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M236 MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS

Rev. 9 Mar 09
Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006

MACHINE DESIGN
This 8 PDH machine design course uses Excel's calculating and
optimizing capabilities. Machine design includes:
1. A description of the needed machine in a written specification.
2. Feasibility studies comparing alternate designs and focused research.
3. Preliminary; sketches, scale CAD drawings, materials selection, appearance
and styling.
4. Functional analysis; strength, stiffness, vibration, shock, fatigue,
temperature, wear, lubrication. Customer endurance and maintenance cost
estimate.
5. Producibility; machine tools, joining methods, material supply and handling,
manual vs automated manufacture.
6. Cost to design and manufacture one or more models in small and large
quantities.
7. Market place: present competition and life expectancy of the product.
8. Customer service system and facilities.
9. Outsource part or all; engineering, manufacturing, sales, warehousing,
customer service.

Backhoe
Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.chesterfieldgroup.co.uk/products/mobile.html

Strength and Stiffness Analysis


The strength and stiffness analysis of the backhoe begins with a, "Free Body
Diagram" of one of the members, shown above :
Force F1 = Hydraulic pressure x piston area.
Weight W = arm material volume x density.
Force F3 = (Moments due to F1 and W) / (L1 x cos A4)
Force F2 = ( (F1 cos A1) - (W sin A3) + (F3 cos A4) ) / cos A2
Moment Mmax = F1 x cos A1 x L1
Arm applied bending stress, S = K x Mmax D2 / (2 I)
I = arm area moment of inertial at D2 and
K = combined vibration shock factor.
Safety factor, SF = Material allowable stress / Applied stress
The applied stress and safety factor must be calculated at each high stress
point.

Pick and Place Robot


A gripper is attached at the bottom end of the vertical X direction actuator. The
vertical actuator is supported by a horizontal Y direction actuator. The Y direction
actuator is moved in the horizontal Z direction by the bottom actuator.
This pick-and-place robot can be programmed to move the gripper rapidly from point
to point anywhere in the X, Y, Z three dimensional zone. For more click on the, "Pwr
Screw" tab at the bottom of the display.
Shredder
Above is the image in its original context on the page: www.traderscity.com/.../
Material to be shredded falls by gravity or is conveyed into the top inlet.
A rotating disc with replicable cutters in its circumference performs the shredding.
The tensile stress in a rotating disc, S = V2 x / 3 lbf/in2.
The disc is mounted and keyed to a shaft supported by roller bearings on each side.
The shaft is directly coupled to a three phase electric motor.
The coupling joining the motor and disc shafts is covered by a safety guard.

The replicable bearings have seals to keep the grease or oil lubricant in and
the dust and grit out.
Quick release access panels are provided for clearing jams and cutter
replacement.
A large, steel rod reinforced concrete pad, foundation is usually provided for
absorbing dynamic shredding forces and shock loads.

Above is the image in its original context on the page:


www.mardenedwards.com/custom-packaging-machin

Automated Packaging Machine


The relatively high cost of labor in the United States requires automated
manufacturing and assembly to be price and quality competitive in the world
market. The product packaging machine above is one example.

Automobile Independent Front Suspension


Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.hyundai.co.in/tucson/tucson.asp?pageName=...
Coil springs absorb shock loads on bumps and rough roads in the front
suspension above. Double acting shock absorbers dampen suspension
oscillations. Ball joints in the linkage provide swiveling action that allows the
wheel and axle assembly to pivot while moving up and down. The lower arm
pivots on a bushing and shaft assembly attached to the frame cross member.
These components are applied in many other mechanisms.

Spur Gears
Below is the image in its original context on the page:
www.usedmills.net/machinery-equipment/feed/
Select the, "Gears" tab at the bottom of the Excel Worksheet
for more information about spur gears.

Spur Gears
Below is the image in its original context on the page:
www.usedmills.net/machinery-equipment/feed/
Select the, "Gears" tab at the bottom of the Excel Worksheet
for more information about spur gears.

Wheel and Worm Gears


Typical, "C-face worm gearbox below. C-face refers to the round flange used
to attach a mating motor flange. Worm gears offer higher gear ratios in a
smaller package than any other mechanism. A 40 to 1 ratio increases torque
by a factor of 40 while reducing worm gear output shaft speed to 1/40 x input
speed.
The worm may have a single, double, or more thread. The axial pitch of the
worm is equal to the circular pitch of the wheel. Select the, "Gears" tab at the
bottom of the Excel Worksheet for more information about worm gears.

Worm gear
Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.global-b2b-network.com/b2b/17/25/751/gear...

Laser Jet Printer


Above is the image in its original context on the page:
news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/531589
The computerized printer above has many moving parts: linkages, gears,
shafts, bushings, bearings, etc, for manipulating sheets of paper. The design
and analysis of the light weight plastic components of such a printer requires
the same principals as do many heavy duty machines with steel and aluminum
parts.
Observance of functional quality control in the design stage has improved their
reliability in recent years.

This is the end of this worksheet.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
* Machine components are designed to withstand: applied direct forces, moments and torsion.
* These loads may be applied gradually, suddenly, and repeatedly.
* The design load is equal to the applied load multiplied by a combined shock and fatigue factor, Ks.
* The average applied design stress must be multiplied by a stress concentration factor K.
* Calculated deflections are compared with required stiffness.
* The material strength is compared with the maximum stress due to combinations of anticipated loads.

Math Symbols
Spread Sheet Method:
1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.

A x B = A*B
2x3= 2*3
=6

A/ B =
3/2=
=

A+ B = A+ B
2+3= 2+3
=5
When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting:
Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK
When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with:
Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK

Xn =
23 =
=

TENSION AND COMPRESSION


As shown below, + P = Tension
- P = Compression

Reference: Design of
Machine Elements, by V.M.
Faires, published by: The
Macmillan Company, New
York/Collier-Macmillan
Limited, London, England.

Two machine components, shown above, are subjected to loads P at each end.
The force P is resisted by internal stress S which is not uniform.
At the hole diameter D and the fillet radius R stress is 3 times the average value.
This is true for tension +P and compression -P.

Machine Component Maximum Stress Calculation


Refer to the diagram above:
External force, P =
Section height, H =
Section width, B =
Original length, L =
Stress concentration factor, K =
Combined shock and fatigue factor, Ks =
Section area, A =
=
Maximum direct stress, Smax =
=
Safety factor, SF =
=

Input
2000
3.5
0.5
5
3.0
3.0
Calculations
H*B
1.75
K*Ks*P / A
10286
Sa / Smax
2.14

Material
Brass
Bronze
ASTM A47-52 Malleable Cast Iron
Duralumin
Monel Metal
ASTM A-36 (Mild Steel)
Nickel-Chrome Steel

E x 10^6 lbf/in^2
15.0
16.0
25.0
10.5
26.0
29.0
28.0

Tension ( + ) Compression ( - ), P =
Section Area, A =
Original length, L =
Original height, H =
Material modulus of elasticity, E =
Stress (tension +) (compression -), S =
=
Strain, e =
=
Extension (+), Compression ( - ), X =
=
Poisson's Ratio, Rp = 0.3 =
Transverse (contraction +) (expansion -) =

Input
22000
2.00
10
3
29000000
Calculation
P/A
11000
S/E
0.00038
L*e
0.0038
((H - Ho) / H) / e
(H - Ho)
0.3*e*H

Use if: D/H > 0.5 or R/H > 0.5


lbf
in
in
in
-

in^2
lbf/in^2
G x 10^6
5.80
6.50
10.70
4.00
10.00
11.50
11.80

lbf/in^2
in^2
in
in
lbf/in^2

See table above.

lbf/in^2
in
For most metals

0.00034

in

Shear Stress Distribution


A stress element at the center of the
beam reacts to the vertical load P with a
vertical up shear stress vector at the
right end and down at the other. This is
balanced by horizontal right acting top
and left acting bottom shear stress
vectors. A stress element at the top or
bottom surface of the beam cannot have
a vertical stress vector. The shear stress
distribution is parabolic.
Reference: Mechanical Engineering
Reference Manual (for the PE exam), by
M.R. Lindeburg, Published by,
Professional Publications, Inc. Belmont,
CA.
External shear force, P =
Section height, H =
Section width, B =
Shear modulus, G =
Length, L =
Section area, A =
A=
Shear stress concentration factor, k =
Maximum shear stress, Sxy =
=
Shear strain, e =
=
Shear deflection, v =
=

Input
2200
3.500
1.250
1150000
12
Calculation
H*B
4.375
1.5
k*P / A
754
Fs / G
0.00066
e*L
0.0079

lbf
in
in
lbf/in^2
in

in^2
lbf/in^2
in

SHEAR STRESS IN ROUND SECTION BEAM


Refer to the diagram above:
Solid shafts: K = 1.5 & d = 0.
Thin wall tubes: K = 2.0 & d is not zero.
External shear force, P =
Section outside diameter, D =
Section inside diameter, d =
Shear stress concentration factor, k =
Shear modulus, G =
Length, L =
Section area, A =
A=
Maximum shear stress, Fs =
Fs =
Shear strain, e =
e=
Shear deflection, v =
v=

Input
4000
1.500
0.000
1.33
1.15E+06
5
Calculation
*( D^2 - d^2 )/ 4
1.7674
k*P / A
3010
Fs / G
0.00262
e*L
0.0131

COMPOUND STRESS
Stress Element
The stress element right is at the point of interest in
the machine part subjected to operating: forces,
moments, and torques.
Direct Stresses:
Horizontal, +Fx = tension, -Fx = compression.
Vertical, +Fy = tension, -Fy = compression.
Shear stress:
Shear stress, Sxy = normal to x and y planes.

Principal Stress Plane:


The vector sum of the direct and shear stresses,
called the principal stress F1, acts on the principal
plane angle A degrees, see right. There is zero
shear force on a principal plane. Angle A may be
calculated from the equation:
Tan 2A = 2 x Sxy / ( Fy - Fx)

lbf
in
in
lbf/in^2
in

in^2
lbf/in^2
in

shear force on a principal plane. Angle A may be


calculated from the equation:
Tan 2A = 2 x Sxy / ( Fy - Fx)

Principal Stresses:
Two principal stresses, F1 and F2 are required to
balance the horizontal and vertical applied
stresses, Fx, Fy, and Sxy.
The maximum shear stress acts at 45 degrees to
the principal stresses, shown right. The maximum
shear stress is given by:
Smax = ( F2 - F1 ) / 2
The principal stress equations are given below.

PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Principal stress, F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]
Principal stress, F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2 - [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]
Max shear stress, Sxy = [Fn(max) - Fn(min)] / 2
Principal plane angle, A = ( ATAN(2*Sxy / (Fy - Fx) ) / 2

See Math Tab below for


Excel's Goal Seek.
Use Excel's, "Goal Seek" to
optimize shaft diameter.

Power Shaft with: Torque T, Vertical Load V, & Horizontal Load H


Horizontal force, H =

Input
3000

lbf

Vertical force,
Torsion,
Cantilever length,
Diameter,

V=
T=
L=
D=

Properties at section A-B


=
Area, A =
A=
Section moment of inertia, I =
I=
Polar moment of inertia, J =
J=
AT POINT "A"
Horizontal direct stress, Fd =
Fd =
Bending stress, Fb =
Fb =
Combined direct and bending, Fx =
Fx =
Direct stress due to, "V", Fy =
Torsional shear stress, Sxy =
Sxy =
Max normal stress at point A, F1 =
F1 =
Min normal stress at point A, F2 =
F2 =
Max shear stress at point A, Sxy =
=
AT POINT "B"
Horizontal direct stress, Fd =
Fd =
Bending stress, Fb =
Fb =
Combined direct and bending, Fx =
Fx =
Direct stress due to, "V", Fy =
Torsional shear stress, Sxy =
Sxy =

600
2000
10
2

Calculation
3.1416
*D^2 / 4
3.142
*D^4 / 64
0.7854
*D^4 / 32
1.5708
H/A
955
M*c / I
7639
H/A + M*c / I
8594
0
T*(D / 2) / J
1273

lbf
in-lbf
in
in

in^2
in^4
in^4

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

(Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]


8779
lbf/in^2
(Fx+Fy)/2 - [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]
-185
lbf/in^2
[Fn(max) - Fn(min)] / 2
4482
lbf/in^2

H/A
955
-M*c / I
-7639
H/A + M*c / I
-6684
0
T*D / (2*J)
1273

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

Max normal stress at B, F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]


F1 =
234
lbf/in^2
Min normal stress at B, F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2 - [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]
F2 =
-6919
lbf/in^2

Max shear stress at B, Sxy(max) = [Fn(max) - Fn(min)] / 2


3577

lbf/in^2

Curved Beam-Rectangular Section


Outside radius, Ro =
Inside radius, Ri =
Section width, B =
Applied moment, M =
Section height, H =
=
Section area, A =
Section neutral axis radius =
Radius of neutral axis, Rna =
=
e=
=
Inside fiber bending stress, Si =
=
Outside fiber bending stress, So =
=

Input
8.500
7.000
1.500
500
Calculation
Ro - Ri
1.500
2.250
Rna
H / Ln(Ro / Ri)
7.726
Ri + H/2 - Rna
0.024
M*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri)
950
M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ri)
1013

in
in
in
in-lbf
in
in
in^2

in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

Curved Beams-Circular Section


Curved Beam-Section diameter, D =
Ro - Ri
=
1.500
Section radius of neutral axis, Rna = 0.25*(Ro^0.5 + Ri^0.5)^2
=
7.732
e=
Ri + D/2 - Rna
=
0.018

in
in
in

Inside fiber bending stress, Si = M*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri)


=
1626
Outside fiber bending stress, So = M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ro)
=
1406

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

Curved Beam-2 Circular Section


Outside radius, Ro =
Inside radius, Ri =
Applied moment, M =
Curved Beam-Section diameter, D =
D=
Section radius of neutral axis, Rna =
Rna =
e=
e=
Inside fiber bending stress, Si =
=
Outside fiber bending stress, Fo =
=

Input
6.000
in
4.000
in
175
in-lbf
Calculation
Ro - Ri
2
in
0.25*(Ro^0.5 + Ri^0.5)^2
4.949
in
Ri + D/2 - Rna
0.051
in
(P*(Rna+e))*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri)
1309
lbf/in^2
M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ro)
193
lbf/in^2

Rectangular Section Properties


Breadth, B =
Height, H =
Section moment of inertia, Ixx =

Input
1.500
3.000
Calculation
B*H^3 / 12

in
in

=
Center of area, C1 = C2 =
=

3.375
H/2
1.5

in^4
in

I and C Sections
Input
1
2
3

Bn
9
1.5
6

1
2
3

Yn
11.000
6.500
1.500

Hn
2
7
3
A =

Calculation
A*Yn
A*Yn^2
198.00
2178.00
68.25
443.63
27.00
40.50
= 293.25
2662.13

Section modulus, Ixx =


=
Center of area, C1 =
=

Calculation
A*Yn^2 + Icg
2724.50 in^4
A*Yn/A
6.306
in

C2 = Y1 + H1/2
= 12.000 in

P=
L=

Input
2200
6

Calculation
A
18
10.5
18
46.5

lbf
in

a=
b=
Cantilever, MMAX at B =
Fixed ends, MMAX, at C ( a < b ) =
Pinned ends, MMAX, at C =

2
Calculation
L-a
4
P*L
13200
P * a * b^2 / L^2
1956
P*a*b/L
2933

in

in-lbs

Ref: AISC Manual of


Steel Construction.

in-lbs
in-lbs

Enter value of applied moment MMAX from above:


Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb =
Bending stress will be calculated.
Applied moment from above, MMAX =
Larger of: C1 and C2 = C =
Section moment of inertia, Ixx =
Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb =
Max moment stress, Sm =
=

3
Input

Data

13200
12.00
4.66
1.50
Calculation
Kb*M*C / I
50987

in-lbf
in
in^4
-

lb/in^2

Input
1
2
3

Bn
2
7
3

Yn
1.000
3.500
1.500

Hn
9
1.5
6
A =

Calculation
A
18.00
10.50
18.00
46.5

Calculations
A*Yn
A*Yn^2
9.00
4.50
18.38
32.16
13.50
10.13
=
40.88
46.78

Section modulus, Ixx = A*h^2 + Icg


= 224.25 in^4
Center of area, C1 = A*Yn/A
=
0.879
in
C2 = B1 - C1
=
1.121
in
Symmetrical H Section Properties
Input
Bn
Hn

Calculation
A

1
2
3

2
7
3

9
1.5
6
A =

Center of gravity, Ycg =


=
Section modulus, Ixx =
=
Center of area, C1 = C2 =
=

B1 / 2
1.000
Icg
62
B1 / 2
1.000

18.00
10.50
18.00
46.5

in
in^4

Enter value of applied moment MMAX from above:


P=
L=
a=
b=
=
Cantilever, MMAX at B =
=
Fixed ends, MMAX, at C ( a < b ) =
=
Pinned ends, MMAX, at C =

Input
1800
12
3
Calculation
L-a
9
P*L
21600
P * a * b^2 / L^2
3038
P*a*b/L
4050

lbf
in
in

in-lbs
in-lbs

Ref: AISC Manual of


Steel Construction.

in-lbs

Enter values for applied moment at a beam section given: C, Ixx and Ycg.
Bending stress will be calculated.
Applied moment from above, MMAX =
Larger of: C1 and C2 = C =
Section moment of inertia, Ixx =
Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb =
Shaft material elastic modulus, E =
Beam length from above, L =
Beam load from above, P =

Input
13200
1.750
4.466
1.5
29000000
Calculation
12
1800

in-lbf
in
in^4
lb/in^2
in
lbf

Max moment stress, Sm =


=
Cantilever deflection at A, Y =

Kb*M*C / I
7759
P*L^3 / (3*E*I)
0.0080
Fixed ends deflection at C, Y = P*a^3 * b^3 / (3*E*I*L^3)
0.000053
Pinned ends deflection at C, Y = P*a^2 * b^2 / (3*E*I*L)
0.000281

This is the end of this worksheet

lb/in^2
in
in
in

ue factor, Ks.

nticipated loads.

A/ B
3/2
1.5
X^n
2^3
8

ence: Design of
ne Elements, by V.M.
, published by: The
illan Company, New
Collier-Macmillan
d, London, England.

H > 0.5 or R/H > 0.5

See table above.

Calculation
Yn
11
6.5
1.5

Icg
6.00
42.88
13.50
62.38

Ref: AISC Manual of


Steel Construction.

Calculation
Yn
1.00
3.50
1.50

Icg
121.50
1.97
54.00
177.47

Calculation
Icg

6
43
14
62

Ref: AISC Manual of


Steel Construction.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
Rev: 26Sep09
Spread Sheet Method:
1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.

DESIGN OF POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFTING


The objective is to calculate the shaft size having the strength and rigidity required to transmit
an applied torque. The strength in torsion, of shafts made of ductile materials are usually
calculated on the basis of the maximum shear theory.
ASME Code states that for shaft made of a specified ASTM steel:
Ss(allowable) = 30% of Sy but not over 18% of Sult for shafts without keyways. These values
are to be reduced by 25% if the shafts have keyways.
Shaft design includes the determination of shaft diameter having the strength and rigidity to
transmit motor or engine power under various operating conditions. Shafts are usually round
and may be solid or hollow.
Shaft torsional shear stress: Ss = T*R / J
Polar moment of area:

J = *D^4 / 32
J = *(D^4 - d^4) / 32

Shaft bending stress:


Moment of area:

for solid shafts


for hollow shafts

Sb = M*R / I
I = *D^4 / 64
I = *(D^4 - d^4) / 64

for solid shafts


for hollow shafts

The ASME Code equation for shafts subjected to: torsion, bending, axial load, shock, and
fatigue is:
Shaft diameter cubed,
D^3 = (16/*Ss(1-K^4))*[ ( (KbMb + (*F*D*(1+K^2)/8 ]^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.5
Shaft diameter cubed with no axial load,
D^3 = (16/*Ss)*[ (KbMb)^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.5
K = D/d

D = Shaft outside diameter,

Kb = combined shock & fatigue bending factor


Kt = combined shock & fatigue torsion factor

d = inside diameter

= column factor = 1 / (1 - 0.0044*(L/k)^2 for L/k < 115


L = Shaft length

k = (I/A)^0.5 = Shaft radius of gyration

A = Shaft section area


For rotating shafts: Kb = 1.5, Kt = 1.0 for gradually applied load
Kb = 2.0, Kt = 1.5 for suddenly applied load & minor shock
Kb = 3.0, Kt = 3.0 for suddenly applied load & heavy shock

Power Transmission Shaft Design Calculations


Input shaft data for your problem below and Excel will calculate the answers, Excel' "Goal
Seek" may be used to optimize the design of shafts, see the Math Tools tab below.

1. ASME Code Shaft Allowable Stress


Su =
Sy =
Allowable stress based on Su, Sau =
Allowable stress based on Sy, Say =
Allowable shear stress based on Su, Ss =

2. ASME Code Shaft Diameter


Lowest of Sau, Say, & Ss: Sa =
Power transmitted by shaft, HP =

Input
58000
36000
Calculate
18% * Su
10440
30% * Sy
10800
75% * Sau
7830
Input
7830
10

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

lbf/in^2
hp

Shaft speed, N =
Shaft vertical load, V =
Shaft length, L =
Kb =
Kt =
Shaft torque, T =
=
Vertical Moment, M =
ASME Code for shaft with keyway, D^3 =
=

300
rpm
0
lbf
10
in
1.5
1
Calculate
HP * 63000 / N
2100
in-lbf
V*L
0
lbf-in
(16 / (*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.5
1.366
in^3

Minimum shaft diameter, D = 1.109

Shaft Material Ultimate & Yield Stresses

in

Su =
Sy =
ASME Code Shaft Allowable Stress
Allowable stress based on Su, Sau =
Allowable stress based on Sy, Say =
Allowable shear stress based on Su, Ss =

Input
70000
46000
Calculate
18% * Su
12600
30% * Sy
13800
75% * Sau
9450

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

Shaft Power & Geometry


Lowest of Sau, Say, & Ss: Sa =
Power transmitted by V-Belt, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
T1 / T2 =
A=
L1 =
L2 =
L3 =
D1 =
D2 =
V-Pulley weight, Wp =
Spur gear pressure angle, (14 or 20 deg) B =
Kb =
Kt =

Input
9450
20
600
3
60
10
30
10
8
18
200
20
1.5
1
Calculate
HP * 63000 / N
2100
3
T / (D2 / 2)
-( T / (D2 / 2) ) / (1 - B)
117
B * T2
350

lbf/in^2
hp
rpm
deg
in
in
in
in
in
lbs
deg
-

Shaft torque, T =
=
in-lbf
T2 / T1 = B =
T1 - T2 =
T2 =
=
lbf
T1 =
=
lbf
Vertical Forces
V2 = Fs =
Ft * Tan( A )
=
191
lbf
V4 = ( (T1 + T2) * Sin( A ) )-Wp
=
204
lbf
V3 = ( (V4*(L2 + L3)) - (V2*L1) ) / L2
208
lbf
V1 =
V2 + V3 - V4
195
lbf

Vertical Moments

Mv2 =
Mv3 =

V1 * L1
1954
V4 * L3
2041

lbf-in
lbf-in

Horizontal Forces
H2 =Ft =

T / (D1 / 2)
525
lbf
H4 =
(T1 + T2) * Cos( A )
233
lbf
H3 = ( (H4*(L2 + L3)) + (H2*L1) ) / L2
486
H1 =
H2 - H3 + H4
272
Horizontal Moments
Mh2 =
H1 * L1
2722
lbf-in
Mh3 =
H4 * L3
2334
lbf-in
Resultant Moments
Mr2 =
(Mv2^2 + Mh2^2)^0.5
3351
lbf-in
Mr3 =
(Mv3^2 + Mh3^2)^0.5
3100
lbf-in
Input
Larger of: Mr2 & Mr3 = Mb =
3351
lbf-in

Calculate Shaft Diameter

Calculate
ASME Code for shaft with keyway, D^3 = (16 / (*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.5
=
2.936
in^3

D=

1.431

in

Shaft Material Ultimate & Yield Stresses


Su =
Sy =
ASME Code Shaft Allowable Stress
Allowable stress based on Su, Sau =
Allowable stress based on Sy, Say =
Allowable shear stress based on Su, Ss =

Shaft Power & Geometry


Lowest of Sau, Say, & Ss: Sa =
Power transmitted by V-Belt, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
T1 / T2 =
A=
L1 =
L2 =
L3 =
D1 =
D2 =
V-Pulley weight, Wp =
Spur gear pressure angle, (14 or 20 deg) B =
Kb =
Kt =
Left side shaft diameter, SD1 =
Center shaft diameter, SD2 =
Right side shaft diameter, SD3 =
Shaft torque, T =
=
T2 / T1 = B =
T1 - T2 =
T2 =
=
T1 =
=
Vertical Forces
H2 =Ft =
V2 = Fs =
=
V4 =
=
V3 =

Input
70000
46000
Calculate
18% * Su
12600
30% * Sy
13800
75% * Sau
9450
Input
9450
20
600
3
60
10
30
10
8
18
200
20
1.5
1
1.000
3.000
2.000
Calculate
HP * 63000 / N
2100
3
T / (D2 / 2)
-( T / (D2 / 2) ) / (1 - B)
117
B * T2
350

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

lbf/in^2
hp
rpm
deg
in
in
in
in
in
lbs
deg
in
in
in

in-lbf

lbf
lbf

T / (D1 / 2)
525
lbf
Ft * Tan( A )
909
lbf
( (T1 + T2) * Sin( A ) )-Wp
204
lbf
( (V4*(L2 + L3)) - (V2*L1) ) / L2
-31
lbf

V1 =
Vertical Moments
Mv2 =
Mv3 =

Larger of: Mr2 & Mr3 = Mb =

V2 + V3 - V4
674
V1 * L1
6742
V4 * L3
2041
Input
6742

lbf

lbf-in
lbf-in
lbf-in

Calculate Shaft Diameter

Calculate
ASME Code for shaft with keyway, D^3 = (16 / (*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.5
=
5.567
in^3

D=

1.771

in

Power Shaft Torque

Input
7.5
1750
3
1.000
5
11500000
Calculation
Shaft Design Torque, Td = Kt*12*33000*HP / (2**N)
=
810

Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
Torque shock & fatigue factor, Kt =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Shaft material shear modulus, G =

Drive Shaft Torque Twist Angle


Shaft Design Torque from above, Td =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Shaft material tension modulus, E =
Shaft material shear modulus, G =

Input
1080
0.883
10
29000000
11500000

hp
rpm
in
in
psi

in-lbf

in-lbf
in
in
psi
psi

< GOAL SEEK

Section polar moment of area, J =


=
Shear stress due to Td, ST =
=
Shaft torsion deflection angle, a =
=
=

Calculation
*D^4 / 32
0.060
Td*D / (2*J)
8000
Td*L / (J*G)
0.0158
0.90

in^4
lbf/in^2
radians
degrees

POLAR MOMENT OF AREA AND SHEAR STRESS


Torsion, T =
Round solid shaft diameter, D =
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
=
Torsion stress, Ft =
=

Torsion, T =
Round tube shaft outside dia, Do =
Round tube shaft inside dia, Di =
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
J=
Torsion stress, Ft =
=

Torsion, T =
Square shaft breadth = height, B =
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
=
Torsion stress, Ft =
=

Input
360
2.000
Calculation
*D^4 / 32
1.571
T*(D/2) / J
229

Input
1000
2.250
1.125
Calculation
*(Do^4 - Di^4) / 32
2.359
T*(Do/2) / J
477

Input
1000
1.750
Calculation
B^4 / 6
1.563
T*(B/2) / J
560

in-lbf
in

in^4
lb/in^2

in-lbf
in
in

in^4
lb/in^2

in-lbf
in

in^4
lb/in^2

< GOAL SEEK

Torsion, T =
Rectangular shaft breadth, B =
Height, H =
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
=
Torsion stress, Ft =
=

Input
1000
1.000
2.000
Calculation
B*H*(B^2 + H^2)/ 12
0.833
T*(B/2) / J
600

in-lbf
in
in

in^4
lb/in^2

Cantilever shaft bending moment


Shaft transverse load, W =
Position in shaft, x =
Bending shock & fatigue factor, Km =
Shaft diameter, D =
Moment at x, Mx =
Design moment at x, Md =
=
Section moment of inertia, I =
=
Bending stress for shaft, Fb =
=

Cantilever shaft bending deflection


Shaft transverse load at free end, W =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Deflection location, x =
Bending moment shock load factor, Km =

Input
740
5
3
1.000
Calculation
W*x
Km*Mx
11100
*D^4 / 64
0.049
M*D / (2*I)
113049

Input
740
1.000
10
5
3

lbf
in
in
in-lbs
in-lbs
in^4
lbs/in^2

lbf
in
in
in

< GOAL SEEK

Modulus of elasticity, E =

Section moment of inertia, I =


=
Moment at, x =
Moment at x, M =
=
Bending stress at x: Sb =
Cantilever bend'g deflection at x, Yx =
=
Bending deflection at x = 0, Y =
Y=

Section Moment of Inertia


Round solid shaft diameter, D =
Section moment of inertia, Izz =
Answer: Izz =
Section moment of Inertia
Round tube shaft diameter, Do =
Di =
Section polar moment of inertia, Izz =
Answer: Izz =

Section moment of Inertia


Square shaft breadth = height, B =
Section moment of inertia, Izz =
Answer: Izz =

29000000

Calculation
*D^4 / 64
0.049
5
Km*W*x
11100
M*(D/2) / I
113063
(-W*x^2/(6*E*I))*((3*L) - x)
-0.0541
-W*L^3 / (3*E*I)
-0.1733

Input
1.000
Calculations
*D^4 / 64
0.049
Input
1.750
1.5
Calculation
*(Do^4 - Di^4) / 64
0.212

Input
1.750
Calculation
B^4 / 12
0.782

psi

in^4
in
in-lbf
lbf/in^2

< GOAL SEEK

in
in

in

in^4

in
in

in^4

in^4

BENDING STRESS
Enter values for applied moment at a beam section, c, Izz and Kb. Bending stress will be calculated.
Input
Applied moment at x, M =
1000
in-lbf
c=
1.000
in
Section moment of inertia, Izz =
2.5
in^4
Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb =
3
Calculation
Max bending stress, Fb =
Kb*M*c / I

Answer: Fb =

1200

lb/in^2

TYPICAL BULK MATERIAL BELT CONVEYOR SHAFTING SPECIFICATION


See PDHonline courses: M262 an M263 by the author of this course for more information.
1.1 Pulley Shafts:
1.2 All shafts shall have one fixed type bearing; the balance on
the shaft shall be expansion type.
1.3 Pulleys and pulley shafts shall be sized for combined torsional and bending static and fatigue
stresses.

1.1 Pulley Shafts:


1.2 All shafts shall have one fixed type bearing; the balance on
the shaft shall be expansion type.
1.3 Pulleys and pulley shafts shall be sized for combined torsional and bending static and fatigue
stresses.

1.4 Shaft keys shall be the square parallel type and keyways adjacent to bearings shall be round end,
all other keyways may be the run-out type.
2.1 Pulleys:
2.2 The head pulley on the Reclaim Conveyor shall be welded 304-SS so as not to interfere with tramp
metal removal by the magnet.
2.3 All pulleys shall be welded steel crown faced, selected in accordance with ratings established by
the Mechanical Power Transmission Association Standard No.301-1965 and U.S.A.
Standard No.B105.1-1966. In no case shall the pulley shaft loads as listed in the rating tables of these
standards be exceeded.
2.4 All pulleys shall be crowned.
2.5 All drive pulleys shall be furnished with 1/2 inch thick vulcanized herringbone grooved lagging.
2.6 Snub pulleys adjacent to drive pulleys shall have a minimum diameter of 16 inches.

This is the end of this worksheet

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006

COUPLINGS

RIGID COUPLING DESIGN


Couplings are used to connect rotating shafts
continuously. Clutches are used to connect
rotating shafts temporarily.
Rigid couplings are used for accurately aligned
shafts in slow speed applications. Refer to
ASME code and coupling vendor design
values.

KEY SLOT STRESS FACTOR


2.10

Key Slot Stress Factor (Kk)

2.00
1.90
1.80
1.70
A
B
C
D

1.60
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Key half slot width / Slot depth (y / h)

1.0

Legend
A
B
C
D

h/R
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

Design Stress
Coupling Design Shear Stress = Design allowable average shear stress.
Input
Material ultimate tensile stress, Ft =
85000
lbf/in^2
Shaft material yield stress, Fy =
45000
lbf/in^2
Calculation
Ultimate tensile stress design factor, ku =
0.18
Design ultimate shear stress, Ssu =
ku* Ft
=
15300
lbf/in^2
Yield stress factor, ky =
0.3
Design yield shear design stress factor, Ssy =
ky* Ft
=
13500
lbf/in^2
Use the smaller design shear stress of Fsu and Fsy above.

1. Shaft Torsion Shear Strength


Shaft diameter, D =
Key slot total width = H =
Key slot depth, h =
Key slot half width, y =
Key slot half width / Slot depth, y / h =
Slot depth / Shaft radius, h / R =
Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
Allowable shaft stress from above, Ssu or Ssy =
Torque shock load factor, Kt =
Key slot stress factor from graph above, Kk =
Motor shaft torque, Tm =
=
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
=
Allowable shaft torque, Ts =
=

Input
2.000
in
0.375
in
0.25
in
Calculation
0.188
0.75
Apply to graph
0.25
above.
Input
60
hp
300
rpm
13500
lbf/in^2
3.00
1.38
<From above graph.
Calculation
12*33000*HP / (2**N)
12603
in-lbf
*D^4 / 32
1.5710
in^4
Ss*J / (Kt*Kk*Ds/2)
5123
in-lbf

2. Square Key Torsion Shear Strength


Key Width = Height, H =
Key Length, L =
Shaft diameter, Ds =
Allowable shaft stress from above, Ssu or Ssy =
Allowable key bearing stress, Sb =
Key shear area, A =
=
Key stress factor, K =
Key shear strength, Pk =
=
Key torsion shear strength, Tk =
=
Key bearing strength, Tk =
=

3. Coupling Friction Torsion Strength


Outer contact diameter, Do =
Inner contact diameter, Di =
Pre-load in each bolt, P =
Number of bolts, Nb =
Coefficient of friction, f =
Number of pairs of friction surfaces, n =
Coupling friction radius, Rf =
Answer: Rf =
Axial force, Fa =
Fa =
Coupling friction torque capacity, Tf =
Answer: Tf =

Input
0.375
3.00
2.000
13500
80000
Calculation
H*L
1.125
0.75
K*Fs*A
11390.625
Pk*Ds/2
11391
Sb*L*(D/2 - H/4)*(H/2)
40781

in
in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2

in^2

lbf/in^2
in-lbf
in-lbf

Input
10.00
in
9.00
in
500
lbf
6
0.2
1
Calculation
(2/3)*(Ro^3-Ri^3)/(Ro^2-Ri^2)
4.75
in
P*Nb
3000
lbf
Fa*f*Rf*n
2853
in-lbf

4. Coupling Bolts Torsion Strength


Assume half of bolts are effective due differences in bolt holes and bolt diameters.
Input
Torque shock load factor, Kt =
3
Bolt allowable shear stress, Fs =
6000
lbf/in^2
Number of bolts, Nb =
4
Bolt circle diameter, Dc =
6.5
in
Bolt diameter, D =
0.500
in
Calculation
One bolt section area, A =
*D^2/4
A=
0.196
in
Shear stress concentration factor, Ks =
1.33
Shear strength per bolt, Pb =
Fs*A / (Kt*Ks)
Answer: Pb =
295
lbf
Total coupling bolts torque capacity, Tb =
Answer: Tb =

Pb*(Dc/2)*(Nb / 2)
1919

in-lbf

Hub - Shaft Interference Fits


These ridged or, "shrink fits" are used for connecting hubs to shafts, sometimes in
addition to keys. Often the computed stress is allowed to approach the yield stress
because the stress decreases away from the bore.

Shaft in Hub
The hub is the outer ring,
Do to Dc. The shaft is
the inner ring, Dc to Di

Hub outside diameter, Do =


Shaft outside diameter, Dc =
Shaft inside diameter, Di =
Hub length, L =
Max tangential stress, Ft =
Hub modulus, Eh =
Shaft modulus, Es =
Coefficient of friction, f =

Input
14.000
4.000
0.000
8
5000
1.50E+07
3.00E+07
0.12

in
in
in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
-

Hub Poisson's ratio, h =


Shaft Poisson's ratio, s =

See input above:


Pressure at contact surface, Pc =
Pc =
C1 =
C1 =
C2 =
C2 =
C3 =
C3 =
C4 =
C4 =
Maximum diameter interference, =
=

0.3
0.3

Calculation
Ft*((Do^2-Dc^2) / (Do^2+Dc^2))
4245
(Dc^2+Di^2)/(Es*(Dc^2-Di^2))
3.33333333333333E-008
(Do^2+Dc^2)/(Eh*(Do^2-Dc^2))
7.85185185185185E-008
s / Es
1.00E-08
h / Eh
2.00E-08
Pc*Dc*(C1 + C2 - C3 + C4)
0.00207
in

Maximum axial load, Fa = f**Dc*L*Pc


Fa =
51221
Maximum torque, T = f*Pc**Dc^2*L / 2
T=
102441

This is the end of this spread sheet.

lbf

in-lbf

Y/H
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

0.40
A
2.01
1.59
1.41
1.37
1.35

0.60
B
1.91
1.50
1.32
1.28
1.25

0.80
C
1.77
1.40
1.25
1.19
1.17

1.00
D
1.62
1.30
1.18
1.10
1.07

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
POWER SCREWS
Motor driven: screw jacks, linear actuators, and clamps are examples of power screws.
The essential components are a nut engaging the helical screw threads of a shaft.
A nut will advance one screw thread pitch per one 360 degree rotation on a single pitch screw.
A nut will advance two screw thread pitches per one 360 degree rotation on a double pitch
screw, etc.
The actuator nut below advances or retreats as the motor shaft turns clockwise or antclockwise. The nut is prevented from rotating by the upper and lower guide slots. The control
system of a stepper motor rotates the shaft through a series of small angles very accurately
repeatedly. The linear travel of the lug & nut is precise and lockable.

Pitch (P) is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next thread.
Lead (n*P) is the distance a nut advances each complete revolution.
Multiple pitch number (n) refers to single (n=1), double (n=2), triple (n=3) pitch screw.

Motor Shaft Torque

Input
30
hp
1750
rpm
Calculation
Motor shaft torque, Tm = 12*33000*HP / (2**N)
Answer: Tm =
1080
in-lbf
Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =

Power Screw Torque


Screw outside diameter, D =
Screw thread turns per inch, TPI =
Thread angle, At =
Thread multiple pitch lead number, n =
Thread friction coefficient, Ft =
Bearing friction coefficient, Fb =
Bearing mean radius, Rb =
Load to be raised by power screw, W =
Acme thread depth, H =
Answer: H =
Thread mean radius, Rm =
Rm =

Input
3.000
3
5.86
2
0.15
0
2
500
Calculation
0.5*(1/ TPI )+0.01
0.177
(D - H) / 2
1.412

in
threads/in
degrees

in
lbf

in
in

Thread helix angle, Tan (Ah) = n*(1/ TPI ) / (2**Rm)


Answer: Tan (Ah) =
0.0752
Answer: Ah =
4.31
degrees
Thread normal force angle, Tan (An) =
Answer: Tan (An) =
Answer: An =

Tan (At)*Cos (Ah)


0.0749
4.29

degrees

X = (Tan (Ah) + Ft/ Cos (An))


0.2257
Y =(1- Ft*Tan (Ah)/ Cos (An))
0.9887
Power screw torque, T = W*(Rm*( X / Y) + Fb*Rb)
Answer: T =
161
in-lbf
Force W will cause the screw to rotate (overhaul) if, (-Tan (Ah) + Ft/ Cos (An)) is negative.
(-Tan (Ah) + Ft/ Cos (An)) =
0.0751

SCREW THREAD AVERAGE PRESSURE


Load to be raised by power screw, W =
Nut length, L =
Screw thread turns per inch, TPI =
Thread height, H =
Thread mean radius, Rm =

Input
2000
4
3
0.18
0.9
Calculation
Screw thread average pressure, P = W / (2**L*Rm*H*TPI)
Answer: P =
164

lbf
in
threads/in
in

lbf/in^2

This is the end of this spread sheet.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
Spread Sheet Method:
1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.

DISC BRAKE
A sectional view of a generic disc brake with calipers is
illustrated right.
Equal and opposite clamping forces, F lbf acting at mean
radius Rm inches provide rotation stopping torque T in-lbf.

Calculate Brake Torque Capacity


Clamping force, F =
Coefficient of friction, =
Caliper mean radius, Rd =
Number of calipers, N =

Braking torque, T =

SHOE BRAKE
stopping capacity is
proportional to the normal force
of brake shoe against the drum
and coefficient of friction.

Input
50
0.2
7.00
1
Calculation
2**F*N*Rm
140

lbf
in
-

in-lbf

Calculate Brake Torque Capacity


Coefficient of friction, f =
Brake shoe face width, w =
Drum internal radius, Rd =
Shoe mean radius, Rs =
Shoe heel angle, A1 =
Shoe angle, A2 =
Shoe mean angle, Am =
Right shoe maximum shoe pressure, Pmr =
Left shoe maximum shoe pressure, Pml =
C=

Input
0.2
2
6
5
0
130
90
150
150
9

in
in
in
degrees
degrees
degrees
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
in

Calculation
X = (Rd - Rd*Cos(A2)) - (Rs/2)*Sin^2(A2))
X=
8.3892
Right shoe friction moment, Mr = ((f*Pm*w*Rd)/(Sin(Am))*(X)
Mr =
3020
in-lbf
Y = (0.5*A2) - (0.25*Sin(2*A2))
Y=
1.3806
Right normal forces moment, Mn = ((Pm*w*Rd*Rs)/(Sin(Am))*(Y)
Mn =
12426
in-lbf
Brake cylinder force, P =
Answer: P =

(Mn - Mr) / C
1045

lbf

Z = ((Cos(A1)-Cos(A2)) / Sin(Am)
Z=
1.6427
Right shoe brake torque capacity, Tr =
f*Pm*w*Rd^2*(Z)
Tr =
3548
in-lbf

This is the end of this work sheet.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
Spread Sheet Method:
1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.

V-BELT DRIVES
V-belts are used to transmit power from
motors to machinery.
Sheaves have a V-groove. Pulleys have
a flat circumference.
A V-belt may be used in combination
with a drive sheave on a motor shaft
and a pulley on the driven shaft.

Angle B
Small sheave pitch circle radius, R1 =
Large sheave pitch circle radius, R2 =
Center distance, C =
Sin (B)
Sin (B)
B
B

=
=
=
=

Input
4
6
14
Calculation
(R2-R1) / C
0.1429
0.1433
8.21

in
in
in

radn.
degrees

V-Belt Drive
Drive power, HP =
Motor speed, N =
Drive sheave pitch diameter, D1 =
Driven sheave pitch diameter, D2 =
Center distance, C =
Sheave groove angle, A =
Sheave to V-belt coefficient of friction, f1 =
Pulley to V-belt coefficient of friction, f2 =
B1 =
B2 =
D =
V-belt weight per cubic inch, w =
Tight side V-belt allowable tension, T1 =
V-belt C.G. distance, x =
=
Driven sheave pitch diameter, D2 =
=

Input
30
1800
10
36
40
40
0.2
0.2
0.75
1.5
1
0.04
200
Calculation
D*(B1+ 2*B2)/ 3(B1+B2)
0.556
D2 + 2*x
37.11

hp
rpm
in
in
in
deg
in
in
in
lbm/in^3
lbf

in
in

Angle of Wrap An
Small sheave pitch radius, R1 =
Large pulley pitch radius, R2 =
Sin (B) =
Sin (B) =
B =
B =
Small sheave angle of wrap, A1 =
A1 =
Large pulley angle of wrap, A2 =
A2 =
e =

5.00
18.56
(R2-R1) / C
0.3389
0.3457
19.81
180 - 2*B
140.38
180 + 2*B
219.62
2.7183

in
in

radn.
degrees
degrees
degrees

Sheave capacity Cs =
e^(f1*A1/ Sin(A/2))
= 4.77
Pulley capacity, Cp =
e^(f2*A2/ Sin(90/2))
=
2.15

The smaller of Cs and Cp governs design.


Belt section area, Ab =
=
V-belt weight per ft, W =
=
V-belt velocity, V =
V =
g =

(B1 + B2)/ (2*D)


1.125
Ab*w*12
0.54
*(D1/12)*(N/60)
78.55
32.2

in^2
lbm/ft
ft/sec
ft^2/sec

Slack side belt tension, T2 = (T1-W*V^2/g)/(Csp)+ (W*V^2/g)


=
148
lbf
Horsepower per belt, HPb =
(T2-T1)*V / 550
=
7.4
hp
Number of belts, Nb =
HP / HPb
=
4.1
belts
Input
Use
4
belts

This is the end of this work sheet.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
Spread Sheet Method:
1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.

SPUR GEARS
Circular pitch (CP) is the pitch circle arc length
between a point on one tooth and the corresponding
point on the adjacent tooth.
Diametral pitch (P) is the number of teeth per inch
of pitch circle diameter.

Spur Gear Dimensions


Pressure angle, Pa =
Diametral pitch, Pd =
Number of gear teeth, N =
Gear hub diameter =
Gear hub width =
Bore diameter =

14.5 or 20
N/D
-

Input
14.5
6
12
3.00
1.50
1.875

deg.
in
in
in

Calculation
Pitch circle diameter, D =
N / Pd
2.000
in
Addendum, A =
1 / Pd
0.167
in
Dedendum, B =
1.157 / Pd
0.193
in
Whole depth= Addendum+Dedendum, d =
2.157 / Pd
0.360
in
Clearance, C =
.157 / Pd
0.026
in
Outside diameter, OD =
D + (2*A)
2.333
in
or
OD =
(N + 2) / Pd
2.333
in
Root circle diameter, RD =
D - (2*B)
1.614
in
or
RD =
(N - 2.314) / Pd
1.614
in
Base circle, BC = D*Cos(Pa*.01745)
1.936
in
Circular pitch, CP =
*D / N
0.524
in
or
CP =
/ Pd
0.524
in
Chordal thickness, TC = D*Sin(90*.01745/N)
0.167
in
Chordal addendum, AC =
A + N^2 / (4*D)
18.167
in
Working depth, WD =
2*A
0.333
in
Note: Excel requires degrees to be converted to radians. Degrees x .01745 = Radians
=
3.1416
Use the above spread sheet to calculate the dimensions of gears.

Gear Tooth Interference


Base circle radius, Rbc = CP/2 =
Outside radius, Ros = OD/2 =
Pressure angle, Pa =

Pinion base circle radius =


Gear addendum radius =
There will be no interference if, Rbc <
Rbc <
Rbc <
Addendum radius, Ra =

Input
4.65
in
9.3
in
20
deg.
Calculation
Rbc
Ra
Ra
(Rbc^2 + Rc^2*(Sin(Pa))^0.5
5.63
6.00

GEAR TEETH STRENGTH

Gear Tooth Bending Stress


Tooth base thickness, t =
Moment arm length, h =
Tooth load, W =
Tooth face width (into paper), b =

Input
1.50
0.70
1000
1.00

in
in
lbf
in

Calculation
Base half thickness, c =
t/2
c=
0.75
in
Section modulus, I =
b*t^3 / 12
I=
0.28125
in^3
Tooth bending stress, Sb =
M*c / I
Sb =
1867
lbf/in^2
The stress calculated above does not include stress concentration or dynamic loading.

Gear Tooth Dynamic Load


Pitch line velocity, Vp =
Tooth face width, b =
Gear torque, T =
Circular pitch radius, R = CP / 2 =
Deformation factor (steel gears), C =
Static load, F =
F=
Dynamic load, Pd =
Pd =

Use the Lewis form factor, Y below:

Input
100
ft/min
3.13
in
1836
in-lbf
3.00
in
2950
4980
Calculation
2*T / R
1224
lbf
((0.05*V*(b*C + F)) / (0.05*V + (b*C + F)^.5)) + F
1711
Lewis Equation Form Factor Y
Pressure Pressure
Number of Teeth
Angle 14 Angle 20
12
0.067
0.078
14
0.075
0.088
16
0.081
0.094
18
0.086
0.098
20
0.090
0.102
25
0.097
0.108
30
0.101
0.114
50
0.110
0.130
60
0.113
0.134
75
0.115
0.138
100
0.117
0.142
150
0.119
0.146
300
0.122
0.150
Rack
0.124
0.154

Strength of Gear Teeth


Strength of Gear Teeth- Lewis Equation - if pitch circle diameter is known
Input
Allowable gear tooth tensile stress, S =
5000
lbf/in^2
Tooth width, b =
3.5
in
Circular pitch, Pc =
1.0473
in
Lewis form factor, Y =
0.094
Calculation
Allowable gear tooth load, F =
S*b*Pc*Y
F=
1723
lbf
Strength of Gear Teeth- Lewis Equation - if pitch circle diameter is not known
Input
Gear shaft torque, T =
15300
in-lbf
Diametral pitch, Pd =
5.00
in
Constant, k =
4
max
Lewis form factor, Y =
0.161
Number of gear teeth, N =
100
Calculation
Gear tooth tensile stress, S = 2*T*Pd^3 / (k*^2*Y*N)
S=
6016
lbf/in^2
Gear Pitch Line Velocity
Pitch circle diameter, Dp =
Rotational speed, n =
Gear Pitch Line Velocity, V =
V=
Allowable gear tooth load, F =
Gear Pitch Line Velocity, V =
Gear horsepower transmitted, HP =
HP =

Worm & Wheel Gearing

Input
5.33
800
*Dp*n / 12
1116
1722
840
Calculation
F*V / 33000
44

in
rpm
ft/min
lbf
ft/min
Note:
1.0 HP =
hp

33000

ft/min

Lead Angle, A
Lead =
Dw =
Tan(A/57.2975) =
A=
Lead angle, A =
Answer: A =

Input
2.25
4
Calculation
Lead / (*Dw)
0.1790
Tan-1(a)
10.15

radians
degrees

Worm Circular Pitch, Pc


AGMA Standard Circular Pitches: 1/8, 5/16, 3/8, 1/2, 5/8, 3/4, 1, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.
Input
Worm and wheel center distance, Cd =
16
in
Calculation
Wheel diameter, Dw =
Cd^0.875 / 2.2
Dw =
5.143
in
Worm circular pitch, Pc =
Dw / 3
Pc =
1.71
in

Use standard, Pc =

1.75

in

Strength of Worm & Wheel Gears - Lewis Equation


Pitch circle diameter, Dp =
Rotational speed, n =
Ultimate stress, Su =

Input
5.33
600
20000

in
rpm
lbf/in^2

Calculation
Gear Pitch Line Velocity, Vg =
*Dp*n / 12
Vg =
837
ft/min
Worm / Wheel allowable stress, So =
Su / 3
So =
6667
lbf/in^2
Worm/gear design stress, Sd =So*1200 / (1200 + Vg)
Sd =
3927
lbf/in^2

Sd =
Tooth width, b =
Circular pitch, Pnc =
Lewis form factor, Y =
Allowable gear tooth load, F =
F=

Input
3927
1.5
1.0473
0.094
Calculation
Sd*b*Pnc*Y
580

lbf/in^2
in
in
lbf

Worm Gear Dynamic Load

Input
1723
800
Calculation
Worm Gear Dynamic Load, Fd = F*(1200+Vg) / (1200)
Fd =
2872
Static load, F =
Gear Pitch Line Velocity, Vg =

Worm Gear Endurance Load


Worm/gear design stress, Sd =
Tooth width, b =
Lewis form factor, Y =
Worm wheel pitch circle diameter, Dp =
Worm Gear Endurance Load, Fe =
Fe =

Worm Gear Wear Load


Gear pitch diameter, Dg =

Input
4000
1.5
0.094
5.3
Calculation
Sd*b*Y* / Pnd
334
Input
5.3

lbf
ft/min

lbf

lbf/in^2
in
in

lbf

in

Tooth width, b =
Material wear constant, B =
Worm Gear Wear Load, Fw =
Fw =

1.5
60
Calculation
Dg*b*
477

in
-

lbf

Worm Gear Efficiency


Worm
Hardened steel
250 BHN steel
Hardened steel
Hardened steel
Cast iron

Material Wear Constant


Gear
Cast iron
Phosphor bronze
Phosphor bronze
Antimony bronze
Phosphor bronze

B
50
60
80
120
150

Input Data
0.1
12
degrees
Calculation
Worm gear efficiency, e = (1 - f*Tan(A/57.2975) / (1 + f/Tan(A/57.2975)
e=
0.986
Coefficient of friction, f =
Lead angle, A =

AGMA Worm Gear Heat Dissipation Limit


Input
3
25
Calculation
Maximum horse power limit, HPm = 9.5*C^1.7 / (R + 5)
HPm =
2.05
Worm to wheel center distance, C =
Transmission ratio, R =

This is the end of this spread sheet.

in
hp

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS, PUMPS, & MOTORS

One gallon = 231 cu in


Pressure, P =
Weight, W =
Cylinder area, A = W / P =
Cylinder diameter, D = (4*A / 3.142 )^0.5 =

Weight, W =
Cylinder diameter, D =
Cylinder area, A = 3.142 x D^2 / 4 =
Pressure, P = W / A =

Piston extends, x =
Time to extend, t =
Cylinder diameter, d =
Hydaulic pipe internal diameter, pd =
Piston speed, S = 60*x / t =
Cylinder area, A = 3.142 x D^2 / 4 =
Piston extention volume, v = A * x =
Volume in gallons, V = v / 231 =
Time in minutes to extend, T = t / 60 =
Flow rate, GPM = V / T =
Pipe internal area, pa = 3.142 x pd^2 / 4 =
Fluid speed in pipe, fs = v / (12*t*A) =

Pump flow, GPM =


Pump displacement, d =
Pump speed, RPM = GPM x 231 / d =

Hydraulic motor flow, GPM =


Hydraulic motor displacement, d =
Hydraulic motor speed, RPM = GPM x 231 / d =

Input
1000
3000
Output
3.00
1.95
Input
300
2
Output
3.142
95
Input
10
2
4
0.5
Output
300
12.568
125.68
0.544
0.033
16.32
0.196
0.42
Input
20
4.20
Output
1100
Input
20
2
Output
2310
Input

W
psi
lbs
sq in
in

psi

in
sec
in
in
in/min
sq-in
cu-in
gal
min
gpm
sq-in
ft/sec

gpm
cu in / rev
rpm

gpm
cu in / rev
rpm

Pump flow, GPM =


Pump pressure, P =
Pump efficiency pecent, e =
Pump power, HP = 100*GPM x P / (1741 x e%) =
This is the end of this spread sheet.

20
1000
70.00
Output
16.4

gpm
psi
%
hp

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006

Damped Vibrations With Forcing Function


The inertia forces of rotating and oscillating machinery cause elastic supports to vibrate.
Vibration amplitudes can be reduced by installing vibration damping mounting pads or springs.

Simple Vibrating Systems


External forcing function F(t) varies with time and is externally applied to the mass M.
We will assume, F(t) = Fm*Sin(t)
Fm is the maximum applied force.
M is the mass of the vibration object that is equal to W/g.
Omega, is the angular frequency as defined below.
g is the gravitational constant, 32.2 ft/sec^2.
X is the displacement from the equilibrium position.
C is the damping constant force per second velocity
and is proportional to velocity.
K is the spring stiffness force per inch.
See, "Math Tools" for Vibration
Forcing Function Calculations.

Undamped Vibrations
If the mass M shown above is displaced through distance x and released it will vibrate freely.
Undamped vibrations are called free vibrations. Both x and g are measured in inch units.
Input
Weight, W =
2
lb
Spring stiffness, k =
10
lb/in
Calculation
Gravitational Content, g =
32.2
ft/sec^2
=
3.142
Static Deflection, x =
W/k
=
0.20
in
Mass, M =
W / (g*12)
=
0.005
lbm-sec^2/in
Natural Frequency, fn =
(1/2*)*(k*/M)^.5
Hz
=
69.05
Hz
Angular frequency, =
2**fn
=
434
radn/sec

Displacement vs
Time Graph

Forced Undamped Vibrations


Motor weight, W =
Motor speed, N =
Gravitational content (ft), g =
Gravitational content (in), g =
Periodic disturbing force, Fd =
Motor mount stiffness, k =
Angular natural frequency, fn =
=
Disturbing force frequency, f =
=
Disturbing force angular frequency, fd =
=
Pseudo-static deflection, x =
=
Amplitude magnification factor, B =
=
Vibration amplitude =
Pick cell B84, Tools, Goal Seek,

Input
50
1150
32.2
386.4
840
500
Calculation
(k*g / W)^.5
62.2
N
1150
f*2* / 60
120.4
Fd / k
1.68000
1 / ( (1 - (fa / fn)^2)
0.363
B*(Fd / k)
0.610

lb
rpm
ft/sec^2
in/sec^2
lb
lb/in

rad/sec
cycles/min
rad/sec
rad/sec
in
in

in
in

Damped, (Viscous) Forced Vibrations


Motor Weight, W =
Motor Speed, N =
Gravitational Content (ft), g =
Gravitational Constant (in), g =
Isolation mount combined stiffness, k =
Rotating imbalance mass, Wi =
Rotating imbalance eccentricity, e =
Viscous damping ratio, C =
Static deflection of the mounts, d =
=
Undamped natural frequency, fn =
=

Input
500
1750
32.2
386.4
20000
40
1.5
0.2
Calculation
W/k
0.0250
(1 / 2*)*(g / d)^.5
19.784

lbm
rpm
ft/sec^2
in/sec^2
lb/in
lbm
in
in
in
Hz

"Math Tools" tab.

Disturbing force frequency, f =


=
Disturbing force angular frequency, fa =
=
Out of balance force F due to rotating mass
F=
=

N / 60
29.17
2**f
183.3

Hz
Hz
rad/sec
rad/sec

Wi*fa^2*e / g
5216

lbf

Forcing frequency / Natural frequency = r =


f / fn
=
1.474
Amplitude magnification factor, MF = 1/( (1 -r^2)+ (2*Cr)^2)
=
0.761
Vibration amplitude, x =
(MF)*(F / k)
=
0.1986
Transmissibility, TR = (MF)*(1 + (2*r*C)^2)^.5
=
0.884
Transmissibility Force, Ftr =
(TR)*F
=
4611

Critical Damping
Critical damping occurs when the vibration amplitude is stable:
C = Damping Coefficient
Ccrit = Critical Damping Coeff.
Ccrit =
2*(K*M)^.5
K=
System stiffness
M=
Vibrating Mass

in
in

lbf

Transmissibility (TR)
Transmissibility is the ratio of the force
transmitted to a machine's supports
due to a periodic imbalance in an; engine,
pump, compressor, pulverizer, motor, etc.
The amplitude of vibrations in machinery
mountings can be reduced with resilient
pads or springs called isolators.
The isolated system must have a natural
frequency less than 0.707 x the disturbing
periodic imbalance force.
The vibration amplitude will increase if the
isolated system has a natural frequency
higher than 0.707 x the disturbing frequency.
Transmissibility ratio is equal to the, mass displacement amplitude / base displacement amplitude.
TR =
X2 / X1
The transmissibility ratio TR, is the vibration amplitude reduction.
Input
16.0
12.0
Calculation
Transmissibility, TR =
1/(1-(fd/fn)^2)
TR =
-1.286
If mounting damper pad natural frequency is known:
Input
Transmissibility, TR =
0.5
Disturbing force frequency, fd =
14
Calculations
System natural frequency, fn =
fd / (1+(1/TR))^0.5
Answer: fn =
8.1
Springs are employed as vibration isolators.
Disturbing force frequency, fd =
Undamped natural frequency, fn =

Series Springs Combined Stiffness


k1 =
k2 =
1/k=
k =

Input
10
15
Calculation
1 / k1 + 1 / k2
(k1*k2) / (k1 + k2)

Hz
Hz

Hz

Hz

lbf/in
lbf/in

Answer: k =

lbf/in

Parallel Springs Combined Stiffness


k1 =
k2 =
Answer: k =
k =

Input
12
24
Calculation
k1 + k2
36

lbf/ in
lbf/ in

lbf/ in

Critical Speed of Rotating Shaft


The critical speed of a shaft is its
natural frequency. The amplitude of
any vibrating system will increase
if an applied periodic force has the
same or nearly same frequency.
Resonance occurs at the critical
speed.

Flywheel mass, W =
Shaft diameter, D =
Steel Shaft, E =
Bearing center distance, L2 =
Flywheel overhang, L1 =
Gravitational constant (ft), g =
Gravitational constant (in), g =
Shaft radius, r =
=
Shaft section moment of inertia, I =
=

Input
50
1.000
29000000
20
8
32.2
386.4
Calculation
D/2
0.500
*r^4 / 4
0.0491

The ball bearings act as pivoting supports


Flywheel static deflection is;
x = W*L1^2*(L1+L2) /3*E*I
=
0.021
Natural frequency, f =
=

(1 / 2*)*(g / x)^.5
21.6

lbm
in
lb/sq in
in
in
ft/sec^2
in/sec^2
in
in
in^4
in^4

in
in
Hz
Hz

Beam Stiffness (k), Deflection (x), and Natural Frequency ( f )


Cantilever, load W at Free End
Load at Free End, W =
Length, L =
Young's Modulus, E =
Moment of Inertia, I =
Deflection, x =
Answer: x =
Stiffness, k =
Answer: k =
Natural frequency, f =
f=
Cantilever, Uniform Load w
Uniform Load, w =
Length, L =
Young's Modulus, E =
Moment of Inertia, I =
Deflection, x =
Answer: x =
Stiffness, k =
Natural frequency, f =
f=
Beam, Pinned ends, W at Mid Span
Load at Mid Span, W =
Length, L =
Young's Modulus, E =
Moment of Inertia, I =
Deflection, x =
Answer: x =
Stiffness, k =
Answer: k =
Natural frequency, f =
f=
Beam, Pinned ends, Uniform Load w
Uniform Load, w =
Length, L =
Young's Modulus, E =
Moment of Inertia, I =

Input
600
30
29000000
4.000
Calculation
W*L^3 / (3*E*I)
0.047
3*E*I/L^3
12889
(1/2)*(g / x)^0.5
1321
Input
450
4
29000000
2.000
Calculation
w*L^4 / (8*E*I)
0.001
8*E*I/L^3
(1/2)*(g / x)^0.5
92887
Input
400
60
29000000
3.000
Calculation
W*L^3 / (48*E*I)
0.021
48*E*I/L^3
19333.3333333333
(1/2)*(g / x)^0.5
2972
Input
500
40
29000000
2.000
Calculation

lbf
in
lb/sq in
in^4
in
in
lbf/in
lbf/in
Hz
lbf/in
in
lb/sq in
in^4
in
in
lbf/in
Hz

lbf
in
lb/sq in
in^4
in
in
lbf/in
lbf/in
Hz
lbf/in
in
lb/sq in
in^4

Deflection, x =
Answer: x =
Stiffness, k =
Answer: k =
Natural frequency, f =
f=

Beam, Fixed Ends, Load W at Mid Span


Load at Mid Span, W =
Length, L =
Young's Modulus, E =
Moment of Inertia, I =
Deflection, x =
Answer: x =
Stiffness, k =
Answer: k =
Natural frequency, f =
f=
Beam, Fixed ends, Uniform Load w
Uniform Load, w =
Length, L =
Young's Modulus, E =
Moment of Inertia, I =
Deflection, x =
Answer: x =
Stiffness, k =
Answer: k =
Natural frequency, f =
f=

5*w*L^4 / (384*E*I)
0.287
384*E*I/(5*L^3)
69600
(1/2)*(g / x)^0.5
214

Input
700
80
29000000
2.000
Calculation
W*L^3 / (192*E*I)
0.032
192*E*I/L^3
21750
(1/2)*(g / x)^0.5
1911
Input
600
50
29000000
2.000
Calculation
w*L^4 / (384*E*I)
0.168
384*E*I/(L^3)
178176
(1/2)*(g / x)^0.5
365

in
in
lbf/in
lbf/in
Hz

lbf
in
lb/sq in
in^4
in
in
lbf/in
lbf/in
Hz
lbf/in
in
lb/sq in
in^4
in
in
lbf/in
lbf/in
Hz

Plate Natural Frequency (f)


Rectangular plate natural frequency, f = (K / 2*)*((D*g)/(w*a^4))
Rectangular Plate, simply supported edges = K, ss
Rectangular Plate, fixed edges = K, fixed
Vibration Coefficients
a/b
Circular Stiffness Factors
1.0
Circular Plate, simply supported
0.8
edges, K = 4.99.
0.6
0.4
Circular Plate, fixed supported edges,
K = 10.2.
0.2
0.0

K, ss
19.7
16.2
13.4
11.5
10.3
9.87

Rectangular Plate Natural Frequency (f)


Modulus of elasticity, E =
Plate thickness, t =

Input
2.90E+07
0.5

lbf/in^2
in

K, fixed
36.0
29.9
25.9
23.6
22.6
22.4

Poisson's ratio, v =
Plate short side, a =
Plate long side, b =
From the table above, K,ss or Kfixed =
Load per unit area, w =

0.3
36
45.0
16.2
50

in
in
lb/in^2

Calculation
Answer: a / b =
0.80
D = E*t^3 / (12*(1 - ^2))
Answer: D =
331960
=
3.142
Gravitational acceleration, g =
386.4
in/sec^2
Rectangular Plates, f = (K / 2*)*((D*g)/(w*a^4))
Answer: f =
3.938
Hz

Circular Plate Natural Frequency (f)


Load per unit area, w =
Modulus of elasticity, E =
Plate thickness, t =
Poisson's ratio, v =
Plate radius, r =
From the table above, K,ss =
Kfixed =
=
g=
D=
Answer: D =

Input
50
2.90E+07
0.5
0.3
36
4.99
10.2
Calculation
3.142
386.4
E*t^3 / (12*(1 - ^2))
331960

lb/in^2
lb/in^2

in

in/sec^2

Simply supported edges, f = (K / 2*)*((D*g)/(w*r^4))


Answer: f = 1.213

Hz

Fixed edges, f = (K / 2*)*((D*g)/(w*r^4))


Answer: f = 2.479

Hz

Balancing Rotating Shafts


Masses in the Same Plane
For static balance:
Two masses, M1 and M2 must be in the
same plane and 180 degrees out of
phase and moments must balance:
mi*Ri = 0

M1*R1+ M2*R2 = 0

Masses in Different Planes


For static and dynamic balance there must
be no unbalanced moments and couples.
When the masses are in the same plane
static and dynamic balance occurs when:
mi*Ri*Xi = 0
M2*R2*X2+ M3*R3*X3 + M4*R4*X4 = 0

The crank (Mc) is statically and dynamically


balanced by two counter weights, M1 & M2,
all three masses are in the same plane.
Find the masses of the two counterweights.

Mass 1 C.G. radius, R1 =


X1 =
Mass 2 C.G. radius, R2 =
X2 =
Crank Mass, Mc =
Crank Mass Eccentricity, E =
Dynamic balance about mass M1:

Input
10
16
14
30
450
2.5
Calculation

in
in
in
in
lbm
in

Example only
12
18
12
36
570
3.96

Mc*E*X1 =
M2*R2*(X1+X2)
M2 = Mc*E*X1 / R2*(X1+X2)
Answer: M2 =
27.950310559
Condition for static balance:
mi*Ri =
0
0 = M1*R1+M2*R2-Mc*E
Mass required to balance Mc, M1 = (-M2*R2+Mc*E) / R1
Answer: M1 =
73.3695652174

lbm

lbm

Forced, Steady State Vibration Example

Calculate the two spring support stiffness


(k) if the horizontal vibration amplitude is to
be no more than 0.25 inches.
Estimated friction is 5% of the critical
damping factor (Cc).

Motor speed, N =
Motor+Compressor+Table Mass, W =
Critical damping coefficient =
Friction damping coefficient =
(Friction/ Critical) damping factor ratio, DR =

Allowable vibration amplitude, Y =


Motor speed, =
Answer: =
g=
M=
Answer: M =
Total spring support stiffness, Kt =
Kt =
Answer: Kt =
K=
Answer: K =
Critical value of damping factor, Cc =
Answer: Cc =
Friction damping factor, Cf =

Input
360
80
Cc
Cf
Cf / Cc
0.05
0.25
Calculation
2**N / 60
37.704
386.4
W/g
0.2070
2*K
M*^2
294.3
Kt / 2
147.2
2*(Kt*M)^.5
15.61
Cc*DR

rpm
lbm

in

rad / sec
in/sec^2
lbm-sec^2/in

lbf / in
lbf / in

Answer: Cf =
The motor periodic imbalance force, F =
The motor peak imbalance force, Fo =
At resonance, Y =
Fo =
Answer: Fo =

0.781
Fo*Sin(*t)
Cf**Y
Fo / Cc*
Cf**Y
7.36

lbf
lbf
in
lbf

Vertical Vibration Damper Selection


A metal tumbling drum driven by an electric
motor-gear, right, rotates at 1080 rpm causing
a disturbing vibration to the floor on which it is
mounted.
The loaded drum, motor, and support base .
weigh 400 lbm.

Vibration Isolator Selection


Select 4 vibration isolators that will provide
80% vibration reduction applied to the floor.
System weight, W =
Number of isolators, N =
Vibration reduction, VR =
Disturbing frequency, Fd =

Weight per isolator, w =


Answer: w =
Transmissibility, T =
Answer: T =
Answer: Fd =
Transmissibility, T =
System natural frequency, Fn =
Answer: Fn =
g=
Stiffness, K =
Deflection, x =
Undamped natural frequency, Fn =
Fn =

Input
200
4
0.80
1080
Calculation
W/N
50

lbm

rpm

lbm

1 - VR
0.20
18
(1 / (1-(Fd / Fn)^.5)
Fd / (1 +(1/T))^.5
7.35

rps

386.4
W/x
W/K
(1 / 2)*(K*g / W)^.5
(1 / 2)*(g / x)^.5

ft / sec^2

Hz

Hz

Fn =
Solving for deflection in the above, x =
Answer: x =

3.128*(1 / x)^.5
(3.128)^2 / (Fn)^2
0.181

in

Suggested max transmissibility, Tmax =


10
Ref. "Engineered Solutions" a Barry Controls publication.

At resonance transmissibility, T =
C / Ccrit =
Answer: C / Ccrit =

1/ (2*C / Ccrit)
1/ (2*T)
0.05

Isolator Selected: Go to the Barry Controls home page at:


4 Barry Controls vibration isolators http://www.barrycontrols.com/
Part No. 633A-100
Graphical Values
Deflection due to static load of 100 lb =
0.275
in
Isolator frequency =
7.2
Hz

The "Barry Controls" information presented here may be found on the web at:
www.barrycontrols.com
"Barry 633A Series Mounts are medium weight mounts normally
used for vertically applied loads to prevent transmission of noise
and vibration caused by rotation of imbalanced equipment
(i.e. generators, blowers, pumps, etc...)
Low-profile, low frequency elastomeric noise and vibration

isolators for medium weight industrial equipment."

The above graph shows a static load of 100 lbs produces a deflection of 0.275 inches.

This is the end of this spread sheet.

69.05255

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006

Shock Loads
A shock load is caused by a nearly instantaneous
rise and fall of acceleration.

Shock input pulse is normally


expressed in g's.

Free Fall Impact Shock

A typical free fall shock test is an 11


millisecond second half sine waveform
with a peak acceleration of 15 g.
The above graph shows a static load of 100 lbs produces a natural frequency of 7.2 Hz.
Shock Impulse Deflection
An electronic device is to be subjected to a
15g half sine shock lasting 11 milliseconds.
The unit is mounted on a 10 Hz natural
frequency isolation system.
Determine the maximum shock transmission
Half sine shock acceleration, a =
Shock pulse time, t =
g=
Isolator natural frequency, Fn =

Input
12
0.018
386.4
20

g
sec
in/ sec^2
Hz

Calculation
Half sine pulse max peak velocity, Vmax =
2*g*a*t /
Answer: Vmax =
53.13
in/ sec^2
Max acceleration, G = Vmax*(2**Fn)/ g
Answer: G =
17.3
g's
Dynamic isolator deflection: Dd = Vmax/ (2**Fn)
Answer: Dd =
0.423
in
Transmissibility Ratio, TR = Ftransmitted/ Fapplied
TR =Bd*(1+(2*r*C)^2)^.5
Notes:
Magnification factor Bd must be greater
than 1.00 or vibrations will be amplified.
Magnification factor, Bd =
Bd =
D=
Fo =
K=

1/((1-r^2)^2+(2*C*r)^2)^.5
D /(Fo / K)
Vibration amplitude
Peak disturbing force
Support stiffness

Isolator Selection
http://www.baldor.com/support/product_specs/generators/Vibration_Isolators/01_Korfund_Catalog.pdf

Equipment Weight, W =
Number of Isolators, N =
Applied Vertical Shock Acceleration, Gv =
Shock Half Sine Pulse time, t =
Allowable sway space, Xv =
Isolator Roll Stiffness, Kr =
Isolator Shear Stiffness, Kh =
Isolator Compression Stiffness, Kv =
Isolator Combined Total Stiffness, Kt =
Equipment Fragility g Limit, Af =

Input
13.3
4
50
0.003
1.4
0
0
133
133
10

Load per Isolator, Wi =


Answer: Wi =
Required Isolation Factor, If =
Answer: If =

Calculation
W/N
3.317
Af / Gv
20.00

Required Transmissibility, Tr =
Answer: Tr =

1 - (If /1000)
0.8000

The spring type vibration and shock isolator

lbm
g
sec
in
lbf/in
lbf/in
lbf/in
lbf/in
g

lbm
lbm
%

Flexmount CB1260-39
"
"
"

information shown here may be found at:


http://www.baldor.com
Korfund division of Baldor Motor corp.
and at the direct link above.
"Effective vibration control for loads up to
. Static deflections up to 1.36". Available
with, or without adjustable snubbing."
"Applications include: Stationary equipment,
HVAC, Compressors, Pumps, Motor
Generators, Fans, Blowers, etc."
Vibration Damper Selection
Calculations continued
Gravitational constant, g =
386
in/sec^2
Isolator Vertical Natural frequency, Fn = 3.13*(Kv / Wi)^.5
Answer: Fn =
19.8
Hz
Half Sine Shock Pulse Frequency, Fp =
1/ (2 * t)
Answer: Fp =
166.7
Hz
Shock Absorber Selection
Max Vertical Shock Transmitted, Gv = Wi *(2**Fn)/ g
Answer: Gv =
9.0
Required Average Spring Rate, Ks = (2**Fn)^2*(W/g)
Answer: Ks =
133
Combined Isolator Vertical Frequency, Fc =
Answer: Fc =

3.13*(Ks / Wi)
19.8

Maximum Dynamic Travel, Dt = Gv*g / (2**Fs)^2


Answer: Dt =
0.22
Max Half Sine Pulse Velocity, Vv =
Answer: Vv =

2*g*Gv*t /
36.9

lb/in

Hz

in

in/sec

Above: Korfund division of Baldor Motor corp.

This is the end of this spread sheet.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS


Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006
EXCEL MATH TOOLS
Useful math tools applicable to this course are given below.
Insert the Microsoft Office CD for Add-Ins
If Excel's, "Goal Seek" or "Solver" are not
installed you will need to select drop-down
menu: Tools > Add-Ins > Goal Seek
Tools > Add-Ins > Solver
To open select Tools.

Spread Sheet Method:


1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.

When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting:
Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK
When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with:
Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK

What if Calculations
Excel will make a, what if calculation using, "Goal Seek" when the calculated formula
value needs to be changed.

Goal Seek Example


The hypotenuse of the right angle triangle above is calculated in the table below. Columns, A
and B are intercescted by rows 5 through 10 forming cells. Cell B6 contains the value 4.00.
Cell B10 contains the formula, "= (B6^2 + B7^2) ^ (1/2)".
The hypotenuse is found to be 5.00 when the other two sides are: 3.00 and 4.00. However
the, "Optimum Value" for hypotenuse is 7.00.
Select the formula cell, B10 and Goal Seek will calculate a new value (target value) for cell B7
that will change the hypotenuse to 7.00.

A
5
6
7
8
9
10

B
Input
ADJ = 4.00
OPP = 3.00
Calculations
HYP = (ADJ^2 + OPP^2)^(1/2)
= 5.00

To Create the Above Table


Type, Input in cell B5 as shown below. ADJ = in cell A6. 4 in cell B6.
Complete the spreadsheet table below in columns A and B down to row 9.
1. Select cell B9 with the mouse pointer.
2. Press keys: ctrl and C together.
3. Pick cell B10, Enter. The formula, ( ADJ^2 + OPP^2 )^(1/2) will be copied into cell B10.
4. Press: f2, home , =. Function key f2 enables editing a cell. Home key moves the mouse
pointer to the left side of the cell. Type the, = sign and press, "Enter" to enable cell B10 to do
the math calculation. See cell below B10.

5. Cell B10 below contains the calculated value 5.00.

A
5
6
7
8
9
10

B
Input
ADJ = 4.00
OPP = 3.00
Calculations
HYP = (ADJ^2 + OPP^2)^(1/2)
= 5.00

What if Calculations
Excel will make a, what if calculation when the calculated formula value needs to be
changed.
1. While in Excel 2007 pick the, Data tab shown below.

2. To the right of the Data tab pick, What-If Analysis followed by, Goal Seek illustrated
below.

3. Goal Seek allows you to pick the formula cell with the 5.00 result followed by entering the
desired value, 7.00 in the, Goal Seek dialog box below.
4. Next pick an input number, 3.00 in this example then pick, OK.

5. Excel has iteratively changed cell B7 to 5.74 at which point cell B10 is equal to the desired
result of 10.00, below.

5. Excel has iteratively changed cell B7 to 5.74 at which point cell B10 is equal to the desired
result of 10.00, below.

Excel's Goal Seek Example


Drive Shaft Design
Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
Torque shock & fatigue factor, Kt =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Material shear modulus, G =

Input
5.0
1750
3
0.500
10
11500000

Calculation
Applied motor shaft torque, Ta = 12*33000*HP / (2**N)
=
180.05
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
*D^4 / 32
J=
0.006

hp
rpm
in
in
psi

in-lbf
in^4

Answer: Design Torque, Td =


=
Shear stress for shafts, St =
=
Shaft torsion deflection angle, a =
a=
a=

Kt*Ta
540
Td*D / (2*J)
22005
Td*L / (J*G)
0.0765
4.39

in-lbf
lbf/in^2
radians
degrees

Excel's Goal Seek Problem


Use Excel's, "Goal Seek" in the duplicate example below to calculate a new shaft diameter D that will
reduce the above torsion stress of 22005 lbf/in^2 to 12000 lbf/in^2, keeping the same 5 hp motor.
Answer: 0.612 inch diameter.
Step 1. Pick the torsion shear stress (St) cell B90, 20005
Step 2. Select drop-down menu, Tools > Goal Seek
Step 3. Pick the "To value" box and type, 12000
Step 4. Pick the, "By changing cell" box and pick the shaft
diameter D cell B78 initially containing, 0.500
Step 5. Click, OK
Step 6. Use the same spread sheet below:
The shaft torsion stress St will is set at 12000 lbf/in^2
the shaft diameter D has changed from 0.500 to 0.612
inches and the shaft twist will change from 4.39 to
1.95 degrees.

Drive Shaft Design


Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
Torque shock & fatigue factor, Kt =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Material shear modulus, G =

Input
5
1750
3
0.612
10
11500000

hp
rpm
in
in
psi

Calculation
Applied motor shaft torque, Ta =12*33000*HP / (2**N)
=
180.05
in*lbf
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
*D^4 / 32
J=
0.014
in^4
Answer: Design Torque, Td =
Kt*Ta
=
540
in-lbf
Shear stress for shafts, St =
Td*D / (2*J)
=
12000
lbs/in^2
Shaft torsion deflection angle, a =
Td*L / (J*G)
a=
0.0341
radians

a=

1.95

degrees

The Vibration Forcing Function


One end of a spring having stiffness K1 is connected to mass M1 on wheels and
the other end is connected to a vertical wall. One end of a second spring having
stiffness K2 is connected to mass M2 on wheels and the other end is connected
to mass M1.
A force applied to mass M1 initiates the vibration. Friction is small enough to be
neglected.

Max kinetic energy, K.E. = (1/2)*M1^2* ^2 + (1/2)*M2^2* ^2


Max potential energy, P.E. = (1/2)*K1*X1^2 + (1/2)*K2*(X2 - X1)^2
Neglecting friction, Max K.E. =

Max P.E.

-^2 = [K1+K2*((X2/X1) - 1)^2]/ [(M1+M2*(X2/X1)^2]


1. This equation will give the first and lowest natural frequency ().
2. The solution for is by trial and error for various values of X2/X1.
Input
0.1
Reference: Machine
0.1
Design by A.S. Hall,
A.R. Holowenko, H.G.
20
Laughlin, Published
20
byMcGraw-Hill.
1.6180
Calculation
-^2 = [K1+K2*((X2/X1) - 1)^2]/ [(M1+M2*(X2/X1)^2]
-^2 =
76.3932
=
8.740
radn/sec
3. Use Excel's Solver for a trial and error solution to the above forcing function example.
4. Start above solution by typing, X2 / X1 = 0
5. Use drop down menu, Tools > Solver > Set Target Cell: > B144 > Equal to Min
Mass, M1 =
Mass, M2 =
K1 =
k2 =
X2 / X1 =

6. By Changing Cell > B140 > Solve > Keep Solver Solution

Excel's, Equation "Solver"


Excel's Solver can solve one equation of the form: y equals a function of x, y = f(x). The
function of x can be a polynomial; ( a + bx + cx2 + dx3 +. zxn ), an exponential: ( ae nx ), a
logarithmic: a(logx), trigonometric: ( aSin x + bCos x), or any other function of x.
Also Excel's Solver can solve multple simultaneous equations; linear, non-linear, or a mixture
of the two.
Excel iteratively adjusts one input value of x to cause one calculated formula cell value of y to
equal a target value of y.

C
5
6
7
8
9

Guess X =

D
Problem
1.4

Y = 2*X^5 - 3*X^2 - 5
= -0.1235

Solver Example
1. The input value of X is 1.4 and this value of X causes Y to equal -0.1235 in the spreadsheet
table above.
2. Excel's Solver will adjust the input value of X, in this case1.4 in blue cell D6, by iteration
(repeatedly) until the calculated value of Y in the yellow cell D9 approaches the target value of
zero, ( 0 ).
3. Select the calculated answer in yellow cell, ( D9 ) below.
4. Select: Tools > Goal Seek > Target Cell [ $D$9 ] > Equal to: > Value of:
> 0 > By changing cells: Select [ $D$6 ] > Add (Constraints) >
Cell Reference > $D$9 = 0 > OK.
C
5
6
7
8
9

Solved X =

D
Solution
1.4041

Y = 2*X^5 - 3*X^2 - 5
=
0.0004

5. The completed calculation above shows that if X = 1.4041 then Y = 0.0004 or 4 / 10,000
which is close enough to 0 for engineering purposes.

Simultaneous Equations Using Excel's, "Solver"


Reference: www.dslimited.biz/excel_totorials
Equations to be solved:
u + v + w + x + y = 5.5
u + 2v + w - 0.5x + 2y = 22.5
2v + 2w - x - y = 30
2u - w + 0.75x + 0.5y = -11
u + 0.25v + w - x = 17.5
1. Insert the equations below into column B cells:
Equations
=E146+E147+E148+E149+E150
0.0
=E146+2*E147+E148-0.5*E149+2*E150
0.0
=2*E147+2*E148-E149-E150
0.0
=2E146-2E148-E149-E150
0.0
=E146+0.25E147+E148-E149
0.0
2. Select cells, E146 to 150
3. Click on drop down menu: Tools > Solver >
4. Delete contents of; Set Target Cell
5. Pick: By Changing Cells: > Select cells E146 to E150

Constants
5.5
22.5
30
-11
17.5

Solution
u=
v=
w=
x=
y=

Row
Row
Row
Row
Row

146
147
148
149
150

Equations
5.5
22.5
30.0
-11.0
17.5

Constants
5.5
22.5
30
-11
17.5

Solution
u=
v=
w=
x=
y=

1.00
4.00
7.50
-8.00
1.00

You may use the table below to solve the 5 simultaneous equations.

Row
Row
Row
Row
Row

146
147
148
149
150

This is the end of this spread sheet.

Equations
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Constants
5.5
22.5
30
-11
17.5

Solution
u=
v=
w=
x=
y=

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00