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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

One by Zero Electronics


Way to Electronics...

How to calculate the size of


capacitor bank ???

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Example:1
A3Phase,5kWInductionMotorhasaP.F(Powerfactor)
of 0.75 lagging. What size of Capacitor in kVAR is
requiredtoimprovetheP.F(PowerFactor)to0.90?

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Motorinput=P=5kW
OriginalP.F=Cos1=0.75
FinalP.F=Cos2=0.90
1=Cos1=(0.75)=41.41Tan1=Tan(41.41)=0.8819
2=Cos1=(0.90)=25.84Tan2=Tan(25.50)=0.4843
RequiredCapacitorkVARtoimproveP.Ffrom0.75to0.90
RequiredCapacitorkVAR=P(Tan1Tan2)
=5kW(0.88190.4843)
=1.99kVAR
AndRatingofCapacitorsconnectedineachPhase
1.99/3=0.663kVAR
Example2:
An Alternator is supplying a load of 650 kW at a P.F
(Powerfactor)of0.65.WhatsizeofCapacitorinkVARis
requiredtoraisetheP.F(PowerFactor)tounity(1)?And
how many more kW can the alternator supply for the
samekVAloadingwhenP.Fimproved.

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Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

SupplyingkW=650kW
OriginalP.F=Cos1=0.65
FinalP.F=Cos2=1
1=Cos1=(0.65)=49.45Tan1=Tan(41.24)=1.169
2=Cos1=(1)=0Tan2=Tan(0)=0
RequiredCapacitorkVARtoimproveP.Ffrom0.75to0.90
RequiredCapacitorkVAR=P(Tan1Tan2)
=650kW(1.1690)
=759.85kVAR
HowtoCalculatetheRequiredCapacitorbankvaluein
bothkVARandFarads?
(HowtoConvertFaradsintokVARandViceVersa)

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Example:3
ASinglephase400V,50Hz,motortakesasupplycurrent
of 50A at a P.F (Power factor) of 0.6. The motor power
factorhastobeimprovedto0.9byconnectingacapacitor
in parallel with it. Calculate the required capacity of
CapacitorinbothkVARandFarads.

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MotorInput=P=VxIxCos
=400Vx50Ax0.6
=12kW
ActualP.F=Cos1=0..6
RequiredP.F=Cos2=0.90
1=Cos1=(0.60)=53.13Tan1=Tan(53.13)=1.3333
2=Cos1=(0.90)=25.84Tan2=Tan(25.50)=0.4843
RequiredCapacitorkVARtoimproveP.Ffrom0.60to0.90
RequiredCapacitorkVAR=P(Tan1Tan2)
=5kW(1.33330.4843)
=10.188kVAR
TofindtherequiredcapacityofCapacitancein Faradsto
improveP.Ffrom0.6to0.9(TwoMethods)

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Solution#1(UsingaSimpleFormula)

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PUSHBUTTON...ST

WehavealreadycalculatedtherequiredCapacityofCapacitor
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AN...
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

inkVAR,sowecaneasilyconvertitintoFaradsbyusingthis
simpleformula
RequiredCapacityofCapacitorinFarads/Microfarads
C=kVAR/(2fV2)inmicrofarad
PuttingtheValuesintheaboveformula
=(10.188kVAR)/(2xx50x4002)
=2.0268x104
=202.7x106
=202.7F
Solution#2(SimpleCalculationMethod)
kVAR=10.188(i)
Weknowthat
IC=V/XC

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WhereasXC=1/2FC
IC=V/(1/2FC)
IC=V2FC
=(400)x2x(50)xC
IC=125663.7xC
And,
kVAR=(VxIC)/1000[kVAR=(VxI)/1000]
=400x125663.7xC
IC=50265.48xC(ii)
EquatingEquation(i)&(ii),weget,
50265.48xC=10.188C
C=10.188/50265.48
C=2.0268x104
C=202.7x106
C=202.7F
Example4
What value of Capacitance must be connected in parallel
with a load drawing 1kW at 70% lagging power factor
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

from a 208V, 60Hz Source in order to raise the overall


powerfactorto91%.
Solution:
You can use either Table method or Simple Calculation
methodtofindtherequiredvalueofCapacitanceinFaradsor
kVARtoimprovePowerfactorfrom0.71to0.97.SoIused
tablemethodinthiscase.
P=1000W
ActualPowerfactor=Cos1=0.71
DesiredPowerfactor=Cos2=0.97
From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.71 to 0.97 is
0.783
RequiredCapacitorkVARtoimproveP.Ffrom0.71to0.97
Required Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table Multiplier of 0.71
and0.97
=1kWx0.783
=783VAR(requiredCapacitanceValueinkVAR)
CurrentintheCapacitor=
IC=QC/V
=783/208
=3.76A

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And
XC=V/IC
=208/3.76=55.25
C=1/(2fXC)
C=1(2x60x55.25)
C=48F(requiredCapacitanceValueinFarads)

The Fatal Current ...

GoodtoKnow:
Important formulas which is used for Power factor
improvement calculation as well as used in the above
calculation

What is True,

PowerinWatts
kW=kVAxCos
kW = HP x 0.746 or (HP x 0.746) / Efficiency (HP =
MotorPower)
2
2
http://onebyzeroelectronics.blogspot.co.id/2015/05/howtocalculatesizeofcapacitorbank.html

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Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

kW=(kVA2kVAR2)
kW=P=VICos(SinglePhase)
kW=P=3xVxICos(ThreePhase)
ApparentPowerinVA
kVA=(kW2+kVAR2)
kVA=kW/Cos
ReactivePowerinVA
kVAR=(kVA2kW2)
kVAR=Cx(2fV2)
Powerfactor(from0.1to1)
PowerFactor=Cos=P/VI(SinglePhase)
PowerFactor=Cos=P/(3xVxI)(ThreePhase)
PowerFactor=Cos=kW/kVA(BothSinglePhase&
ThreePhase)
PowerFactor=Cos=R/Z(Resistance/Impedance)
XC=1/(2fC)(XC=Capacitivereactance)
IC=V/XC(I=V/R)
RequiredCapacityofCapacitorinFarads/Microfarads
C=kVAR/(2fV2)inmicrofarad

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RequiredCapacityofCapacitorinkVAR
kVAR=Cx(2fV2)

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Clutch Explained...

Example5:
Calculate Size of Capacitor Bank Annual Saving in Bills

andPaybackPeriodforCapacitorBank.
ElectricalLoadof(1)2Nosof18.5KW,415Vmotor,90%

efficiency,0.82PowerFactor,(2)2Nosof7.5KW,415V
motor ,90% efficiency,0.82 Power Factor,(3) 10KW
,415V Lighting Load. The Targeted Power Factor for
Systemis0.98.
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

ElectricalLoadisconnected24Hours,ElectricityChargeis

100Rs/KVAand10Rs/KW.

Calculate size of Discharge Resistor for discharging of

capacitorBank.DischargerateofCapacitoris50vinless
than1minute.
Also Calculate reduction in KVAR rating of Capacitor if

Capacitor Bank is operated at frequency of 40Hz instead

Total Load KW for Connection(1) =Kw / Efficiency=


(18.52)/90%=41.1KW

TotalLoadKVA(old)forConnection(1)=KW/OldPower

Factor=41.1/0.82=50.1KVA
Total Load KVA (new) for Connection(1)= KW /New
PowerFactor=41.1/0.98=41.9KVA
TotalLoadKVAR=KWX([(1(oldp.f)2)/oldp.f][(1

(Newp.f)2)/Newp.f])

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ForConnection(1):

Flemings Rule...

Capacitor is connected in star Connection, Capacitor

Calculation:

Explained...

Graphics Array) and

DeprecationCostofCapacitoris12%.

Usb 2.0 & 3.0 Pin

of50HzandIfOperatingVoltage400Vinsteadof415V.
voltage 415V, Capacitor Cost is 60Rs/Kvar. Annual

Bluestacks ...

Total Load KVAR1=41.1x([(1(0.82)2) / 0.82] [(1


(0.98)2)/0.98])

TotalLoadKVAR1=20.35KVAR
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tan1=Arcos(0.82)=0.69
tan2=Arcos(0.98)=0.20
Total

Spark's pint-sized

Load KVAR1= KWX (tan1 tan2) =41.1(0.69

0.20)=20.35KVAR
ForConnection(2):
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Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

Total Load KW for Connection(2) =Kw / Efficiency=


(7.52)/90%=16.66KW

TotalLoadKVA(old)forConnection(1)=KW/OldPower

Factor=16.66/0.83=20.08KVA

Total Load KVA (new) for Connection(1)= KW /New


PowerFactor=16.66/0.98=17.01KVA

TotalLoadKVAR2=KWX([(1(oldp.f)2)/oldp.f][(1

(Newp.f)2)/Newp.f])

Total Load KVAR2=20.35x([(1(0.83)2) / 0.83] [(1


(0.98)2)/0.98])

TotalLoadKVAR2=7.82KVAR
ForConnection(3):
TotalLoadKWforConnection(3)=Kw=10KW

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TotalLoadKVA(old)forConnection(1)=KW/OldPower

Factor=10/0.85=11.76KVA

About Me

Total Load KVA (new) for Connection(1)= KW /New

Arun Karthik

PowerFactor=10/0.98=10.20KVA

View my

TotalLoadKVAR3=KWX([(1(oldp.f)2)/oldp.f][(1

(Newp.f)2)/Newp.f])

Total Load KVAR3=20.35x([(1(0.85)2) / 0.85] [(1

complete profile

Visitors

(0.98)2)/0.98])
TotalLoadKVAR1=4.17KVAR
TotalKVAR=KVAR1+KVAR2+KVAR3
TotalKVAR=20.35+7.82+4.17
TotalKVAR=32Kvar

SizeofCapacitorBank:
SiteofCapacitorBank=32Kvar.
Leading KVAR supplied by each Phase= Kvar/No of

Phase
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

Leading

KVAR

supplied

by

each

Phase

=32/3=10.8Kvar/Phase

Capacitor Charging Current (Ic)= (Kvar/Phase


x1000)/Volt

CapacitorChargingCurrent(Ic)=(10.81000)/(415/3)
CapacitorChargingCurrent(Ic)=44.9Amp

Capacitance of Capacitor = Capacitor Charging


Current(Ic)/Xc

Xc=2x3.14xfxv=23.14x50x(415/3)=75362
CapacitanceofCapacitor=44.9/75362=5.96F
Required3Nosof10.8KvarCapacitorsand
TotalSizeofCapacitorBankis32Kvar

ProtectionofCapacitorBank

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SizeofHRCFuseforCapacitorBankProtection:
Sizeofthefuse=165%to200%ofCapacitorCharging

current.
Sizeofthefuse=244.9Amp
Sizeofthefuse=90Amp

SizeofCircuitBreakerforCapacitorProtection:

Size of the Circuit Breaker =135% to 150% of


CapacitorChargingcurrent.

SizeoftheCircuitBreaker=1.544.9Amp
SizeoftheCircuitBreaker=67Amp

Thermal relay setting between 1.3 and 1.5of Capacitor


Chargingcurrent.

ThermalrelaysettingofC.B=1.544.9Amp
ThermalrelaysettingofC.B=67Amp

Magnetic relay setting between 5 and 10 of Capacitor

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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

Chargingcurrent.
MagneticrelaysettingofC.B=1044.9Amp
MagneticrelaysettingofC.B=449Amp

SizingofcablesforcapacitorConnection:
Capacitorscanwithstandapermanentovercurrentof30%

+toleranceof10%oncapacitorCurrent.
CablessizeforCapacitorConnection=1.3x1.1xnominal

capacitorCurrent
Cables size for Capacitor Connection = 1.43 x nominal

capacitorCurrent
CablessizeforCapacitorConnection=1.4344.9Amp
CablessizeforCapacitorConnection=64Amp

MaximumsizeofdischargeResistorforCapacitor:
Capacitorswillbedischargebydischargingresistors.

After the capacitor is disconnected from the source of


supply, discharge resistors are required for discharging
eachunitwithin3minto75Vorlessfrominitialnominal
peakvoltage(accordingIECstandard60831).

Discharge

resistors have to be connected directly to the

capacitors. There shall be no switch, fuse cutout or any


other isolating device between the capacitor unit and the
dischargeresistors.
Max.DischargeresistanceValue(StarConnection)=Ct

/CnxLog(Unx2/Dv).
Max.DischargeresistanceValue(DeltaConnection)=Ct

/1/3xCnxLog(Unx2/Dv)
WhereCt=CapacitorDischargeTime(sec)
Cn=CapacitanceFarad.
Un=LineVoltage
Dv=CapacitorDischargevoltage.
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

MaximumDischargeresistance=60/((5.96/1000000)xlog

(415x2/50)
MaximumDischargeresistance=4087K

Effect of Decreasing Voltage & Frequency on Rating of


Capacitor:
Thekvarofcapacitorwillnotbesameifvoltageappliedto

thecapacitorandfrequencychanges
Reduced in Kvar size of Capacitor when operating 50 Hz

unitat40Hz
Actual

KVAR = Rated KVAR x(Operating Frequency /

RatedFrequency)
ActualKVAR=RatedKVARx(40/50)
ActualKVAR=80%ofRatedKVAR

Hence 32 Kvar Capacitor works as 80%x32Kvar=


26.6Kvar

Reduced in Kvar size of Capacitor when operating 415V

unitat400V
ActualKVAR=RatedKVARx(Operatingvoltage/Rated

voltage)^2
ActualKVAR=RatedKVARx(400/415)^2
ActualKVAR=93%ofRatedKVAR

Hence 32 Kvar Capacitor works as 93%x32Kvar=


23.0Kvar

AnnualSavingandPayBackPeriod
BeforePowerFactorCorrection:
TotalelectricalloadKVA(old)=KVA1+KVA2+KVA3
Totalelectricalload=50.1+20.08+11.76
Totalelectricalload=82KVA
TotalelectricalLoadKW=kW1+KW2+KW3
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

TotalelectricalLoadKW=37+15+10
TotalelectricalLoadKW=62kw
LoadCurrent=KVA/V=801000/(415/1.732)
LoadCurrent=114.1Amp
KVADemandCharge=KVAXCharge
KVADemandCharge=82x60Rs
KVADemandCharge=8198Rs
AnnualUnitConsumption=KWxDailyusesx365
AnnualUnitConsumption=62x24x365=543120Kwh
Annualcharges=54312010=5431200Rs
TotalAnnualCost=8198+5431200
Total

Annual Cost before Power Factor Correction=

5439398Rs
AfterPowerFactorCorrection:
TotalelectricalloadKVA(new)=KVA1+KVA2+KVA3
Totalelectricalload=41.95+17.01+10.20
Totalelectricalload=69KVA
TotalelectricalLoadKW=kW1+KW2+KW3
TotalelectricalLoadKW=37+15+10
TotalelectricalLoadKW=62kw
LoadCurrent=KVA/V=691000/(415/1.732)
LoadCurrent=96.2Amp
KVADemandCharge=KVAXCharge
KVADemandCharge=69x60Rs=6916Rs(1)
AnnualUnitConsumption=KWxDailyusesx365
AnnualUnitConsumption=62x24x365=543120Kwh
Annualcharges=54312010=5431200Rs(2)
CapitalCostofcapacitor=KvarxCapacitorcost/Kvar=82

x60=4919Rs(3)
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1/23/2016

Howtocalculatethesizeofcapacitorbank???~OnebyZeroElectronics

AnnualInterestandDeprecationCost=4919x12%=590Rs

(4)
TotalAnnualCost=6916+5431200+4919+590

Total Annual Cost After Power Factor Correction


=5438706Rs

PayBackPeriod:

Total Annual Cost before Power Factor Correction=


5439398Rs

TotalAnnualCostAfterPowerFactorCorrection=5438706

Rs
AnnualSaving=54393985438706Rs
AnnualSaving=692Rs
PaybackPeriod=CapitalCostofCapacitor/AnnualSaving
PaybackPeriod=4912/692
PaybackPeriod=7.1Years

+1 Recommend this on Google

FRIDAY, MAY 29, 2015

KARTHIK

ARUN

ELECTRICAL

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