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Form 4 Science Chapter 1: Scientific Investigation

Method of Scientific Investigation


Scientific investigation method
1. A scientific method is a series of systematic steps which a
scientist practices when conducting an investigation.
2. The steps of a scientific investigation are as follows:
Identifying the problem
Identifying the variables
Making a hypothesis
Planning the investigation
Carrying out the experiment
Collecting and recording data
Analyzing and interpreting data
Making a conclusion
Writing a report
3. Making a hypothesis
Making hypothesis is the process of forming a general
statement about the relationship between the variable
that is manipulated and the responding variable.
a hypothesis is also a statement of a scientific concept or
principle made as a solution to the problem.
4. Planning investigation
then planning of an investigation often involves the
following:
determining the apparatus and materials
determining the procedures
determining the observation to be made and
measurements
determining the correct and safe techniques
determining the set of apparatus of control experiments
identifying the variables
5. Carrying out the investigation
the apparatus, materials and procedures must be handled
correctly and safely when carrying out investigations.
The variables must be determined accurately
The observations must be made accurately and
objectively.

6. Collecting and recording data


Data collected by measurement in digits are called
quantitative data.
Data collected by more observation and do not involve
accurate measurements are known as qualitative data.
An assessment of the characteristics of an observation is
also part of the qualitative data.
The data collected can be recorded in the form of:
o Table
o Graph
o Pie chart
o Diagram
o Histogram
o Bar chart
7. Analyzing and interpreting data
8. Analyzing and interpreting data
9. Making a conclusion
10.

Writing a report

A scientist must have scientific attitudes and noble values such as


being curious in stating a problem statement, being honest and
accurate in recording and validating data, being responsible for the
safety of oneself, others and the environment when conducting an
experiment, being critical and analytical thinking when proposing a
hypothesis and being objective when making a conclusion.

The scientific attitudes and noble values need to be practiced when


conducting a scientific investigation to ensure a better
understanding and interpretation of a scientific investigation. A
scientist must have scientific attitudes and noble values such as
being curious in stating a problem statement, being honest and
accurate in recording and validating data, being responsible for the
safety of oneself, others and the environment when conducting an
experiment, being critical and analytical thinking when proposing a
hypothesis and being objective when making a conclusion.