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1

Path Loss

Free Space Loss

Ground Reflections

Surface Waves

Diffraction

Channelization

Dispersion

Time Variations

traffic light?

Key Terms

Antenna Gain; Free-Space Loss; Ground Reflections;

Two-Ray Model; "40 Log d"; Shadowing; Rician
Fading; Bessel Function I0(.); Rician K-Ratio; Rayleigh

Free Space Loss

Isotropic antenna: power is distributed homogeneously over
surface area of a sphere.

The power density w at distance d is

w = PT 2
4d
where PT is the transmit power.

w=

A
2 PT
4d

area.

FREE SPACE LOSS, continued

The antenna gain GR is related to the aperture A according to
GR = 4A
2
Thus the received signal power is
1
2

P R = PT G R
4 4 d 2

The received power decreases with frequency, PR :: f -2

Path Loss in dB:
Lfs= 32.44 + 20 log (f /1 MHz) + 20 log (d / 1 km)

In free space: E 0 =

30 PT G T
4 d

E0 = (120 PR)

Antenna Gain
A theorem about cats: An isotropic antenna can not exist.

Antenna Gain
GT (,) is the amount of power radiated in direction
(,), relative to an isotropic antenna.

cos
cos

G( , ) = 1.64

sin

Law of Conservation of Energy

Total power at distance d is equal to PT
G( , ) dA = 1

A directional antenna can amplify signals from one

direction {GR (,) >> 1}, but must attenuate signals
from other directions {GR (,) < 1}.

Groundwave loss:
Waves travelling over land interact with the earth's surface.

Norton: For propagation over a plane earth,

E i = E 0i (1+ Rc e j + (1 - Rc ) F( ) e j + ),
where
Rc

is the reflection coefficient,

F() is the (complex) surface wave attenuation

Bullington:

surface wave.

Space wave

The (phasor) sum of the direct wave and the

ground-reflected wave is called 'space wave'

Space-wave approximation for

UHF land-mobile communication:

Surface wave is negligible, i.e., F() << 1, for the usual

values of ht and hr.

ht

hr

{(ht + hr)2 +d2}

2

PR

1 + Re j PT GT GR
=
4d

The phase difference is found from Pythagoras. Distance

between TX and RX antenna = {( ht - ht)2 + d2}
Distance between TX and mirrored RX antenna =
{( ht + ht)2 + d2}}

Space-wave approximation
The phase difference is
=

2
2
d 2 + ( ht + h r ) - d 2 + ( h t - hr )

4 hr ht
d

2

PR

4j hr ht
1 + R exp
=
PT GT GR
4d
d

0 and Rc -1.

10

d-2
d-4

ln(Distance)

2 hr ht

=
G G P
4 sin2
4d
d R T T
2

PR

N.B.

formula.

11

Macro-cellular groundwave propagation

For d >> 4 hr ht, we approximate sin(x) x:
h2r h2t
PR _
PT G R G T
d4

Egli [1957]: semi-empirical model for path loss

fc
L = 40 log d + 20 log
- 20 log hr ht .
40 MHz

12

Generic path-loss models

p is normalized power

r is normalized distance

p = r -2

Groundwave propagation: "40 log d" models

p = r -4

Empirical model:
2 ... 5

p = r -,

3.2

Micro-cellular models
VHF/UHF propagation for low antenna height (ht = 5 10 m)
p = r - 1

r
1 +

rg

13

- 2

Diffraction loss

The diffraction parameter v is defined as

v = hm

2 1 1
+ ,
dt dr

where
hm is the height of the obstacle, and
dt is distance transmitter - obstacle
dr is distance receiver - obstacle

6 + 9v 1.27v 2
Ld =
13 + 20 log v

v > 2.4

14

How to combine ground-reflection and

diffraction loss?
Obstacle gain:

The attenuation over a path with a knife edge can be

smaller than the loss over a path without the obstacle!

"Obstacles mitigate ground-reflection loss"

L K = L fs + Ld + L R ,

Blomquist:
L K = L fs + L2d + L2R ,

15

ln(Distance)

Area-mean power

Local-mean power

is an average over 40 (few meters)

Instantaneous power

depends on time if antenna is in motion

16

Local obstacles cause random shadow attenuation

Model:

logarithmic units (such as dB or neper),

Probability Density:
f

p Log

( )

pLog =

1
1
2
exp - 2 p Log
2
2

where
is the 'logarithmic standard deviation' in natural units.
PLog = ln [local-mean power / area-mean power ]
The standard deviation in dB is found from s = 4.34

17

The log-normal distribution

Convert 'nepers' to 'watts'. Use

pLog = ln

p
p

and
f

Log = ln

p ( p) =

1
p
1
exp - 2 ln2 ,
2 s p
p
2

18

local-mean power

The linear average and higher-order moments of localmean power are

[ ]_

E p

N.B.

2 2
f p ( p) d p = p exp m
.
2

accumulates rapidly!! Average of sum of 6
interferers is larger than sum of area means.

19

Egli:

UHF

Marsan, Hess and Gilbert:

Semi-circular routes in Chicago: 6.5 dB to 10.5 dB,
with a median of 9.3 dB.

Marsan et al.:

3.7 dB

4 .. 7 dB

Combined model by Mawira (PTT Research):

Two superimposed Markovian processes:
3 dB with coherence distance over 100 m, plus
4 dB with coherence distance 1200 m

20

reflections
line of sight
TX

RX

Narrowband propagation model:

Transmitted carrier
s(t) = cos c t
N

n=1

where
C

21

N

n=1

where

22

and are

zero-mean independently identically

distributed (i.i.d.) jointly Gaussian random
variables

PDF:
i 2 + (q - C )2
1
exp f I,Q (i,q) =

2
2 2
2

Conversion to polar coordinates:

Received amplitude : 2 = i2 + q2 .

i = cos ;

q = sin ,

2 + C2 - 2 C cos

exp f , ( , ) =

2
2
2 2

23

Rician Amplitude
Integrate joint PDF over from 0 to 2: Rician PDF of
2 + C 2 C

f ( ) = exp I0 ,
2q
q

q
where
I0() is the modified Bessel function of the first kind and
zero order
is the total scattered power ( = 2).

Rician K-ratio
K = direct power C2/2 over scattered power

Measured values
K = 4 ... 1000 (6 to 30 dB) for micro-cellular systems

24

Very strong dominant component

Rician PDF

Gaussian PDF

Direct line-of-sight component is small (C 0, K 0).
The variances of and are equal to local-mean power
PDF of amplitude is Rayleigh
2

f ( ) = exp - .
p
2 p
The instantaneous power p (p = 1/22 = 1/22 + 1/22) is
exponential
f

p ( p)

= f ( )

p
d
1
= exp - .
dp
p
p

25

The sum of m exponentially distributed powers is

Gamma distributed.
1 pt
f p ( pt ) =

t
p(m) p
where

m-1

p
exp - t .
p

(m)

2
2m-1
exp -
f ( ) =
m-1 m
2 p
(m) 2 p

-