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BSR/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 211P

_____________________Public Review Draft

Standard for Commercial Building


Energy Audits
First Public Review (November 2015)
(Draft Shows Complete Proposed New Standard)
This draft has been recommended for public review by the responsible project committee. To submit a comment on this proposed
standard, go to the ASHRAE website at www.ashrae.org/standards-research--technology/public-review-drafts and access the online
comment database. The draft is subject to modification until it is approved for publication by the Board of Directors and ANSI. Until this
time, the current edition of the standard (as modified by any published addenda on the ASHRAE website) remains in effect. The current
edition of any standard may be purchased from the ASHRAE Online Store at www.ashrae.org/bookstore or by calling 404-636-8400 or
1-800-727-4723 (for orders in the U.S. or Canada).
The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this public review document does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or
guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, or design, and ASHARE expressly disclaims such.
2015 ASHRAE. This draft is covered under ASHRAE copyright. Permission to reproduce or redistribute all or any part of this
document must be obtained from the ASHRAE Manager of Standards, 1791 Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Phone: 404-6368400, Ext. 1125. Fax: 404-321-5478. E-mail: standards.section@ashrae.org.
ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta GA 30329-2305

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating


and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, GA 30329
www.ashrae.org

BSR/ASHRAE Standard 211P, Standard for Commercial Building Energy Audits


Advisory Public Review Draft

TABLEOFCONTENTS
FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................1
1. PURPOSE...........................................................................................................................2
2. SCOPE................................................................................................................................2
3. DEFINITIONS.....................................................................................................................2
4. COMPLIANCEREQUIREMENTS..........................................................................................5
5. PROCEDURES....................................................................................................................5
6. REPORTING.....................................................................................................................21
7. REFERENCES....................................................................................................................35
NORMATIVEANNEXACOMPLIANCEFORM.......................................................................36
NORMATIVEANNEXBENERGYSAVINGSCALCULATIONS..................................................37
NORMATIVEANNEXCREPORTINGFORMS........................................................................38
INFORMATIVEANNEXDREPORTOUTLINES......................................................................42
INFORMATIVEANNEXETARGETEDENERGYAUDITAPPROACHES....................................47
INFORMATIVEANNEXFRECOMMENDEDDATAEXCHANGEFORMATS.............................48
INFORMATIVEANNEXGENERGYEFFICIENCYMEASURES..................................................49

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FOREWORD
To the reviewers of Proposed Standard 211:
Thank for taking your time to review our proposed Standard 211.
As you probably know, the commercial energy audit industry has been largely unregulated and the work products
that are labeled energy audits vary greatly in scope, rigor and quality. Our hope with this standard is to establish
minimum performance levels for energy audits and bring some order to the chaos. Prior work on ASHRAEs
Special Publication Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits (aka the green book) has helped to
define terms and Levels 1, 2 and 3 are now commonly used in the U.S. and abroad as a shorthand for audit
scoping. However, the prior work was not written in code enforceable language, and the green book left much
room for interpretation.
Our intention in preparing this standard is to bring additional definition to the level descriptions within Procedures
for Commercial Building Energy Audits. With mandatory energy audits required by cities around the U.S. there is
a need for more closely ensuring audits are held to the appropriate level of rigor and depth. Greater consistency
in approach also holds the promise for lowering costs if energy auditors can establish consistent reporting, rather
than custom approaches that are often required by different contracting entities. Our hope is that standardization
may help lead to efficiency, and greater overall impact.
The project committee has struggled with setting appropriate minimum requirements in the hope of promoting
energy audits that are rigorous, without handicapping energy auditors with details, if those details dont result in
energy and cost savings for the end users. We appreciate your input on this draft and have highlighted questions
within the text where we seek particular guidance.
Thanks again for your help with this important work.
Jim Kelsey
Chair SPC 211

BSR/ASHRAE Standard 211P, Standard for Commercial Building Energy Audits


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1. PURPOSE
Thepurposeofthisstandardistoestablishconsistentpracticesforconductingandreportingenergy
auditsforcommercialbuildings.
Thisstandard:
a. definestheproceduresrequiredtoperformEnergyAuditsLevels1,2and3,
b. provides a common scope of work for these audit levels for use by building owners and
others,
c. establishesstandardizedindustrypracticesforconductingenergyaudits,and
d. establishesminimumreportingrequirementsfortheresultsfromenergyaudits.
2. SCOPE
2.1
This standard applies to all buildings except one or two family dwellings and multifamily
residentialbuildings.
3. DEFINITIONS
3.1
General. Certain terms, abbreviations, and acronyms are defined in this section for the
purposes of this standard. These definitions are applicable to all sections of this standard.
Termsthatarenotdefinedherein,butthataredefinedinstandardsthatarereferencedherein
shall
have
the
meanings
as
defined
in
those
standards.
Other terms that are not defined shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings within the
context in which they are used. Ordinarily accepted meanings shall be based upon American
standardEnglishlanguageusage,asdocumentedinanunabridgeddictionaryacceptedbythe
authorityhavingjurisdiction.
ancillaryquantifiable factorsFactorsthatcanbequantifiedwithestimatesorcalculationsbutare
externaltotheEEMenergysavingcalculations.RepresentedforboththeproposedEEMandbasecase
costs associated with service contracts, staffing demands, deferred need phaseout, and code
conformance.
basecaseAnalternativescenarioforwhichasubjectEEMisnotimplemented;usedforcomparison
evaluationofsubjectEEM
energyauditor:seequalifiedenergyauditor.
energy efficiency measure (EEM): an action taken in the operation or equipment in a building that
reducestheenergyuseofthebuildingwhilemaintainingorenhancingthebuildingssafety,comfort
andfunctionality..
energy manager (EM): the individual, identified by the building owner, who has responsibility for
ensuringthatenergyuseinthebuildingisminimizedwithoutcompromisingtheindoorenvironmental
quality(buildingindoorairquality,thermalcomfort,visualacuityandcomfort,soundquality).TheEM
maybethebuildingowner,atenant,anemployeeoftheownerortenant,oracontractorretainedby
theownerortenant.
energyuseintensity(EUI):anexpressionofbuildingenergyuseperyearintermsof netenergydivided
bygrossfloorarea.
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grossfloorareafornonresidentialbuildings:Thesumofthefloorareasofallthespaceswithinthe
building with no deductions for floor penetrations other than atria. It is measured from the exterior
faces of exterior walls or from the centerline of walls separating buildings but it excludes covered
walkways, open roofedover areas, porches and similar spaces, pipe trenches, exterior terraces or
steps,roofoverhangs,parkinggarages,surfaceparking,andsimilarfeatures.
hard costs: Represents the material and labor costs inclusive of abatement work with overhead and
profitofimplementingaspecificEEMinclusiveofconstructionphasecontingencies
interactive effect: The change in resultant energy savings estimates or actual energy savings due to
analyzingorimplementingmultipleenergyefficiencymeasureswhichactononeanother.
internalrateofreturn(IRR):thediscountrateinacapitalprojectthatmakesthenetpresentvalueof
allcashflowsfromaparticularprojectequaltozero.Thehigheraproject'sinternalrateofreturn,the
more desirable it is to undertake the project. IRR can be used to rank several prospective projects
underconsideration.IRRisdefinedbythefollowingequation:

CF
1 IRR

CF

where:
n
=
the
useful
life
of
the
measure
in
years
CFt = the annual cost savings of the measure in year t (cash flow in year t)
CF0=theinitialcostofthemeasure(cashflowinitial)
maintain:theprocessofkeepingequipmentandcomponentsoperatingorfunctioninginaccordance
withmanufacturersrecommendationsandindustrystandardsovertheirservicelives.Itinvolves,but
is not limited to, carrying out observation, lubrication, adjustment, calibration, testing, cleaning,
replacementandrepairatappropriateintervalsasapplicabletothespecificequipmentorcomponent.
nonquantifiable factors: also known as judgment factors and irreducible factors include occupant
comfort,easeofmaintenance,reliability/redundancy/resiliency,andpolitical.
owner: Any person, agent, firm, partnership, corporation or other legal entity having a legal or
equitableinterestin,orcontrolofthepremises.
photosensor: a device that detects the presence of and/or measures the amount of visible light,
infrared (IR) transmission, and/or ultraviolet (UV) energy and emits a signal based on the presence,
absence,and/oramountoftheseentities.
practicalmeasure:EEMthatisdeterminedbytheauditortobetechnicallyfeasibleandhaveasimple
paybackperiodthatislessthantheanticipatedlifecycleofthemeasure.
premises:Land,improvementsthereon,oranypartthereof.
qualified energy auditor: an energy solutions professional who assesses building systems and site
conditions; analyzes and evaluates equipment and energy usage; and recommends strategies to
optimize building resource utilization. Experience must include completion of five commercial (non
residential)energyauditswithinthepastthreeyears,andbeoneofthefollowing:
a)ABuildingEnergyAssessmentProfessional(BEAP),CertifiedEnergyManager(CEM),orCertified
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EnergyAuditor(CEA)ascertifiedbyASHRAEorAEErespectively.
b)Apersonqualifiedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdiction.
recommended measure: A Practical Measure that has been vetted for interactive effects with other
Practical EEMs, ancillary quantifiable factors, and nonquantifiable factors. Lifecycle Cost Analysis
(LCCA)maybeusedasthemethodologytofilterPracticalMeasurestoRecommendedmeasures.
simple payback:Estimatedinitialenergyefficiencymeasure(EEM)costdividedbytheEEMfirstyear
calculatedenergysavings.Bothsavingsandcostsareindollars($)orotherconsistentmonetaryunits.
simple return on investment (SimpleROI):Theenergyefficiencymeasure(EEM)firstyearcalculated
energysavingsdividedbyestimatedinitialenergyefficiencymeasurecost.Bothsavingsandcostsare
indollars($)orotherconsistentmonetaryunits.
site energy: site energy use is the sum of annual electric use in kWh (converted to kBtu or MJ) and
annualfueluse(inkBtuorMJ).
soft costs: Represents at a minimum, costs for: design, program management, construction
administration, construction management, general conditions, abatement monitoring, permit filing,
expediting,inspections,temporaryservices,undergroundsurveys,utilityupgrades,andcommissioning
statistically valid: A statistically valid sample for benchmarking comparison is one of a sufficiently
largesamplesizesuchthattheRelativeStandardError(RSE),ameasureofthereliabilityorprecisionof
thesample,isbelow0.25(equivalentto25%).TheRSEisdefinedasthestandarderrorofthesample
mean(squarerootofthestandarddeviationdividedbythesquarerootofN,whereNisthenumberof
samplefacilities),dividedbythesamplemean.

3.2

AbbreviationsandAcronyms
AHJ

AuthorityHavingJurisdiction

Commented [JK2]: Needtoverifytheseareallused

BAS BuildingAutomationSystem
DX

DirectExpansion

DDC

DirectDigitalControl

DHW DomesticHotWater
DOAS DedicatedOutdoorAirSystem
ECI

EnergyCostIndex

ECM EnergyConservationMeasure
EEM EnergyEfficiencyMeasure
EM

EnergyManager

ESP

EnergyServiceProvider

EUI

EnergyUseIntensity

IRR

InternalRateofReturn

Commented [r1]: Togetthesestatisticalrelationshipscorrect


maybemoretroublethanit'sworth.Thecontextforthedefinition
isbenchmarkingwhereonewantstoreferenceonlystatically
meaningfulstudies.Suchstudieswouldhavesufficientdatato
producemeanEUIsANDconfidenceintervals(readEUIranges)for
statedconfidencelevelsthatarenotcrazywide.

LCCA LifeCycleCostAnalysis
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OA

OutsideAir

O&M OperationsandMaintenance
VAV

VariableAirVolume

VRF

VariableRefrigerantFlow

ROI

ReturnonInvestment

SHW ServiceHotWater
4. COMPLIANCEREQUIREMENTS
4.1

Compliance
4.1.1 Compliance with the standard shall be certified by a qualified energy auditor using the
ComplianceForminNormativeAnnexA.BysigningandcertifyingtheComplianceform,
thequalifiedenergyauditoratteststhattheenergyauditconformstothemethodsand
procedures of this standard, and that the work was completed by a qualified energy
auditor.

5. PROCEDURES
5.1
ScopeofSystems
5.1.1 The scope of the energy audit shall include the following systems as applicable to the
building:

5.2

Envelope

Lighting

HVAC(cooling,heating,airdistribution,andventilationandexhaustsystems)

Heating,chilled,condenseranddomesticwatersystems

Refrigeration[exceptforfoodprocessingrefrigeration],

Onsitepowergenerationequipment

Uninterruptiblepowersuppliesandpowerdistributionunits

Peoplemovingsystems

PlugLoads(includingofficeequipment,appliances)

Laundries

FoodPreparation

Pools,saunasandspas
ThefollowingendusesarenotincludedinthisStandard:

Industrialprocesses

Agriculturalprocesses

Irrigation
GeneralProcedures

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5.2.1 Introduction. This standard defines three levels of energy audits (Levels 1, 2, and 3).
Eachsuccessivelevelbuildsuponthelowerlevel(s),suchthataLevel2Auditwillinclude
all items that had already been required through a Level 1 audit and analysis. A
prerequisite to all audit levels is a preliminary energyuse analysis, through a form of
energyperformancebenchmarking.
5.2.2 PreliminaryEnergyUseAnalysis(Benchmarking).

Benchmarking a buildings normalized energy consumption relative to that of similar


(peer)buildingsisarequiredfirstmeasureofenergyefficiency.

InformativeNote:Summaryinformationaboutbenchmarkingenergyuseispresentedin
theASHRAEHandbook,2015HVACApplicationsvolume,inChapter36(EnergyUseand
Management).
5.2.2.1 Calculate total annual building energy use, and normalize by gross building
floor area to obtain the Energy Use Intensity (EUI). Building energy use,
accountingforallenergysourcesenteringthebuilding,shallbecollectedand
total site and primary energy use converted and calculated according the
procedures in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 1052014 (Standard Methods of
Determining, Expressing, and Comparing Building Energy Performance and
Greenhouse Gas Emissions). Use the Standard 1052014 procedures to
normalize the energy performance to energy use intensity (EUI), always
measured as total energy per gross floor area of the building, and any other
relevantnormalizingparametersforthegivenbuildingtype.
5.2.2.2 Calculate total annual building energy cost, and normalize by relevant
parameters to obtain the Energy Cost Intensity (ECI). The method used to
determine total annual building energy cost and any relevant normalizing
parametersshallbedescribedinatransparentmannerandincludedwithany
Level2reportingrequirementsforECI.
5.2.2.3 Buildings shall be benchmarked using one or more of the following methods.
Notethatmeetingperformancetargetsorcompliancewithcertificationlevels
isnotrequiredunderthisstandard.

An appropriate benchmark for peer buildings, such as CBECS


summarydatadocumentedinTables24,Chapter36,oftheASHRAE
ApplicationsHandbook(2015),

Where space type is applicable, calculate ENERGY STAR score.


Benchmark energy use, energy cost and emissions using the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) ENERGY STAR Portfolio
Manager
benchmarking
tool
(accessible
form:
https://portfoliomanager.energystar.gov
).

Informative Note: ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager is an online tool


that compares measured building energy performance to other
similar buildings. The calculator accounts for building characteristics
and utilizessite specific historical weather data while allowing users
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todefinethebuildingspecificoperationcharacteristicsforavarietyof
buildingtypes,orspecifyuniqueutilizationfeatures.Basedonthese
userinputsthetoolprovidesanENERGYSTARScorebasedona1to
100 scale percentile ranking, among other energy performance
metrics.

Benchmark using the ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient Operational


Rating, a voluntary labeling program that compares a buildings
annualmeteredenergyuse(EUI)tothemedianEUIbybuildingtype.
Detailsmaybefoundatwww.buildingenergyquotient.org.
To comply with this benchmarking procedure, documentation of a
completedbEQapplication,andresultingbEQscoreandletterrating
shallbeprovided.Regardlessoftheratingachieved,thebEQprocess
provides a benchmark comparison of the buildings energy
performancewithanationalmedianEUI,thusprovidingfeedbackon
the buildings potential and measured energy use. Therefore no
particularratingisrequiredforcompliance.

5.3

Benchmark using the EnergyIQ actionoriented benchmarking tool,


produced by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at
www.energyiq.lbl.gov.

Otherbenchmarkingsystemsthatcanbedemonstratedtoprovidea
statistically valid sample for comparison. Results of comparison
should be reported using ASHRAE Standard 1052014 Form 6,
documenting the normalization parameters used, and the type of
comparisonmethod.

Level1Procedures
5.3.1 ReviewHistoricalUtilityData

Review monthly and annual utility data prior to the site visit for a minimum of 12
consecutive months (up to three consecutive years shall be used as available),
aggregated for the whole building by service class in accordance with Section 5.3 of
ASHRAEStandard1052014.Inadditionthefollowingshallbereviewed:

Years for which data are collected, indicating calendar year or beginning and
endingmonthsofrecord

Utilityorotherenergysuppliers(suchaselectricity,naturalgas,fueloil,steam,
chilledorhotwater)

Monthlyandannualelectricuse(kWh)andcost($)foreachyearofrecord

Actual and/or billed (or both if reported) monthly peak electric demand (kW),
identifiedasonpeak,midpeak,andoffpeak,foreachyearofrecord

Monthlyandannualsitefuel(orotherenergysource)useintherms,gallons,lbs,
or Btu, as appropriate, and cost ($). If fuel is delivered as a liquid or solid,
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estimateandreporttheannualamountusedfromactualdeliveredquantitiesor
inventorychange,foreachyearofrecord

Peak or billed monthly fuel, steam, hot water, or chilled water demand (in
Mlbs/hrorotherunit,asappropriate),ifreported,foreachyearofrecord

AnnualEUI(kBtu/ft2yr)andECI($/ft2yr)

Review unexpected or irregular patterns in monthly energy use that may indicate
abnormalbuildingoperationandsuggestidentifypossiblecauses.

5.3.2 RateStructureConsideration
5.3.5.1 For each metered energy source, identify utility rate/tariff schedule (such as
standard, timeofuse, block structure, demand charges [ratchet or non
ratchet], power factor charges, consumption charges, renewable portfolio
standard charges, taxes) for each year of record. For each delivered energy
sourceidentifydeliveredfuelrate/tariffschedule,includingtaxes,foreachyear
ofrecord.
5.3.5.2 Review monthly utility bills for opportunities to lower costs. Consider taking
advantageofdifferentutilityrateclasses,accountingforpeakelectricdemand
patterns and charges. Consider potential advantages/disadvantages of
optionalratessuchastimeofuseandrealtimepricing.Considerloadshifting
opportunitiestoreducepeakdemandcharges.

5.3.3FacilitySiteSurvey
5.3.3.1 Prior to Site Visit. Prior to visiting the facility communicate with the building
owneroroperatortodeterminebasicfacilitycharacteristicsandtorequestas
built drawings, historical utility bills (see Section 5.3.1), and equipment
schedules.Recordthesecharacteristicsincluding

Projectandclientnames

Keycontacts

Siteaddress

Buildingtypeandfunction

Yearconstructedanddatesofrenovations/additions

Numberoffloors

Numberofoccupantsandscheduleofbuildingoccupancy(e.g.,night
andweekenduse)

Utility rates, suppliers, and meter locations, data availability (hard


copyorelectronic)

Securityprocedures
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5.3.3.2 Site Visit. Accompanied by the building operator or maintenance staff, a


qualifiedenergyauditorshallconductabriefwalkthroughsurveyofthefacility
to become familiar with its construction, equipment, operation, and
maintenance.

Recordthegrossfloorarea,usingdefinitioninStandard105

Review available asbuilt drawings and equipment schedules to


identifylighting,HVACzonesandcontrols,andintegrationofsame(if
any) with the Building Automation System, thermostat locations,
HVAC and lighting equipment types and capacities, insulation levels,
andfenestrationtypesandlocations.

5.3.3.3 Identify O&M Problems and Needs. Identify operating problems,


malfunctioning equipment, maintenance costs, and maintenance needs,
includingrevisionstoO&Mprocedures.Determinewhetheranymaintenance
issuesorpracticesaffectenergyefficiency.Ifso,estimatecostsandenergyand
cost savings, of implementing improved O&M procedures, as specified in
Section5.3.5.
5.3.3.4 Identify important energyusing systems, processes, and equipment. Gather
equipment nameplate informationand control strategies. Take photographs
to record the condition of equipment and details of equipment configuration
andnameplateinformation.
5.3.3.5 Interviews. Interview the owner and/or operator and occupants to identify
special problems (especially, as relates to thermal comfort or Indoor Air
Quality)orplannedimprovements(e.g.,equipmentand/orcontrolsupgrades,
envelopeupgrades)ofthefacility.Determinethehistoryofchangesmadeat
thesiteandwhetheranymaintenanceproblemsand/orpractices,oroccupant
behaviors,affectenergyefficiencyorIndoorEnvironmentalQuality.

5.3.4 SpaceFunctionAnalysis

Conduct a space function analysis using the Form in Normative Annex C; allocate the
grossfloorareaofthebuildingbystandardspacefunctiontypesaslistedintheforms.

Foreachspacefunctiontyperecordthefollowing:

Grossfloorareaassociatedwiththatfunction

Weeklyoperatingoroccupiedhours

Weeks/yearofoperation

Numberofoccupants

NumberofPCsand/orlaptops

Fractionofspaceheatedand/orcooled

PrincipleHVACtypeservingthearea

Principlelightingtypeservingthearea
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Determinewhetherefficiencymaybeaffectedbyfunctionsthatdifferfromtheoriginal
functionalintentofthebuilding.
QUESTIONTOREVIEWERS:
The list of space types found in the Appendix materials (see the attached reporting
forms) was derived from ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager. Is it complete, sufficient,
excessive?

5.3.5 IdentifyLowCostandNoCostEnergyEfficiencyMeasure(EEM)Recommendations

Duringthewalkthroughfacilitysitesurvey,andaftersubsequentreviewoftheresults
ofthatsurvey,lowcostandnocostchangestothefacilityortoO&M(Operationsand
Maintenance) procedures shall be identified and the approximate level of economic
returnfromsavingsthatwillresultfromthesechangesshallbeestimated.Lowandno
cost changes are changes that can be implemented within the O&M budget for the
facility, where such exists. The items to be considered shall be guided by the
observationsofaqualifiedenergyauditor.Someoftheseitemscanrequireeducation
of building operators and/or occupants as to the importance of operational behavior.
Some involve implementation of routines (and logs) to improve the efficiency of
operations, or maintenance of such improvements after tuneups. Others likely will
involvechangestolightingandHVAC(e.g.,thermostats)controls,toreducelightingand
HVACinareasthatareunoccupiedorunusedforsubstantialperiodsoftime
5.3.5.1 OpportunitiestoConsider
Lowornocostchangesshallbeidentifiedbyspacetypeandenergysystem.Eachitem
shallbequalitativelyprioritizedashigh,medium,orlow,dependingonthesignificance
oftheexpectedsavings(e.g.ROI),impactonthefacilitysenergyconsumption,effecton
the other measures and building systems, and the ease of implementation.
Opportunities to be recommended for owner consideration are suggested below, but
are not limited to those areas. A list of these opportunities, for the following energy
systemtypes,isgiveninInformativeAnnexD.
Lighting
HVACandService/DomesticHotWater
Processing/PlugLoads
Envelope
[QUESTIONTOREVIEWERS:

Isitusefultoreaderstoincludepotentialenergyefficiencymeasuresinthestandard?Is
the level of depth appropriate? Does the industry move too fast for it to be
current/useful?]

5.3.6 IdentifyPotentialEEMCapitalRecommendations

Duringthewalkthroughfacilitysitesurvey,andaftersubsequentreviewoftheresults
of that survey, potential capitalexpensed EEMs (items not normally within the O&M
budget) shall be identified and a preliminary qualitative estimate of the level of
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potentialcostsandsavingsshallbeprovided.Thesequalitativeestimatesmaybesimply
represented as high, medium and low in terms of potential costs and savings
separately based upon the qualified energy auditors experience. These items involve
thereplacementofenergyusingequipmentorreconfigurationofexistingsystems.The
itemstobeconsideredshallbeguidedbythejudgmentofaqualifiedenergyauditor.

For major systems or equipment changes, similar estimates of the level of potential
costsandsavingsshallbeidentifiedforfurtherstudy.
5.3.6.1 OpportunitiestoConsider
Potentialcapitalchangesshallbeidentifiedbyenergysystemtype(lighting,
HVAC [thermostats and heating/cooling equipment, fans], process/plug
loads, etc., and by space type (offices, classrooms, conference rooms,
kitchens, break rooms, assembly areas, hallways/circulation areas, storage,
etc.). Each item shall be qualitatively prioritized as high, medium, or low,
depending on the significance of the expected savings (e.g., ROI), level of
capital cost, improved IEQ, effect on building systems, and the ease of
implementationbasedonthebestjudgmentofthequalifiedenergyauditor.
Alistoftheseopportunities,forthefollowingenergysystemtypes,isgiven
inInformativeAnnexD.

[QUESTIONTOREVIEWERS:
ShouldthestandardalsoaddressDemandResponse(DR)measures.DRmeasuresallow
buildingstotemporarilyshedloadsonpeakdaystorelievetheelectricdistributiongrid.
Participation in DR programs offers financial incentives for equipment and
participation.]

5.4

Level2Procedures

TheLevel2auditshallfollowuponandtakeintoconsiderationthefindingsofaLevel1auditor,
if no separate Level 1 audit has been conducted, shall comply with all the procedural
requirementsforaLevel1auditasdefinedinsection5.3.
5.4.1 FacilitySiteSurvey

5.4.1.1 Toguideidentificationofenergycostsavingopportunities,thequalifiedenergy
auditor shall develop a breakdown of the annual total energy cost by cost
component(apiechartisusefulforthisanalysis):

Electricuse

Electricdemand

Fueluse

5.4.1.2GuidedbytheinitialLevel1walkthroughsurvey,areviewshallbeconductedof
themechanicalandelectricalsystemsandtheiroperatingconditions,basedon
directobservation,testingandasbuiltdocumentation,ifavailable.Thisreview
shall be conducted as part of a second walkthrough survey of the building,
subsequent to the Level 1 survey conducted in Section 5.3.1. The qualified
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energy auditor shall be accompanied by the building owners representative,


projectmanager,maintenancestaff,orotherswithknowledgeofthebuildings
systems and operating conditions if available (i.e. they must be given the
opportunitytoattend).
Thissurveyshalladdfurtherdetailtothedocumentationassembledduringthe
Level1audit.IftheauditprocessisinitiatedwithaLevel2audit,thenitshall
include an initial walkthrough survey by the Qualified Energy Auditor
responsiblefortheoverallsupervisionoftheaudit.

Describe and analyze the energyusing systems, resulting from onsite


observations, measurement (see Section 5.4.3), and engineering calculations.
Thereviewshallincludethefollowingsystems:

Envelope

Lighting

HVAC

Servicehotwater

Plugloads

Pools/saunas/spas

Processloads(laundry,foodpreparation,refrigeration)

Others

TheformsinNormativeAnnexCshallbeusedtoreportthesecharacteristics.
These forms shall be completed per the facility description reporting
requirementsofSection6.2.1.

5.4.2 ReviewofCurrentOperationsandMaintenanceProcedures

The current operations and maintenance (O&M) of the enduse systems shall be
reviewedanddiscussedwiththebuildingownerormanagerandwiththebuildingO&M
staff,includingthecurrentuseofspaces,howspaceusehaschangedsincepriordesign
and remodels, occupancy, scheduling, comfort and ventilation requirements of the
building.

The qualified energy auditor shall review the following enduse system information as
available:

General building O&M information, including but not limited to building plans,
asbuilt drawings and specifications, O&M manuals and programs, repairs
history, an equipment database, and building automation/control system
specificsasavailable;

SummaryoftheO&Mhistoryandpastissuesassociatedwiththeperformance
ofenergyusingbuildingsystems,asrelatedtobuildingcomfortandenergyuse;

Recommendations by O&M staff for potential solutions to building operations


andmaintenanceissuesdiscoveredinthecoursethisreview.
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5.4.3 DetermineKeyOperatingParameters

Thequalifiedenergyauditorshalldetermineexistingoperatingparametersforenergy
usingsystemsandmajorequipment,asappropriateforinstalledsystems:

Operationssetpoints,includingbutnotlimitedto:

Spacetemperature

Spacehumidity

Spacelightinglevels

Minimumoutdoorairflowrates

Carbondioxidelevels

Economizerlimits

Hotwatersupplysetpoint

Chilledwatersupplysetpoint

Condenserwatertemperaturesetpoint

Supplyairtemperaturesetpoint

DHWstorageanddeliverytemperatures

Fansystemflowcontrolstaticpressure

Waterloopsystemflowcontrolstaticpressures

Heatingandcoolingsystemenableconditions

Flowcontrolresets

Equipmentoperatingtemperatureresets

Coolingtowercondenserwaterresets
Operatingschedules,includingbutnotlimitedto:

Occupiedorunoccupiedhoursineachcontrolledzone

Spacetemperaturesetpointschedules

Warmupandcooldownperiods

Unoccupiedoverrideconditions

Theloadconditionsunderwhichequipmentoperates,includingbutnotlimitedto:

Heatingandcoolingloads

Peakloads

Systemstartuploads

Lightingpowerdensity

Fanpowerloads

Pumppowerloads

Equipmentefficiencies,includingbutnotlimitedto:
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Combustionefficiency

Coolingefficiency

Energyrecoveryefficiency

5.4.4 Conductendusebreakdown.Foreachendusesystemandseparatedbyfueltype,the
energy use and cost allocation shall be quantified in accordance with this section and
recordedinaccordancewithSection6.2.3.
5.4.4.1 Buildingsystemendusecategories.

Whole building performance shall be quantified as total building energy use.


Theenergyconsumptionofendusesystemsshallbedeterminedinaccordance
withthissection. Eachsystemorunit of equipment that uses energyshallbe
assignedtooneoftheendusesystemtypeslistedinthissection.Equipment
shall not be assigned to more than one enduse system type. Each system or
equipment that uses energy shall be further identified with its site energy
source(s)bytype.Endusesystemtypesshallbecategorizedasfollows:
1. SpaceHeating
2. SpaceCooling
3. AirDistribution(fans)
4. WaterDistribution(pumps)
5. ServiceWaterHeating
6. Conveyance(elevators,escalators,dumbwaiters,peoplemovers)
7. Lighting
8. PlugLoads
9. ProcessLoads
10. Refrigeration
11. Cooking
12. DataCenters

13. Other

[QUESTIONTOREVIEWERS:

Isthistheappropriatelistofendusecategories?]

5.4.4.2 Endusesystemconsiderations.Forthepurposesofenergyuseassessmentsin
accordance with section 5.4.4.1 and reporting of end use breakdown in
accordancewithsection6.2.3,thefollowingendusecategoriesshallapply:
1. Spaceheatingshallincludefuelandelectricityforheatingairorwaterused
toheatconditionedareas.AirhandlingunitfansshallbecategorizedasAir
Distribution.
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2. SpaceCoolingshallalsoincluderefrigerationassociatedwithcoolingspaces,
chilled water and condenser pumps and fans, and cooling towers. Air
handlingunitfansshallbecategorizedasAirDistribution.
3. Air Distribution shall also include electricity consumed by fan operation for
ventilation, supply air, return air, exhaust, hoods, powered VAV, and
ERVs/HRVs.
4. Water Distribution shall include all electricity used by pumps for chilled
water,condenserwater,heatinghotwater,condensatereturnorservicehot
watercirculation.
5. Service Water Heating shall include hot water used for handwashing,
dishwashingandlaundries.
6. Conveyance shall include elevators, escalators and automated people
movers.
7. Lighting shall include all indoor and outdoor lighting for area and task
lighting.
8. Plug Loads shall also include office equipment, conference room audio and
video equipment, desktop and laptop personal computers, printers and
reprographicequipment,andappliances.
9. ProcessLoadsshallbeitemizediftheenergyconsumedexceeds5%oftotal
buildingenergyconsumption.Processloadsshallalsoincludedishwashingin
foodservices.
10. Refrigeration shall include walkincoolers, freezers,refrigeratedcases(self
containedorremote),refrigeratedstorage,andprocesscooling.
11. Cooking shall include all primary cooking and food storage equipment such
asovens,stoves,steamersfryers,foodwarmers,coldtables,etc.
12. Data Centers shall include all centralized equipment for data storage,
processing and access but does not include personal or desktop computers
orofficeequipment.
13. Other shallincludemiscellaneousloads,includingbut not limitedto pumps
ormotorsthatarenotincludedincategoriesabove.

5.4.4.3

Endusesystemenergyuseassessmentmethodology.
Fuel and electricity consumption units shall be expressed in energy
consumption units at the site value (i.e., the energy consumption at the
boundary of the facility site, typically at the meter, not adjusted for power
generation efficiency). Enduse system energy consumption shall be
determinedinaccordancewithoneorbothofthefollowingmethods:

1. Acalculatedmethodthatallocatesproportionalenergyuseaccordingtothe
sizeoftheendusesystemanditsoperatinghours.Assumptionsusedinthis
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analysis must be the same as those used for calculations of energy and
demandsavings.
OR
2. An hourly wholebuilding energy simulation. The same simulation must be
usedasisusedforcalculationofenergyanddemandsavings.
5.4.5 PreliminaryEnergySavingsAnalysis

List potential energy saving opportunities for each system included in the facility site
survey (see Section 5.4.1). Conduct preliminary calculations to estimate the range of
savings and costs in order to assess the economic feasibility of each measure on an
individualmeasurebasis.SummarizetheresultsinanInitialMeasuresList.

5.4.6 BundleInteractiveMeasures

Create integrated bundles of measures where combined efficiency measures have


significant interactive effects. Measures shall be bundled to achieve different levels of
wholebuildingenergyusereductionandfinancialperformance,basedonthefollowing
considerations:

the impact of load reduction measures on distribution system energy (i.e.,


pumpsandfans)

theimpactofloadreductionmeasuresonequipmentcapitalreplacementcosts

potential for overstating energy savings due to savings overlap between


individualmeasures
5.4.7 CalculateEnergySavings
5.4.7.1 Energy Use Impacts. For each bundle of measures (per 5.4.6), describe key
energyusesthatwillbeimpactedbytheimprovement,byenergysourcetype
(electricity,gas,etc.)andthebasisofvaluesused.Describethechangeinthe
energyused,andthebasisforthischange.
5.4.7.2 Calculation Method. Identify the methodology of calculation: stipulated
values, engineering calculations, computerized model (simulation) and/or
other,includingareferenceforthemethodologyused.Ifcomputermodeling
software is used, name the software tool(s) and version. Describe different
softwaretoolsforspecificcalculationpurposes,ifmultipletoolsareused.
5.4.7.3 Evaluation of Individual Measures. Using a preliminary cost estimate (see
5.4.11), provide a separate calculation (or computer model run) for each
measureorbundleofmeasurestodetermineifthemeasure/bundlemeetsan
establishedeconomicperformancecriterion.Stateclearlywhatthatcriterion
isandonwhatbasisitwasselected(e.g.programupperlimit,ownerstated
hurdlerate).Maintainarecordoftheseindividualmeasure/bundlecalculations
forinclusionintheauditreport.Measures/bundlesnotmeetingthecriterion
should be dropped from further consideration and listed in the ECMs
ConsideredbutNotRecommendedsectionofthereport(seeSection6.2.4.4)
16

Commented [b3]: SomeofthisbelongsinReportingsection,


notProceduressection.

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5.4.7.4 Interactions. Identify interactions between measures and/or bundles of


measures and clearly state that all interactions have been accounted for and
thattotalsavingsaccountforalloftheinteractionsbetweenthemodifications.
Statetheorderinwhichthemeasuresareconsideredandtherationaleforthat
order.
5.4.7.5 RequirementsforAllCalculationMethods

The same energy analysis method shall be used for preretrofit and post
retrofit calculations. Assumptions shall be noted and any change in
assumptionsbetweenpreandpostretrofitcalculationsshallbejustified.

Analysisofmeasuresand/ormeasurebundlesshallincludeinteractions.Energy
savings by enduse shall be compared to total building energy use to ensure
thatcalculatedsavingsarereasonable.

Weatherdatashallbelongtermaveragedata.Measuredbuildingdatashallbe
adjustedtocorrespondtolongtermaverageweathercharacteristics.

Equipmentperformancecharacteristicsshallbenotedandshallbebasedupon
partloadorseasonalefficiencies.Fullloadefficienciesarenotpermittedtobe
usedtorepresentefficiencyacrossallloadconditions..

The source of values for key inputs (equipment efficiencies, equipment load
factors, ventilation rates, conductance of unknown constructions) shall be
noted.

Equipment operating schedules and hours of operation shall be based on


building operations. Run time meters shall be used if schedules cannot be
establishedbyothermeans.

Foreachmeteredordeliveredenergysourceamarginalunitenergypriceshall
be calculated. Energy cost savings shall be based on the marginal costs and
demand charges. Use of average unit cost (blended rates is) prohibited. For
seasonal or timeofuse rates, an algorithm shall be developed to reflect the
actual rate. For real time commodity pricing, a seasonal algorithm shall be
developedbaseduponhistoricaldata.

5.4.7.6 AdditionalRequirementsforComputermodel(simulation)

ThesimulationsoftwareshallmeettherequirementsofASHRAEStd140.

Themodelshallbecalibratedagainstbuildingoperationandenergyuseprior
touseinmeasurecalculation.

QUESTION TO REVIEWERS: To what degree should we require model


calibration?Whatisanappropriatestandard?

5.4.7.7QualityAssuranceReview
Thereviewershallcomparethecalculatedsavingstootherappropriatesources
and specific retrofit experience to verify thereasonableness of the projected
17

Commented [b4]: Definitionorrequirementneeded.

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savings. Comparisons shall be based on percentage savings factors and EUI


impacts,withconsiderationgiventotheownersROIrequirements.
The reviewer shall ensure the recommended measures are feasible and
appropriateforthesubjectbuildingconsideringtheexistingequipment,building
occupancyandownerseconomicrequirements.
Thereviewershallcomparetheenergysavings,costsandROIsforeachmeasure
to expected ranges for the type of measure specified. Higher or lower than
expected ROIs shall be discussed with the qualified energy auditor, and
explainedinthereportorcorrectedasrequired.
5.4.8 EstimateEEMCosts
5.4.8.1 Estimate the hard cost for each practical measure. Material costs may be
obtainedfrommanufacturerorvendorpricelists,recordsfromsimilaraudits,
cost estimating guidelines, or similar sources. Labor costs may be developed
from estimates of required installation time, and inhouse or external
contractorlaborrates,dependingonwhichpartyinstallsthemeasure.
5.4.8.2 Estimate the soft costs for each practical measure. Soft costs include
mechanicalorelectricaldesignfees,costsassociatedwithcoordinationamong
multiple contractors for installation, shipping and transportation costs, rental
of cranes,permits, ancillarytasks suchas hazardous material abatement,and
commissioning.Someownersmayhaveresourcesthatoffsetsomesoftcosts.
5.4.8.3 Bundling measure costs. Multiple measures affecting the same building
systems may be combined, and their hard and soft costs estimated as a
package. Combining costs may improve the costeffectiveness of combined
measures.

5.4.9 ConductEconomicAnalysis

Measures may be grouped according to type (e.g. lighting, HVAC, etc.) or cost (e.g.
low,medium,andhighcost). Each measureshouldbeassessedforfinancialbenefits
separately at first. Afterward, the auditor may develop packages of measures that
maximizetheenergysavingscosteffectivelyafterdiscussionwiththefacilityowner.

Identifyandquantifyavailableincentivesfromalocalutilityorgovernmentprogram.
Identifyandquantifyapplicabletaxcreditsforinstallationofmeasures.

Calculate the simple payback of each practical measure, based on the total of hard,
soft,andongoingcosts.Ifthemeasuresaregrouped,thesimplepaybackofthegroup
ofmeasuresmayalsobeestimated.

Note the ancillary benefits of each measure or group. Ancillary benefits may include
improved thermal control of a space, reduced maintenance costs, and improved
indoor light and air quality. Where possible, quantitatively estimate the ancillary
benefits.

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Identify the measures that meet the owners simple payback criteria, whether
individually,orinaggregate.Assesswhichmeasuresmaybereasonablycombinedand
assessed as a group. Calculate each groups returnon investment, including the on
goingcostsandquantifiableancillarybenefits.

5.4.10 ReviewEEMswithOwnersRepresentative

5.5

Providetotheownerortheirappropriaterepresentativealistofidentifiedmeasures,
their brief descriptions, energy and cost savings, available incentives, and simple
paybacks. Schedule a meeting to review the measure list, and implications of each
individual measure including ancillary benefits and ongoing costs. Review
recommendationsformeasuregroupingsandtheirsavings,costsandpayback.Obtain
fromtheownerorownersrepresentativetheircommentsanddirectivesaboutwhich
measurestorecommend,andhowtopresentthefinancialanalysis.

After the review with the owner, revise the audit to show the recommended
measures,measuregroups,andmeasuresidentifiedbutnotrecommended.

Level3Procedures
5.5.1 Determination of Recommended EEMs. The Level 3 analytical procedure is guided by
Level 1 and 2 analyses and the owners/operators selection of measures for greater
definition.ItfollowsLevel1and2workandincludesthefollowingadditionalsteps:

Additionalanalysisshallbeconductedforallmeasuresthataccountfor>15%ofthe
total energy savings, and that have variable operating loads or conditions beyond
steadystate operation. This shall include expanded definitions of all modifications
requiring further analysis and consideration of system interactions to create
integratedpackagesofrecommendations.

Theanalystshallprepareaschematiclayoutofeachofthemodifications.

MeasurementandAnalysis.Analysismaybeconductedusingeitherenergymodels
or detailed spreadsheets of engineering calculations; modeling is required for
envelopemeasures.

If energy submeasurement is feasible, measurement of the energy use of the


existing, preretrofit, system shall be acquired for a minimum of two weeks and
encompassover80%ofthesystemoperatingrange.Ifdemandsavingsareclaimed,
theoperatingrangeshallincludeoperationatbuildingpeakdemand.Theoperating
rangeusedintheanalysisshallbedocumented.Measuresshallbeevaluatedusing
spreadsheets or energy models and then compared to the measured energy use
data.

If measurement is not feasible, the building shall be modeled to evaluate the


proposedmeasures.Theanalystshallensurethatthebaselinemodeliscalibratedto
theoperationoftheexistingbuilding.
TheanalystshallevaluatetheimpactofproposedmodificationsonseasonalHVAC
requirementsandthebuildingoccupantsanddevelopaplantoaccommodatethose
needsduringconstruction.
19

Commented [b5]: Needsdefinition.


Commented [r6]: whatothervariablesmightbemeasuredand
requiredforthecalculationsmentionedbelow?referenceGuideline
142002?

Commented [b7]: Needsdefinition.


Commented [b8]: Definition.
Commented [r9]: referenceIPMVP?

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5.5.2 Cost and Cost Savings of Recommended EEMs. Estimate the cost and savings of each
measureandeachintegratedbundleofmeasuresindetail.Costestimatesshalleither
be

Obtainedfromavendorwithaletterstatingwillingnesstoperformtheworkatthe
quotedprice,or

Completed by the analyst, including parts, labor, and any cost element that is
greaterthan10%ofthetotalcost.

5.5.3 LifeCycleCostAnalysis(LCCA)
ConductaLifeCycleCostAnalysis(LCCA)toinformdecisionmaking.TheLCCAshallbe
conductedforthelifeofthemeasurewiththelongestservicelifeandshallinclude

Firstcost

Financing

Annualenergycostsandescalationrates

Discountrate

Annualmaintenancecosts

Taxcredits

CashIncentives

Expectedperiodicreplacements

Estimatedrecurringcostsofeachmeasureorsetofmeasures.Suchcostsinclude
annualmaintenanceandservicelaborcosts,routinereplacementofwornparts,
orannualwarrantyfeesfrommanufacturers.Ongoingcostsmustbeincludedin
LifeCycleCostAnalysis.
5.5.4 RiskAssessment
ForthemeasuresthatreceiveLevel3analysis,ariskassessmentshallbeperformed.

Theauditorshallidentifycriticaltechnical,operationalandfiscalparametersthat
are potentially most uncertain, sensitive, and critical to the installation,
operation,andpotentialsavingsofeachEEMintheproject.

The auditor shall determine realistic high and low levels for each of these
parameters.Thismaybeaccomplishedthroughfurthermeasurement,selection
of a realistic range (for parameters such as equipment efficiency levels), or by
examininghistoricaldataorindustryprojectionsforparameterssuchasenergy
cost.

To assess the uncertainty and sensitivity of critical parameters the Level 3


analysis shall be repeated varying a single critical parameter within the range
defined in the preceding paragraph. while the remaining parameters are held
constant. Each critical parameter is assessed independently.

The auditor shall create a presentation of the scenario runs to illustrate the
effects of best case, more likely and worst case impacts, and resulting
20

Commented [FG10]: GoingbacktomyoriginaldraftIadded


Operationaltomakeitclearwhatweweretryingto
describe/capture.

Technicalratedfullloadandpartloadefficiencylevels,peak
demandreduction,
Operationalequipmentavailability,potentialloadvariations
(includingrunhours),weatherfactors,maintenanceand
operationalconditionsorsettings,
Fiscalloanrates(orcostofcapitol),discountrate,energy
rates/costs,energycostescalation,anddemandimpact,
Commented [JK11]: Forengineeringvariables,highandlow
makesense.Forcostsitstrickierbecausecostescalationrate
themselvesvaryalotdependingontheperiod.Maybeweshould
offermorespecificguidanceonrateescalationbecauseitsunique
andsubjective.Alsoithasahugeimpactonresults.

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economics.Theseresultscanbeshownintabularorgraphicalformatsuchthat
the owner may best understand the implications and risks involved with the
uncertaintiespresented.
5.5.5 The analyst shall meet with the owner/operator to discuss/develop recommendations
andtopresentresults.
6. REPORTING
6.1
Level1RequiredElements
6.1.1 FacilityDescription

Report basicsite information for thebuilding in tabularformat using Level 1Forms in


NormativeAnnexC:

Buildingnameand/oridentification

Clientname(buildingowner,operator,ortenant)

Keycontacts

Siteaddress

Grossfloorarea

AnnualHeatingandCoolingDegreeDays(withbasetemperaturesnoted)

Classifytheprimaryandsecondaryusesofthebuilding;ifmultipleuses,record
thefractionoftotalfloorareaforeachuse

Provideabreakdownofspacefunctionbyspacetype

Numberofstories

Yearconstructed/occupiedanddatesofrenovations/additions

Occupiedhoursandnumberofoccupants

Previousenergyauditorengineeringstudy

Problems or needs identified in walkthrough survey of Section 5.3.1, including


revisionstoO&Mprocedures
6.1.2 HistoricalEnergyUse
6.1.2.1AnnualUtilityData

Annual utility data for a minimum of 12 consecutive months (although three


consecutive years is preferable), aggregated for the whole building by service
class,shallbereported(usingTable2inStd.1052014),including:

Utilityorotherenergysuppliers(suchaselectricity,naturalgas,fuel
oil,steam,chilledorhotwater)

Utility rate/tariff schedule (such as standard, timeofuse, block


structure, demand charges [ratchet or nonratchet], power factor
charges)shallbeidentified,foreachyearofrecord

Onsite renewable energy produced on site from solar and/or wind,


orcogeneration/CHPsources,inkWh,kBtu,orotherunits,including
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anidentificationofthefractionusedonsiteandthefractionexported
foreachyearofrecord.

Years for which data are collected, indicating calendar year or


beginningandendingmonthsofrecord

Annualelectricuse(kWh)andcost($)foreachyearofrecord

Actualand/orbilled(orbothifreported)peakelectricdemand(kW),
identifiedasonpeak,midpeak,andoffpeak,foreachyearofrecord

Annualsitefuel(orotherenergysource)useintherms,gallons,lbs,or
Btu, as appropriate, and cost ($). If fuel is delivered as a liquid or
solid,reportannualamountusedfromactualdeliveredquantitiesor
inventorychange,foreachyearofrecord

Peak or billed fuel, steam, hot water, or chilled water demand (in
Mlbs/hr or other unit, as appropriate), if reported, for each year of
record

Identification of irregularities in monthly energy use patterns and


suggestionsabouttheirpossiblecauses

6.1.2.2 AnnualEnergyandCostIntensity

Foreachyearofrecordthefollowingshallbereported:

Energy Utilization Index (EUI) for the whole building, expressed as


kBtu/ft2yr, where the building area is the gross building area
determined as in ASHRAE Standard 1052014. Wholebuilding site
energy use is the sum of annual electric use in kWh (converted to
kBtu)andannualfueluse(inkBtu).

Energy Cost Index (ECI) in $/ft2yr for annual site energy supplied
fromallsources.

TheLevel1FormsinNormativeAnnexCshallbeused.

6.1.3 Benchmarking
To determine the need for, and benefits of, further analysis the annual weather
normalizedEUIandECIshallbecomparedtoatleastoneofthefollowingbenchmarks
forpeerbuildings,perthecriteriainSection5.2.2:

Standard105Procedures

ENERGYSTARScore

BuildingEnergyQuotient(bEQ)OperationalRating

EnergyIQ

OtherBenchmarkingSystems

Consistentdefinitionsofbuildinguseandfloorareashallbeusedinthiscomparison.

6.1.4 FacilityDescriptionNotableConditions
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Theauditreportwilllistanyobservedconditionsatthefacilitythatindicate:

SafetyconcernsincludingIndoorEnvironmentalQualitydeficiencies

Needforrepairs

Poormaintenancepractices

Otherconditionscausingunnecessaryoperatingcosts

6.1.5 ReportingLowCostandNoCostRecommendations

The lowcost and nocost changes to the facility or to O&M (Operations &,
Maintenance) procedures, and estimates of the approximate level of savings that will
resultfromthosechanges,whichwereidentifiedinSection5.3.3,shallbereportedper
thecriteriaofthissection.Thesechangesandtheirestimatedannualsavingsshallbe
listed in tabular form, by energy system type (lighting, HVAC and SHW, plug/process
loads,envelope),andorganizedasfollows:

Energysystemtype

Recommendedchange

Briefdescriptionofchange

Priority(high,mediumorlow)

Estimatedlevelofannualsavings(high,medium,low)

EstimatedlevelofROI(high,medium,low)

ImpactonIEQ(improvedthermalcomfort,IAQ,lightingquality,acoustics)

Effectonbuildingsystems

TheLevel1FormsinNormativeAnnexCshallbeused.

6.1.6 ReportingPotentialCapitalEEMRecommendations

The potential capitalexpensed EEM changes to the facility, and estimates of the
approximatelevelofsavingsthatwillresultfromthosechanges,whichwereidentified
in Section 5.3.4, shall be reported per the criteria of this section. These changes and
their estimated annual savings shall be listed in tabular form, by energy system type,
andorganizedasfollows:

Energysystemtype

Recommendedchange

Briefdescriptionofchange

Levelofcapitalcost(high,mediumorlow)

Priority(high,mediumorlow)

Estimatedlevelofannualsavings(high,mediumorlow)

EstimatedlevelofROI(high,mediumorlow)

ImpactonIEQ(improvedthermalcomfort,IAQ,lightingquality,acoustics)
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Effectonbuildingsystems
TheLevel1FormsinNormativeAnnexCshallbeused.
6.2

Level2RequiredElements
6.2.1FacilityDescription

Descriptive information of the audited building shall be provided to identify and


describetheauditedbuildingsystems,currentoperatingrequirements,operation,and
occupant needs as required by this section. These data shall be reported in tabular
form. The template presented in Normative Annex C shall be used. The descriptive
informationshallbebasedononsiteobservations,reviewofarchitecturaldrawingsand
specifications,measurementsand/orengineeringcalculations.
6.2.1.1 BuildingInformation.Adescriptionofthebuildingshallbeprovidedthatwill
include,butnotbelimitedto,thefollowing:
1. Building type and use A description of the building type and use shall be
basedonthebuildingtypesandpercentofgrossfloorareaincluding,butnot
limitedto

Historiclandmarkstatus

Yearbuiltanddatesofrenovations/additions

Priorenergyaudits,datecompleted

Numberofconditionedfloors

Numberofoccupants.

A listing of building spaces impacting energy use (e.g., offices,


conference rooms, assembly areas, data centers, laboratories, food
service,etc.)

A listing of energy uses associated with space types that are not
included in the Gross Floor Area in Item 2 below (e.g., parking
garages,surfaceparking)

2. Gross floor area Gross floor area shall be determined in accordance with
ASHRAEStandard1052014.
3. Owner vs. tenant energy responsibilities a description of the respective
responsibilitiesoftheownerandtenantregardingpaymentofenergyutility
billsshallbeprovided.
4. Commissioning conducted the year of new and/or existing building
commissioningconductedonthebuildingshallbeprovided,
5. SchedulesSchedulesofoccupantdensity,thermostatsettings,lightingand
equipmentuseshallbeprovided.
6. EnergySourcesTheenergysourcesservingthebuildingshallbedescribed
including:
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Types of cogeneration on site (fuel cells, combined heating and


power,andtheirrespectivecapacities)

Types of onsite renewable energy generation (solar, wind, hydro)


andtheircapacities

6.2.1.2 Building Envelope. Descriptive information for the building envelope shall be
providedthatwillinclude,butnotbelimitedto,thefollowing:
1. Roof

Roof area, gross: the area of the roof measured from the exterior
facesofwallsorfromthecenterlineofwallsseparatingbuildings.

A description of the condition of the roof shall include, but not be


limited to, degree of degradation due to weathering, evidence of
moistureintrusionandstandingmoisture.

Exteriormaterial(asphalt,shingles,builtuproof,metal,reflectiveor
nonreflective)

Insulationlevel(RvalueorUvalue)

Surfacereflectance

If present, describe the extent (fraction of roof covered by


vegetation)andcharacteristicsofthegreen(vegetated)roof

2. Opaquewalls(aboveground)

Area,gross:theareaofthewallmeasuredontheexteriorfacefrom
thetopofthefloortothebottomoftheroof.

Exterior material (steelframed, woodframed, metal, mass wall: as


definedinStandard90.12013)

Insulationlevel(RvaluesorUvalues)

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor),


includingnotationofdeficiencies

3. Fenestration:windowsanddoors

Glazed window area: total area of the fenestration measured using


theroughopeningandincludingtheglazing,sash,andframe.

Windowwallratiobyorientation:theratioofglazedareatoopaque
wallarea.

Glazing assembly type (casement, slider, doublehung) and


characteristics(single,double,ortripleglazed;lowe;woodormetal
frames[withorwithoutthermalbreak])

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor),


includingnotationofdeficiencies
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4. Floorsandundergroundwalls

Floortype(onslaboroveracrawlspace)andinsulationlevel(Rvalue
orUvalue)

Undergroundwallareaandinsulationlevel(RvalueorUvalue)

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor),


includingnotationofdeficiencies

5. Envelope sealing/infiltration condition (extent of leakage paths); infiltration


rateobtainedfromtestingshallbeprovided,ifavailable.

6.2.1.3 HVAC
The qualified energy auditor shall collect, develop, and present in report
documents an HVAC equipment inventory (or schedule of equipment) that
representsinaggregate,inthequalifiedenergyauditorsbestjudgment,90%or
more of the energy use allocated to HVAC in the enduse allocation (Section
5.4.4 above). For all listed items, this schedule shall show information as
indicatedonthenormativeformprovidedinNormativeAnnexC.
For multiple identical units, the HVAC schedule shall show a quantity for the
listed item. In such cases, the qualified energy auditor shall describe the
operationof the multipleunits,i.e., units serving different locations, leadlag
operation, backup operation. Where there are many different units to which
thequalifiedenergyauditormaynothaveaccess(aswithtenantequipmentin
leasedspaces),thequalifiedenergyauditorshallindicatethegeneralnatureand
quantityofsuchequipmentbasedonbestavailableinformation.

TheHVACsystemshallbedescribed,including
1. Systemtype:thesystemtype(s)servingthebuilding(rooftop,split,DX,heat
pump, VRF, VAV, CAV, central plant, etc.), or combination thereof, shall be
identified,includingthefollowinginformation

Yearinstalled

Systemdesigncapacity(kW,Btu/hr,and/ortons)

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor)


determined by observation or testing, including notation of
deficiencies

2. Centralplant:thefollowinginformation,describinganycentralplantserving
thebuilding,shallbeprovided

Boilertype,fuel,capacity,ratedefficiency

Chillertype,fuel,capacity

Coolingtowerandfluidcoolers(type,capacity)

Pumpingsystems(configuration,controls)
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Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor)


determined by observation or testing, including notation of
deficiencies)

3. Air handling/ventilation: the following information describing the air


handling/ventilationsystemservingthebuildingshallbeprovided

Heating/coolingcapacity

OA control type (economizer type [temperature, enthalpy], heat


recoveryasapplicable)

Humiditycontrol

Supplyairtemperaturereset,ifapplicable

DedicatedOutdoorAirSystem(DOAS),ifapplicable

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor)


determined by observation or testing, including notation of
deficiencies

4. Controls:thefollowing informationdescribingthecontrolsystemtypeshall
beprovided

PneumaticorDDC?

Zonecontrols(core,perimeter,spacetypes)

BuildingAutomationSystem(BAS)

6.2.1.4 ServiceHotWater

Theservicewatersystemshallbedescribed,including:
1. Process loads serviced (lavatory faucets, kitchen faucets, dishwasher,
showers,laundry)
2. Systemtype(boiler/waterheater,storage/nonstorage)
3. Storagecapacity
4. Assessmentofgeneralcondition(excellent,good,average,poor)determined
byobservationortesting,includingnotationofdeficiencies

6.2.1.5 Lighting

Adescriptionofthelightingsystemshallbedescribed,including:
1. Interiorlighting

An inventory of lighting types (incandescent, fluorescent, LED),


fixtures,lamps,ballastsbyspacetype

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor) of


thelightingfixturesandlamps,determinedbyobservationortesting,
includingnotationofdeficiencies
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A listing of lighting control system types (manual switching, step


switching,dimmers,photosensors,occupancysensors,timers)

2. Exteriorlighting

An inventory of exterior lighting types (incandescent, fluorescent,


LED), fixtures, lamps, ballasts, and areas serviced by each (faade,
walkways,landscaping,parking)

Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor) of


the exterior lighting system, determined by observation or testing,
includingnotationofdeficiencies

Alistingoflightingcontrols(manualswitching,photosensors,timers),
includingthelightingservicescontrolledbyeach

6.2.1.6 Electrical

Theelectricalsystemshallbedescribed,including:
1. Electricaldistributionsystemattributes

Uninterruptiblepowersupply

Backuppower

Transformers

2. Assessment of general condition (excellent, good, average, poor) of the


electrical distribution system, determined by observation or testing,
includingnotationofdeficiencies
6.2.1.7 ProcessandPlugLoads
1. Process loads (food service, laundry, swimming pools, refrigeration, lab
equipment,datacenters/servers)shallbeidentified
2. Plugloadsshallbelisted,including

Approximate installed power density (W/ft2) of receptacles in the


building

Approximate inventory of office equipment type, including number


andtype[desktop,laptop,orservers]ofcomputers/monitors.

3. Verticaltransportation equipment (elevators,escalators) shallbe identified,


includingtheircondition(excellent,good,average,poor)
6.2.2 HistoricalUtilityData

Utilitydataforaminimumof12consecutivemonths,(althoughthreeconsecutiveyears
ispreferable),aggregatedforthewholebuildingbyserviceclass,shallbereported.
6.2.2.1 DataSummaryandRateStructure
1.

Monthlyutilitydata
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MonthlydatashallbereportedintabularusingtheLevel2ForminNormative
AnnexC,and/orgraphicalform,byyear,andshallinclude:

Utilityorotherenergysuppliers(suchaselectricity,naturalgas,fuel
oil, steam, chilled or hot water) and account numbers electricity,
natural gas and/or fuel oil shall be reported on one form; steam
and/orchilledorhotwatershallbereportedonaseparateform.

Utility rate schedule (such as standard, timeofuse, block structure,


demandcharges[ratchetornonratchet],powerfactorcharges)shall
be identified based on the year for which the audit is being
conducted.

Meter number (or other identifying reference) and rate/tariff


schedule for each meter if multiple meters on varying rates are
present.

Onsite renewable energy (solar and/or wind) or cogeneration/CHP


sources,includinganidentificationoftheportionusedonsiteandthe
portionexported.

Monthorotherdataperiod,includingreadordeliverydates

Numberofdaysinmonthorperiod

Electricuse(kWhbyrateperiodsasappropriatetotherate,e.g.peak,
midpeak,andoffpeakperiods)

Actualand/orbilled(orbothifreported)peakelectricdemand(kW),
identifiedasonpeak,midpeak,andoffpeak

Electriccost($)

Monthlyorperiodloadfactor(%)

Peak or billed fuel, steam, hot water, or chilled water demand (in
Mlbs/hrorotherunit,asappropriate),ifreported

Fuelorotherenergysourcecost($)

EnergyproducedbyonsiterenewableorothersourcesinkWh,kBtu,
orotherunits

2. Deliveredfuels(Nonmonthly)

Deliveredfuel(orotherenergysource)useintherms,gallons,lbs,orBtus,as
appropriate.Iffuelisdeliveredasaliquidorsolid,determineannualamount
usedfromactualdeliveredquantitiesorinventorychange.

3. Annualdata
AnnualEnergyUseIntensity(kBtu/ft2yr)forallenergyusedinthebuilding,
as well as annual Energy Cost Intensity ($/ft2yr), shall be reported. Any
relevantnormalizingparametersshallbedescribed.
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Theannualbuildingenergyconsumptionpercentageforeachenergysource
typeshallberecordedandcalculatedasthetotalenergyuseforthatenergy
source type, divided by the total building energy consumption. The
summation of all energy source type percentages shall equal 100%. The
summation shall be recorded in the form of a pie chart with percentage
shareoftotalbuildingenergyconsumptionindicatedforeachfueltype.
4. Submetering

Adescriptionofthesubmeteringinstalledinthebuilding,includingalistingof
thesystemssometered,thefrequencyofdatarecording,andadescriptionof
thedataacquisitionsystem(fixed,portable,orintegratedwiththeBAS),shall
beprovided.

6.2.2.2 Benchmarking

Todeterminetheneedfor,andbenefitsof,furtheranalysistheannualEUIand
ECI shall be compared with at least one appropriate benchmark for peer
buildings(e.g.,CBECS[summarydatadocumentedinTables24,Chapter36,of
the ASHRAE Applications Handbook (2015) may be used], direct peer
ensembles, ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager score), ASHRAE Building Energy
QuotientOperationalRating,EnergyIQanalysis,orotherbenchmarkingsystem,
followingthecriteriainSection5.2.2.

6.2.2.3EstablishTargetandEstimateSavings

By comparing the EUI and/or ECI with that for the benchmark building(s), an
improved EUI and/or ECI shall be identified and reported as a target. An
estimateshallthenbemadeoftheannualenergyandcostsavingsthatwould
be achieved if the target EUI is met. The target established shall meet the
ownersgoals.

6.2.3 ReportEndUseBreakdown.

The energy consumption of enduse systems in the buildings shall be determined in


accordance with section 5.4.4 and reported in accordance with this section. An
individual enduse system that consumes less than 5% of the total annual building
energy consumption need not be recorded for the purposes of the audit but shall be
includedinanOthercategory.Anygivenunitofequipmentshallbeassignedtoonly
oneendusesystemtype.
6.2.3.1 Enduse system energy consumption recording methodology. Enduse system
energyconsumption,asdeterminedinaccordancewithsection5.4.4,shallbe
recordedinaccordancewithoneorbothofthefollowing:
1. Spotmeasurementsofenduses,shallberecordedintableformatandshall
includeanarrativedescriptionoftheanalysisusedtosupportannualization
ofthespotmeasureddata.
2. Calculationsofequipmentperformanceshallberecordedintableformatand
shall include a narrative description of the calculation methodology and
inputsusedtosupportthecalculations.
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6.2.3.2 Compilationofenduseenergydata.Therecordedenergyuseofeachenduse
systemshallbecompiledinaccordancewiththefollowing:
1. For each enduse system type, the measured or calculated annual energy
consumptionshallbelistedbyendusesystemtypeandenergysourcetype
in tabular format. (Refer to the procedures documented in Section 5.4.4).
Where a given energy source type is not applicable for the enduse system
type,thetablecelldoesnotrequireavalue.
2. For each enduse system type, the combined energy use of each energy
sourcetypeshallberecordedinunitsofthatsourcetype,theneachsource
typeshallbeexpressedinkBTUunits.
3. The total building energy consumption shall be recorded and expressed in
kBTU,asdefinedbySection5.4.4.
4. Theenduseenergy consumption percentageforeachenduse system type
shall be recorded and calculated as the total energy use for that enduse
system type, divided by the total building energy consumption. The
summation of all enduse system type percentages, including systems
categorizedasOther,shallequal100%.Thesummationshallberecorded
in the form of a pie chart with percentage share of total building energy
consumptionindicatedforeachendusesystemtype.
6.2.4EnergySavingOpportunities

The energy savings opportunities resulting from the audit shall be reported using the
Level 2 form in Normative Annex C, including the following items. Assumptions and
proceduresusedtoestimateenergyandenergycostsavingsshallfollowthecriteriain
NormativeAnnexB.
6.2.4.1Lowcost/nocostsavingsmeasures

Describetheexistingconditionsthatprovidebackgroundforunderstandingthe
basisforeachrecommendedmeasure.

Describe each recommended measure and the actions required for


implementation.

Listmajorassumptionsusedinthesavingscalculationsforeachmeasure.

Listmajorassumptionsusedinthecostestimate(ifany)foreachmeasure.

Present a summary of the savings for each measure, including annual energy
usagebyenergysource,electricdemand,andannualenergycostsavings.

Present a summary of the implementation cost (if any) for each measure and
simplepaybackperiodinyears.

List any ancillary (nonenergy related) impacts of the measure that would be
relevanttotheimplementationdecisionmaker.

6.2.4.2 Capitalprojectsavingsmeasures
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Describetheexistingconditionsthatprovidebackgroundforunderstandingthe
basisforeachrecommendedmeasure.

Describe each recommended measure and the actions required for


implementation.

Listmajorassumptionsusedinthesavingscalculationsforeachmeasure.

Listmajorassumptionsusedinthecostestimateforeachmeasure.

Discusstheimpactofeachmeasureonmaintenancecostsorsavings.

Present a summary of the savings for each measure, including annual energy
usagebyenergysource,electricdemand,annualenergycostsavings,andannual
maintenance cost savings. If maintenance costs are projected to increase after
measure implementation, express the maintenance savings as a negative
number.

Present a summary of the implementation cost for each measure and simple
paybackperiodinyears.

Calculateavailableutilityincentivesapplicabletoeachmeasure,andpresentthe
impactoftheseincentivesontheimplementationcostandpayback.

List any ancillary (nonenergy related) impacts of the measure that would be
relevanttotheimplementationdecisionmaker.

When HVAC or SHW equipment is recommended for replacement, building or


zoneheatloss/heatgainloadcalculationsshallberecommendedaspartofthe
retrofit.

6.2.4.3 TreatmentofRates(Level2)

The auditor shall identify the rate structure and other arrangements (e.g.
commodity contract) under which all types of energy are purchased (as per
Level 1 procedure above, section 5.3.2) and the relevant characteristics for
energy cost/savings analysis. This shall include, at minimum, the following
featuresofutilityratesandothermeansofprocurement:

Utilityserviceclassification

Energy rate structure and the marginal values (from such) of the
followingusedinanalyses:

Incrementalblockratestructuresforenergyuse

Demandcomponentstructure(blocks)andrates

Ratchet length (and time frame) of window, along with an


explanation on how saving will not accrue until such window is
complete

Seasonal, and/or Timeofuse and/or Realtime rates that may be in


effect
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ESP (Energy Service Provider) or other independent commodity


purchase pricing and other applicable contract terms (such as
penaltiesforreducedconsumption)

Interruptibleratesineffect,(theconditionsimposedbytheLDC)how
thatmightcomeintoplayandwhatbackupfuelistobeutilized,and
thepotentialeconomicimpactontheprojectedmeasure(s)savings

Taxes(sales,grossreceipts,locality,other)applied*.

Fuelandotherrateadjustments*oraddons(thereisabetterterm)
suchasRenewablePortfolioStandardthatapply

*Theseneednotbespelledoutindividually,butratherastatementconfirming
allsuchapplicabletaxesandadjustmentshavebeenfactoredintotheenergy
costvaluecomputations

Thequalifiedenergyauditorshallidentifyandbrieflydescribefeaturesthatare
ineffect,howtheyimpactenergycosts,andhowtheyaretreatedintheaudits
conversion of energy unit and demand savings cost impacts to dollars. With
theexceptionofbulkfuels(suchasoilorcoal,wheresimpleperunitratesare
used) the auditor shall not employ average energy unit costs in calculations
unless the underlying rate is indeed one rate for all times of the day and all
seasons.

6.2.4.4 EEMsconsideredbutnotrecommended

Presentalistofenergysavingopportunitiesconsideredbutnotrecommended,
alongwiththereasonfornotrecommendingthemeasure.

Discussconsiderationsthatmightchangeinthefuturethatwouldthenjustify
recommendingimplementation.

6.2.5 EEMCostEstimateReporting
6.2.5.1 Hard costs For each Practical EEM, report on the estimating methodology
used,assumptions,andriskfactors

Report on the geographic location(s), capacity(ies), and year of


base(s)ofreference

For all methods of estimating, report on hard cost estimate risk


factorsincludingataminimum:complexityoftheproject,qualityof
estimating base of reference(s), quality of assumptions used in
preparing the estimate, experience and level of effort of the
estimator,
contract
procurement
assumptions
,
and
abatement/historic building/public design commissioning known
versusunknowns.

6.2.5.2 SoftcostsForeachPracticalEEMreportonsoftcostestimates.Ataminimum
the categories of 5.4.8.2 shall be reported on as either estimated, not
applicable,orunknownatthistime.
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6.2.6 EEMEconomicAnalysisReporting
6.2.6.1 ForeachpracticalmeasurereportthesimplepaybackandsimpleROIandthe
ancillary quantifiable factors. Include a description of the nonquantifiable
factorsandanindicationofwhetheragivenpracticalmeasureisrecommended
forimplementation.
6.2.6.2 Report on the aggregate simple payback and simple ROI of all recommended
measuresinclusiveofinteractiveeffects.
6.3

Level3Reporting

The Level 3 reporting requirements are guided by Level 1 and 2 reporting and the
owners/operators selection of measures for greater definition. They follow Level 1 and 2
requirements(seeNormativeAnnexCforforms)andincludethefollowingadditionalsteps:
For measures that account for > 15% of the total energy savings, and that have variable
operatingparameters,describeadditionalanalysisormeasurementsthatwereconducted.
Report system interactions among measures and describe in the audit report how those
interactionsweretreatedintheresults.
The report shall include a schematic layout of each of the modifications. Basis for energy
savingsestimates(whetherspreadsheetorenergymodel)willincludeanarrativedescriptionof
sequenceofoperations.
6.3.1 MeasurementandAnalysis.
Reportshallincludedescriptionsofmethodsused

Energymodelingisrequiredforenvelopemeasures.

Detailedspreadsheetsofengineeringcalculations;

Report results of energy submeasurement if applicable. The operating range used in


theanalysisshallbepresented.
Reportshalldocumenthowthebaselinemodeliscalibratedtotheexistingbuilding.The
report shall describe the treatment of system interactions either within simulation
methodsorspreadsheetcalculations.
The report shall present estimated costs and savings of each measure and each
integratedbundleofmeasuresindetail.Vendorandtheenergyanalystsquotesshallbe
includedwiththefinalreport.
6.3.2 LifeCycleCostAnalysis(LCCA)
Results of the Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) shall be included in the final report. The
LCCA shall be conducted for the life of the measure with the longest service life and
shallinclude

Firstcost

Financing

Annualenergycostsandescalationrates
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Discountrate

Annualmaintenancecosts

Taxcredits

CashIncentives

Periodicreplacement

6.3.3 RiskAssessment
Thefinalreportshallincludeasectiondocumentingtheresultsoftheriskassessment.
The final report shall identify the critical technical (e.g., full and partload efficiencies,
peak demand reduction), operational (equipment availability, load variation, weather,
M&O considerations) and fiscal (loan rates, discount rate, energy rates and escalation
assumptions) parameters that are potentially most variable and critical to the
installation,operation,andpotentialsavingsofeachEEMintheproject.
Thereportshalllistthehighandlowlevelsforeachofthekeyparameters.
TheLevel3analysisshallberepeated,withoneofthecriticalparametersvariedwithin
the range defined in the previous paragraph and the remaining parameters held the
sameasintheLevel3analysis.
The auditor shall create a presentationof thescenario runs to illustrate the effectsof
bestcase,mostlikely,andworstcaseimpacts,andresultingeconomics.Theseresults
can be shown in tabular and/or graphical format such that the owner may best
understandtheimplicationsandrisksinvolvedwiththeuncertaintiespresented.
7. REFERENCES

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NORMATIVEANNEXACOMPLIANCEFORM
FormACompliancewithStandard211
NameofFacility

StreetAddress

City

State

ZipCode

BuildingOwner:

Nameofqualifiedenergy
auditor:
StreetAddress
City

TelephoneNo.

State

ZipCode

QualifyingCertification:

HavethexxxrequirementsofSectionxbeenmet?[]Yes[]No

HavethexxxrequirementsofSectionxbeenmet?[]Yes[]No

DatetheLevel1Auditwascompleted.

DatetheLevel2Auditwascompleted.

DatetheLevel3Auditwascompleted.

IstatethattheattachedEnergyAuditReportcomplieswithANSI/ASHRAEStandard211:

Signatureofqualifiedenergyauditor:_______________________Date:____________
SignatureofAuthorityHavingJurisdiction:

Compliance____________________________________Date:____________

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NORMATIVEANNEXBENERGYSAVINGSCALCULATIONS

Savings calculations shall be prepared and documented in a manner that shows the procedure(s)
followed, building data and variables used for calculating projected energy and energycost savings.
Describe the existing conditions that provide background for understanding the basis for each
recommendedmeasureandlistmajorassumptionsusedintheenergyandcostsavingscalculationsfor
eachmeasure.Listanyancillary(nonenergyrelated)impactsofthemeasurethatwouldberelevant
to the implementation decisionmaker. For Level 2 discuss the impact of each measure on
maintenancecostsorsavings.Foreachmeasurecalculated,theauditorshallstateclearlywhatvalues
are changed to calculate savings and shall provide information showing how the calculation was
performed.

Informationprovidedinthisappendixshalltakeanyoneorcombinationofthefollowingforms:

1. Fullcalculationofeachindividualmeasureanditsinteractionwithothermeasures;

2. Spreadsheetsshowingdatainputs,constants,variablesandresults;input,constant,andvariables
usedincalculatedcelldefinitionsshallbeshownonthespreadsheetinatabular(lookuptable)
format; it is not required to show all formulaic cell definitions but a locked spreadsheet record
withcelldefinitionsshallbemaintainedbytheauditorforreviewifrequested;

3. Where energy modeling or simulation tools are applied, provide printout sheets showing data
inputsandkeyoutputsforbaselineandsuccessiveruns.

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NORMATIVEANNEXCREPORTINGFORMS
The following forms are mandatory minimum reporting requirementsfor Level 1 and Level 2 Energy
Audits. The qualified energy auditor shall provide these as part of any compliant energy audit. The
formsreportbasicbuildingcharacteristics,energyuse,andrecommendedenergyefficiencymeasures
inastandardizedformat.

The Level 2 forms provide the minimum data required to determine a Building Energy Asset Score
usingtheDOEsonlineEnergyAssetScoretool.However,inclusionoftheAssetScoreisnotrequired
forcompliancewiththeStandard.FieldsthatarerequiredforAssetScoreevaluationaremarkedwith
an*.

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[SEEATTACHEDNORMATIVEFORMSSPREADSHEET]

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INFORMATIVEANNEXDREPORTOUTLINES
(This annex is not a requirement of this standard. It is merely informative and does not contain
requirementsnecessaryforconformancetothestandard.Ithasnotbeenprocessedaccordingtothe
ANSIrequirementsforastandardandmaycontainmaterialthathasnotbeensubjecttopublicreview
or a consensus process. Unresolved objectors on informative material are not offered the right to
appealatASHRAEorANSI.)

1. Level 1 Report Outline


1. EXECUTIVESUMMARY
a. OverallAssessmentofBenchmarkingandEnergyPerformance
b. PotentialSavingsandReturnonInvestment
c. TableofRecommendedMeasureswithSavingsandBenefit
2. INTRODUCTION
a. AuditScope
b. KeyDates
c. ContactInformation
3. FACILITYDESCRIPTION
a. BuildingInformation(GeneralDescriptionofFacility)
b. Notableconditions
4. HISTORICALUTILITYDATA
a. DataSummaryandRateStructure
b. Benchmarking
c. TargetandSavingsEstimate
5. ENERGYSAVINGOPPORTUNITIES
a. LowCost/NoCostSavingsMeasures
b. CapitalProjects
c. EEMsConsideredbutNotEvaluated
d. O&MMeasures
6. SPECIALCONDITIONS
APPENDICES
TabulatedUtilityData
UtilityRateSchedules
BasisforSavingsandCostEstimates
EquipmentInventoryTables

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2. Level 2 Report Outline


1. EXECUTIVESUMMARY
a. OverallAssessmentofBenchmarkingandEnergyPerformance
b. AggregatedSavingsandCostsofRecommendedMeasures
c. TableofRecommendedMeasureswithSavingsandCosts
2. INTRODUCTION
a. AuditScope
b. KeyDates
c. ContactInformation
3. FACILITYDESCRIPTION
a. BuildingInformation
b. BuildingEnvelope
c. HVAC
d. ServiceHotWater
e. Lighting
f. Electrical
g. ProcessandPlugLoads,VerticalTransportation
4. HISTORICALUTILITYDATA
a. DataSummaryandRateStructure
b. Benchmarking
c. TargetandSavingsEstimate
d. EndUseBreakdown
5. ENERGYSAVINGOPPORTUNITIES
a. LowCost/NoCostSavingsMeasures
b. CapitalProjects
c. EEMsConsideredbutNotRecommended
d. O&MMeasures
6. SPECIALCONDITIONS
APPENDICES
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TabulatedUtilityData
UtilityRateSchedules
CalculationMethodology
SavingsCalculations
CostEstimates
EquipmentInventoryTables
O&MLogs
EquipmentSpecifications

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3. Level 3 Report Outline

1. EXECUTIVESUMMARY
a. OverallAssessmentofBenchmarkingandEnergyPerformance
b. AggregatedSavingsandCostsofRecommendedMeasures
c. TableofRecommendedMeasureswithSavingsandCosts
d. LifeCycleCostAnalysisofMeasures
e. RiskAssessmentofEEMs
2. INTRODUCTION
a. AuditScope
b. KeyDates
c. ContactInformation
3. FACILITYDESCRIPTION
a. BuildingInformation
b. BuildingEnvelope
c. HVAC
d. ServiceHotWater
e. Lighting
f. Electrical
g. ProcessandPlugLoads,VerticalTransportation
4. HISTORICALUTILITYDATA
a. DataSummaryandRateStructure
b. Benchmarking
c. TargetandSavingsEstimate
d. EndUseBreakdown
5. ENERGYSAVINGOPPORTUNITIES
a. MeasureInteractions/EnergyModelingApproach
b. M&VApproach
c. LowCost/NoCostSavingsMeasures
i. Measure specific measurements/monitoring data (if savings > 15% of total
savings,interactions,M&Vapproach,riskassessment,andLCCA
d. CapitalProjects
i. Measure specific measurements/monitoring data (if savings > 15% of total
savings,interactions,M&Vapproach,riskassessment,andLCCA
e. EEMsConsideredbutNotRecommended
f. O&MMeasures
6. SPECIALCONDITIONS
APPENDICES
TabulatedUtilityData
UtilityRateSchedules
CalculationMethodology
SavingsCalculationsIncludingEnergyModelI/O
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CostEstimates
EquipmentInventoryTables
O&MLogs
EquipmentSpecifications
Additionalmonitoringdatasupportinginformation
LCCAcalculations
Additionalriskassessmentdata

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INFORMATIVEANNEXETARGETEDENERGYAUDITAPPROACHES
[QUESTIONTOREVIEWERS:
Is there value in defining, or recommending approaches for energy audits where the scope is not a
comprehensive, wholebuilding approach? If so, what elements of those approaches would you
require?]

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INFORMATIVEANNEXFRECOMMENDEDDATAEXCHANGEFORMATS
ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 211 recommends that, if electronic reporting is used to report
therequireddatainNormativeAnnexC,thedataexchangeformatusedbytheALJbeBuildingSync.

Electronicreportingofthisdataisnotrequiredbythestandard.However,thenormativeformsofthe
standardhavebeendevelopedtoprovideconsistencywiththeBuildingSyncdatadefinitions.

Making energy audit results easily transferable is highly desirable and may help streamline energy
audit reporting to agencies. If consistent data formats are used, electronic data reporting can make
sharingofinformationfasterandmoreconsistent.Collectingthisdatainaggregateprovidesauseful
sourceforanalysisofenergyefficiencymeasures,andawaytocompareresultsfrommultipleauditors,
and multiplesites. Collectingaggregate energy audit datamay streamline qualitycontrol procedures
andimproveconsistencyofauditsavingsandcostingmethods.

BuildingSyncwasdevelopedwithsupportfromtheU.S.DepartmentofEnergyandisastandardized
languageforcommercialbuildingenergyauditdatathatsoftwaredevelopersandauditorscanuseto
exchange data between audit tools and data storage platforms. Building owners and audit program
managerscanuseBuildingSync,whichtakestheformofanextensiblemarkuplanguage(XML)schema,
to analyze and aggregate energy audit data across multiple buildings, evaluate audit program
performance,andanalyzetrends.BuildingSyncusesthestandardenergydataterminologydefinedin
the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES) (http://energy.gov/eere/buildings/building
energydataexchangespecificationbedes) and is available as a free download for all users
(http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/buildingsync.html). BuildingSync data terms cover the full range of
ASHRAE energy audits from Preliminary EnergyUse Analysis to Level 3 (Detailed Analysis of Capital
IntensiveModifications).Nostrictrulesethasbeenwrittenforthedatathatshouldcollectedateach
level,butrecommendationsforwhichauditlevelcorrespondstoeachdatatermareprovidedinthe
BuildingSyncDataDictionary.

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INFORMATIVEANNEXGENERGYEFFICIENCYMEASURES

QUESTIONFORREVIEWERS:Isthislisthelpful?Shoulditbeincluded,expandedoromitted?

Thisinformativeannexprovidedcategorizedlistingsoftypicalenergyefficiencymeasures(EEMs)that
can be applied to enable buildings to meet the set energy targets. It identifies commonly applied
elementsthatcanimprovebuildingperformancebutisnotintendedtosuggestspecificrequirements,
nordoesitcomprehensivelycoveredalloftheoptionsavailabletoanowner.

Measures included in these listings are intended to improve energy efficiency and reduce overall
energy use. They are not intended to encourage fuel switching unless such actions as installation of
cogeneration,orcombinedheating,generationandcoolingplantswouldresultinoverallreductionin
totalenergyused.

Somemeasures,suchasdemandresponse/control,mayalsosaveenergyasanincidentalsidebenefit.
Other measures may result in extension of the capacity of given infrastructure systems and/or the
ability for energy efficiency to defer or eliminate the need for plant expansions. Such results can be
factoredintotheresultingreturnoninvestmentorlifecyclecostanalysis.

G1. BUILDING ENVELOPE


G1.1 Walls
G1.1.1 Insulate Walls. Retrofit insulation can be external and internal.
G1.1.1.1 External post insulation makes large savings possible, as this type of insulation contributes not
only to a reduction of the heat loss through large wall surfaces but also eliminates the traditional thermal
bridges where floor and internal wall are anchored in the exterior wall.
G1.1.1.2 Internal insulation is typically used when external insulation is not allowed (e.g., for historical
buildings).
G1.1.2 Insulate cavity walls using spray-in insulation.
G1.1.3 Consider converting internal courtyard into an atrium to reduce external wall surface.
G1.2 Roofs
G1.2.1 Use cool roof (high-reflectance roofing material) with reroofing projects.
G1.2.2 Determine roof insulation values and recommend roof insulation as appropriate.
G1.2.3 Insulate ceilings and roofs using spray-on insulation.
G1.2.4 Where appropriate, exhaust hot air from attics.
G1.3 Floors
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G1.3.1 Insulate floors.


G1.3.2 Insulate floors using spray-on insulation.
G1.3.3 Insulate basement wall with a slab over unheated basement.
G1.4 Windows
G1.4.1 Replace single-pane and leaky windows with thermal/operable windows to minimize cooling and
heating loss.
G1.4.2 Install exterior shading, such as blinds or awnings, to cut down on heat loss and to reduce heat
gain.
G1.4.3 Install storm windows and multiple glazed windows.
G1.4.4 Use tinted or reflective glazing or energy control/ solar window films.
G1.4.5 Replace existing fenestration (toplighting and/or sidelighting) with dual-glazed low-e glass
wherever possible to reduce thermal gain.
G1.4.6 Adopt weatherization/fenestration improvements.
G1.4.7 Consider replacing exterior windows with insulated glass block when visibility is not required
but light is required.
G1.4.8 Landscape/plant trees to create shade and reduce air-conditioning loads.
G1.5 Doors
G1.5.1 Prevent heat loss through doors by draft sealing and thermal insulation.
G1.5.2 Install automatic doors, air curtains, or strip doors at high-traffic passages between conditioned
and unconditioned spaces.
G1.5.3 Use self-closing or revolving doors and vestibules if possible.
G1.5.4 Install high-speed doors between heated/cooled building space and unconditioned space in the
areas with high-traffic passages.
G1.6 Install separate smaller doors for people near the area of large vehicle doors air leakage (see
Informative Appendix E).
G1.6.1 Seal top and bottom of building.
G1.6.2 Seal vertical shafts, stairways, outside walls, and openings.
G1.6.3 Compartmentalize garage doors and mechanical and vented internal and special-purpose rooms.

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G1.7 Moisture Penetration


G1.8 Reduce air leakage.
G1.9 Install vapor barriers in walls, ceilings, and roofs.
G2. HVAC SYSTEMS
G2.1 Ventilation
G2.1.1 Reduce HVAC systems outdoor airflow rates when possible. Minimum outdoor airflow rates
should comply with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.19 or local code requirements.
G2.1.2 Reduce minimum flow settings in single-duct and dual-duct variable-air-volume (VAV)
terminals as low as is practical to meet ventilation requirements.
G2.1.3 Minimize exhaust and makeup (ventilation) rates when possible by complying with the most
stringent federal, state, and/or local code requirements.
G2.1.4 When available, use operable windows for ventilation during mild weather (natural ventilation)
when outdoor conditions are optimal. Confirm that the facility has been designed for natural ventilation
and that control strategies are available to operate the facility in the natural ventilation mode.
G2.1.5 Eliminate outside air ventilation during unoccupied building morning warm up.
G2.1.6 Convert mixing air supply systems into displacement ventilation systems to create a temperature
stratification in spaces with high ceilings and predominant cooling needs.
G2.1.7 Consider replacement of all-air HVAC system with a combination of a dedicated outdoor air
system coupled with radiant cooling and heating systems.
G2.1.8 Convert constant-volume central exhaust systems into demand-based controlled central exhaust
systems when possible.
G2.1.9 Convert HVAC systems to provide ventilation in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
62.1.9
G2.2 HVAC Distribution Systems
G2.2.1 Convert a constant-air-volume system (CAV) (including dual duct, multizone, and constantvolume reheat systems) into a VAV system with variable speed drives (VFDs) on fan motors. A VAV
system is designed to deliver only the volume of air needed for conditioning the actual load.
G2.2.2 Control VAV system VFD speed based on the static pressure needs in the system. Reset the
static pressure set point dynamically, as low as is practical to meet the zone setpoints.
G2.2.3 Reset VAV system supply air temperature setpoint when system is at minimum speed to provide
adequate ventilation.

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G2.2.4 If conversion to VAV from CAV systems is impractical, reset supply air temperatures in
response to load. Dynamically control heating duct temperatures as low as possible, and cooling duct
temperatures as high as possible, while meeting the load.
G2.2.5 Use high-efficiency fans and pumps; replace or trim impellers of existing fans if they have
excessive capacity relative to peak demand.
G2.2.6 Install higher efficiency air filters/cleaners in HVAC system. Size ducts and select filter sizes for
low face velocity to reduce pressure drop where available space permits.
G2.2.7 Insulate HVAC ducts and pipes, particularly where they are outside the conditioned space.
Ensure that duct insulation and vapor barrier is maintained or enhanced to ensure thermal performance
and avoid water vapor intrusion.
G2.2.8 Check for air leaks in HVAC duct systems, and seal ductwork as indicated.
G2.2.9 Rebalance ducting and piping systems.
G2.2.10 Provide cooling effect by creating air movement with fans.
G2.2.11 Select cooling coils with a face velocity range of 300 to 350 fpm (1.5 to 1.75 m/s) to reduce the
air pressure drop across the cooling coil and increase the chilled-water system temperature differential
across the system.
G2.2.12 Replace standard fan belts with fan belts designed for minimum energy losses, such as cog
belts.
G2.2.13 Eliminate or downsize existing HVAC equipment in an existing building or group of buildings
when improvements in building envelope, reductions in lighting or plug loads, and other EEMs that
reduce cooling or heating loads have been implemented.
G2.2.14 Eliminate HVAC usage in vestibules and unoccupied spaces.
G2.2.15 Minimize direct cooling/heating of unoccupied areas by system zone controls, occupancy
sensors or by turning off fan-coil units and unit heaters.
G2.2.16 Replace forced-air heaters with low- or medium-temperature radiant heaters.
G2.2.17 Replace inefficient window air conditioners with high-efficiency (i.e., high SEER rating)
modular units or central systems.
G2.2.18 Employ heat recovery from exhaust air and processes for preheating or precooling incoming
outdoor air or supply air.
G2.2.19 Install transpired air heating collector (solar wall) for ventilation air preheating.
G2.2.20 Modify controls and/or systems to implement night precooling to reduce cooling energy
consumption the following day.

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G2.2.21 Use waste heat (e.g., hot gas, return air heat, return hot water) as an energy source for reheating
for humidity control. (Often air is cooled to dew-point to remove moisture and then must be reheated to
desired temperature and humidity.)
G2.2.22 Avoid temperature stratification with heating, either by proper air supply system design or by
using temperature destratifiers (e.g., ceiling fans).
G2.2.23 In humid climates, supply air with a temperature above the dew point to prevent condensation
on cold surfaces.
G2.2.24 Insulate fan-coil units and avoid their installation in unconditioned spaces.
G2.2.25 Clean heat exchangers (to maintain heat exchange efficiency) in the evaporators and condensers
of refrigeration equipment on a seasonal basis.
G2.2.26 Use high-efficiency dehumidification systems based on either dedicated outdoor air systems
(DOAS) or VAV systems.
G2.2.27 Identify if there are any rogue zones (i.e., zones that determine the cooling or heating demand
on the entire system) in a multiple-zone air-handling system, and modify them to eliminate their
negative impact.
G2.2.28 Modify supply duct systems to eliminate duct configurations that impose high friction losses on
the system.
G2.2.29 Convert three-pipe heating/cooling distribution systems to four-pipe or two-pipe systems.
Eliminate simultaneous heating and cooling through mixed returns.
G2.2.30 Convert steam or compressed air humidifiers to ultrasonic or high-pressure humidifiers.
G2.2.31 Replace mechanical dehumidification with desiccant systems using heat-recovery regeneration.
G2.2.32 Consider small unitary systems for small zones with long or continuous occupancy. Avoid
running large distribution systems to meet needs of small, continuously occupied spaces.
G2.2.33 Install thermostatic control valves on uncontrolled or manually controlled radiators.
G2.2.34 Replace unitary systems with newer units with high-efficiency and high SEER ratings.
G2.2.35 Install evaporative precooling for direct-expansion (DX) systems.
G2.2.36 Install air-side heat recovery for systems using 100% makeup air (e.g., run-around piping or
energy exchange wheels).
G2.2.37 In reheat systems, making adjustments as necessary to minimize reheat energy consumption
while maintaining indoor environmental quality.
G2.2.38 In multiple-zone systems, identify any rogue zones that consistently cause the reset of system
level setpoints in order to satisfy that one zones heating or cooling demands.
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G2.3 Building Automation and Control Systems


G2.3.1 Create building/air-conditioned space zones with separate controls to suit solar exposure and
occupancy.
G2.3.2 Use night setback, or turn off HVAC equipment when building is unoccupied.
G2.3.3 Install occupancy sensors with VAV systems; set back temperatures and shut off boxes.
G2.3.4 Install system controls to reduce cooling/heating of unoccupied space.
G2.3.5 Lower heating and raise cooling temperature setpoints to match the comfort range prescribed in
ANSI/ ASHRAE Standard 55.8
G2.3.6 Install an air-side and/or water-side economizer cycle with enthalpy switchover when compatible
with the existing equipment, space occupancy, and distribution system.
G2.3.7 Schedule off-hour meetings in a location that does not require HVAC in the entire facility.
G2.3.8 Retrofit multiple-zone VAV systems with direct digital controls (DDC) controllers at the zone
level, and implement supply air duct pressure reset to reduce supply air duct pressure until at least one
zone damper is nearly wide open.
G2.3.9 Eliminate duplicative zone controls (e.g., multiple thermostats serving a single zone with
independent controls).
G2.3.10 Adjust hot-water and chilled-water temperature to develop peak-shaving strategies based on an
outside air temperature reset schedule.
G2.3.11 Adjust housekeeping schedule to minimize HVAC use.
G2.3.12 Install programmable zone thermostats with appropriate deadbands.
G2.3.13 Use variable-speed drives (VSDs) and DDC on water circulation pump and fan motors and
controls.
G2.3.14 Reduce operating hours of complementing heating and cooling systems. Ensure proper location
of thermostat to provide balanced space conditioning.
G2.3.15 Implement an energy management system (EMS) designed to optimize and adjust HVAC
operations based on environmental conditions, changing uses, and timing.
G3. REFRIGERATION
G3.1 Reduce Loads
G3.1.1 Install strip curtains or automatic fast open and close doors on refrigerated space doorways.
G3.1.2 Replace open refrigerated cases with reach-in refrigerated cases.
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G3.1.3 Replace old refrigerated cases with new high-efficiency models (improved glazing, insulation,
motor efficiency, and reduced antisweat requirements).
G3.1.4 Replace worn door gaskets.
G3.1.5 Replace broken or missing automatic door closers.
G3.1.6 Check defrost schedules and avoid excessive defrost.
G3.1.7 Repair/install refrigeration piping insulation on suction lines.
G3.1.8 Install humidity-responsive antisweat heating (ASH) controls on refrigerated case doors.
G3.1.9 Install refrigerated case, walk-in, or storage space lighting controls (scheduled and/or occupancy
sensors).
G3.1.10 Install night covers to reduce infiltration in open cases.
G3.1.11 Install low/no ASH refrigerated case doors.
G3.1.12 Replace lights with LED strip lights with motion sensors in refrigerated cases and spaces.
G3.1.13 Increase insulation on walk-in boxes and storage spaces that have visible moisture or ice on
walls, corners, etc. Ensure that insulation and vapor barrier are maintained or enhanced to ensure
thermal performance and avoid water vapor intrusion.
G3.2 Improve System Operating Efficiency
G3.2.1 Clean condenser coils.
G3.2.2 Check the refrigerant charge and add when needed.
G3.2.3 Reclaim heat from hot gas line for domestic water heating or space heating.
G3.2.4 Install floating-head pressure controls, adjustable-head pressure control valve, and balanced port
expansion valves for DX systems.
G3.2.5 Install floating suction pressure controls on DX systems.
G3.2.6 Install evaporator fan motor VSDs and controllers in walk-ins and refrigerated storage spaces.
G3.2.7 Replace single-phase, less than 1-hp evaporator fan motors with electrically commutated motors.
G3.2.8 Replace three-phase evaporator and condenser motors with premium efficiency motors.
G3.2.9 Replace single compressor systems with multiplex systems and control system.
G3.2.10 Install mechanical subcooling.
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G3.2.11 Install mechanical unloaders on appropriate multiplex reciprocating semihermetic compressors.


G3.2.12 Install VFD on ammonia screw compressors.
G3.2.13 Install high specific-efficiency (Btu/W) condensers.
G3.2.14 Install hybrid air-cooled/evaporative-cooled condensers.
G4. WATER SYSTEMS
G4.1 Domestic Hot-Water Systems
G4.1.1 Lower domestic water setpoint temperatures to 120F (49C).
G4.1.2 Install point-of-use gas or electric water heaters.
G4.1.3 Install water-heater blankets on water heaters.
G4.1.4 Where permitted by the manufacturer, and in conjunction with the manufacturers control
system, install automatic flue dampers on fuel-fired water heaters.
G4.1.5 Insulate hot-water pipes.
G4.1.6 Reclaim heat from waste water, refrigeration systems, cogeneration, or chillers.
G4.1.7 Install solar heating where applicable.
G4.1.8 Replace dishwashers by installing low-temperature systems that sanitize primarily through
chemical agents rather than high water temperatures.
G4.1.9 Retrofit dishwashers by installing electric-eye or sensor systems in conveyor-type machines so
that the presence of dishes moving along the conveyor activates the water flow.
G4.1.10 Reduce operating hours for water-heating systems.
G4.1.11 Install gray water heat recovery from showers, dishwashers, and washing machines.
G4.1.12 Install low-flow dishwashing prewash spray nozzles.
G4.1.13 Replace outdated laundry equipment with newer models.
G4.2 Water Conservation
G4.2.1 Replace faucets with units that have infrared sensors or automatic shutoff.
G4.2.2 Install water flow restrictors on shower heads and faucets.
G4.2.3 Install covers on swimming pools and tanks.
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G4.2.4 Install devices to save hot water by pumping water in the distribution lines back to the water
heater so that hot water is not wasted. Install industrial waste/sewage metering.
G4.2.5 Install water metering.
G4.2.6 Install landscape irrigation timers to schedule sprinkler use to off-peak, night, or early morning
hours when water rates are cheaper and water used is less likely to evaporate.
G4.2.7 Use low-flow sprinkler heads for landscape irrigation instead of turf sprinklers in areas with
plants, trees, and shrubs.
G4.2.8 Use sprinkler controls for landscape irrigation that employ soil tensiometers or electric moisture
sensors to help determine when soil is dry and to gauge the amount of water needed.
G4.2.9 Use trickle or subsurface drip systems for landscape irrigation that provide water directly to turf
roots, preventing water loss by evaporation and runoff.
G4.2.10 Install low-flow toilets and waterless urinals
G4.2.11 Use water reclamation techniques.
G5. ENERGY GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION
G5.1 Boiler System
G5.1.1 Install air-atomizing and low NOx burners for oil-fired boiler
G5.1.2 Investigate economics of adding insulation on presently insulated or uninsulated lines. If pipe or
duct insulation is missing, replace it with new material. Ensure that the pipe insulation and vapor barrier
is maintained or enhanced to ensure thermal performance and avoid water vapor intrusion.
G5.1.3 Review mechanical standby turbines presently left in the idling mode.
G5.1.4 Review operation of steam systems used only for occasional services, such as winter-only
tracing lines.
G5.1.5 Review pressure-level requirements of steam-driven mechanical equipment to consider using
lower exhaust pressure levels.
G5.1.6 Survey condensate presently being discharged to waste drains for feasibility of reclaim or heat
recovery.
G5.1.7 Reduce boiler operating pressure to minimize heat losses through leakage.
G5.2 Chiller System
G5.2.1 Chiller retrofits with equipment that has high efficiency at full and part load.

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G5.2.2 Cooling tower retrofits including high-efficiency fill, VSD fans, fiberglass fans, hyperbolic stack
extensions, fan controls, VSD pump drives, and improved distribution nozzles.
G5.2.3 Install economizer cooling systems (HX between cooling tower loop and chilled-water loop
before the chiller).
G5.2.4 Install evaporative cooled, evaporative precooled, or water-cooled condensers in place of aircooled condensers.
G5.2.5 Isolate offline chillers and cooling towers.
G5.2.6 Reduce overpumping on chilled-water systems.
G5.2.7 Replace single compressor with multiple different-size staged compressors.
G5.2.8 Compressor motors.
G5.2.9 Use of absorption chiller when there is cogeneration system, waste heat, or solar thermal
available.
G5.2.10 Install double-bundle chillers for heat recovery.
G5.2.11 Free cooling cycle by piping chilled water to condenser during cold weather.
G5.2.12 Prevent chilled water or condenser water flowing through the offline chiller. Chillers can be
isolated by turning off pumps and closing valves.
G5.2.13 For equipment cooling, control makeup water and reduce blowdown by adding temperature
control valves to cooling water discharge lines in equipment such as air compressors and refrigeration
systems.
G5.2.14 For evaporative cooling systems, install drift eliminators or repair existing equipment.
G5.2.15 For evaporative cooling systems, install softeners for makeup water, side-stream filtration
(including nanofiltration, a form of low-pressure reverse osmosis), and side stream injection of ozone.
G5.2.16 For evaporative cooling systems, install submeters for makeup water and bleed-off water for
equipment such as cooling towers that use large volumes of water.
G5.2.17 Evaporative cooling systems control cooling tower bleed off based on conductivity by allowing
bleed off within a high and narrow conductivity range. This will achieve high cycles of concentration in
the cooling system and reduce water use in cooling towers.
G5.2.18 Clean evaporator and condenser surfaces of fouling.
G5.2.19 Optimize plant controls to raise evaporator temperature as high as possible while meeting
system loads. Also optimize condenser water temperature control to achieve best combination of chiller
and tower efficiency.

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G5.2.20 Optimize multiple chiller sequencing.


G5.2.21 Control crankcase heaters off when theyre not needed.
G5.2.22 Raise evaporator or lower condenser water temperature.
G5.2.23 Optimize multiple chiller sequencing.
G5.2.24 Use two-speed or variable-speed fans instead of water bypass to modulate the cooling tower
capacity.
G5.2.25 Balance water flow in the chilled-water system.
G5.2.26 Use VFDs for the primary chilled-water pumps above 5 hp (3.7 kW). Consult chiller and tower
manufacturers specifications to set appropriate minimum flow limits.
G5.2.27 Apply cooling load-based optimization strategies.
G5.2.28 Install water-source heat pumps (WSHPs) to augment the capacity of the hot-water boiler and
to reduce the cooling load on the existing chiller systems when heat is required.
G5.2.29 Trim impellers on all condenser water and chilled-water pumps that are oversized.
G5.2.30 Replace all pump and fan motors with premium efficiency motors.
G5.3 Thermal Storage and Heat Pumps
G5.3.1 Install cool storage to reduce peak demand and lower electric bills.
G5.3.2 Install hot-water storage to shave peaks of hot-water usage or to store reclaimed energy from
combined heat and power systems or waste heat from chillers for later use.
G5.3.3 Install add-on heat pumps.
G5.3.4 Install secondary pumping systems.
G5.3.5 Install VFDs on secondary pumps and replace most three-way valves with two-way valves.
G5.3.6 With cool storage and VFDs on fans and pumps, consider use of low-temperature chilled water
to reduce fan and pump energy.
G5.3.7 Replace electrically powered air conditioning and heating units with heat pumps. Consider
geothermal or ground-source heat pumps.
G5.3.8 Replace electric water heaters with electric heat-pump water heaters.
G5.4 Electric and Heat Cogeneration
G5.4.1 The application of cogeneration should be considered where use of both electrical and thermal
energy can be achieved on a cost-effective basis.
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G5.4.2 Subject to AHJ approval, where combined heat and power plants are installed as energy
efficiency improvements, then the Energy Audit and Analysis of overall building energy use
performance may follow the FEMP guidelines, Reporting Guidance for Federal Agency Annual Report
on Energy Management (Per 42 U.S.C. 8258) Attachment 3. Energy efficiency projects may be allowed
to receive a credit in the amount of the annual source energy savings from combined heat and power,
CHP, which would be used to offset the building site energy used in calculating and comparing against
the EUI targets.
G6. NONRESIDENTIAL LIGHTING
In implementing any of these EEMs, care should be taken to not compromise the photometric
distribution or any required light levels.
G6.1 General. Check the current IES recommended light levels for the tasks in the facility. They may
be lower than when the original lighting system was designed. Use these current recommended light
levels to help shape all future lighting decisions, including those enumerated here.
G6.2 Daylighting
G6.2.1 In any spaces with fenestration, evaluate opportunities for daylight harvesting by determining the
spatial daylight autonomy (sDA) in accordance with IES LM-83. In spaces where sDA300,50% is greater
than 55%, consider installing daylight switching or daylight dimming controls (and appropriate ballasts
if the lighting system is fluorescent or HID) to reduce use of electric lighting.
G6.2.2 In any spaces with fenestration, evaluate the need for shading by determining the annual sunlight
exposure (ASE) in accordance with IES LM-83. In spaces where ASD1000,250 is greater than 10%,
interior and/or exterior shading should be installed to reduce solar heat gain and cut down on heat loss
and control the amount of light entering the space from the exterior.
G6.2.3 Install a skylight, tubular daylighting device, or sunlight delivery system to reduce the use of
electric lighting and provide natural daylight to the internal spaces of the building.
G6.3 Luminaire Upgrades
G6.3.1 Upgrade incandescent lamps in existing luminaires with more effective sources, such as halogen,
integrally ballasted compact fluorescent, solid state (LED), or metal halide retrofit lamps. Alternatively,
replace incandescent luminaires with luminaires using these sources.
G6.3.2 Upgrade T12 fluorescent luminaires with more effective sources, such as high-performance T8
or T5 systems, by replacing lamps and ballasts, utilizing luminaire upgrade kits, or installing new
luminaires.
G6.3.3 If the lighting system is already a high-performance fluorescent system, consider replacing the
lamps with reduced wattage lamps (where appropriate).
G6.3.4 For fluorescent lighting, install high-performance electronic ballasts that are multilevel or
continuously dimmable with the appropriate controls.

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G6.3.5 Replace mercury vapor or probe-start metal halide HID luminaires with pulse-start metal halide
or high-performance T8 or T5 fluorescent luminaires.
G6.3.6 Upgrade task and display lighting, including lighting in refrigeration and freezer cases, to more
effective sources such as LED.
G6.4 Signage
G6.4.1 Evaluate upgrading standard fluorescent or neon signage with more effective sources, such as
high-performance T8 or T5 fluorescent systems or solid-state (LED) systems.
G6.4.2 Upgrade all exit signs to solid state (LED). Supplemental lighting may need to be added if the
existing exit sign also provided general lighting.
G6.5 Lighting Controls
G6.5.1 Reduce lighting use through management and controlled systems. In general, consider bringing
the lighting control protocols for the building up to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (Section 9.4.1)
standards; this includes the following.
G6.5.2 Reduce operating hours for lighting systems through the use of controls and building
management systems. This includes the use of shut-off controls, such as time switches.
G6.5.3 Use reduced lighting levels, including off, when spaces are unoccupied, during nighttime hours,
for restocking, cleaning and security. Whenever possible move restocking and cleaning operations to
normal operating hours.
G6.5.4 Use occupancy, vacancy, or motion sensors. Wherever applicable, these sensors should either be
manual-on or turn lighting on to no more than 50% of lighting power.
G6.5.5 Use controls to provide multiple light levels or dimming where appropriate.
G6.5.6 Recircuit or rezone lighting to allow personnel to only turn on zones based on use rather than
operating the entire lighting system.
G6.5.7 Install personal lighting controls so individual occupants can vary the light levels within their
spaces.
G6.5.8 Consider installation of lighting systems that facilitate load shed requests from the electric utility
or energy aggregator.
G6.5.9 Evaluate turning emergency lighting off or to a lower level when a building or portion of a
building is completely unoccupied, without sacrificing safety requirements.
G6.6 Exterior Lighting
G6.6.1 Use automatic controls that can reduce outdoor lighting levels or turn lights off when either
sufficient daylight is available or when lighting is not needed. All facade and landscape lighting should
be off from an hour after closing until an hour before opening. All other lighting should be reduced by at
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least 30% during that same time frame or when a motion sensor detects no activity for 15 minutes.
These controls are not applicable to lighting for covered vehicle entrances or exits from buildings or
parking structures where required for safety, security, or eye adaptation.
G6.6.2 Reduce power levels or turn exterior signage off when appropriate.
G6.6.2.1 Signs that are meant to be on for some part of daylight hours should be reduced in power by at
least 65% during nighttime hours. All other sign lighting should automatically turn off during daylight
hours and reduced in power by at least 30% from an hour after closing until an hour before opening.
These controls are not applicable to sign lighting using metal halide, high-pressure sodium, induction,
cold cathode, or neon lamps that are automatically reduced by at least 30% during nighttime hours.
G6.6.3 When selecting new outdoor luminaires, consider the amount of backlight, uplight, and glare
delivered by each luminaire type to improve functionality and minimize environmental impacts. See
Section 5.3.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/ USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2011, Standard for the Design of HighPerformance Green Buildings.
G6.7 Luminaire Layout
G6.7.1 Consider using lower levels of general illumination overall and then supplement with task
lighting where needed.
G6.7.2 Consider new layouts that may maximize efficiency and reduce the total connected lighting load.
Consider plug- and- play systems to provide flexibility as space use changes.
G6.8 Other
G6.8.1 Implement a plan to recycle lamps, ballasts, and luminaires removed from the building.
G6.8.2 Consider updating lighting systems to provide for demand response capability so that lighting
loads are reduced during periods of peak electricity demand. These types of systems can provide day-today energy savings in addition to demand response capability.
G7. LIGHTING FOR RESIDENTIAL SPACE TYPES
G7.1 General
G7.1.1 Replace incandescent lamps with halogen, integrally ballasted compact fluorescent, or solid state
(LED) retrofit lamps in existing luminaires.
G7.1.2 Color temperature indicates the color appearance of the light produced by the lamp. Halogen
lamps are a more energy-efficient form of incandescent technology and will deliver light similar to
incandescent lamps. Linear fluorescent, compact fluorescent, and solid state (LED) lamps are available
in a variety of color temperatures. Lamps with color temperatures of 2700 K and 3000 K will deliver the
most incandescent-like light. Lamps with a color temperature of 3500 K deliver a neutral, white light.
Lamps with color temperatures of 4000 K and higher will deliver cooler, white light; the higher the color
temperature number, the cooler the light.

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Advisory Public Review Draft

G7.1.3 Select lamps appropriate for use in enclosed luminaires, outdoor applications, and cold
temperature applications, and for use with dimming controls. Check the packaging or manufacturers
website for guidance.
G7.1.4 Use energy efficient technologies such as fluorescent, compact fluorescent, or solid state (LED)
in applications with the longest operating times.
G7.1.5 Use a whole-home lighting control system that provides energy-saving features, such as
dimming, occupancy sensing, and daylight harvesting, and allows occupants to turn all the lights off
from a single location or remotely.
G7.2 Interior
G7.2.1 Replace on/off switches with dimming controls, vacancy sensors, or count-down timers. Use
dimming controls, vacancy sensors, or count-down timers for lights or fans in bathrooms. Use vacancy
sensors in garages, laundry rooms, closets, and utility rooms.
G7.2.2 By replacing lamps and ballasts or installing new luminaires. Ballasts should be FCC rated for
residential use.
G7.2.3 Evaluate replacing incandescent and halogen luminaires with dedicated compact fluorescent or
solid state (LED) luminaires.
G7.2.4 When replacing fluorescent ballasts or installing new fluorescent luminaires, evaluate using
electronic dimming ballasts with the appropriate dimming controls.
G7.2.5 Evaluate adding daylight-sensing controls for general illumination lighting in rooms with
windows or skylights. Use in combination with dimming systems so that the electric light level can be
adjusted based on the amount of daylight available.
G7.2.6 Install vacancy sensors to automatically turn off lighting in closets, storage, work rooms,
garages, and exterior buildings when the space has been vacated for 15 minutes.
G7.2.7 Add task lighting that utilizes energy-efficient technologies, such as fluorescent and solid state
(LED), and reduce or eliminate overhead lighting.
G7.3 Exterior
G7.3.1 Install time switches and/or motion sensors to control outdoor lighting.
G8. ELECTRIC SYSTEMS, MOTORS
G8.1 Install energy-efficient transformers. Use infrared cameras to identify high-heat-loss transformers.
G8.2 Install electrical meters for sub-metering lighting, elevators, plug loads, and HVAC equipment.
G8.3 Reduce demand charges through load shedding, operational changes, and procedural changes.
G8.4 Replace oversized electric motors with right-sized or slightly oversized motors.
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BSR/ASHRAE Standard 211P, Standard for Commercial Building Energy Audits


Advisory Public Review Draft

G8.5 Replace existing three-phase, 1 hp (746 W) and greater electric motors with premium-efficiency
motors (often a better choice than rewinding motors).
G8.6 Replace existing one-phase, 1 hp (746 W) and less motors with electrically commutated motors.
G9. APPLIANCES
G9.1 Install appliances (clothes washers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, freezers, refrigerators, room air
cleaners and purifiers, office equipment, and televisions) that are certified as ENERGY STAR
compliant.
G9.2 Reduce plug loads, using devices to shut off equipment not being used (use occupancy sensors or
timers).
G9.3 Install vending-machine controllers.

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