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OVERVIEW

Our Body Anatomy

OVERVIEW 2


These organ can be classified into 10 systems according to their function:

















We can assume our body as a factory and our organ as the workers who
work 24/7 to keep us thriving.
































This is the
control room. We
have a full
control of the
whole body.

My kidney filters
the blood and
throws waste
material out of
the body.

My body is made
up of 206 bones
and 650 muscles.

My heart will
My heart will
never stop
never stop
beating as long
beating as long
as I am alive.
as I am alive.

My body have 5 liter


of blood to transport
materials throughout
the body.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 3

Introduction
The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry
messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the
body. The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and
Peripheral nervous system.

The nervous system in humans controls the activities of the body and how
it reacts to the surroundings.

The nervous system consists of brain, spinal cord,


spinal nerves and highly specialized sense organs.


































THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 4

Brain
Diagram






The brain is
completely encased in
bone (skull)

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 5

Function and parts of brains



The brain can be divided into 3 parts:

o
o

Hindbrain
Medulla (myelencephalon)
Pons (metencephalon)
Cerebellum
Midbrain (mesencephalon)
Forebrain
Telencephalon
Cerebral Cortex
Frontal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe

The brainstem refers to the midbrain and portions of the hindbrain.


Part of brain Function
Forebrain
Concerned with intellegence, memory, learning, sensation and
overall control of all voluntary actions in human.
Concerned with the regulation of body temperature and water
potential of blood, appetite, sleep and emotions.
Produces and release hormone.
Midbrain

Concerned with sight and visual reflexes.

Hindbrain

Controls muscular coordination, especially in maintaining


balance.
Controls involuntary action.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 6

Nervous tissue, Spinal Cord and Spinal


nerve
Nervous tissue
The nervous system is made up of nervous tissue.
The nervous tissue consists of nerve cells called the neurones.

There are 3 type of nervous tissue:
Sensory neurone (Receptor neurone)
Transmits nerve impulses from the sense organ or receptors to the
central nervous system.
Relay neurone (Intermediate neurone)
Transmits nerve impulses from the sensory neurone to the motor
neurone. They are found within the central nervous system.
Motor neurone ( Effector neurone)
Transmits nerves impulses from the central nervous system to the
effectors.

The diagram below shows the connection between 3


type of neurones:

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 7

Structure of nervous tissue

















































Definition of synapse:
A synapse is a junction between 2 neurones, or a junction
between a neurone and an effector such as a muscle or a gland

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 8

Spinal nerves

What are nerves?


A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibres enclosed in a sheath of connective tissue.
Nerve may emerge from the brain (cranial nerve) or spinal cord (spinal nerve).
They may contain:
Sensory nerve only conduct nerve impulses from sense organs.
Motor nerve fibres only conduct nerve impulses from effectors.
Mixed fibres (both sensory and motor nerve fibres) located in spinal
nerves.

Spinal cord


Like the brain, it is completely encased in bone. It resides within the
vertebral column.
It connects directly to the medulla section of the brain.
It is approximately 45 cm long in an adult.
It receives sensory messages and sends them to the brain
It sends motor messages from the brain.
It acts independently from the brain: e.g., reflexes.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 9


How does the nervous system process information?

Sensation

When you touch a piece of ice, you can feel its coldness. This is because
the temperature receptor in in your skin is stimulated. Impulses are
produced. Impulses are transmitted to the forebrain. The brain interprets
the impulses, and you have a sensation of coldness.

The pathway of impulses is as follows:
Receptor in skin sensory neurone relay neurone in spinal cord forebrain

Voluntary action


Voluntary action is a deliberate action, for example, you decide to raise
your hand to answer a question in class.

Impulses are produced in the forebrain. Impulses are transmitted by a
relay neurone from the forebrain, down the white matter of the spinal
cord, and then into the grey matter. In the grey matter, impulses are
transmitted to the motor neurone, which transmits the impulses to the
effector muscles in your arm. The muscle contract, and your hand is raises

The pathway of impulses is as follow:
Forebrain relay neurone in spinal cord motor neurone effector

Reflex action


Knee Jerk Effect

When we touch
hot object

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 10

The Skin
The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20
square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps
regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat,
and cold.



Skin has three layers:

The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our
skin tone.
The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and
sweat glands.
The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.

The skins color is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment
melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 11

Skin Cancer

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 12

Multiple sclerosis












In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the myelin sheath.
This causes communication problems between our brain and the rest of the
body.

Eventually, the disease can causes the nerves themselves to deteriorate of
become permanently damaged.

Early Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Blurred or double vision


Thinking problems
Clumsiness or a lack of coordination
Loss of balance
Numbness
Tingling
Weakness in an arm or leg

YOUR BRAIN ON EXCERCISE 13

THE HUMAN EYE 14

THE HUMAN EYE 15

Introduction
The eye is the sense organ responsible for the sight.
Let us take a closer look at the eye.






















In human eye, each eyeball lies in a hollow in the skull called the orbit.
Each eyeball is attached to the skull bye rectus muscles.
The rectus muscles control the eye movement.


















THE HUMAN EYE 16

Structure of the eye

Functions of each part


Part of eye
Iris

Conjunctiva

Sclera

Pupil
Eyelashes

Function and explanation


A circular sheet of muscle.
It contains pigment, which gives the eye its colour.
The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the
2 sets of involuntary muscles in the iris, the circular
muscles and the radial muscles.

A thin transparent membrane covering the sclera in front.
It is a mucous membrane
Helps to keep the front of the eyeball moist
It is continuous with the skin of the eyelids.

A tough, white outer covering of the eyeball
Continuous with the cornea
It protects the eyeball from mechanical damage

A hole in the centre of the iris
The pupil allows light to enter the eye

They help to shield the eye from dust particles

THE HUMAN EYE 17


Part of eye
Tear gland

Eyelids

Ciliary Body

Suspensory
ligament
Cornea

Aqueous
chamber

Lens

Choroid

Vitreous
Chamber

Function and explanation


This is a gland lying at the corner of the upper eyelid.
It secretes tears which:
Wash away dust particles
Keep the cornea moist for atmospheric oxygen to
dissolve. The dissolved oxygen diffuses into the
cornea.
Lubricate the conjunctiva, helping to reduce friction
when the eyelids move.

They protect the cornea from mechanical damage.
The eyelids can be partly closed to prevent excessive light
from entering the eye and damaging retina.
Blinking spread the tears over the cornea and conjunctiva
and wipes dust particles off the cornea.

A thickened region at the front end of the choroid.
It contains ciliary muscles, which control the curvature or
thickness of the lens.

A connective tissue that attaches the edge of the lens to
the ciliary body.

A dome-shaped transparent layer continuous with the
sclera.
It refracts light rays to into the eye.
The cornea causes most of the refraction of light that
occurs in the eye.

The space between the lens and the cornea.
It is filled with aqueous humour.
Aqueous humour keeps the front of the eyeball firm and
helps to refract light into the pupil.

A transparent, circular biconvex structure.
It is elastic and changes its shape or thickness in order to
refract light onto the retina.

The middle layer of the eyeball.
It has 2 functions:
It is pigmented black to prevent internal reflection of
light.
It contains blood vessels that bring oxygen and
nutrients to the eyeball and remove metabolic waste
product.

The space behind the lens.
It is filled with vitreous humour.

THE HUMAN EYE 18

Vitreous humour keeps the eyeball firm and helps to


refract light onto the retina

A small yellow depression in the retina.
It is situated directly behind the lens.
This is where the images are normally focused.
The fovea contains the greatest concentration of cones,
but no rods.
The fovea enables a person to have detailed coloured
vision in bright lights.

Fovea

Blind Spot

Optic nerve

Retina

The region where the optic nerves leaves the eye.


It does not contain any rods or cones, therefore it is not
sensitive to light.

A nerve that transmits nerve impulses to the brain when
the photoreceptor in the retina are stimulated.

The innermost layer of the eyeball.
It is the light sensitive layer on which images are formed.

Retina and the photoreceptor


Photoreceptors are light sensitive cells located on the retina







d






There are 2 types of photoreceptor:
v Rods enables use to see in black and white in dim light.
Bleached in bright light.
v Cones enables us to see in colour in bright light.
does not work well in dim light.


THE HUMAN EYE 19

Ishihara colour blind test


Can you see the number embedded in each of the plates?

THE HUMAN EYE 20


Focusing
What is focusing?
Focusing or accommodation is the adjustment of the lens of the eye so that clear images of objects
and different distances are formed on the retina.
Focusing in necessary so that objects at different distances can be seen clearly.

Focusing on a distant object ( estimated at 7 meters or


more)

1. Ciliary muscle relax, pulling on the suspensory ligament.


2. Suspensory ligaments become taut, pulling on the edge of the lens.
3. Lens become thinner and less convex, increasing its focal length.
4. Light rays from the distant object are sharply focused on the retina.
5. Photoreceptor are stimulated
6. Nerve impulses producd are transmited by the optic nreve to the brain.

7. the brain inteprets the impulses and the preson sees the distant object

THE HUMAN EYE 21

Focusing on a near object

1. Ciliary muscle contract, relaxing their pull on the suspensory ligament.

2. Suspensory ligaments slacken, relaxing their pull on the edge of the lens.

3. Lens become thicker and more convex, decreasing its focal length.

4. Light rays from the near object are sharply focused on the retina.

5. Photoreceptor are stimulated


6. Nerve impulses producd are transmited by the optic nreve to the brain.

7. the brain inteprets the impulses and the person sees the distant object.

THE HUMAN EYE 22

Eye Defects and their Corrections

MIND TRICKS AND ILLUSIONS GAMES 23

THE HUMAN EAR 24

Introduction

The ear is the organ that detects sound.
It not only receives sound, but also aids in balance and body position.































Often the entire organ is considered the ear, though it may also be
considered just the visible portion. In most mammals, the visible ear is a flap of
tissue that is also called the pinna (or auricle in humans) and is the first of many
steps in hearing.Vertebrates have a pair of ears placed somewhat symmetrically
on opposite sides of the head. This arrangement aids in the ability to localize
sound sources.





THE HUMAN EAR 25

How we Hear?







THE HUMAN EAR 26

Recommended Noise Exposure Limit



Volume
120 dBA
115 dBA
112 dBA
109 dBA
106 dBA
103 dBA
100 dBA
97 dBA
94 dBA
91 dBA
88 dBA
85 dBA


Exposure Limit
<10 second
<30 second
<1 minute
<2 minute
<4 minute
7.5 minute
15 minute
30 minute
1 hour
2 hour
4 hour
8 hour

THE HUMAN EAR 27

Why you shouldn't clean your ears


with a cotton swab
There are some people that swear by sticking a cotton swab (Q-Tip) into
their ears to remove excess wax and debris. Anyone in the medical field
can tell you, they have seen many catastrophes resulting from using
cotton swabs. From punctured eardrums to super impacted wax, there are
many negative consequences associated with "do-it-yourself" ear
cleaning.



There are several things that you must know:
1. Our ear can remove the wax and debris by itself.
2. The excess wax and debris actually can become natural antimicrobial.
3. Cotton swab only making the dirt go further inside our ear, which is worst
off than before.


Theres no need to clean your ears with a cotton bud ,The ear has its own internal
cleaning mechanism. Fats and oils in the ear canal trap any particles and transport
them out of the ear as wax. This falls out of the ear without us noticing.
Dr. Rob Hicks

In most circumstances, wax is actually beneficial to the ear, it causes foreign
bodies to adhere to it, preventing them from going further into the ear, and it has
anti-bacterial properties. Removing it is like taking the wax off the surface of
polished wooden furniture. It makes the delicate underlying skin of the ear more
susceptible to infection.
-Simon Baer, a consultant ear, nose and throat surgeon at the Conquest
Hospital in Hastings.


THE HUMAN EAR 28

Deafness


Hearing impairment, deafness, or hearing loss refers to the
inability to hear things, either totally or partially. Symptoms may be mild,
moderate, severe or profound.


Three types of hearing loss

Conductive hearing loss


This means that the vibrations are not passing through from the outer ear to
the inner ear, specifically the cochlea. It can be due to an excessive build-up
of earwax, glue ear, an ear infection with inflammation and fluid buildup, a
perforated eardrum, or a malfunction of the ossicles (bones in the middle ear).
Also, the eardrum may be defective.
Ear infections can leave scar tissue, which damages the functioning of the
eardrum.








THE HUMAN EAR 29

Sensorineural hearing loss - hearing loss is caused by dysfunction of the


inner ear, the cochlea, auditory nerve, or brain damage. Usually, this kind
of hearing loss is due to damage of the hair cells in the cochlea. As humans
get older, the hair cells lose some of their function, and our hearing gets
worse. In Western Europe and North America it is estimated that over half
of all people over 70 years of age have hearing impairment caused by
degenerated hair cells in the cochlea.
Long-term exposure to loud noises, especially high frequency sounds, is
another common reason for hair cell damage. Damaged hair cells cannot
be replaced. Currently, research is looking into using stem cells to grow
new ones.

Sensorineural total deafness may be due to birth defects, inner ear
infections, or head trauma. If the ear drum and middle ear are functioning
properly, patients may benefit from a cochlear implant - a thin electrode is
inserted in the cochlea, it stimulates electricity through a tiny
microprocessor which is placed under behind the ear, under the skin.



Mixed hearing loss - this is a combination of conductive and sensorineural
hearing loss. Long-term ear infections can damage both the ear drum as well
as the ossicles. Sometimes, surgical intervention may restore hearing, but it
does not always work.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 30

Introduction
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert
food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body.








The human digestive system is well


developed. It consist of:
The gut or alimentary canal
Organs (liver and pancreas)
associated with it,

The gut is 9 metre long


tube that extends from
the mouth to the anus,
with most of its length
coiled in the abdomen.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 31

Structure and function of digestive


organs












































THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 32

The Mouth and the Buccal Cavity




In the mouth there are:


Teeth
Salivary glands
Tongue

Teeth
The chewing action of teeth breaks down large pieces of food into smaller
pieces.
This increase the surface area of the food so enzymes can act on more efficiently

























THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 33


Salivary glands

The salivary glands secrete saliva


to the mouth. Saliva flows into
the buccal cavity via tubes called
salivary ducts

Tongue

The tongue helps to mix the food with saliva.

Taste buds on the tongue help us to identify and select suitable food.






















THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 34

The Pharynx
The pharynx is the part of the gut, which connects the buccal cavity to the
esophagus and the larynx.

Both food and air must pass through the pharynx when they enter the body.

Normally, air passes into the trachea while food passes to into the esophagus.

The process of swallowing

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 35

The Esophagus
The esophagus is a narrow, muscular tube.
It passes trough the thorax ad the diaphragm to join the stomach.

The wall of esophagus contains 2 layers of muscle (this muscles are present along
the whole gut from the esophagus to the rectum)













Both sets of muscles are an antagonistic muscle pair.
They produce long, slow contractions.
These contractions move food along the gut via peristalsis.


What is peristalsis?
Peristalsis is the rhythmic, wave-like muscular contractions in the wall of the alimentary canal.



















THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 36

The Stomach













The stomach is a distensible muscular bag, with thick and well-developed


muscular walls.
When the stomach is fully distended, it sends signals to the brain that it is
sated.
The stomach wall has numerous pits








The gastric glands secrete

gastric juice into the

stomach cavity.



Gastric juice plays an

important part in digestion.



The stomach is able to store

food for a few hours.











THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 37

The Small Intestine







The small intestine consist of:


U-shaped duodenum
Jejunum
Much coiled ileum


In humans, the small intestine
is about six metres long.

The wall of the small intestine


The lining walls of the small intestine:
Contains gland which secrete digestive enzymes
Adapted to absorb digestive food products and water

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 38

The Large Intestine





















The large intestine is shorter but much broader than the large intestine.
The large intestine is 1.5 meter long

The large intestine consist of:

The colon
v At the junction between the colon and small intestine are the caecum
and the appendix.
v The caecum is a sac-like structure.
v Attached to the caecum is the tubular appendix

Rectum
This is the place where faeces are stored temporarily before being
expelled through the anus

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 39

Organs associated with the Gut



Liver
Liver is the largest organ in our body

It is the only organ in our body that can replace itself, making liver
possible to be donated.



















THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 40


















Liver and gall bladder


Functions of liver:

v Regulation of blood glucose concentration












v Production of bile
v Iron storage










Blood vessel of the liver


v Protein synthesis
v Deamination of amino
acids
v Detoxification

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 41

Pancreas

The pancreas is a gland connected to the duodenum by the Pancreatic
duct.

The pancreas:
Produces pancreatic juice which contains digestive enzymes
Secretes the hormone insulin and glucagon


Gall Bladder





















Bile is stored temporarily in


gall bladder.

Gall bladder is a greenish- yellow
bag attached to the liver.

When gall bladder contracts, the
bile flows into the duodenum via
the bile duct

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 42

Formation of Oral Cavity

















































THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 43

Terms related to intestine


Polyp


Polyp is a lump of tissue protruding form the lining of an organs such as :
Nose
Bladder
Intestine
Polyps can sometimes blog the passage in which they are found

Chrons disease


Chrons disease involves inflammation of the intestine, especially the small
intestine.
Inflammation refers to swelling, redness and loss of normal function

Ostium ileale
The opening of the terminal ileum into the large intestine at the caecum and the
ascending colon

Colitis ulservative


Is a form of inflammatory bowel disease.
It causes swelling, ulcerations, and loss of function at the large intestine.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 44

Organs and Enzyme Involved in


Human Digestion
Region
of
digestion
Mouth

Secretion

Source

Saliva

Stomach

Gastric juice

Small
intestine

Bile
Pancreatic
juice




Intestinal
enzymes



Salivary
gland
Gastric
gland
Liver
Pancreas





Ephitelial
cells




Enzyme
Salivary
amylase
Pepsin
-
Trypsin
Amylase
Lipase

Sucrase

Lactase
Lipase

Peptidases

Maltase

Action
Starch maltose
Proteins polypeptides
Bile salts emulsify fats
Proteins polypeptides
Starch maltose
Fats fatty acids and
glycerol
Sucrose glucose and
fructose
Lactose glucose and
galactose
Fats fatty acids and
glycerol
Polypeptides amino
acids
Maltose glucose

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 45

Introduction
Humans are complex multicellular organism. Numerous cells are situated
deep inside the body, far from the external environment. Simple diffusion
alone cannot bring enough oxygen and food materials to these cells, nor
can it remove waster products with sufficient speed.

Hence, a developed transport system is needed




In human, the transport system consist of :
A series of blood vessels that run through the entire body.
Blood which flows trough the vessels, carrying material around the body
A heart (muscular pump) which ensures that the fluid keeps flowing
through the vessels































THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 46

Structure and Composition of blood


To many people, blood is just a red fluid. Actually blood is a fluid tissue.























Plasma







Red
Main

Platelets
constituents
blood

of
b
lood
cells






White

blood

cells


THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 47

Plasma
Contains:
Excretory products, for example: urea, uric
acid and creatinine.

Soluble proteins, such as fibrinogen,
prothrombin and antibodies.

Food substances, such as glucose, amino acids,
fats and vitamins.

Dissolved mineral salts, such as chlorides,
sulfates and phosphates of calcium, sodium
and potassium.

Red blood cells or erythrocytes























It contains the pigment haemoglobin


which is a special kind of iron-containing
protein. Haemoglobin combines
reversibly with oxygen. This enables red
blood cells to transport oxygen from the
lungs to all cells in the body.

It is a circular, flattened biconcave disc.


The centre of the cell is thinner than its
edge, so it can increase surface area to
volume ratio, so diffusion can be done in
a faster rate.

It does not possess nucleus so it can


store more haemoglobin.

It is elastic and can turn bell-shaped in


order to squeeze through narrow
vessels.

Its life span is 3-4 months and it is


produced by the bone marrow

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 48


White blood cells or leucocytes

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 49

Blood Groups
You can be classified into a blood group based on the type of antigens
present in your body


















Antibody a reacts with antigen A and clumping occurs.
A blood test will tell you which group you belong to
























THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 50

Double Circulation in Mammals





























Arteries

Arteries are the blood vessels that carry


blood away from the heart.

The large artery that leaves the left side of the
heart is the aorta. It then branches again to
form artrioles.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 51

Veins




Veins are the blood vessels that carry


blood towards from the heart.

Since the blood travelling through vein are
under low pressure, vein have thinner
muscular wall than the arteries.

Semi lunar valves are also present in the
veins.


Differences between artery, veins, and capillary














THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 52

The Heart
In human beings, the heart is about the size of a clenched fist. It lies in
the thorax behind the chest bone and between the 2 lungs. It has roughly
a conical shape

Structure of the heart










The Cardiac Cycle




THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 53

Coronary Heart Disease


The most common hear disease is coronary heart disease.

The coronary artery lie on the outside of the heart and carry blood to the
muscles in the walls or the heart. Blood supply to the heart muscles can be
greatly reduced due to the occlusion or blockage of the coronary arteries.

This can cause heart attack

What is heart attack?


Heart attack is a sudden and sometimes fatal occurrence of blockage in the flow to the heart
caused by a blood cloth is a coronary artery..

Preventive measure against coronary heart disease:







THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 54

Introduction
The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking
in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.












































THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 55

The Nose

















Air usually enters the body through the 2 external nostrils.


The walls of the nostrils bear a fringe of hairs.
The nostrils lead into 2 nasal passages, which are lined with a mucous
membrane.

Advantages of breathing through the nose:

1. Dust and foreign particles, including bacteria in the air, are trapped by the
hairs in the nostrils as well by the mucus of the mucous membrane.
2. As air passes through the nasal passages, it is warmed and moistened.
3. Small sensory cells in the mucous membrane may detect harmful
chemicals.

Introduction to sinusitis












THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 56

The Lungs
Unicellular organisms have a large area to volume ratio, making gas
exchange easier special gas exchange system is not needed.

Multicellular organisms have a comparatively small area to volume ratio.
Their external surfaces are also thickened for prevention of water loss,
making gas exchange harder special gas exchange is needed.

In humans, the absorption of atmospheric oxygen and the removal or carbon
dioxide from the body occur in the alveoli of the lungs






















Bronchi and trachea

The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi.


Each bronchus carries air to the lungs
Each bronchus branches repeatedly, giving rise to
Numerous bronchioles.
Bronchioles are very fine tubes. Each bronchiole ends
in a cluster of air sacs.




THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 57

Alveoli (Air sacs)


Gas exchange takes place through the walls of the alveoli. Numerous
alveoli are found in the lings, providing a very large surface area for gas
exchange.






The total surface area of the

alveoli in both lungs has

been estimated to be equal

to the surface are of a

tennis court!






Alveolar walls are very thin, moist and well supplied with blood capillaries. Gas
exchange between the alveoli and the blood capillaries takes place through the
walls of alveoli.

How are lungs adapted for efficient gas exchange?


The numerous alveoli in the lungs provide a large surface area.
The wall of the alveolus is only one cell thick this provides a short diffusion distance for
gases, ensuring a faster rate of diffusion.
A thin film of moisture covers the surface of the alveolus this allows oxygen to dissolve
in it.
The walls of the alveoli are richly supplied with blood capillaries the flow of the blood
maintains the concentration gradient of gases.
Gas exchange in the alveoli













THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 58

Breathing Mechanism in human

The path of air into the lungs:



external

nostrils

nasal
passages

pharynx

alveoli

larynx

bronchioles

trachea

bronchi

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 59

Effect of Tobacco on Human health












Frequent exposure of tobacco smoke increases the risk of a person getting
lung diseases such as:
Chronic bronchitis
In chronic bronchitis:
The epithelium lining of the air passages
become inflamed.
Excessive mucus is secreted by the
epithelium.
The cilia on the epithelium is paralyzed
mucus and dust particles cannot be
removed.
The air passages become blocked, making
breathing difficult.
Persistent coughing to clear air passages,
in order to breath this increases the risk
of getting lungs infection

Emphysema
Persistent and violent coughing due to bronchitis may lead to emphysema


In emphysema:

The partition walls between the

alveoli break down due to

persistent and violent coughing.

This results in a decreased surface

area for gaseous exchange.

The lungs lose their elasticity and

become inflated with air.

Breathing becomes difficult.

Wheezing and sever breathlessness

result.


THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 60

Introduction
The skeletal system supports the body and protects the internal organs.














































THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 61

Types of joints and its uses

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 62

1. Fibrous joints the bones of fibrous joints are joined by fibrous tissue, such
as the sutures in the skull or the pelvis. Fibrous joints allow no movement at all.

2. Cartilaginous joints the bones of cartilaginous joints are joined by cartilage,


such as the stern costal joint between the sternum and first rib. These joints
allow a very small amount of movement.


3. Synovial joints the bones of synovial joints meet in a joint capsule, such as
the knee joint where the femur and tibia meet. These joints are the most
common and most moveable joints in the human body.

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 63

Types of Synovial joints


There are six types of synovial joints which allow varying types and ranges of
movement to occur. The six synovial joints are:

1. Gliding joints: The joint surfaces are flat and of approximately similar
length. Movement occurs in a gliding or sliding of one bone against
another. Side to side and back and forth movement is allowed with these
joints. Examples of gliding joints are: between the carpals of the wrist and
between the tarsals of the ankle.

2. Saddle joints: These joint surfaces resemble a saddle and allow side to side
and back and forth movements. An example is the thumb joint shown adjacent
between a carpal bone known as the trapezium and the first metacarpal.

3. Hinge joints: The joint surfaces are arranged to allow only back and forth
movement such as bending and straightening. Examples of these joints are the
elbow where the humerus and ulna join and the knee.

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 64

4. Pivot joints: These joints allow only one type of movement, the rotation of
one bone on or around another. An example of a pivot joint is the joint between
the atlas and axis (C1 & C2) vertebrae, the rotation around each other allows our
heads to pivot left and right.


5. Ball and socket joints: This type of joint allows side to side, back and forth,
and rotational movement. Examples of these joints are the hip or shoulder
joints, where the head (ball) of one bone fits into the cavity (socket) of another.


6. Ellipsoid joints: This joint is also known as a condyloid joint. Ellipsoid
joints allow back and forth and side to side movement. Such joints occur
between the metacarpals and phalanges (between the bones of the hand and the
bones of the finger) as seen in the adjacent image.

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 65

Disc problem

Lumbar Degenerative Disease



Degenerative disease in the spine refers to a syndrome in which a
compromised disc causes low back pain

Causes:
1. Inflammation, as the proteins in the disc space irritate the surrounding nerves -
both the small nerve within the disc space and potentially the larger nerves that
go to the legs
2. Abnormal micro-motion instability, when the outer rings of the disc, called
the annulus fibrosus, are worn down and cannot absorb stress on the spine
effectively, resulting in movement along the vertebral segment.







THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 66

Introduction
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth
and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture,
and circulates blood throughout the body.

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 67

Muscle Spasm
Muscle spasm is the involuntary contractions of one or more muscles.

Muscle spasm will lead to cram

Possible Causes of Muscle Cramps


Muscle cramps can have many possible causes. They include:

Poor blood circulation in the legs


Overexertion of the calf muscles while exercising
Insufficient stretching before exercise
Exercising in the heat
Muscle fatigue
Dehydration
Magnesium and/or potassium deficiency
Calcium deficiency in pregnant women
Malfunctioning nerves, which could be caused by a problem such as a spinal cord
injury or pinched nerve in the neck or back









Structure














































THE DOUBLE HELIX 68

THE DOUBLE HELIX 69

DNA and Mutation















































A mutation is a change in the DNA.



An organisms DNA affects how it
looks, how it behaves and its
physiology.

So a change in an organisms DNA can
cause changes in all aspects of its life.

Mutations are essential to


evolution; they are raw
material of genetic variation.

THE DOUBLE HELIX 70

Introduction
The reproductive system is a system of sex organs within organisms,
which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

Unlike other system, the reproductive system is different from male and female





















THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 71

The Female Reproductive System

Parts of Female
reproductive system
Ovary

Explanation and functions

Uterus

Oviduct

Cervix

Vagina

The 2 ovaries produces eggs and hormones


such as oestrogen and progesterone.
The female sex hormones are responsible for
the development and maintenance of the
secondary sexual characteristics in females.
When the eggs become mature, they are
released from the ovaries.

The uterus is where to fetus or unborn
baby develops during pregnancy.
The uterus is shaped like an upside- down
pear.
It has elastic muscular walls. The smooth
muscle tissue in the walls of the uterus
contract to push the fetus out during birth.
The soft, smooth inner lining of the uterus is
called the uterine lining or endometrium. It
is where the embryo implants.
Each ovary releases mature eggs into an
oviduct or fallopian tube.
Each oviduct is a narrow muscular tube
leading from the ovary to the uterus. It has
funnel- like opening lying close to the
ovary.
The eggs usually fertilized in the oviduct.
The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus
where it joins the vagina.
The opening of the cervix allows menstrual
blood to flow out into the vagina during
menstruation.
Leading from the cervix to the outside is the
vagina or birth canal.
The opening of the vagina is the vulva.
Semen is deposited in the vagina during
mating.

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 72

The Male Reproductive Organ



Parts of male
reproductive system
Testis

Explanation and functions

Each testis produces sperms and male sex hormones


such as testosterone.
Each testis receives blood from blood vessel in a
spermatic cord.
Leading from the end of each testis is the epididymis.


Scrotum

The testes lie between the thighs, in a pair of pouch-


like sacs called the scrotums or scrotal sacs.
The scrotums are outside the main body cavity. Thus
are at a slightly lower temperature than the body
temperature


Sperm duct

Each loops over a ureter and then opens into the


urethra.
After sperms are released from a testis, they travel
through a sperm duct.


Gland and their
secretions

Urethra

The prostate gland, cowpers gland, and the seminal


vesicle work together to produce fluid which will be
mixed with the sperm to produce semen.
The urethra is a tube, which passes from the bladder
through the center of the penis to the outside of the
body.
Both semen and urine pass out of the body through the
urethra.


Penis

The penis is an erectile organ


The penis enters the vagina of a woman during the
sexual intercourse to deposit semen, containing sperms

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 73

Gametes
Female gametes ovum or egg







Male gametes sperm


























THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 74

Menstrual cycle and Development of


Embryo
Menstrual cycle
For a female, the first sign of puberty is usually the monthly discharge of
blood from the uterus.

This is called menstruation. The menstrual period usually last about 5 days.

Development of Embryo
If fertilization happens during ovulation period, the egg will be fertilized
and zygote (which eventually will become embryo will form)


















THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 75

Cervical Cancer
In most cases, cervical cancer is caused by human
papillomavirus (HPV).







If they are not treated, these abnormal cells could
become cancerous

These changes in cervical cells can be detected by using a Pap smear test.

















Females
who are sexually active or above

21 years of age should have regular pap

smear test.








Procedure:
1. Few cells are removed
from the cervix with a
swab, via the vagina.
2. The cells are then stained
and examined under the
microscope.
3. Abnormal cells that are
detected can be removed
with a laser.

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 76

Testicular cancer













This is one of the most common cancers in men younger than 40. It occurs when
cells in the testicle divide abnormally and form a tumor. Testicular cancer can
spread to other parts of the body, but if it's detected early, the cure rate is
excellent.

Unlike cervical cancer, testicular cancer can be detected by self examination

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 77

Introduction
The excretory system is the system of an organisms body that performs
the function of excretion.

What is excretion?
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waster products and toxic substances are removed
from the body of an organism.

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 78

Parts and functions


Overall:













































THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 79

Kidney
Kidney is one of the most important excretory organs in our body.
The kidney contains numerous nephrons. Nephrons are the basic
functional unit of kidney. They are tiny kidney tubules where urine is
formed

Structure:

















Parts of Kidney
Cortex
Medulla
Renal Pyramid

Renal pelvis

Explanation
The cortex is the outer dark red region.
It is covered and protected by a fibrous capsule
The medulla is the inner pale red region.
The renal pyramid are located in this region
Renal pyramids are the conical structures located
in the medulla. The human kidney contains 12- 16
pyramids
The radial stripes on the medulla pyramids
indicate numerous kidney tubules. These kidney
tubules are called nephron.
Urine is formed in the nephron
The renal pyramids project into a funnel-like space
called the renal pelvis
The renal pelvis is the enlarged portion of the
ureter inside the kidney

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 80



Nephron


Parts of the nephron Explanation
Bowmans capsule
Each nephron begins in the cortex as a cup like structure
called the Bowmans capsule.
Proximal convoluted The capsule leads to a short, convoluted tubule, which
tubule
straightens out as it passes into the medulla.
Loop of henl
In the medulla, the tubule extends into the renal
pyramid and makes a U-turn back into the cortex.
Distal convoluted
When the tubule enters the cortex again, it become
tubule
convoluted again
Collecting tube
The tubule then opens into a collecting duct that runs
straight through the medulla and eventually opens to
the renal pelvis





THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 81

Functions of kidney:
Waste excretion: The kidneys filter out toxins, excess salts, and urea, a
nitrogen-based waste created by cell metabolism. Urea is synthesized in the liver
and transported through the blood to the kidneys for removal.

Water level balancing: As the kidneys are key in the chemical breakdown of
urine, they react to changes in the bodys water level throughout the day. As
water intake decreases, the kidneys adjust accordingly and leave water in the
body instead of helping excrete it.


Blood pressure regulation: The kidneys need constant pressure to filter the
blood. When it drops too low, the kidneys increase the pressure. One way is by
producing a blood vessel-constricting protein (angiotensin) that also signals the
body to retain sodium and water. Both the constriction and retention help
restore normal blood pressure.

Red blood cell regulation: When the kidneys dont get enough oxygen, they
send out a distress call in the form of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates
the bone marrow to produce more oxygen-carrying red blood cells.


Acid regulation: As cells metabolize, they produce acids. Foods we eat can
either increase the acid in our body or neutralize it. If the body is to function
properly, it needs to keep a healthy balance of these chemicals. The kidneys do
that, too.

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 82

The Urine formation
















































THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 83

Kidney stone (Nephrolithiasis)











A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the
kidney

One in every 20 people develop kidney stones at some point in their life


How were the kidney stone formed inside the kidney?
Kidney stones form when there is a decrease in urine volume and/or and excess of stoneforming substances in the urine.
Dehydration is the major risk factor for kidney stone formation.


Symptom:

Flank pain
Blood in the urine (hematuria)

Detection:

By using CT Scan




THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 84

Treatment

Small stones with minimal symptoms


Most kidney stones won't require invasive treatment. You may be able to pass
a small stone by:

Drinking water. Drinking as much as 2 to 3 quarts (1.9 to 2.8 liters) a day


may help flush out stones out of urinary system.
Pain relievers. Passing a small stone can cause some discomfort. To
relieve mild pain, doctor may recommend pain relievers.
Medical therapy. Doctor may give a medication to help pass kidney
stone. This type of medication, known as an alpha blocker, relaxes the
muscles in your ureter, helping patient pass the kidney stone more quickly
and with less pain.

Large stones and those that cause symptoms


Kidney stones that can't be treated with conservative measures either
because they're too large to pass on their own or because they cause
bleeding, kidney damage or ongoing urinary tract infections may require
more extensive treatment. Procedures may include:

Using sound waves to break up stones. For certain kidney stones


depending on size and location your doctor may recommend a
procedure called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).

Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney. A procedure called


percutaneous nephrolithotomy involves surgically removing a kidney stone
using small telescopes and instruments inserted through a small incision in
patients back.

Using a scope to remove stones.

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 85

Kidney failure






Common cause of kidney failure:
High blood pressure
Diabetes
Alcohol abuse
Severe accidents that physically damage the kidney
Complications from undergoing major surgery

If one kidney fails, a person can still survive because of the remaining
kidney.

However,

If both kidneys fail, the person cannot survive unless medical treatment is
given. A person with kidney failure may get a kidney transplant. A donor
with 2 kidneys may donate one kidney and survive with the remaining
kidney. If a kidney donor is not available, the patient needs to be treated
with a dialysis using a dialysis machine.









THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM 86

Dialysis Machine










Features of dialysis machine:
I. The dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of
essential substances as healthy blood to ensure the
essential substances such as glucose do not diffuse out of

the blood into the dialysis fluid or to give the blood of a
person these substances if the patients blood lack these

substances.
II. The dialysis fluid does not contain metabolic waste

products to ensure that the metabolic wastes to diffuse out
of the blood and into the dialysis fluid.
III. The walls of the tubing are partially permeable. Tubing in
the machine is narrow, long and coiled to increase the

surface are to volume ratio to ensure that most of the
metabolic waste is diffused into the dialysis fluid
IV. The flowing direction of blood and dialysis fluid is opposite
to maintain a concentration gradient.

QUESTION 87

Accompanying this booklet is some question. The


questions are related to the topics that were discussed
in the booklet.
PART 1
. Fill in the blanks

SYSTEMS

ORGANS

FUNCTIONS

lungs, nasal
respiratory

passages, bronchi, pharynx,

intake of oxygen and removal of carbon

trachea, diaphragm,

dioxide from body

bronchial tubes
nervous

control of body activities and the reaction to


stimuli

stomach, liver, teeth, tongue,

pancreas, intestine,

esophagus
excretory
endocrine

skeletal

circulatory

muscular

pituitary gland, adrenal

production of hormones and body

gland, thyroid gland, gonads

regulation

Bones, joints, tendons,


ligaments
blood, blood vessels, heart,
lymph

Movement; types include skeletal, cardiac,


and smooth
protect body against foreign things

white blood cells

(sickness; bacteria and viruses); 2 lines of


defense

integumentary skin

QUESTION 88

Human Body Basics

Name ______________________

Use the clues provided to find each hidden word. Shade in the boxes to show your answers!
Words will twist in all directions, but never cross!

1.

R
A
L
U

U
O
N
L

M
N
S
L

T
I
C
E

____________________
Living things composed
of only one cell.

4.

O
K
S
Y

D
R
L
S

M
S
G
N

P
I
N
A

____________________
Any living thing.

7.

G
E
S
D

M
H
L
C

W
U
O
C

A
P
S
K

____________________
The only tissue in your
body that is able to
contract, or shorten.
10. R
I
N
O

T
L
S
E

E
G
S
L

H
U
O
P

____________________
Group of cells working
together to do a job.

2.

E
P
I
T

C
E
N
H

E
R
I
M

V
K
L
E

____________________
Tissue that carries
messages throughout
our bodies.
5.

L
L
A
R

L
U
U
M

E
N
L
C

C
I
T
U

3.

V
E
A
D

I
T
I
O

S
G
H
M

E
N
R
C

____________________
Organ system that breaks
down food and absorbs
nutrients.
6.

E
M
A
T

T
R
G
M

S
O
A
S

Y
S
N
I

____________________
Living things composed of
more than one cell.

____________________
Group of organs working
together to perform a
specific job.

8.

9.

J
K
P
M

O
N
W
H

A
I
R
C

H
G
P
O

____________________
Group of tissues working
together to do a job.

11.

P
W
C
S

L
O
D
U

N
O
F
N

G
H
I
L

____________________
Needed to give living
things energy!

Y
R
O
T

R
J
X
E

O
R
C
A

T
E
M
L

____________________
System that removes
solid and liquid wastes.

12. O
N
K
L

T
B
M
U

R
A
L
S

A
D
U
C

____________________
System that works with
bones to allows body
movement.

QUESTION 89

Across

2 Organ system that


captures oxygen
from the
atmosphere. (11)

4
5

5 Heart, liver, brain


etc. (5)

8
9

10

7 Organ that gets


rid of toxins in
blood. (5)

11
12

8 Organs that help


you breathe. (5)
13

9 Tissue that
connects muscle
to bone. (6)

14
15

12 Organ that
reabsorbs water
from food. (5,9)

16
17

18

19

20

14 Bone that protects


your brain. (5)
21

17 Groups of cells
with a similar
function that
work together. (6)

22

23

Down
1 Organ system that gives your body structure. (8)
3 Organ that absorbs nutrients from food. (5,9)
4 The endocrine system produces these chemical that help regulate
growth. (8)
6 Organ system that breaks down food for cells to use. (9)
10 Organ system that controls muscle movement and your senses. (7)
11 Organ that pumps blood. (5)
13 Organs that gets rid of waste from blood. (7)
14 Organ that contains acid and breaks down food. (7)
15 A group of organs working together: organ ________. (6)
16 A blood vessel that pumps blood away from the heart. (6)
18 Organ system that helps you healthy from disease. (6)
20

Small tubes within your lungs. (7)

19 Bones that protect


the heart and
lungs. (3,4)
21 Organ system that
removes waste
from your body.
(9)
22 Basic building
blocks of all living
organisms. (5)
23 Organ system that
regulates growth
by producing
hormones. (9)

QUESTION 90

Name ________________________

Human Body Puzzle

D
E
P
Z
M
E
T
S
Y
S
N
A
G
R
O
M
E
N
S
E
D

O
R
P
R
E
S
P
I
R
A
T
O
R
Y
U
N
H
Y
X
I
R

Q
R
O
I
L
U
N
G
S
P
M
S
D
S
E
C
G
C
G
A
T

T
N
G
C
G
T
E
E
T
H
K
N
C
R
A
O
R
E
L
H
R

ARTERY
BIOLOGY
BLADDER
BLOOD
BONES
BRAIN
CELL
CIRCULATORY
DIGESTIVE
DISEASE
EAR
ENDOCRINE
ENERGY
EPIGLOTTIS
EXCRETORY
EYE
FOOD
FOOD PYRAMID
GLANDS

G
H
R
A
L
L
L
O
R
A
E
L
G
M
L
E
S
U
R
A
E

D
L
Y
E
N
A
O
L
B
C
E
Y
O
O
T
T
C
O
E
P
P

N
O
A
R
D
I
N
T
E
Y
U
T
I
O
I
S
A
U
L
D
R

M
I
O
N
O
D
S
I
T
C
S
B
R
V
U
T
G
K
I
I
O

O
C
A
L
D
I
A
M
P
I
D
Y
E
M
V
N
H
L
V
M
D

U
E
N
R
B
S
D
L
B
S
S
O
L
S
O
V
A
P
E
A
U

T
L
O
D
B
E
S
K
B
I
Y
L
O
T
B
B
I
E
R
R
C

H
L
S
E
N
L
E
S
N
R
E
J
N
L
H
N
R
E
S
Y
T

G
M
E
U
E
S
A
T
O
C
N
S
E
O
B
U
L
L
K
P
I

F
P
M
S
A
E
E
T
D
O
E
E
K
N
I
E
M
S
I
D
V

HAIR
HEART
HUMAN
IMMUNE
INTESTINES
KIDNEY
LIVER
LUNGS
MOUTH
MUSCLE
MUSCULAR
NERVOUS
NEURON
NOSE
NUTRITION
ORGAN
ORGANISM
ORGAN SYSTEM
T. Trimpe 2002

W
M
S
E
R
S
A
O
X
N
W
Y
R
E
I
T
T
A
N
O
E

I
E
S
C
T
L
O
Y
E
S
N
Y
Y
V
L
R
I
I
N
O
N

V
I
N
I
U
L
G
S
H
U
E
O
E
R
O
E
C
R
H
F
I

D
A
N
C
B
E
E
E
D
Y
S
S
R
N
E
U
T
O
T
W
E

P
E
R
D
N
N
A
E
Y
E
M
S
N
U
D
T
S
A
D
U
V

S
I
E
P
O
R
K
V
D
O
O
F
I
E
E
I
R
J
L
N
N

C
R
D
B
T
C
G
X
N
A
G
R
O
T
S
N
K
A
V
T
E

OXYGEN
PANCREAS
RED BLOOD CELL
REPRODUCTIVE
RESPIRATORY
SENSES
SKELETAL
SKIN
SLEEP
SPINAL CORD
STOMACH
TEETH
THROAT
THYROID
TISSUE
TONGUE
VEIN
VESSELS
WHITE BLOOD CELL

QUESTION 91

QUESTION 92

QUESTION 93

QUESTION 94
Label the diagram

QUESTION 95

QUESTION 96

Part 2

QUESTION 97

11 . Why do we need a complex circulatory and respiratory system?



Answer:

12. How many types of nervous tissue do we have? Explain each type that you
write.

Answer:

13.What is a heart attack?

Answer:

14.What feature of the oviduct makes it easier for the egg to enter the oviduct?

Answer:

15.A man has trouble at seeing at far object, what condition do he have? What
kind of glasses must he use?

Answer:

16. Unlike cervical cancer, testicular cancer can be easily detected by self-
examination. Mention the step for the self-examination.

Answer:

17.Mention 2 functions of kidney.

Answer:

18.What is peristalsis movement? Describe how this kind of movement can be
produced.

Answer:

19. Liver is the biggest organ in our body. It has a lot of functions. Mention 2 of
the functions.

Answer:

20. Mention 2 disease caused by smoking.

Answer:




BIBLIOGRAPHY 98

www.cwpa.info
Biology Matters GCE O LEVEL 2nd Edition
https://humaneyeproject.wordpress.com/2012/08/19/how-does-the-human-
eye-function-2/
antranik.org
http://wellatl.com/brain-exercise/
http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/changing_body/male_repro.html#a_P
roblems_Affecting_the_Male_Reproductive_System
www.slideshare.net
www.columbia.edu
en.wikipedia.org
www.human-memory.net

http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/changing_body/male_repro.htm
l#a_Problems_Affecting_the_Male_Reproductive_System
www.newcastlesurgery.com.au
www.medicalexhibits.com

proctologyspecialists.com
www.okaidimalta.com
http://www.fallriverschools.org/IC%20and%20HW%20Feb%204%20-
%20Organization(1).pdf http://www.esltower.com/VOCABSHEETS/body/body.
htmlhttp://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/topics/medical/Eye/sightCorrection.html
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/306033737155152379/
www.clinimed.co.uk
www.eschooltoday.com
http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/muscle-spasms-cramps-charley-
horse
http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html
http://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/joints-
types-joint-protection-joint-location
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/stop-cleaning-inside-your-ears-
its-bad-for-you-3642773/?no-ist
http://www.nal.gov.au/hearing-loss-protection_tab_noise-
exposure.shtmlvisual.merriam-webster.com
http://www.harvard-wm.org/main-human-body-systems-and-their-
connection/human-body-organs-diagram-label/
https://plus.google.com/+YesIKnowThat/posts/RDbZjnfmqt3
http://www.britannica.com/science/emphysema
http://www.spine-health.com/conditions/degenerative-disc-disease/lumbar-

BIBLIOGRAPHY 99

degenerative-disc-disease-ddd
http://theinternalstystems3.weebly.com/the-skeletal-system.html
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Non-Smokers Lungs Vs Smokers Lungs By: www.yesiknowthat.com
The Cardiac Cycle | Publish with Glogster!
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