here to hold the vertical stirrups.

Vertical stirrups are provided up to distance of


d /2 = 8.5/2 = 4.25

d/2 from the boundary of critical perimeter.


d/2

#3 stirrups @ 3 c/c are used here.


First stirrup is provided at s/2 = 1.5 from column

d/2

face.

#3 Stirrups @ 3 c/c

2
4 #5 bars to hold stirrups

4
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

112

56

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References

ACI 318
Design of Concrete Structures by Nilson, Darwin and Dolan
ACI Design Handbook

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

113

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

The End

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Reinforced Concrete Design II

114

57