Anda di halaman 1dari 1

Summary of Epidemiologic Measures of Occurrence

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
CC BY-NC-ND
View License Deed
View Legal Code
Prevalence

Proportion of the population


living with a health condition (or
history of a condition) at at
specific point or period in time
Period prevalence
Point prevalence

Proportion of the population


who developed the health
condition over the specified
amount of follow-up time

Rate
IR
Incidence rate
Incidence density
Proportion of the population
who developed the health
condition per unit of time at risk
over the specified amount of
follow-up time

Prevalent cases
Total study population at point
of inquiry (either an average
over a period of time or at a
specific point)

Incident cases

Incident cases

Abbreviation

Synonyms

Prevalence proportion

Interpretation in words
Sub-types
Numerator

Denominator
Denominator includes
diseased subjects?
Formula
(2x2 table abbreviations)

Yes
(a+c)/(a+b+c+d)

Units
Range

Cases per person


0-1

Common scaling factor

Percent

Risk
R
Cumulative incidence
Incidence proportion

Odds
O
Incidence odds
Ratio of cases to non-cases
[For EO - ratio of exposed to
unexposed]
Prevalence odds (PO)
Exposure odds (EO)
Cases (incident or prevalent depends on study design)
[For EO - Exposed]

Total at-risk study population at


baseline
Total person-time at-risk
No - all subject must be free of No - all subject must be free of
disease at baseline
disease at baseline
(a+c)/(a+b+c+d)
Cases per person (must report
time period of follow-up)
0-1
Per 100 (%); 1,000; 10,000; or
100,000 population

Non-cases (controls)
[For EO - Non-exposed]
No for most odds
Yes for EO
Odds:(a+c)/(b+d)
(a+c)/(total person-time at risk) [EO: (a+b)/(c+d)]

Cross-sectional
Cohort (at baseline or for nonoutcome variables)
Common study designs
where this measure is used Ecologic (group-level)
Prevalence ratio
Prevalence difference
Associated measures

Cohort
Experimental
Ecologic (group-level)
Risk ratio
Risk difference

Requires prospective
observation to ascertain
incident cases?

Yes

Cases per person-time


NONE
0 - infinity
0 - infinity
Per 1,000; 10,000; or 100,000
person-years
Not scaled
Case-control
Cross-sectional (PO)
Cohort
Cohort
Experimental
Experimental
Ecologic (group-level)
Ecologic (group-level)
Rate ratio
Rate difference
Odds ratio
No for odds with prevalent
cases
Yes for odds with incident
cases
Yes

2x2 Table
Exposed
Unexposed

Diseased
a
c

No

Non-diseased
b
d

Ricchetti-Masterson K, Lopes B, Yeatts KB. Summary of Epidemiologic Measures. UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health 2/14.
References: EPID 710 and 718 Course Lectures (2009-13) UNC CH Dept of Epidemiology