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Does Ginkgo Biloba

Improve Memory?

Dominique Raymond &


Neeka Tabatabaei

What is Ginkgo Biloba?


A common treatment in Chinese medicine
Acts as an antioxidant which improves blood
flow to the brain
Commonly used to improve memory and
sharpen thinking
Has shown to improve memory problems
caused by dementia and Alzheimer's disease

Where does it come from?


Ginkgo tree
Supplements are
usually derived from
the leaves
Ginkgo seeds that
are raw can be dangerous

How much should you take?


For improving cognitive function in healthy
people, studies have used between 120
milligrams to 600 milligrams of the extract
daily

2 important trials:
The use of Ginkgo biloba extract may be
associated with a reduced incidence and
progression of various types of dementia and
reduced incidence of death
EPIDOS study
PAQUID study

Andrieu et al., 2003


Epidemiology of Osteoporosis (EPIDOS)
study
Prospective Epidemiological correlational
study
Investigated the epidemiology of osteoporosis
over 7 years in 7,598 women older than 75
years of age

Andrieu et al., 2003


Cognitive data was available for a subgroup of
714 patients
110 of these patients went to develop
dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT)
Results: Data analysis showed that the women
who developed dementia had a significantly
lower use of Ginkgo biloba

Dartigues et al., 2007


Personnes Ages Quid (PAQUID) study
Prospective Epidemiological correlational
study
13 year trial done on 3,534 men and women
older than 65
225 of them took Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 (a
standardized, well-defined product extract of
Ginkgo biloba leaves)

Dartigues et al., 2007


888 took other nootropics for memory
complaints
Results: The use of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb
761 was significantly advantageous for
dementia and death compared with other
nootropics

Kennedy et al., 2007


Modulation of cognitive performance
following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo
biloba extract administered to healthy young
volunteers
Dietary Challenge Experiment that compared the
effects of Quality Memory and Speed of Attention
with an intake of 120 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract
supplement.

Kennedy et al., 2007


- Study 1: 20 participants with the mean age of
19.9
- Study 2: 28 participants with the mean age
of 20.4
- Study 3: 30 participants with the mean age
of 21.68

Kennedy et al., 2007


Quantitative Outcome Measures:
Quality of memory
Secondary Memory
Working Memory
Speed of Memory
Speed of Attention Factor
The Accuracy of Attention Factor

Kennedy et al., 2007


Procedure:
- the first days of study the patients did not receive any
ginkgo, it was the practice round
- Each active study day comprised five identical
cognitive/mood testing sessions.
- Further testing sessions began at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 hr
following consumption of the days treatment.

Kennedy et al., 2007


Results
- There were effects on the secondary memory
tasks which lead to an increase on the quality
of memory
- There was also an increase in the speed of
attention

Kennedy et al., 2007

Kennedy et al., 2007


Conclusion:
- Increased speed of attention in smaller dose is different
from previous studies
- Results conclude that Ginkgo has psychoactive nature
- Recommended dose needs to be further evaluated

Limitations:
- Participants were young healthy adults and it would
have been great to see the ginkgo effect on the elderly

References
-

"Ginkgo Biloba Supplement Information From WebMD." WebMD


. WebMD, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.
Kasper, S. (2012). Clinical data in early intervention. International
Psychogeriatrics, 24, S41-5. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212000555
Kennedy, D. O., Jackson, P. A., Haskell, C. F., & Scholey, A. B. (2007).
Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo
biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers. Human
Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental, 22(8), 559-566.
doi:10.1002/hup.885
Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes K. (2000). The dose dependent cognitive
effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers.
Psychopharmacology 151: 416423