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Introduction to

Philosophy
Philosophy begins with wonder
- Plato

Philosophy is the natural and


spontaneous use of reason in trying
to understand reality itself.
- Joseph M. de Torre
( Christian Philosophy)

Philosophy is not to explain life but


to help constitute it. By making man
aware of the implications of his
actions, of the range and scope of
his/her life.
- Imelda P. Nabor-Nery
(Modern and Contemporary
Philosophy)

Philosophy is human thought


become self-conscious. Its topics
are life, the universe, and
everything.

What is
Philosophy?
ETYMOLOGICAL
DEFINITION
GREEK
philo - love
sophia - wisdom
Philosophy is the
love of wisdom
-Pythagoras

What is PHILOSOPHY?
Real definition:
It is a DISCIPLINED and CRITICAL reflection on
human EXPERIENCE.

Philosophy and Common Sense

Common sense is the ordinary


knowledge which everybody has by
using his/her reason spontaneously in
an unreflective or pre-scientific way.

Development of Philosophy

Ancient Philosophy Era

Medieval Philosophy Era

Renaissance

Modern Philosophy Era

Post-Modern Philosophy Era

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Epistemology Aesthetics
Ethics Logic Politics
Religion
Politics
Ethics
Epistemology Metaphysics Religion
Logic
Philosophy of Man
Metaphysics
Aesthetics
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Philosophy of Man

(CLASSICAL)
Branches of Philosophy

Ethics:
Moral Philosophy
Questions:
How should we live?
What is good and evil?
What is the best way to
live?
What is Justice?
Is right and wrong relative
or universal?

Epistemology
Questions:
What is knowledge?
How is knowledge
acquired?
How do we know
what we know?

Metaphysics
Philosophy of Being
Explores the
fundamental nature
of reality and being
Ontology
Existence
Space and Time
Cause and Effect

Politics
Political Philosophy
Explores the
relationship between
citizens and
governments

Aesthetics
Questions
What is beauty?
What is art?
What is the value of
beauty and art?

logic
Rules for Thinking
Art and Science of
Correct and Valid
Reasoning

Religion
Questions
Does God exist?
What is God?
What is the nature of the
relationship between God and
humans?
Is God active in the world?
How?
Is there life after death?

Philosophy
of Science
Concerned with the
assumptions,
foundations, methods
and implications of
science.
Empirical Verification
Inductive Logic