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AP FIVE THEMES OF

GEOGRAPHY
Rubenstein Text

Theme #1: Location (14-20)


Where is it?
Two types of location
1. Absolute (Mathematical Location): exact place on earth
Use latitude and longitude coordinates

2. Relative (Situation): describes a place in comparison to other

places around its


Ex: library is three blocks west of the park

Latitude and Longitude


Latitude
Runs parallel to the
equator and measures
north and south
Changes in latitude
Changes an attitude
Longitude
Run parallel to the
Prime Meridian and
measure east and
west

Equator- imaginary line that divides the earth

into north and south halves


Prime Meridian- imaginary line that divides
the earth into east and west halves
International Date Line- 180 degress longitude

Time Zones

Theme #2: Place (5)


What is it like?
Physical and cultural characteristics of a location
Climate
Landforms
Vegetation
Human influence: dams, highways, etc.

A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular charcteristic

Ways in which geographers describe place


1. Toponym- name given to a place on Earth
Named for person, religion, ancient history, physical enviornment,

direction

2. Site- the physical character of a place


Climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and

elevation
Essential in selecting locations for settlement

3. Situation- location of a place relative to other

places

Identify other landmarks to direct people to the desired location


Helps understand the importance of location

Place Comparison
Place Name: The most

straightforward way to name a


particular location. A toponym is the
name given to a place on Earth.
Names are vast and based on many
factors.

Site: The physical character of a

place.

Situation: The location of a place

relative to other places.

Mathematical Location: Describes

a precise location that is drawn by a


formula that pinpoints a specific
point on a meridian and a parallel.

Place Name: Atlanta, Georgia


Site: Lies on the central piedmont which

extends to the fall line of the rivers.


South of the most southerly of the Blue
Ridge Mountains in the northeast and
north central portion of the state. Above
and to the north of the coastal plain,
which levels to the coastal flatlands.

Situation: Urban Metropolis which is

centrally located in the southeast portion


of the United States, in an ideal location
for trade and travel.

Mathematical Location: Location:

33.76290 N, 84.42259 W

Atlanta, Georgia
Place Name: Atlanta, Georgia
Site: Lies on the central piedmont

which extends to the fall line of the


rivers. South of the most southerly
of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the
northeast and north central portion
of the state. Above and to the north
of the coastal plain, which levels to
the coastal flatlands.

Situation: Urban Metropolis which

is centrally located in the southeast


portion of the United States, in an
ideal location for trade and travel.

Mathematical Location: Location:

33.76290 N, 84.42259 W

2 Aspects of Place
Physical characteristics
Landforms
Bodies of water
Climate
Vegetation
Animal life

Cultural characteristics
Population settlement
Agriculture
Industry
Religion

2 Aspects of Place Atlanta, GA


Physical characteristics
Landforms (hills)
Bodies of water (Chattahoochee

R.)
Climate (ex. humid subtropical)
Vegetation
Animal life

Cultural characteristics
Population settlement

(Hartsfield-Jackson airport)
Businesses (Home Depot,
Coca-Cola)
Religion
Food (Varsity)
Recreation (Turner Field, parks)
Education (GT)

For the following places, come up with a list of at least 3


physical and 3 cultural characteristics you can identify
by looking at the pictures

Atlanta, GA

2 Aspects of Place Atlanta, GA


Physical characteristics
Landforms (hills)
Bodies of water (Chattahoochee

R.)
Climate (ex. humid subtropical)
Vegetation
Animal life

Cultural characteristics
Population settlement

(Hartsfield-Jackson airport)
Businesses (Home Depot,
Coca-Cola)
Religion
Food (Varsity)
Recreation (Turner Field, parks)
Education (GT)

Your Assignment
FOR THE FOLLOWING PLACES, COME
UP WITH A LIST OF AT LEAST 3
PHYSICAL AND 3 CULTURAL
CHARACTERISTICS YOU CAN IDENTIFY
BY LOOKING AT THE PICTURES

Pittsburgh, PA

Venice, Italy

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Tunisia

India

Bringing it all together


After looking at the physical and cultural

characteristics you listed for the international


locations (NOT Pittsburgh), if you had to pick one to
live in, which would it be?

What aspects of this place led you to this decision?


Why is this the best choice for YOU?

Theme #3: Region


How are places similar or different?
Area of the earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of
cultural and physical features
Different types of regions
1. formal
2. functional
3. perceptual

Formal Region
Formal Region: An

area within which


everyone shares in
common one or more
distinctive
characteristics.

Formal Region (21)


Limited number of regional characteristics
Generally defined by continental area and cultural styles
or predominant characteristincs
Examples:

United States and Canada


Latin America (Spanish/Portuguese speaking)
Europe
Southwest Asia (Islam and desert regions)
South Asia (Hinduism and Aryan/Dravidian descent)
East Asia (Buddhism and Asian descent)

OR

The Wheat Belt


Republican/Democratic States
Bible Belt

Can be determined by the scale at which you view an area

(Country, state, county, city, etc.)

Gore Vs. Bush


What regional characteristics appear on these maps? What conclusions can you draw?

Functional Regions (21)


Organized around a set of interactions and connections

between places
Characterized by a hub or central place/focal point
Examples:
New York City
Metro Atlanta
MDJ/AJC
11 Alive
AM 750/95.5

Functional Region

Functional Region: Also called a nodal region, is

an area organized around a node or focal point.

Vernacular Regions (22)


AKA Perceptual Regions
Region in which people perceive the characteristics;

however, sometimes they can be disagreed upon

Ex: What states would you consider to be in the southeast?

Vernacular Regions Contd (22)


Place that people believe exists as part of their

cultural identity

Example: Mental map- internal representation of the

Earths surface

Example: The South


High cotton production
Low graduation rates
States in the Confederacy
Baptists
Southerners and other Americans share a strong

sense of the American South some pride it


some avoid it

What type of region would you consider this to be?

Theme #4: Human Environment Interaction (25)


How do people relate to the physical world?
The study of human environment relationships is cultural

ecology
People learn to use what the environment offers them and to

change that environment to meet their needs


Examples: dams, roads, highways, cities, slash-and-burn,
deforestation, etc.

Types of Cultural Ecology


Environmental determinism
States physical environment causes social development
Climate
Precipitation
Topography

Types of Cultural Ecology


Possiblism
Physical
environment can
limit human
action, but people
have the ability to
adjust to the
environment

People learn what


crops thrive
Technology air
conditioning

Theme #5: Movement (86)


How do people, goods, and ideas move from one

location to another?
Human geography focuses on how people
migrate and spread their ideas
Ex: immigrations from Europe to the U.S. Why

leave? What factors caused this?

Diffusion 2 different types


Relocation Diffusion The spread of an idea through

the physical movement of people from one place to


another.
Variety of reasons for relocation such as political, economic, and

environmental

Diffusion 2 different types


Expansion Diffusion
Three Types

Hierarchical Diffusion From persons of

authority or power
Contagious Diffusion Rapid, widespread
Stimulus Diffusion underlying principle

Globalization
Globalization: A force or process that involves

the entire world and results in making


something worldwide in scope.
Uniform
Integrated
Interdependent

Completive

Nature

Globalization of Culture
Increasingly uniform

cultural preferences
produce uniform global
landscapes of material
artifacts and of cultural
values.
Transnational
corporations
companies located in
more than one country
(McDonalds)

Space: Distribution Of Features


Distribution The arrangement of a feature

on Earths surface.

May be close together, or far apart


History vs. Geography

Three Main Properties


Density
Concentration
Pattern

Density

Arithmetic Density The total number of objects in the area, often total population divided by its

area.
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of arable land (land suitable for agriculture).
Agricultural Density The number of farmers per unit of farmland.

Concentration: The
extent of a features
spread over space.
Comparing the Concentration
Clustered When the objects in an
area are closer together.
Dispersed When the objects in an
area are farther apart.

Pattern: The geometric arrangement of


objects in spaces/regions.

Grid Patterns/Town Squares


Land Ordinance of 1785
Distribution - Density/Concentration/Pattern

GLOBALIZATION
AND
SPATIAL INTERACTION
OF PLACES

Connections
Between
Places

Space-Time Compression Used to describe the


reduction in the time it takes for something to reach
another place.
Growing or Shrinking?
Technology Communications and Transportation
Culture and Economy

Space-Time Compression
Places seem closer because of increased technology and

the ability to access/travel to them quicker

Spatial Interaction
Communication has made it possible for people in distant
places to be aware of other people with different cultural
beliefs, customs, and traits.
Networks Computer, Television, and Transportation
Barriers Physical and Cultural

Distance Decay
The decreasing and

eventual
disappearance of a any
aspect or event.
Opposite of space-time

compression. The
farther you are away
from something the
less likely it is to impact
you.

Connections Between Places


Diffusion Process by which a characteristic spreads across

space from one place to another over time.


There are two basic types
Relocation
Expansion

Hearth - The place (region) from which an innovation originates.