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Annotated Bibliography

Source:
"Conquistadors in the New World - Pizarro: Conquest of the Incas." Passports Educational
Group Travel. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
Annotation:
This source focuses on Hernando Pizarros perspective when taking over Peru. These
events were occurring after the capture of Atahualpa, the chief of Peru at the time. Before the
capture of the chief, it speaks about the months of diplomacy and planning that went into this
conquest. Francisco Pizarro, with 168 Spanish conquistadores attacked a group of unarmed Incan
warriors that totaled over 3000. These events were collectively known as the Battle of
Cajamarca, though it was more of a massacre than a battle. After the day, over 7000 Incans were
either killed or taken as prisoners, Atahualpa being one of the prisoners. The entire Inca empire
was taken over by the Spanish in a matter of months and the empire was destroyed. This primary
source gives the perspective of Hernando Pizarro and is intended for viewers interested in the
conquistadors point of view to understand what was happening. The conquering of Peru is one of
the main reasons to Francisco Pizarros influence over South America.
Source:
"Francisco Pizarro." CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA:. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
Annotation:
The source mainly talks about Pizarros background and life of his conquests. Born in
Trujillo of Spain, he was an illegitimate son of Gonzalo and Francisca Pizarro. He did not care
much about his education and grew up without the knowledge of reading or writing. Pizarro was
influenced by his father to sail with Alonzo de Ojeda to Urabi as his first expedition. Pizarro later

accompanied Nunez de Balboa on his journey to discover the Pacific Ocean. After the death of
Balboa, Pizarro followed with the successors until in 1515, he was sent to trade with the natives
along the Pacific coast. Pizarro was influenced by Hernan Cortes achievements and set on an
expedition to the lands south of Panama. His expedition did not go well, as men were lost and
only a small amounts of gold were found. This source mainly talked about Pizarros background
and his conquests, intended for audiences interested in the details of his life instead of the
conquest of Peru, unlike the source of Conquistadors in the New World.
Source:
Prescott, William Hickling, and John Foster Kirk. History of the Conquest of Peru. Philadelphia:
J.B. Lippincott, 1874. Print.
Annotation:
This primary source speaks in depth about Pizarros life, his conquest of Peru, and the
history of Peru. The conquest of Peru lied in Pizarros favor once the Inca chief was captured.
Atahualpa was accused with alerting his subjects when the ransom money was proposed. The
long distances alerted the Spaniards, however Atahualpa denied this and assures the Spaniards
that his subjects would not attack without permission. The ransom money was large. The
Spaniards eyed it and grew impatient with the slow arrivals of the gold and silver. However, on
some days, 30,000 or 40,000 pesos de oro were brought in for the Spaniards. Atahualpa, to keep
the trust of the Spaniards, requested them to send some of their people to Cuzco, where the
people would have no hostile movements intended. Pizarro agreed, as it was a fair offer to him.
This primary source is mainly for people who is interested in the history of the conquest and
Peru, and the conversations that Pizarro and the Incans had. In contrast to Conquistadors in the

New World, this source gave in-depth information instead of only what happened during the
capture of Atahualpa.
Source:
Pratt-Chadwick, Mara L. Francisco Pizarro: The Conquest of Peru. Boston: Educational, 1890.
Print.
Annotation:
This primary book source explains the details before and during the conquest of Peru.
Francisco Pizarro, before the expedition with Nunez de Balboa, was taken with Alonzo de Ojeda.
They set forth for the Isthmus, however, natives swarmed the ship with poisonous arrows and
wounded many Spaniards, 70 whom were dead. Ojeda escaped half dead into the forest, but was
found and carried back to the ship. After the expedition, Pizarro joins forces with Nunez de
Balboa and set out to find out about the Pacific Ocean. In contrast to the other sources, such as
History of the Conquest of Peru, this book talked mainly before and during the conquest of
Peru and focused on the conquests.
Source:
Pizarro, Francisco. "Francisco Pizarro's Journal." YIS History 10. N.p., 16 Sept. 2009. Web. 17
Dec. 2015.
Annotation:
Francisco Pizarro wrote this journal just before and during the conquest of Peru. It listed
the dates and spoke about his concerns and what happened to him specifically. On July 15, 1530,
Pizarro was waiting for his ships to load that contained 200 soldiers and 100 horses. Along with
Pizarro were four men that were going to help him take control of the new lands. On October 25,
1530, Pizarro finally sees the shoreline in the distance and at great timing as well, as they were

running out of supplies. Pizarro gave permission for the use of weapons if needed, however, the
natives were surprisingly nice and non-hostile. They even provided food and drinks for the crew
as they were running out of supplies. This primary journal source is intended for future
generations since Pizarros time to recognize what was happening during and before the conquest
of Peru.
Source:
"The Ages of Exploration." Francisco Pizarro. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2015.
Annotations:
This secondary source speaks about Pizarro's early life. This relates to my paper for it
shows the reader the life Pizarro had and what made him the man he is. It also tells how he gets
his position as an explorer for spain. Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Spain in 1475. He was born
into a poor family, however he was distant cousins with Hernan Cortes. He had little to no
education, as he tended pigs and was illiterate. Pizarro joined the Spanish army, and ended up in
the military detachment for the Governor of Hispaniola. He crossed the Atlantic ocean and
arrived into the new world with them.
Sources:
"Francisco Pizarro." Facts & Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2015.

Annotations:
This source had information on the first expeditions of Pizarro's journey. Pizarro left his
family to join the excitement of discovering lands in the new world. He participated in the Urava
expedition and commanded the settlement of San Sebastian. He later discovered the Pacific
Ocean when he was with Vasco Balboa. He was rewarded with permission force the natives into
slavery. He finally teamed with Diego Almagro to explore south and conquer new lands. This

partnership was to share equal amounts in profits and riches, however this was not the case. This
actually led to the downfall of Pizarro.
Source:
"Francisco Pizarro." - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2015.
Annotations:
This secondary source focuses on the journeys of Pizarro, however it also focuses on the
first and second expeditions. This relates to my paper because it shows the accounts of his
journeys. This would give an in-depth look into what Pizarro did. His first expedition had a
small crew and had an unsuccessful journey. This was due to hostile weather, lack of food, and
fights with natives. The second journey was much more fruitful, as they found Tumbes and the
Inca land. Tumbes was a area with a civilization with textiles, silver, gold, and jewels. The Inca
people were very hostile and the conquistadors decided not to trespass.
Source:
"Francisco Pizarro | Spanish Explorer." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia
Britannica, n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2015.
Annotations:
This site states the discovery and conquest of Peru. It shows how Pizarro defeated the
war-like Incans and his defining moment in history. Pizarro and thirteen men continued to
explore into Peru when the Governor tried to force them back. They found the Incan territory and
many artifacts. He got permission from Charles V and went to conquer the Incas. He attacked
them after they threw the bible onto the ground, took their king hostage, and slaughtered them
from city to city. The spaniards journeyed to Cuzco and conquered the entire Inca empire.
Source:

"Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 17
Dec. 2015.
Annotations:
This secondary source talks mainly about how and when Pizarro invaded Peru and killed
Atahualpa. He is killed by strangulation at the hands of the Spanish conquistadors and this
marked the end of the 300 years of the Inca empire. Pizarro planned on the expedition, however
the Spanish governor refused. In 1528, Pizarro sailed back to Spain and was approved by
Emperor Charles V. He sailed down to Peru in 1531 and led his army to the Andes Mountains
and reached Cajamarca, the Inca town. Pizarro invited Atahualpa to a feast, to which he
accepted. A Bible was handed to Atahualpa to accept Christianity, however, he threw it at the
ground in disgust, to which Pizarro ordered attacks on the Inca and captured the chief. This
source varies with others as it gives specific dates and details to which other sources did not.
This is intended for people interested in the dates and also how Atahualpa was executed.