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# Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture - 05
Analysis and Design of Two-way Slab
System without Beams
(Flat Plates and Flat Slabs)
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
www.drqaisarali.com

## Session I: Flexural Analysis of Two-Way Slab System

without Beams (Direct Design Method)

## Session II: Shear Design for Two-Way Slab System

without Beams (Flat Plates and Flat Slabs)

Session I

## Flexural Analysis and Design of TwoWay Slab System without Beams

(Direct Design Method)

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
Introduction to Direct Design Method (DDM)
Frame Analysis Steps using Direct Design Method (DDM)
Example 1
Two Way Slabs (Other Requirements of ACI)
Example 2
Example 3
Summary of Direct Design Method (DDM)

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
In previous lectures, a 90 60 Hall was analyzed as a
one-way slab system as shown below.

Option 02

Option 01
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
Also, in previous lecture, the slab of 100 60
commercial building was analyzed as slab with beams
using Moment coefficient method.

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Background
In the same 100 60 commercial building, if there are
shallow or no beams, Moment Coefficient Method cannot
be used.
Direct Design Method (DDM) can be used for such cases.

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
Direct Design Method (DDM) is one of the method for
flexural analysis of two-way slabs with or without beams.
DDM is relatively difficult for slabs with beams or walls
therefore we will use it only for slabs without beams.

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
In DDM, frames rather than panels are analyzed.

Exterior Frame
Interior Frame

Interior Frame

Exterior Frame

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
For complete analysis of slab system frames, are
analyzed in E-W and N-S directions.

E-W Frames

10

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
For complete analysis of slab system frames, are
analyzed in E-W and N-S directions.

N-S Frames

11

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
Limitations

## Though DDM is useful for analysis of slabs, specially

without beams, the method is applicable with some
limitations as discussed next.

12

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction to DDM
Limitations (ACI 13.6.1):

l1

2l1 /3

l1

## Three or more spans

l2

Rectangular slab
panels (2 or less:1)

Column offset
l2 /10

13

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 01: Sizes
ACI table 9.5 (a) and (c) are used for finding the slab thickness.

14

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
The slab load is calculated in usual manner.

15

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

Panel Centerline

Interior Frame

Col Centerline
Panel Centerline

l1

l2

## Half width of panel

on one side
Half width of panel
on other side

According to ACI 13.6.2.3: Where the transverse span of panels on either side of the
centerline of supports varies, l2 shall be taken as the average of adjacent transverse spans.
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

16

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

h2/2

Exterior Frame

on one side

l2

l1

17

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

## Step II: a) Marking Column Strip (For Interior Frame)

b) Marking Middle Strip (For Interior Frame)

l2
Half Column strip

CS/2
CS/2

M.S/2
C.S
M.S/2

ln
l1

18

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

## Step II: a) Marking Column Strip (For Interior Frame)

b) Marking Middle Strip (For Interior Frame)

l2
Half Column Strip

5
5

5
10
5

## For l1 = 25 and l2 = 20, CS

and MS widths are given as
follows:

ln

## CS/2 = Least of l1/4 or l2/4

l1

l2/4 = 20/4 = 5
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

19

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis

## Step II: c) Marking Column Strip (For Exterior Frame)

d) Marking Middle Strip (For Exterior Frame)
h/2

CS

l2

MS

## CS = Min. Panel Width/4 + (Col.

Size)
MS = l2 - CS
For Given Frame:
CS and MS widths are given as
follows:

ln

l1

## CS = (20/4) + (14/12) = 5.58

MS = 10.58 5.58 = 5
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

20

10

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step III: Calculate Static Moment (Mo) for interior span of frame.

Span of frame

wu l2 ln2
Mo =

Mo

8
ln

l2

21

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step IV: Longitudinal Distribution of Static Moment (Mo).

M+

M = 0.65Mo
M + = 0.35Mo

22

11

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step V: Lateral Distribution to column and middle strips.

M = 0.65Mo

0.60M +
0.75M

M + = 0.35Mo

0.75M

23

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step III: Calculate Static Moment (Mo) for exterior span of frame.
25'-0"

Mo =

25'-0"

wu l2 ln2

25'-0"

25'-0"

Span of frame
20'-0"

Mo
ln

l2
20'-0"

20'-0"

24

12

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution of static moment (Mo).

Mext = 0.26Mo
M ext+ = 0.52Mo

Mext
+

Mext

Mint

Mint- = 0.70Mo

25

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step V: Lateral Distribution to column and middle strips.

Mext- = 0.26Mo
M ext+ = 0.52Mo

1.00Mext
0.75Mint
0.60Mext
+

Mint- = 0.70Mo

26

13

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Steps In DDM
Step 03: Analysis
Step V: Lateral Distribution to column and middle strips.

Mext- = 0.26Mo
Mext+ = 0.52Mo
Mint- = 0.70Mo

0.60M+
1.00Mext
0.75Mint
0.60Mext
0.75M
0.75M
+

M- = 0.65Mo
M+ = 0.35Mo

27

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Example 1:
Analyze the flat plate shown below using DDM. The slab supports a
live load of 144 psf. All columns are 14 square. Take fc = 4 ksi and fy
= 60 ksi.
25

25

25

25

20

20

20

28

14

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 01: Sizes
ACI table 9.5 (c) is used for finding flat plate and flat slab
thickness.

29

Example 1
Step 01: Sizes

requirement)

Take hf = 10

30

15

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1

= 0.15 (10/12) = 0.125 ksf

## Factored Load (wu) = 1.2D.L + 1.6L.L

= 1.2 0.125 + 1.6 0.144 = 0.3804 ksf

31

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step I: Marking E-W Interior Frame.

25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

20'-0"

Panel Centerline

Interior Frame

l2

Col Centerline
Panel Centerline

l1

20'-0"

## Half width of panel

on one side
Half width of panel
on other side

20'-0"

32

16

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step II: Marking column and middle strips.
a) Marking Column Strip
25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

25'-0"

b) Middle Strip
l2
Half Column strip

20'-0"

5
5

5
10
5

20'-0"

ln

l2/4 = 20/4 = 5

l1

20'-0"

33

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step III: Static Moment (Mo) calculation.
25

25

25

25

Mo = wul2ln2/8
= 540 ft-kip

20

Mo = 540 ft-k

Mo = 540 ft-k
l2
20

ln =23.83
l1

20

34

17

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution of Static Moment (Mo).
25

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378
M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

25

25

20

M+

Mext+
Mext

Mint- M

M
20

20

35

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution of Static Moment (Mo).

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378
M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

25

281

189

25

25

20

140

378

351

351
20

20

36

18

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

25

20
0.75Mint 0.75M

1.00Mext
0.60Mext

0.75M
0.60M+

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

20

20

37

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

0.75Mint 0.75M

140

0.75M
0.60M+

20

## 100 % of M ext- goes to

column strip and
remaining to middle strip

## Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

25

20

0.60Mext

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

20

38

19

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

25

20
0.75Mint 0.75M

140
169

0.75M
113

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

20

## 60 % of Mext+ & M + goes

to column strip and
remaining to middle strip

20

39

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

20
284

140
168

263

263
113

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

20

75 % of Mint- goes to
column strip and
remaining to middle strip

25

20

40

20

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

## Mext = 0.26Mo = 140

Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 281
Mint = 0.70Mo = 378

25

25

20
0

112/2

94/2
283

140

88/2

112/2

76/2

88/2
263

263

168

M = 0.65Mo = 351
M + = 0.35Mo = 189

25

113
94/2

88/2

76/2

88/2

20

20

41

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

25

25

25

20

## Mu (per foot width)

= M / strip width

112/2
11.2

9.4
94/2
283
28.3

140
14.0
168
16.8

88/2
8.8

76/2
7.6

8.8
88/2

## 5 half middle strip

263
26.3

263
26.3
11.3
113

10 column strip
5 half middle strip

20

20

42

21

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

h2/2

Exterior Frame

l2

on one side

l1

## l2 = Panel width/2 +h2/2

l2 = (20) + (14/12)
= 10.58

43

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

h/2

CS

l2

MS

## CS = Min. Panel Width/4 + (Col.

Size)
MS = l2 - CS
For Given Frame:
CS and MS widths are given as
follows:
l2 = (20) + (14/12) = 10.58
CS = (20/4) + (14/12) = 5.58
MS = 10.58 5.58 = 5

44

22

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step III: Calculation of static moment, Mo
25

Mo =

25

wul2ln2/8

= 285.68 ft-kip

Mo = 285.68 ft-k

25

25

Mo = 285.68 ft-k
20

l2 =10.58

ln =23.83

20

20

45

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

25

25

M+

Mext+
Mext

25

Mint-

20

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

46

23

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step IV: Longitudinal distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

25

148
74

25

25

100
200

186

186

20

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

47

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip

1.00Mext

0.60Mext+

25
0.75Mint

0.75M

0.60M+

25

25

0.75M

20

Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

48

24

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips.
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip

25

25

74

89

150

140

60

140

59

50

46

40

46

25

20

Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100

20

49

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)
Step V: Lateral distribution to column and middle strips (per strip width)
25

Mo = 285.68 ft-kip

25

25

13.26

15.94

26.8

25.1

10.75

25.1

11.87

10

9.2

9.2

Mext- = 0.26Mo = 74
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 148
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 200

25

CS
MS

20

l2 =10.58

20

M - = 0.65Mo = 186
M + = 0.35Mo = 100
l2 = (20) + (14/12) = 10.58

20

## CS = (20/4) + (14/12) = 5.58

MS = 10.58 5.58 = 5

50

25

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Interior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments
25

Mo = 421.5 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 110
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 219
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 295
M - = 0.65Mo = 274
M + = 0.35Mo = 148

74/2

25
110

131

88/2

25

20

221
206

59/2

25

69/2

20

88.8
206

69/2

20

l2 =25

51

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Interior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments (Per Strip Width)
25

Mo = 421.5 ft-kip
Mext- = 0.26Mo = 110
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 219
Mint- = 0.70Mo = 295
M - = 0.65Mo = 274
M + = 0.35Mo = 148

4.9

25
11.0

13.1

5.8

20

4.6

20

8.88
20.6

4.6

l2 =25

25

22.1
20.6

3.9

25

20

52

26

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Exterior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments
25

Mo = 220.5 ft-kip
Mext = 0.26Mo = 58
Mext+ = 0.52Mo = 114
Mint = 0.70Mo = 154
M = 0.65Mo = 143
M + = 0.35Mo = 77

58

69

45

115.5

25

25

25

20

38.5

107.3 35.75
46.2

20

30.8

107.3 35.75

l2 =13.08

20

l2 = (25) + (14/12)
= 13.08
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

53

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Exterior Frame)
Column Strip and Middle strip Moments (Per Strip Width)
25

25

25

25

Mo = 220.5 ft-kip
Mext = 0.26Mo = 58
Mext+ = 0.50Mo = 110
Mint = 0.70Mo = 154
M = 0.65Mo = 143
M + = 0.35Mo = 77
Column Strip Width
= (20/4) + (14/12)
= 5.58
MS = 13.08 5.58
= 7.5

10.4

20

12.32 6
20.69

5.13

19.2

4.76

8.27

4.12

19.2

4.76

20

20

l2 =13.08

54

27

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Direction Moments)
25
13.26
0

25

15.94

26.8

25.1

10.75

25.1

11.87

10

9.2

9.2

9.4

28.3

14.0

25

20

7.6
26.3

26.3

16.8
0

25

11.3
8.8

11.2

8.8

20

20

55

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 03: Frame Analysis (N-S Direction Moments)
25
10.4

00

11.0

8.8

13.1

8.8

5.13 4.9

22.1

12.32 6
20.69

25

19.2

4.76

4.6

20.6

8.27

4.12

3.9

8.88

19.2

4.76

4.6

20.6

25

25

20

4.6

20
4.6

20

56

28

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 04: Design (E-W Direction)
25
13.26
0

25

15.94

26.8

25.1

10.75

25.1

11.87

10

9.2

9.2

9.4

25

20

7.6

28.3

14.0

26.3

26.3

16.8
0

25

11.3
8.8

11.2

8.8

20

20

57

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 04: Design (E-W Direction)
25
B

25

25

C
A

A
C
C

A = #5 @ 4 c/c
B = #5 @ 8 c/c
C = #5 @ 12 c/c

20

B
C

25

20

20

58

29

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1
Step 04: Design (N-S Direction)
25
B

25

4.9

3.9

25

25

20

A = #5 @ 6 c/c
B = #5 @ 9 c/c
C = #5 @ 12 c/c
D = #5 @ 15 c/c

20

20

59

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

60

30

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Slab

3/4

Support

61

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

## Reinforcement placement: In case of two way slabs supported on

beams, short-direction bars are normally placed closer to the top
or bottom surface of the slab, with the larger effective depth
because of greater moment in short direction.

62

31

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Reinforcement

placement:

However

in

the

case

of

flat

## plates/slabs, the long-direction negative and positive bars, in both

middle and column strips, are placed closer to the top or bottom
surface of the slab, respectively, with the larger effective depth
because of greater moment in long direction.

63

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

Splicing: ACI 13.3.8.5 requires that all bottom bars within the
column strip in each direction be continuous or spliced with length
equal to 1.0 ld, (For development length see ACI 12.2.3 or Nelson
13th Ed, page 172 chapter 5 or mechanical or welded splices)

## For #7 or larger no. of bars of fy = 60 ksi, and normal weight,

uncoated concrete of fc = 4 ksi:

ld = 47 db

64

32

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

## Continuity of bars: At least two of the column strip bars in each

direction must pass within the column core and must be anchored
at exterior supports (ACI 13.3.8.5).

65

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for column supported two-way
slabs:

## Standard Bar Cut off Points (Practical Recommendation) for column

and middle strips both.

66

33

## Two Way Slabs

(Other Requirements of ACI Code)
Detailing of flexural reinforcement for
column supported two-way slabs:
Reinforcement at Exterior Corners:

Reinforcement

should

be

provided

at

l /5

l /5

## of the slab, for a distance in each direction

from the corner equal to one-fifth the longer
span of the corner panel as shown in figure.

## The positive and negative reinforcement

should be of size and spacing equivalent to
that

required

for

maximum

positive

## moments (per foot of width) in the panel

(ACI 13.3.6.1)
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

67

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
Homework: Analysis results of the slab shown below using DDM are
presented next. The slab supports a live load of 60 psf. Superimposed
dead load is equal to 40 psf. All columns are 14 square. Take fc = 3 ksi
and fy = 40 ksi.
25

25

25

25

20

20

20

68

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
Calculation summary

Slab thickness hf = 10

69

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft)

25
57.4
0

25

68.9

116

107.6

46.4

107.6

45.9

38.6

35.9

30.9

35.9

36.5

219

108.6

43.4

25

20

29.2
204

204

130
0

25

88
33.9

33.9

20

20

70

35

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
25
10.3
0

25

12.3

20.8

19.3

8.3

19.3

9.2

7.7

7.2

6.2

7.2

7.3

21.9

10.9

25

20

5.8
20.4

20.4

13.0
0

25

8.8
6.8

8.7

6.8

20

20

71

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft)

25
44.3

53.2
89.5

84.7

35.5

101

33.9

29.8 4.9
28.5

171

83.1

27.7

35.8

23.9

83.1

27.7

00

25

159
22.8
3.9

25

20

26.5

20

68.4
159

25

26.5

20

72

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 2
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
25
7.9

9.5

4.7

16.0

4.0

14.9

3.7

6.4

3.2

14.9

3.7

25

00

8.5

10.1

4.5

4.9
3.8

25

25

20

17.1
15.9

3.0
3.9

3.5

20

6.8
15.9

3.5

20

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
Homework: Analysis results of the slab shown below using DDM are
presented next. The slab supports a live load of 60 psf. Superimposed
dead load is equal to 40 psf. All columns are 12 square. Take fc = 3 ksi
and fy = 40 ksi.
20

20

20

20

15

15

15

74

37

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
Calculation summary

Slab thickness hf = 8

75

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft)

20
24.8
0

20

29.7

50

46.5

20

46.5

19.8

16.7

15.5

13.3

15.5

15.6

93.8

46.5

18.6

20

15

12.5
87.1

87.1

55.8
0

20

37.5
14.5

14.5

15

15

76

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
E-W Direction Moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
20
5.8
0

20

7.0

11.8

10.9

4.7

10.9

5.3

4.5

4.1

3.6

4.1

4.2

12.5

6.2

20

15

3.3
11.6

11.6

7.4
0

20

5.0
3.9

5.0

3.9

15

15

77

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft)

20
17.7

21.2
35.7

33.6

14.1

40.4

13.5

11.9 4.9
11.3

67.9

33.1

11.0

14.3

9.5

33.1

11.0

00

20

63.1
9.1
3.9

20

15

10.5

15

27.2
63.1

20

10.5

15

78

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 3
N-S Direction moments (units: kip-ft/ft)
Moments per strip width
20
17.7

21.2
35.7

4.5

2.26

5.4

2.2

1.90 4.9
1.8

9.5

33.1

1.77

14.3

1.52

33.1

1.77

00

20

8.4
1.4
3.9

20

20

1.7

15

3.6
8.4

15

1.7

15

79

## Summary of Direct Design Method

Decide about sizes of slab and columns. The slab depth can
be calculated from ACI table 9.5 (c).

## On given column plan of building, decide about location and

dimensions of all frames (exterior and interior)

wul2ln2/8).

80

40

81

Session II

## Shear Design for Two-Way Slab

System without Beams
(Flat Plates and Flat Slabs)

82

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction
Various Design Options
Design Example

83

Introduction

## Flat Plates and Flat Slabs

These are the most common types of two-way slab system, which are commonly
used in multi-story construction.

They render low story heights and have easy construction and formwork.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Behavior

When two-way slabs are directly supported by columns, shear near the column
(punching shear) is of critical importance.

Therefore, in addition to flexure, flat plates shall also be designed for two way
shear (punch out shear) stresses.

85

Introduction

## Punching Shear in Flat Plates

Punching shear occurs at column support points in flat plates and flat slabs.

Shear crack

Punch Out

86

43

Introduction

87

Introduction

## In shear design of beams, the critical section is taken at a distance d

from the face of the support.

Shear
crack
Beam
d

88

44

Introduction

## In shear design of flat plates, the critical section is an area taken at a

distance d/2 from all face of the support.

Column

Critical perimeter

Slab
Tributary Area, At

d/2
d/2

d = h cover

89

Introduction

## Punching Shear: Critical Perimeter, bo

c1,S

d/2

c1,L

d/2

bo = 2(c1,S + d) + 2(c1,L + d)
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90

45

Introduction

c1,S

d/2

c1,L

d/2

91

Introduction

c1,L

d/2

c1,S

d/2

## bo = (c1,S + d/2) + (c1,L + d/2)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

92

46

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction
Punching Shear Demand (Vu): For Square Column

## Critical Perimeter, bo:

bo = 4(c + d)
(Excluding Area of bo), At :

l2

## At = (l1 l2) (c + d)2 / 144

[l1 & l2 are in ft. units and c & d are in
inches]

l1

Vu = W u At

93

Introduction

## Capacity of Slab in Punching Shear:

Vn = Vc + Vs

Vc is least of:

4 (fc)bod

(2 + 4/c) (fc)bod

## c = longer side of column/shorter side of column

s = 40 for interior column, 30 for edge column, 20 for corner columns

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47

## When Vc Vu ( = 0.75): Nothing is required.

When Vc < Vu, then we need to increase the punching shear capacity of the
slab.

Punching shear capacity of the flat plates can be increased by either of the
following ways:
i.

Increasing d ,depth of slab: This can be done by increasing the slab depth as a
whole or in the vicinity of column (Drop Panel)

ii.

Increasing bo, critical shear perimeter: This can be done by increasing column size
as a whole or by increasing size of column head (Column capital)

iii.

95

Integral beams

Bent Bars

Shear studs

96

48

97

## Various Design Options

Column Capital:

ACI 13.1.2 requires the column capital should be oriented no greater than 450 to the axis of the
column.

ACI 6.4.6 requires that the capital concrete be placed at the same time as the slab concrete. As a
result, the floor forming becomes considerably more complicated and expensive.

The increased perimeter can be computed by equating Vu to Vc and simplifying the resulting
equation for b0

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49

## In case of integral beam or bent bar reinforcement following must be

satisfied.

ACI 11.11.3 requires the slab effective depth d to be at least 6 in., but not
less than 16 times the diameter of the shear reinforcement.

When bent bars and integral beams are to be used, ACI 11.11.3 reduces
Vc by 2

99

## Various Design Options

Integral Beams
Integral Beams require the design of two main components:
i.

Vertical stirrups

## ii. Horizontal bars radiating outward from column faces.

Vertical Stirrups

Horizontal Bars

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50

## Various Design Options

Integral Beams (Vertical Stirrups)
Vertical stirrups are used in
conjunction with supplementary
in two perpendicular directions
from the support to form what are
termed integral beams contained
entirely within the slab thickness.
In such a way, critical perimeter
is increased
Increased

Vertical stirrups

Critical

## For 4 sides, total stirrup area is 4 times

Perimeter, bo
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

101

## Various Design Options

Integral Beams (Horizontal Bars)

Critical Perimeter, bo

bars, lv

bo

(lv c/2)

## Distance from the face of column to the boundary

of critical perimeter = (lv c/2)

lv
R

X = (lv c/2)

X = (lv c/2)

bo = 4R + 4c

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## Various Design Options

Various Design Options
Integral Beams

Critical Perimeter,
bo

(lv c/2)

## For Square Column of Size c:

bo = 4R + 4c ........ (1)

R = (X 2 + X 2 ) = (2) X

## putting value of lv : bo = 4 (2){(3/4)(lv c1/2)} + 4c

after simplification, we get: bo = 4.24 lv + 1.88c

X = (lv c/2)

## The above equation can be used for determining the

length up to which the horizontal bars should be extended
beyond the face of column.

X = (lv c/2)

103

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Step 01: Calculate Punching Shear Demand, Vu

Critical Perimeter, bo :
bo = 4(c + d)
= 4(14 + 8.5) = 90

## Tributary Area (Excluding Area

of bo), At :
At = (25 20) (14 + 8.5)2 /144

20

25

= 496.5 ft2

## Punching Shear Demand, Vu :

Wu = 0.3804 ksf
Vu = At Wu
= 496.5 0.3804 = 189 kips

104

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Calculation of Punching shear capacity (Vc):

## Checking the punching shear

capacity of concrete:

## fc bo d = 4000 90 8.5 / 1000 = 48 k

20

Vc is least of:

4 fc bod = 145 k

25

(2 + 4 / c) fc bod = 216 k
{(s d/bo +2} fc bod = 208 k

Therefore,

## Vc = 145 k < Vu (189 k)

Shear reinforcement is required.

105

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 01): Drop panels

In drop panels, the slab thickness in the vicinity of the columns is increased to
increase the shear capacity (Vc = 4 (fc)bod) of concrete.

and

## simplifying the resulting equation for d to calculate hTotal.

(hTotal = hSlab + hDrop Panle = hf + hDP)

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 01): Drop panels

Equate Vu to Vc:
Vu = Vc
189 = 0.75 4 (fc) 90 d
d = 11.07

25/6 = 4.25
20/6 = 3.5

7
8.5

## According to ACI, minimum

thickness of drop panel = hf/4 =
10/4 = 2.5, So using 2.6 thick
drop panel.

## Drop Panel dimensions:

25/6 4.25; 20/6 3.5

107

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 02): Column Capitals

Equate Vu to Vc:
Vu = Vc
189 = 0.75 4 (fc) bo 8.5
bo = 117.20
Now,
bo = 4 (c + d)
117.20 = 4(c + 8.5)
Simplification gives,
c = 20.8 21

108

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 02): Column Capitals

## According to ACI code, < 45o

y = 3.5/ tan
Let = 30o, then y 6.06
c = 21

3.5

capital

14
column

109

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 03): Integral Beams (Vertical Stirrups)

Vc = 145 kips

## When integral beams are to be used, ACI 11.12.3 reduces Vc by 2. Therefore

Vc = 145/2 = 72.5 kips

## Spacing (s) = Avfyd/ (Vu Vc)

s = 0.75 0.88 60 8.5/ (189 72.5) = 2.89 3

110

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 03): Integral Beams (Horizontal Bars)

Four #5 bars are to be provided in each direction to hold the stirrups. We know
minimum bo = 117.10

## Using the equation bo = 4.24lv + 1.88c, we get:

lv 20

Hence the horizontal bars need to be extended beyond the center of the column up to
at least 20 (We will use 24)

## First stirrup should be provided at a distance

not more than d/2 from the face of column up
to distance of d/2 from boundary of critical
perimeter.

## It must be noted that integral beams along with

stirrups will shift the critical perimeter. Beams
alone cannot shift the critical perimeter.

111

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Example
Design for shear (Option 03): Integral Beams details.

## Total length of horizontal bars is 4 in both directions.

4 #5 bars are used here to hold the vertical stirrups.

## Vertical stirrups are provided up to distance of

d /2 = 8.5/2 = 4.25

d/2

## #3 stirrups @ 3 c/c are used here.

First stirrup is provided at s/2 = 1.5 from column

d/2

face.

#3 Stirrups @ 3 c/c

2
4 #5 bars to hold stirrups

4
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

112

56

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References

ACI 318
Design of Concrete Structures by Nilson, Darwin and Dolan
ACI Design Handbook

113

The End

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