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Professor Ricardo D.

Stanton-Salazar
Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies
University of California, Santa Barbara
Winter 2016

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M/W 3:30-4:45pm
Girvetz 2129

Email: rstantonsalazar@ucsb.edu
Office: South Hall 1721
Office Hours: (During this time) Please schedule all appointments, in person or by email.
Visitations also by special appointment.
Website: www.stantonsalazar.com
Biography (last page)
Struggles for Equality in Chicana/o Education
COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course provides an examination of two realities: first, the multiple ways in which the
Chicano/Mexicano community and its children have endured a history of discrimination and
oppressionwith a focus on the public educational system, and second, the many valiant
struggles for educational equality by the Chicana/o community in the U.S., using both historical
and contemporary lenses.
This course takes a Social Foundations or sociological approach to the study of Chicanas/os in the
educational system. Such an approach takes as its premise that the social organization of public
schools and of our educational system is closely related to the social organization of society. In this
course, we entertain, even interrogate the thesis that (1) the division of people into social classes under
Capitalism, (2) the process of racialization of people of color, (3) the multiple and pervasive forms
of racism in society, and (4) the subordination of women, have in turned, shaped the experiences of
Chicanos and of other students of color in our public school system. Another way of stating this is,
given what we see in see in society, we see reflected in the school and educational system; thus, we
find (1) the racialization of Mexican-origin students, (2) the racial segregation of their schools and
communities, and (3) the incessant effects of class inequality on schools with a high proportion of
Mexican-origin students. In spite the historical struggle for racially integrated schools, in many parts
of the country, we find a school system for middle and upper-middle class students and a school
system for working-class students of color.
Over the years, Marxist and other progressive scholars of education have theorized, often with
empirical data, that the school system has always reflected the major social conflicts we see in society
(e.g., race relations, class conflict). More specifically, the school system exists as a political terrain of
struggle where different segments of society, as well as the Capitalist [corporate] elite, pressure the
State to serve its particular interests. Thus, for the past 100 years, many white communities,
particularly the middle and upper classes, have pressured the State to organize the public school
system to protect their advantages, their privileges and resourcesprincipally through racial
segregation and unequal funding schemes. Conversely, we repeatedly see the State capitulating to the
organized struggles of African Americans and Chicano communities that have demanded a
democratic, inclusive, and socially just education system.

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Progressive education scholars have repeated shown that racially-segregated schools are
consequential; the social divisions we see in society regularly shape what we see within schools
serving students from working-class and poor neighborhoods and families; thus, we find the (1)
division of the student body by race, ethnicity, and language status through curriculum tracking
and other methods, (2) insufficient AP courses, (3) the exclusion of parents in school
governance, (4) racist curriculum or the lack of culturally-relevant curriculum,
(5) racist
laws that prohibit Ethnic Studies, (6) restrictions placed on quality Bilingual Education, (7)
inadequate counseling service, (8) zero tolerance, and other oppressive administrative policies,
(9) oppressive high-stakes testing, (10) inadequate funding of schools, (11), culturalincompetency of teachers, (12) the lack of recruitment of highly-trained teachers of color, (13)
low-expectations of students, (14) high dropout rates, and (15), few systematic efforts to ensure
the academic achievement of all Chicana/o students and their successful entre into universities.
Indeed, we have seen the doors of Affirmative Action closed due to the fear that the entre of too
many minorities into higher education will inevitably threaten the privileges of the white
middle-class and even the social mobility of the white working class.

Along with the analysis of race, class, gender, the course shall also address the role of
ethnicity and culture, urban vs. rural location, immigration status, generational status, income
level, and geographical differences. There exists much confusion about the proper definition
of the concepts of race and racism, due in part to the absence of a commonly shared
framework that characterizes the distinct dimensions of race, and the multiple and distinct
forms of racism as they have played out in U.S. history and in contemporary times.

Consistent with the overview provided above, special attention will be paid to a long history
whereby Chicano/Mexicano communities have resisted oppression and mobilized politically.
Instances of school reform and any steps toward democratization of those schools serving
predominantly Mexican-origin and Latino students have typically been the result of political
mobilization, social movements, student protests, and the numerous legal battles fought and
won in the courtroom.

Finally, the course will also examine the history of Chicana/o student success in our public
school system. Various factors will be examined, including the restructuring of individual
schools in ways that ensure student success, master teachers, peer support, parent
involvement, social [support] networks, institutional agents, empowerment agents and
access to social capital.

The course will employ lectures, classroom group work, class discussions, guest speakers, film,
and written assignment to meet our pedagogical objectives. This course is relevant to ANY and
ALL students interested in public education and roles of race relations, ethnicity, immigrant
status, minority languages, gender/Patriarchy, and social class under Capitalism in the United
States.

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REQUIRED TEXTS
Gandara, Patricia C., and Frances Contreras (2009). The Latino Education Crisis: The
Consequences of Failed Social Policies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
San Miguel, Guadalupe (2013). Chicana/o Struggles for Education: Activism in the Community.
College Station: Texas A&M.
Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2001) Manufacturing Hope & Despair: The School and Kin Support
Networks of U.S.-Mexican Youth. Teachers College Press, Columbia University
(Course Packet) (CP)
Also available to students: supporting curriculum and documents on GauchoSpace.
COURSE REQUIREMENTS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ACTIVITIES
1. This course requires an active and participatory approach on the part of each student.
Students, as ascendant intellectuals, are expected to do all the class readings, except when the
professor provides other guidelines. Students are expected to come to class prepared to
discuss the assigned material, both in small groups and with the entire class.
GROUP WORK IN CLASS: Study guidelines for each weeks readings will be offered
throughout the quarter. During the course of a class session, students will be quickly
organized into small groups: students will pose questions pertaining to the texts, present a
tentative interpretation of an author's thesis, offer personal commentary, volunteer "critical
incidents" in their own lives that pertain to the topic, and connect readings to other previous
texts covered in class. At the end of group work, students will engage professor and peers
in class discussion.
2. It is highly recommended that students meet outside of class to study and discuss the issues
covered in the readings and lectures. Research has shown that the more students study
together, and talk to each other about course material, the more they learn and develop, both
socially, cognitively, and intellectually.
3. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT (the role of peers) (balancing studying in isolation and
with peers): Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian scholar, educator and psychologist, first stated
that we learn through our interactions and communications with others. Vygotsky (1962)
examined how our social environments influence the learning process. He suggested that
learning takes place through the interactions students have with their peers, teachers,
and other experts. Consequently, teachers can create a learning environment that maximizes
the learner's ability to interact with each other through discussion, collaboration, and
feedback.

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Brazilian philosopher of education, Paulo Freire talked about the fallacy of looking at the
education system like a bank, a large repository where students come to withdraw the
knowledge they need for life. Knowledge is not a set commodity that is passed from the
teachers to the students. Students must construct knowledge from knowledge they already
possess. Teachers must learn how the students understand the world so that the teacher
understands how the student can learn.
...teaching cannot be a process of transference of knowledge from the one teaching to the
learner. This is the mechanical transference from which results machinelike memorization,
which I have already criticized. Critical study correlates with teaching that is equally
critical, which necessarily demands a critical way of comprehending and of realizing the
reading of the word and that of the world, the reading of text and of context. Learning is a
process where knowledge is presented to us, then shaped through understanding, discussion
and reflection.
(RSS: reading of the world translates into a critical analysis of the society through the
analytic tools and research from the social sciences, combined by our reflections of our own
experiences in society)
4. FIRST ESSAY ASSIGNMENT: Students are to write a short (4 to 5 page) essay on the
following topic:
4.1 Describe your first experiences with, or exposure to, discrimination and racism and how
it affected you (Note: racism comes in many forms, both explicit and tacit). You can
either write about your own personal experience with racism, as a person of color, or as
someone who witnessed how race and racism has impacted the school system, whatever
your race/ethnicity may be.
4.2 OPTIONAL: You have the option of integrating an autobiographical component. Situate
your schooling experience in the context of your own family history, cultural background
(ethnicity), and the nature of the schools you attendedand to include your entre into
the university.
The reading assignments for the second week (January 11 & 13) should help with this
assignment; however, this assignment does not require citing course material. Grading of
essays will not be on the basis of content, nor on the students personal perspective on issues
of race. Rather, grading will be based on detail, depth and critical introspection. Essay
assignment due January 20.
5. MIDTERM: Course requirements include a midterm exam (end of 6th week). Midterms will
entail a take-home essay that will require that students synthesize the required reading
material, and integrate analysis and personal commentary.
6. TERM PAPER: For the final, students are to write a term paper (12 to 15 pages). Students
must submit a one-page prospectus by the end of the seventh week of the quarter
(preliminary bibliography optional). Consultation with professor regarding topic of paper is
encouraged, but not required. Students are also encouraged to work with a classmate by
selecting a similar topic (but not the exact same topic). Further instructions and
bibliographic assistance will be provided later on in the quarter.

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7. LETTERS TO AUTHORS: Throughout the course, students will write brief letters to three of
authors whose work is assigned in the syllabus (a half page will be sufficient). For each
assignment, I will select five letters and send them directly to the author, via U.S. mail.
8. GRADE: The following weights will be used to evaluate student performance:
First Essay:

5%

Midterm Take-home essay:

45%

Final Term Paper:

45%

Class Participation

5%

(There may be instances when this 5% weight will


move your final grade to the next level, e.g., B+ to a A-)

Use of Electronic Devices in the Classroom


With the exception of medically necessary assistive devices or approved emergency
communications, all personal electronic communications devices in the possession of
students will be turned off during class (laptop, iPad, cell phone, etc.); this policy, of course,
includes prohibition of any form of texting, including the receiving of text messages. Failure
to comply with this policy will result in disciplinary action. Such action may, at the
discretion of the instructor of record, include a referral to the UCSB Office of Judicial
Affairs.
Academic Conduct
It is expected that students attending the University of California understand and subscribe to
the ideal of academic integrity, and are willing to bear individual responsibility for their
work. Any work (written or otherwise) submitted to fulfill an academic requirement must
represent a students original work. Any act of academic dishonesty, such as cheating or
plagiarism, will subject a person to University disciplinary action. Representing the words,
ideas, or concepts of another person or author without appropriate attribution is plagiarism.
Copying text from the internet and reworking it is also plagiarism. Whenever another
persons written work is utilized, whether it be a single phrase or longer, quotation marks
must be used and sources cited. Paraphrasing anothers work, i.e., borrowing the ideas or
concepts and putting them into ones own words, must also be acknowledged (with
citation). Although a persons state of mind and intention will be considered in determining
the University response to an act of academic dishonesty, this in no way lessens the
responsibility of the student. For more information, see
http://www.sa.ucsb.edu/regulations/students/student-conduct

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TOPICS & AREAS OF STUDY


I. The Plight of Chicana/o and Latina/o Students in Society and in our Public School
System (Week 1: Monday, January 4, & Wednesday, January 6)
II. On Being Chicana, Chicano (Latina/Latino) in the United States:
(Week 2: Monday, January 11, & Wednesday, January 13)
III. On Being an Undocumented Latina/o Student in the United States
(Week 3: Monday, January 18, MLK Holiday, Wednesday, January 20)
IV. (A) Frameworks Used to Account for the Academic Difficulties and Disproportionate
School Failure of Chicana/os and other Racial Minority Students
(Week 4: Monday, January 25, & Wednesday, January 27)
V. (B) Theoretical Frameworks on Race, Race Relations, and Forms of Racism
(Week 5: Monday, February 1, & Wednesday, February 3)
VI. (A) History of Chicana/o Struggles for Education
(Week 6: Monday, February 8, & Wednesday, February 10)
VII. American Schools and the Chicana/o - Latina/o Experience
(Week 7: Monday, February 15, Holiday, & Wednesday, February 17)
VIII. Differential Access to Institutional Agents and Social Capital: How Social Networks
Structure Inequality and Class/Race Privileges.
(Week 8: Monday, February 22, & Wednesday, February 24)
Teachers as Empowerment Agents
XI. Higher Education, Chicana/o Students & Race & The Attack on Affirmative Action
(Week 9: Monday, February 29 & Wednesday, March 2)
X. Toward the Future for Chicana/o Latina/o Education
(Week 10: Monday, March 7 & Wednesday, March 9Last class session)

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TOPICS, COURSE READINGS, & ASSIGNMENTS


First Class Session: (January 4, 2016) Introduction of Course, course topics and requirements
and initial engagement between students and professor.
I. The Plight of Chicana/o and Latina/o Students in Society and in our Public School
System (Week 1: Monday, January 4, & Wednesday, January 6)
Gndara, Patricia C., and Frances Contreras (2009). The Latino Education Crisis: The
Consequences of Failed Social Policies (Introduction & Chapter 1: Crisis and the Context,
pp. 1-53) http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/about-us/staff/patricia-gandara-ph.d
Valencia, Richard R. (2015) Students of Color and the Achievement Gap. Routledge
1: The Achievement Gap, pp. 3-33)
http://www.edb.utexas.edu/education/departments/edp/about/faculty/valencia/

(Chapter

II. On Being Chicana, Chicano (Latina/Latino) in the United States: Social class,
Developmental Needs, Neighborhood and Social Ecology (Week 2: Monday, January 11, &
Wednesday, January 13)
As of 2011, 38% of California was Latino
83% of Latinos in the California are Mexican-origin
51% of all K-12 students in CA are Latino
31% of Latino youth (17 & under) [officially] live in poverty
http://www.pewhispanic.org/states/state/ca/
Gndara, Patricia C., and Frances Contreras (2009). (Chapter 2: On Being Latino or Latina in
America, pp. 54-85)
Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D. (2001). Manufacturing Hope & Despair. (Chapter 3:
Neighborhood and Ecological Dangers and the Socialization of Urban Low-income Latino
youth, pp. 35-55).
Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D. (2001). Chapter 4: Protective Familial Webs, Strategies of Defense,
and the Institutional Resources in the Neighborhood, (pp. 56-78). In Manufacturing Hope &
Despair.
First Essay due January 20
III. On Being an Undocumented Latina/o Student in the United States
(Week 3: Monday, January 18, MLK Holiday, Wednesday, January 20)
Prez, William (2012). Americans by Heart: Undocumented Latino Students and the Promise
of Higher Education. Teachers College Press. (Chapter 1: Exceptional Students, Marginal
Lives, Chapter 2: Growing Up American and Undocumented, pp. 1-41)
http://cgu.edu/pages/4705.asp

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IV. (A) Frameworks Used to Account for the Academic Difficulties and Disproportionate
School Failure of Chicana/os and other Racial Minority Students
(Week 4: Monday, January 25, & Wednesday, January 27)
Valencia, Richard R. (2015) Chapter 2: Competing Models to Explain the Achievement Gap,
pp. 34-78). In Students of Color and the Achievement Gap.
Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D. (1997). "A Social Capital Framework for Understanding the
Socialization of Racial Minority Children and Youths." Harvard Educational Review, 67,1,
pp. 1-40.
Recommended Reading: Bourdieu, Cultural Capital, Deficit Thinking, & Cultural Wealth
Lamont, Michele and Annette Lareau (1988). Cultural Capital: Allusions, Gaps and Glissandos in
Recent Theoretical Developments. Sociological Theory, 6 (Fall), pp. 153-168.
http://www.vanneman.umd.edu/socy789b/LamontL88.pdf
Yosso, Tara J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of
Community Wealth. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 8, No. 1, pp. 69-91.
V. (B) Theoretical Frameworks on Race, Race Relations, and Forms of Racism
(Week 5: Monday, February 1, & Wednesday, February 3)
Cornell, Stephen and Douglas Hartman (1998). Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a
Changing World. Pine Forge Press. (Chapter 1: The Puzzle of Ethnicity and Race, &
Chapter 2: Mapping the Terrain: Definitions, pp. 1-37).
http://udallcenter.arizona.edu/personnel/scornell.php
Omi, Michael & Howard Winant (1994). Racial Formation in the United States. Routledge.
(Chapter 4: Racial Formation, pp. 53-76)
Wilson, William J. (This work was published in 1976). Power, Racism, & Privilege. The
Macmillan Co. (Chap. 4, "Power, Racism, and the Theoretical Basis of Racial Conflict," pp.
47-68). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Julius_Wilson
Darder, Antonia, with Rodolfo Torres (2011). A Dissident Voice, NY: Peter Lang. (Chapter 5:
Shatttering the Race Lens: Toward a Critical Theory of Racism, pp. 94-108). [Why
might the exclusive focus on race and racism be problematic when looking at the
historical and contemporary oppression of the Mexican-origin community?]
http://www.darder.org
http://socialecology.uci.edu/faculty/rodolfo

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VI. (A) History of Chicana/o Struggles for Education


(Week 6: Monday, February 8, & Wednesday, February 10)
San Miguel, Guadalupe. (2013) Chicana/o Struggles for Education: Activism in the Community.
College Station: Texas A&M. (reading: approximately 4 hours & 45 minutes)
http://www.uh.edu/class/history/faculty-and-staff/sanmiguel_g/
Los Angeles Times articles:
1) Mehta, Seema & Kurtis Lee (November 12, 2015). Still loud, but issues prevail.
Los Angeles Times. (Remarks made by Donald Trump regarding deportation of
undocumented immigrants.)
2) Linthicum, Kate (November 13, 2015). The dark, complex history of Trumps model for
his mass deportation plan. Los Angeles Times.
Optional Reading:
Donato, Ruben, Martha Menchaca, and Richard R. Valencia. "Segregation, Desegregation, and
the Integration of Chicano Students: Problems and Prospects." In Valencia, Richard R.
Chicano School Failure and Success: Past, Present, and Future. RoutledgeFarmer.
(pp. 70-113)
PBS Documentary: Chicano! Taking Back The Schools
Assignment: Letter to Professor San Miguel (The University of Houston), due February 10
Take-home Midterm: Provided to students on February 10
VII. American Schools and the Chicana/o - Latina/o Experience
(Week 7: Monday, February 15, Holiday, & Wednesday, February 17)
Gndara, Patricia C., and Frances Contreras (2009).
(Chapter 3: American Schools and the Latino Experience, pp. 86-120)
(Chapter 6: Beating the Odds and Going to College, pp. 196-249)
Assignment: Letters to Professor Patricia Gndara (UCLA) & Professor Frances Contreras
(University of Washington, Seattle), due February 17
VIII. Differential Access to Institutional Agents and Social Capital: How Social Networks
Structure Inequality and Class/Race Privileges. How Social Networks Structure School
Success, Resiliency and Opportunity.
(Week 8: Monday, February 22, & Wednesday, February 24)
Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2001) Manufacturing Hope & Despair: The School and Kin Support
Networks of U.S.-Mexican Youth.

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Teachers as Empowerment Agents


Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2011) A Social Capital Framework for the Study of Institutional Agents
and of the Empowerment of Low-status Youth. Youth & Society 43 (3), 1066-1109.
Rojas, Leticia (2014). Understandardizing Teaching: The Classroom Teacher as an
Institutional Agent for Latina/o Youths College Access. Dissertation, presented to the
Department of Educational Leadership, California State University, Long Beach.
https://www.brandman.edu/faculty/leticia-rojas-edd
How do Teachers Develop Their Roles and/or Identities as Empowerment Agents? What
do Their Personal Journeys Look Like? How do Institutional Agents and/or Empowerment
Agents Operationalize Their Roles in Their Practices? (pp. 131-169)
XI. Higher Education, Chicana/o Students & Race & The Attack on Affirmative Action
(Debating CRT, Critical Race Theory) (Week 9: Monday, February 29 & Wednesday,
March 2)
Yosso, Tara J., et. al., (2009). Critical Race Theory, Racial Microagressions and Campus Racial
Climate for Latina/o Undergraduates. Harvard Educational Review, 79, 4, pp. 659-786)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tara_J._Yosso
Los Angeles Times articles (and other publications)
1) Friday, November 6: Berkeley High student admits to posting racist message that
prompted protest, by Niraj Choshi (The Washington Post)
2) Thursday, November 12: The new face of bias on campus: microaggression, by Teresa
Watanabe & Jason Song
3) Saturday, November 14: Small slights, lasting hurt: Research backs students view that
microaggressions matter, by Sandy Banks.
4) Wednesday, November 18: College students find new power in protests, by Thomas
Curwen, Jason Song, & Larry Gorden (What's different about the latest wave of college
activism?)
Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic (2012). Critical Race Theory: An Introduction (Chapter 1:
pp. 1-17, Chapter 6: Critiques and Responses to Criticism, pp. 99-111)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Delgado
(Revisit) Darder, Antonia, with Rodolfo Torres (2011). A Dissident Voice, NY: Peter Lang.
(Chapter 5: Shatttering the Race Lens: Toward a Critical Theory of Racism, pp. 94-108).
(Includes a critique of CRT and of other theoretical frameworks that position race and racism
at the center of analysis, with other forms of oppression ancillary, yet having a major
influence on how race manifests itself at different points in history.)

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Contreras, Frances (2011). Achieving Equity for Latino Students: Expanding the Pathway to
Through Public Policy. Teachers College Press. (Chapter 6: Anti-Affirmative Action
Policies and Latino Student Access to Public Higher Education, pp. 121-142).
http://www-tep.ucsd.edu/people/faculty/contreras.html
Assignment: Letter to Professor Yosso (UC Santa Barbara), due March 2
X. Toward the Future for Chicana/o Latina/o Education
(Week 10: Monday, March 7 & Wednesday, March 9Last class session)
Gndara, Patricia C., and Frances Contreras (2009).
(Chapter 7: The Costs and Effectiveness of Intervention, pp. 250-303 &
Chapter 8: Rescatando SueosRescuing Dreams, pp. 304-333.)
Darder, Antonia, with Rodolfo Torres (2011). A Dissident Voice, NY: Peter Lang.
(Introduction: The Making of a Dissident Voice, pp. 1-13 &
Chapter 10: Bicultural Identity and the Development of Voice: Twin Issues in the Struggle
for Cultural and Linguistic Democracy, pp. 196-212)
Assignments: (1) Letter to Professor Darder (Loyola Marymount University),
cc: Professor Rodolfo Torres (UC Irvine) Pronunciation (Darder)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w116qDRqpSA

Finals Week: Saturday, March 12 to Friday, March 18


Wednesday, March 9: End of Quarter Reception with Professor Stanton-Salazar
& Special Guest 7:00pm (Campus location to announced)
Films
PBS Documentary: Chicano - Taking Back The Schools (53:54 Minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NL4rQHKza9Y
Documentary Film: SAL CASTRO & the 1968 East LA Walkouts (YouTube)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3TKnj0fXZs
Documentary Film: Sal Castro, teacher who led '68 Chicano student walkouts, dies at 79
(YouTube) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PfvLFvS4FXI
Salvador B. Castro (October 25, 1933 April 15, 2013) was a Mexican-American educator and
activist. He was most well known for his role in the 1968 East Los Angeles high school
walkouts, a series of protests against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District
(LAUSD) schools. Although he retired, he continued to lecture about his experiences and the
importance of education, especially for Mexican Americans.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sal_Castro

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BIO
Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar is an educator, scholar, social theorist, and student advocate with 34
years of experience in the field of urban education. After two years at San Diego City College, he
transferred to the U.C. San Diego in the fall of 1976. He was a staff writer on the campus
newspaper, Voz Fronteriza. Stanton-Salazar received his B.A. in Sociology in 1979. After year in
Mxico, he began his career in 1980 as a bilingual elementary school teacher in National City,
California (south of San Diego). He received his doctorate from Stanford University in 1990. He
returned to San Diego and served as Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of
California, San Diego from 1990 to 2000. In 2000 he began teaching in the School of Education at
the University of Southern California, and served there as Associate Professor of Education until
2011. For an elaborated biography, see: http://www.stanton-salazar.com/index.php/rss-about
If you tremble with indignation at every injustice then you are a comrade of mine.
Ernesto Che Guevara https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Che_Guevara
One cannot expect positive results from an educational or political action program which fails
to respect the particular view of the world held by the people. Such a program constitutes
cultural invasion, good intentions notwithstanding.
Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paulo_Freire
We cannot seek achievement for ourselves and forget about progress and prosperity for our
community... Our ambitions must be broad enough to include the aspirations and needs of
others, for their sakes and for our own.
Cesar Chavez http://www.biography.com/people/cesar-chavez-9245781
The struggle is inner: Chicano, indio, American Indian, mojado, mexicano, immigrant Latino,
Anglo in power, working class Anglo, Black, Asian--our psyches resemble the bordertowns and
are populated by the same people. The struggle has always been inner, and is played out in
outer terrains. Awareness of our situation must come before inner changes, which in turn come
before changes in society. Nothing happens in the "real" world unless it first happens in the
images in our heads. .
Gloria E. Anzalda https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloria_E._Anzalda
Transformation of schools can only take place when teachers, working in solidarity, take
ownership and struggle to radically change the political and economic structures of power that
defile our revolutionary dreams."
Antonia Darder http://www.darder.org

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