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The SAP R/3 system consists

of application modules that
support business
transactions and are
integrated real-time
Because of integration, a change
in one application module will
result in an automatic update of
the data in the other application
modules involved
All application modules have


architecture and user interface

(same look & feel and


Other influencing factors in scheduling:

Internal processing: the normal Duration maintained in the activity is used by
the system for scheduling internally processed activity.
External processing: Planned delivery time or normal Duration (explicitly to
be activated in control key) will be used by system for scheduling externally
processed activity.
General costs activity: Duration
Relationship: Time interval: Fixed or as a percentage.
The work centers can be maintained in internally or externally processed activity
and in relationships, and work centers contains following information's:
1. Formulas for calculating duration of activities
2. Factory calendar and operating time for each workday.


A network must and always scheduled forwards and backwards and scheduling type
specifies whether forward scheduling or backward scheduling is carried out first.
Forward scheduling calculates the earliest start and finish dates for all activities, and
the scheduled finish date of the network. A start activity is an activity in a network
that does not have a predecessor.
Backward scheduling calculates the latest start and finish dates for an activity (latest
dates) and the scheduled start date of the network. A target activity is an activity in
a network that does not have a successor.
When forward scheduling is performed first, the date from which scheduling starts
is the basic start date in the network header. When forward scheduling is
performed after backwards scheduling the start date is calculated from backward
When backward scheduling is performed first, the base date from which
scheduling starts is the basic start date in the network header. When backwards
scheduling is performed after forward scheduling the finish date is calculated from
forward scheduling.
Start dates are at the beginning of the day
(00:00). Finish dates are at the end of the day


Scheduling Assembly Networks:

Overall Network Scheduling can be performed for a sales order item.
This function schedules the network assigned to the sales order item and all
other networks with relationships to it (total network scheduling).
The function leads to an update of all items in the sales order with assignments
to the total network.
Overall Network Scheduling with Selection Options:
This function is used along with selection criteria to specify which network/subnetwork are to be taken into account as part of overall network scheduling.
A prerequisite for the use of the Overall network scheduling with selection options
function is that suitable levels are defined beforehand for the project system and
network types and number intervals are assigned to it.


ES = earliest start
EF = earliest finish
LS = latest start
LF = latest finish
TF = total float
FF = free float
Floats supply information about time reserves available for individual activities and
one can use floats calculated in scheduling, for example in capacity leveling, to
shift activities between their earliest and latest dates or to extend their duration.
Total float: The amount of time an activity can be shifted from its earliest dates into
the future without affecting the latest dates of its successor. (Total float: = LS-ES
or LF-EF)
Free float: The amount of time an activity can be shifted from its earliest dates
into the future without affecting the earliest dates of its successor. (Free float =
ES successor EF activity)


The slide describes the calculation of total floats and free floats:
The total float can be calculated as the difference between the earliest and
latest start of an activity.
In the above example:
Day 6 (0:00) - Day 5 (0:00) = 1 Day.
The free float of an activity can be calculated as the difference between the
earliest start of the successor and the earliest finish of the activity.
In the above example:
Day 9 (0:00) - Day 7 (24:00) = 1 Day.


Reduction can be used when the time period within which activities are scheduled
is not enough for processing all the activities.
This reduces the scheduled duration of internally-processed activities and for
which reduction strategy has been maintained.
Up to six reduction levels can be defined for each reduction strategy. The
percentage reduction required can be entered for each reduction level.


You can plan project costs in two different ways:

Manual cost planning in the WBS
Cost planning using activities (network costing)
Manual planning in the WBS involves:
1. Overall planning is a structure-oriented planning and is the most basic form. In
this kind of cost planning you enter costs for each WBS element which will be
broken down by fiscal year if you want.
2. Cost element planning is a detailed planning of primary costs and activity inputs
which is cost element based and period based.
3. In Unit costing you use a profile to enter quantities like internal activities,
materials, variable items and external services etc. for each WBS element.
Unit costing is cost element based.
4. From 4.6C release, you can use Easy Cost Planning which offers you an easyto-use tool for planning costs by cost element in a quantity structure. And further
one can use Execution Services to enter actual data and commitment for the
related planned costs.
The plan costs can be determined manually as mentioned above and also by creating


activities for WBS elements, and using these activities to plan costs.
When using networks and activities, planned costs are automatically
calculated based on the resource requirements identified for activities and
Resources provide a quantity structure that can be dynamically valued by the system.
This method has the following advantages:
a. resulting plan can be copied to new projects
b. cost planning is shifted automatically along with the activities, if parts of the
project are shifted.
c. Planning using network activities is by cost element and period.


You can plan project costs simply by creating activities for WBS elements (for example, in the
project planning board or structure planning transactions).
Planning in this case is by period and cost element.
This process has significant advantages over manual planning of primary costs or activity
Cost planning can be postponed easily, using a work package.
You can copy this type of cost planning to new projects.
Cost planning is integrated with time scheduling and resource


When you plan dates and resources in network activities, the system determines
the corresponding planned costs automatically.
Planned costs are determined for the following
objects: Activity inputs for internally-processed
Primary costs for externally-processed activities and services
Primary costs for general costs activities
Primary costs for material components
Activity elements are costed as if they were activities.
System automatically calculates the planned cost based on planned dates and resources in
network activities.
Cost elements should be identified by cost relevant items. Identification in internal activities,
external activities is as:
Internal activities/ services: Determination is by means of secondary cost element assigned in
the network type master data


External activities/services :1) Non stock-It is identified by G/l account 2) Stock- It is

determined by automatic account determination
Cost planning is integrated with time scheduling and resource planning


Internally processed activities are used for the work which needs to be executed in own
company and assist in planning work.
In the activity, you need to maintain the work data and based on same system calculate costs
for these activities.
Work is an input for machine or person to execute the activity. And work center is place
where the work is carried out and work output is provided.
Work centers contains data such as scheduling and capacity, which assists in costing,
scheduling and capacity planning of activities.
The costs can be distributed over the network duration for internally processed activities &
cost activities and controlled via distribution key.
The distribution key is determined from the activity or from work center (only in internallyprocessed activities), if not maintained in activity. If distribution key is not maintained or
determined, costs are distributed evenly (over the earliest dates) in the activity.
Example: An activity spread across periods 09 and 10, with a total work time of 250 hours.
The dates and the distribution key used for the activity assign 100 hours to period 09 and


hours to period 10. If the rate is 100 Euros per hour for period 09 and 80 Euros per
hour for period 10 and valuation per period has been stipulated, the costs are
10000 Euros for period 09 and 12000 Euros for period 10.
During execution phase, when you confirm the activities, you consume the capacity
required by the activity and enter the actual date and costs.
You can distribute work among the employees by assigning persons to the activities
from a project team which can be set up from HR organizational units, persons or


When procuring services externally (outsourcing), you can create services or externallyprocessed activities.
Example: You commission a freelance engineer to design and build a machine.
When creating a externally processed activity or service activity, a purchase requisition is
created based on the settings and further processed in purchasing and the data can be
accessed from purchasing for external processing e.g. purchasing info record, which
contains data for the pricing and delivery times.
Externally-processed activities give rise to planned costs equivalent to the prices from
the purchasing info record or the price in the activity. The valuation variant for the
network costing variant determines which price is used for the valuation. When the
purchase requisition is activated and converted to a purchase order, the activity is
also shown as a purchase requisition commitment or purchase order commitment.
The account assignment category in the purchase order determines whether the
goods/invoice receipt is valued - that is, whether it gives rise to actual costs. If the
goods receipt is valuated, actual costs are posted to the activity and the commitment
is reduced by the amount of the purchase order. This means that the invoice receipt


may correct the actual costs.

Service activities are maintained for the purchase of services.
Creating such an activity establishes the link to MM Services (MM-SRV). Unlike
externally-processed activities, service activities contain a service
specification containing planned activities and value limits for unplanned
This service specification is copied to the purchase order where Purchasing
can then modify it. Service activities also give rise to planned costs or
purchase requisition/order commitments. Instead of goods receipts, services
are later entered and accepted.
The service activities also initiates the purchasing process but contain the value limits
for the unplanned services and hierarchy of planned services to be procured. The
goods receipt process in Services activities involves following steps: service entry
and service acceptance.
The externally processed activity and service activities are differentiated by Control


We can assign a work center and planned work to an externally processed activity.
This allows to carry out capacity planning for vendors
Changes in network dates/quantity will trigger workflow for a PO change:
If changes are made in the network to dates or quantities for material
components or external activities for which PO has already been created .system
triggers a workflow automatically. The only prerequisite is that this workflow has
been activated in the parameters for the network type table
The person responsible in purchasing will receive an information on the required
If only PR is created, changes in the network to dates/quantities will update the
change in PR automatically


The Internal processed activity, external processed activity and service activities are
differentiated by Control keys.
We can generate Purchase requisition (PR) for externally processed activities
from Project System. The PR is converted to a Purchase order (PO) in
purchasing. A goods receipt and invoice receipt can then be posted for the
purchase order
We can assign a work center and planned work to an externally processed activity.
This allows to carry out capacity planning for vendors


You can use general costs activities to plan all other costs that cannot be mapped via
internally-processed activities or externally-processed/service activities.
In the general costs activity, you can enter a description, the amount and currency, a cost
element, a duration and a distribution key for distributing costs.
The costs are distributed using the network duration for general costs activities.
Distribution is controlled by means of the distribution key for the activity. If no distribution
key is maintained, the costs are distributed evenly over the earliest dates in the activity.
You can create a unit cost plan for the general costs activity.
This means that detailed costing is possible even at an early stage of the project
(for example, for sales pricing).
The activities which cannot be tracked though internal/externat activities/services can be
tracked through general cost activities to plan costs
Eg travel expense for meeting.Genral cost activity is assigned to cost object
Costs are distributed as per scheduled duration which is controlled by distribution key


.There are cases where distributionkey has not been maintained,in those cases
even distribution of cost is done based on the earliest dates in the activity
Detaled costing can be done like during sales pricing phase that is at beggining
phase of project


You can create invoicing plans directly for network activities (external, service, or general
costs) or components procured externally.
This means that it is possible to plan costs and outgoing payments on the basis of dates
entered in the invoicing plan. Costs are not simply distributed, but are calculated precisely
at the times specified in the invoicing plan.
You can create an invoicing plan by copying a reference invoicing plan.
The reference invoicing plan fixes cost and payment times relative to a start date.
Alternatively, you can copy billing milestones as dates to the invoicing plan of the activity. If
you copy the milestones rather than creating them manually, they can be postponed
along with the dates in the invoicing plan if the activities are rescheduled.
You cannot create invoicing plans in combination with unit costings (for general costs
activities or material components).


On the basis of days, periods or fiscal years one can plan payment flows i.e. revenues
and expenditure.
In WBS elements, manual planning of revenues and expenditure is by period. At
commitment item level (Project Cash Management master data) planning takes place.
The quantity structure in the network and the billing plans in the WBS or SD document
are valuated in the automatic planning of financial data.
Automatic planning will be done by day. Planned line items will be written.
Based on assignment to G/L accounts commitment items will be determined. Unlike
revenue and costs calculation, payment date calculation takes account of the
customer and vendor payment terms respectively.
Note: The credit side payment plan of the network is determined using the
asynchronous network costing only.
The dates and the payment terms are used in the PS billing plan for planning incoming
payments. Sales order items will also be used in assigning the billing plan data and
payment terms(of the dates or sales order item).The delivery date including the
payment conditions is used if there is no billing plan for the sales order item.


In the case of activities processed externally and externally procured components,

invoicing plan including payment conditions are used or, the delivery dates including
payment conditions are used where there is no invoicing plan
If an invoicing plan has been maintained, payment data is only planned for
general costs activities


Planned revenues and incoming payments is relevant in billing plan.

Dates for Down payments are relevant only for payments (not revenues).
Milestone billing dates appear as planned incoming payments and planned revenues. Two
things are important for dates and amounts i.e. payment terms and payment target
(example: payment 1 week after invoice issue, with 2% discount)
Once the project is executed, invoice billing will be generated and appear in the project as
actual revenues and customer payment obligations. With respect to dawn payment date,
down payment requests will be generated by the billing program which are recorded in
the payment data for the project.
Billing plan can be created for a sales order, a sales order item or for a billing element in the
Planned costs and planned outgoing payments are relevant during the Invoicing plan.


Invoicing planes can be created for externally-processed activities, externallyprocured material components, service activities and cost activities.


Depending on the transaction, you can calculate costs for one network (example: network
maintenance) or a range of networks (example: all networks for selected WBS elements
in structure planning or the project planning board).
You can calculate network costs asynchronously. The advantage of this is that you can select
and cost broader ranges (example: A to Z) and carry out costing in the background.


Costing variant controls calculation of planned and actual cost. Costing variant
is assigned to order type. Networks are of order category 20.
The valuation procedure is defined by valuation variant which is a component of
costing variant. Based on valuation variant prices are determined by the system to
value componenets material, activity type, processes, subcontracting and external
activities. Valuation variant searches for prices in sequence from the price sources.
Price entered first is selected first
Materials:Price is selected either from purchasing date or material master record
Activity type & Processes: Price is selected either from activity based costing or
cost center accounting
Externallly processed activity:price is selected either from the activity or from
purchasing information record


When customizing the order value update, you stipulate, for each order category and
type, whether the order or network is appended - that is, whether its planned costs are
added to the project cost plan for assigned WBS elements.
There are two tables for the order type (network type). The first is defined per order type,
the second (parameters for network) per order type and plant.
A third important table is the network profile, containing default values for the network and
its activities.
The costing variants for plan and actual costs are determined at network header level.
The costing sheet and overhead key are determined at activity level. They control process
cost accounting or application of overhead. Depending on the creation process, these
keys are inherited from the network header or the assigned WBS element.


The costing variant contains the basic control information needed to carry out
costing. The valuation variant contains all the information which controls the
valuation of:
Material components
Internal activities
External activities
This information also
controls how
overheads are
Valuation can be
determined plant by plant.
The "By period" indicator enables you to calculate costs for internally-processed
activities period by period.
The costing type contains further detailed information for controlling costing.


You can classify the resources in broadly 2 categories from the networks point of
view: Internal and external activities.
Internally processed activities: These activities / work are carried out by
machines and / or persons of own company. You can schedule the activities as
per requirement, distribute the work among persons.
Externally processed activities: these activities are executed / processed by other
companies. These are carried out by purchasing department. The service
activities are also procured externally however different from externally
processed activity that you need to define service specification and the limit for
the unplanned activities which is provided by the service provider.


Business scenario
To execute a project, materials are required
which can be procured externally (purchasing) or
manufactured in own company (Production). These
materials are managed in project-specific stock.
As the project controller, you are interested in:
The values in the project, at the different stages of purchasing or production

(project controlling)
Stocks of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products used for your project


(stock controlling)

Materials provide linkage between many other SAP functional modules like
Materials Management (Purchasing and Inventory Management), Sales and
Distribution, plant maintenance and Production Planning and Control.
The materials are assigned to activities which helps in material requirement and
planning in a project.
The product which is manufactured in your project is in turn made up of
a variety of material components.
The first step is to plan the procurement and consumption of the required
components in your project.
Projects are linked to Materials management, Sales and Distribution and
Production Planning via materials.


In order to plan the material requirements of a project, materials can be assigned to

activities. On the basis of stock, the materials are classified as stock or non-stock items.
The item category stock items (L) are for such materials which are stored in stock e.g. project
stock, sales order stock or warehouse stock and reservations can be created for such
materials. Based on the quantity required in the project, the requirement planning can be
initiated. The procurement element for external procurement is a purchase requisition and for
requirement planning is planned order.
For productions of assembled material, material BOM is exploded and the
requirement planning is executed for all the materials mentioned in BOM.
Non-stock items (N) are for materials which are to be procured directly for the network which
is not using MRP (i.e. not procured via project stock, sales order stock or warehouse stock).
For non-stock items, Purchase requisitions are created which are passed on directly to


The item category "stock item" (L) is used for materials kept in stock. When you save
your data, the system creates a reservation for the required material. A purchase
requisition - which is passed on to Purchasing - can also be created for components
procured externally.
The main function of material requirements planning is to ensure material availability
(in other words, to procure the required quantities in time - both in-house and for sales
and distribution). This includes monitoring stocks and, above all, creating procurement
proposals for purchasing and production.
Independent requirements - that is, requirements for finished products, assemblies or raw
materials - trigger requirements planning. In order to cover the requirements, order
quantities and dates have to be determined, and the corresponding procurement elements
scheduled. The procurement element for requirements planning is a planned order and,
for external procurement, a purchase requisition. Furthermore, the dependent
requirements for materials produced in-house (in other words, the quantity of components
required to manufacture a finished product or assembly) are determined by exploding the
bill of material. Planned orders are created at each BOM level to cover requirements
when a material shortage occurs.


Once quantities and dates have been planned in requirements planning, these
planned procurement elements are converted to "exact" procurement elements: for
production, this is the production order and, for external procurement, the purchase
order. When the order or purchase order is being processed, the production order
is delivered or a goods receipt is posted to stock (plant stock or project/sales order
The goods issue that takes place as a result of this activity reduces the stock
and posts actual costs to the "consuming" network activity.
Item Category L (stock item) is used for components kept in stock .
Ensuring material availability is the main function of MRP which includes monitoring
stocks and creating procurement proposals for purchasing and production .
Requirement for finished products, saleable assemblies and spare parts
trigger requirement planning.
Order quantities and dates have to be determined in order to cover the
requirements .
For requirement planning the procurement element is the planned order and
for external procurement it is purchase requisition .
Planned procurement elements are converted into exact procurement elements
once the quantities and dates are planned.
It is Production order for production and purchase order for external procurement.


The item category "non-stock item" (N) is used for components that are not procured
by way of warehouse stock or project/sales order stock, but are procured directly by a
network activity instead.
Purchase requisitions are created for these components. These requisitions are passed
on directly to Purchasing. When the goods are received, they are not placed into stock,
but posted to the activity.
Non-stock items cannot be managed as project stock or sales order stock.
Non Stock Item (N) :
These are the items which are procured directly by network activity and not through
warehouse stock, project stock or sale order stock .
Purchase requisitions are created first and then passed directly to purchasing.
When the goods are received they are directly posted to activity .
Non stock items cannot be managed as project stock or sale order stock .
There are two procurement types for direct procurement with item category N :


Purchase Requisition for the network

Third party requisition for the


Changes in network dates/quantity will trigger workflow for a PO change:

If changes are made in the network to dates or quantities for material
components or external activities for which PO has already been created .system
triggers a workflow automatically. The only prerequisite is that this workflow has
been activated in the parameters for the network type table
The person responsible in purchasing will receive an information on the required
If only PR is created, changes in the network to dates/quantities will update the
change in PR automatically


For instance In this case the way in which the material can be procured
depends on both item category and material attributes.

The material master stores the information of

the material attributes.
-It contains information like :
-Whether the material is purchased or
internally manufactured.
-Whether the requirements are individual
or collective or both
-Whether the material can be procured in
The control data of the project definition
determines whether stocks can be built or not


The account assignment category of the sales

order determines whether sales order can be
built up
A setting within the BOM can be specified to
determine whether the components can be
procured independently of the material master


The components can be assigned to the

activity with the help of the procurement
The Procurement indicator contains the
default values for determining the stock and
the procurement type.
A procurement indicator can be specified in
the network profile. This gets defaulted in the
component assignment.


The BOM transfer functionality in SAP PS helps you to assign the material from BOM to
the network activities based on the reference point field which is assigned to the material
and network activities.
WBS BOMs can be assigned to Project BOMs using the BOM Transfer transaction .
The corresponding selection parameters must be chosen to perform the same.
Advantage of BOM transfer functionality is that the changes in the BOM during the course
of the project will change in the activities (you need to run BOM-transfer again every time
you make changes in BOM).
You can also manually assign materials to network activities without reference point fields.


Reference point : This is the logical link between a BOM component and a
network activity. It ensures that the automatic assignment of the material
component happens correctly.
While the assignments by themselves are project specific, they can be made
simultaneously for a large number of networks in the project.
Individual components, individual BOM assemblies or a multi level BOM can
be assigned.
These assignments can happen manually without reference points as well.
Procedure For BOM Transfer:
Field in the BOM and the network activity which needs to be used as
the reference point needs to be specified.
These fields must have the same structure in both the objects. For
instance : CHAR, eight digits .
Possible entries for the reference point can be defined in
Reference points in the BOM Components and the network activities
must be defined.
The BOM PS Interface must be started (after changing the BOM)


BOM Components are assigned to activities in this process.

Purchase requisitions and reservations are created for the assigned
components if Reservation/Purchase Req. indicator is activated.


A material that you allocate to activities in a network can be kept in various stocks.
Depending on your project, you can access different types of stock for materials
Sales order stock and project stock are important for controlling purposes (for monitoring
the stock value in a sales order or project) and from an MRP point of view (the stocks
are reserved for the sales order item or WBS element; other stock elements cannot
access them).
The various stock types are managed for each material component using the account
assignment category. You define the account assignment category when you assign the
material to the network activity (popup in manual assignment, strategies in BOM-PS
interface and standard network).
The possible account assignment categories depend on the assignment of the network
activity to a stock object (WBS element or sales order item), on the item category for
the assignment (direct procurement for non-stock items) on the material master, which
can exclude collective or specialist stock management.
As of Release 4.5A, you can use MRP elements (grouping) to manage a joint project
stock for an entire project or for several projects (this is a rougher method than managing
stock per individual WBS element).
You maintain the account assignment categories possible for network purchase


requisitions in customizing.


Instead of managing the material either in a plant stock or for each individual WBS
element and having no control at all over procurement or being fully responsible we
can go for requirement grouping. Through requirement grouping we can determine
the degree of control ourselves.
Prerequisites for using requirement grouping :
Valuated group stock
Grouping WBS elements
MRP Groups that allow requirement grouping
Assigned components should have periodic lot sizes.
The most basic scenario involves grouping the requirement of all the WBS
elements in the project into one WBS element.
Or we can create projects which are only meant for grouping requirement of other



Valuated project stock must be allowed in the project definition control data.
With the exception of automatic requirement grouping MRP element indicator
must be set for WBS elements.
MRP groups involved in requirement grouping must be determined in customizing
for the WBS.




It is common in engineering projects for critical components with long and unreliable
delivery times to be purchased at an early stage in the project much before the
project activities in which the components will be used are specified. Advance
procurement process is used in such situations.
Advance procurement can only be used when you are using sales order or project
stock .


Order Categories and order types

Documents are used to enter business transactions in the R/3 System. Orders are
one type of business transaction. Orders are determined by their order category.
The network is an order category. Order types are prescribed by the system for the
relevant applications.
You can define your own order types within an order category. The order type
describes how the order is controlled.
Customizing includes two tables, one for the order type and another for the
order type/plant combination.
The order category is used to control:
1. Number assignment
2. Default value settings
3. User-specific status management
4. User-specific field control
In the case of networks, order types/plants can be header-assigned or activityassigned. Normally, activity-assigned networks are used, where costs are gathered
in each activity. Header-assigned networks are only significant for the assignment of
networks to sales orders (without WBS).
Project Assignment of orders


You can assign various SAP orders to a project; examples include internal orders,
production orders, and plant maintenance orders. You can then use the project
hierarchy reports to evaluate these assigned orders with the WBS element.
Each order is a cost object with its own costing parameters such as planned costing
variant, actual costing variant, and overhead sheet. The planned costs of assigned
orders are used to determine the planned costs of the project.
You assign orders to the project either by assigning a WBS element to the order
header or by assigning the order to a network and activity as a subnetwork. If the
assignment is required only for cost control and analysis, you need to assign order to
the relevant WBS element. If the assignment is required both for scheduling and
cost control, you need to assign the order as a subnetwork. The WBS element is
derived from the network activity. Note that production orders cannot be assigned as
Documents are used to enter business transactions in the R/3
System. Orders are one type of business transaction.
Orders are determined by their order category.
The network is an order category. Order types are prescribed by the system for the
relevant applications.
You can define your own order types within an order category. The order type
describes how the order is controlled.
Customizing includes two tables, one for the order type and another for the
order type/plant combination.
The order type is used to control:
Number assignment
Default value settings
User-specific status management Userspecific field control
Plant and order type parameters are used to control:
If the network is activity- or header-assigned
Planned and actual costing variants
The settlement rule strategy


You can use the "appended" indicator to specify, per order category, whether an
order is appended - that is, whether the planned values for the order are included
in the planned value of the corresponding WBS element:
1. If the "appended" indicator is set, the order planned value increases the
WBS element planned value. The information system shows the total
as the project plan. When cost planning is taken over as the budget,
the values from appended orders also contribute to the budget.
2. If the "appended" indicator is not set, the order planned value is not
added to the WBS planned value. In budgeting, the plan total for such
orders must be added manually so that these orders can use funds


You can use the "appended" indicator to specify, per order category, whether an
order is appended - that is, whether the planned values for the order are included
in the planned value of the corresponding WBS element:
Once released, all orders are apportioned - this means that their plan, commitment,
and actual values are funds assignments against the funds in the project. The
order value table contains an indicator which you can use to make orders
"apportioned" earlier, at the "created" stage.
You can set appended and apportioned indicator based on the order category,order
type, and controlling area
An exception to apportionment at release is in the case of networks for preliminary
planning.In Project System customizing,you can specify network types to be used
for preliminary planning.Preliminary planning networks are never apportioned.Their
related plan values do no increase the assigned value for the relevant WBS
In the case of networks (order category 20), you can use the network type
parameters to determine whether the network is:
Header-assigned or activity-assigned - that is, whether costs are managed in
the network activities or collected in the header


A preliminary planning network whose plan, commitment, and actual values

are not apportioned - meaning that they do not appear as assigned values
in the project.


Header-Assigned Networks
In a Header-assigned networks all the costs (activity and material) are assigned at
network header level
After assignment of network header to a WBS element, All costs are transferred to
WBS element. Assignment of activities to WBS elements is only to summarize the
We you have to use header-assigned networks to assign networks to sales order in
case sales order are not assigned to projects as no assignments can be made to a
sales order item in the network activity.
Activity-Assigned Networks
Costs are collected on activities in case activites are used as account assigned
objects.Plant/network type parameters deines the condition if the network header
or network activities are to be used as cost objects.
Activity- assigned networks are usually used when activities are assigned to various
WBS elements.Here every activity in the network is an account assignment object.
Which implies we can analyze planned costs, commitments and actual costs
for each activity.
The costs are aggregated and displayed for the WBS elements to which
the activities are assigned.


Activity account assignment is a special feature of networks. All other order types are
header-assigned. Activity account assignment is controlled via the appropriate
indicator in the table "Parameters for network type".
Header assigned networks should be used when networks are assigned to sales
orders without WBS.Header assigned networks can also be used when the
enitre network is assigned to a single WBS element


SD document item assignment is controlled via the account assignment category.

The account assignment category is controlled via SD requirements type
Important factors that affect account assignment are the strategy group, the MRP
type and item category group from the material master of the product as well as
the document type of the SD document.
The system defaults the item category when you create an order. You can accept
the default or overwrite it. Permitted item categories are defined in Customizing.
The permitted planning strategies are assigned to the material using the planning
strategy group. This is necessary so that you can find the correct requirements type
in independent requirements management and sales order management.
The default requirements type is the main strategy in the planning strategy group.
If no planning strategy group is defined in the material master, the system uses the
item category group (sales and distribution screen in the material master) and, if
necessary, the MRP characteristic to search for the requirements type for the sales


The account assignment category determines the CO object to which document

quantities and values are assigned. You use it to determine the following:
Using the special stock indicator (SSI above), that goods movements in Logistics use
plant stock, sales order stock or project stock.
Using the consumption posting indicator (Cons. above), the CO object to which the
values of a material document are assigned.
F = Collective stock, consumption posting to the consumer (order, activity)
The account assignment category is important for procuring components directly.
E = Quantities and values managed in the sales order item
This account assignment category is important for make-to-order production without
D = Quantities managed using sales order item, values managed in projects
This account assignment category is important for non-valuated project
stock, with WBS and sales order item
Q = Quantities and values managed in projects
This account assignment category is important for project stock


G = Plant stock, values managed using project

This account assignment category is important for sales order items sold
from plant stock, with
value posting to the project. It differs from account assignment category "F" in
the field control
of the account assignment block.


Activity-Based Costing offers a facility for allocating and distributing the overhead to its cause.
Activity-Based Costing provides useful information on:
Overheads reduction by process improvement
Profitability increase by highlighting unprofitable products or customers
Activity-Based Costing is advantageous for having:
Transparent overheads
Parallel quantity and value flows
Precise assignment of internal activities to consumer
Peanut butter effect" can be avoided through even distribution of overheads among all
the cost drivers.


In Activity-Based Costing, processes are the controlling objects. Prices can be either
maintained manually or using activity and cost input planning in the case of cost
centers and activity types. Through activity based costing, processes are debited to
cost objects or profitability segments.


Templates are created in Customizing and determined by controlling area, costing sheet,
overhead key and template environment (for networks 004; for WBS 005) for the
function. In the Project System, templates can be assigned to WBS elements, networks
(header assigned), or network activities. Process costs are allocated to cost objects or
profitability segments by assigning a process template. Process costs are calculated based
on the templates selected for the project.

After template selection, the calculation program

determines the following

Processes in the template relevant for the


Quantity of each process consumed by




Calculated value to be added to the

project at the start, end or continuously

The price for the process and the allocation cost element are determined by
entering one process per line in the process template. Multi-level processes can be
mapped by referencing another process template in the working template.
The quantity used by the cost object is determined using the cost driver. This enables
the allocation of the relevant values to all the levels in the process hierarchy as far
as cost objects or profitability segments.
Cost drivers can originate from many different sources in the R/3 System or external
systems. Examples : weight (material master), number of components, activities of a
particular category, work center (network), number of sales orders for market
segment (LIS) etc. The quantities determined by the cost driver are multiplied by the
price of the process. The resulting value is charged to the cost object (in the
example, the WBS or network/activity), and the process is credited.


Actual prices for activity types and business processes are calculated in Overhead
cost controlling at the end of the period.
Actual prices = Actual costs / Quantities consumed
The possibility of revaluation at actual prices and its specification for each
activity type are controlled in Customizing in the parameters for the actual
version depending on the fiscal year.
The difference between the actual price and the originally allocated price is
charged to the cost objects.
Revaluation at actual prices for activities and business processes can be done
in the Project System and in the Cost Object Controlling.
Revaluation at actual prices using an activity type is illustrated in the example given
in the slide


Overheads calculation is used to allocate overhead costs to cost objects such as activities
and WBS elements. Calculations are done based on the Costing sheet entered in

the cost object and the overhead key entered on the WBS element,
network header or network activity. Overheads can be calculated for
planned, commitment and actual values. Overhead calculations are
done using the quantity based or percentage allocation rates.
The following postings get generated through overheads allocation:

Debits to cost object (WBS element, Network header or

Network activity )

Credits to cost center ( overhead order or process )


Overhead costs are updated using the secondary cost elements

in the costing sheet credit rows and these can be simulated also.


Costing sheet is derived by means of the costing variant from the "Parameters for
Network Type" table, in the case of networks. The costing sheet and the overhead key
can be changed in the network header.
The costing sheets to be used in the activities are made a default through this.
For WBS elements, the costing sheet is derived directly from the project profile. In
the case of Easy Cost Planning and the unit costing for WBS elements, the cost
planning draws on a costing sheet for a costing variant which is assigned to the
project profile through the planning profile.
Overhead keys for activities are inherited from their respective WBS elements.


Overheads are calculated using a costing sheet.

The overhead surcharge can either be a percentage if it is value driven or an absolute value
of measure if it is quantity driven. The overhead is calculated against a base which is defined
by the cost elements. Cost elements or cost element areas are collected in base lines.
Factors such as Controlling area, company code, plant, overhead group, network type, time
period and plan versus actual determine the overhead rate applied. Overhead key assigned
to the cost object decides the determination of overhead group in customizing. Thus a single
costing sheet with flexible rates can be made use of different organizational units or
individual activities.


As of Release 4.6C, the SAP System offers an easy-to-use tool for planning costs in
WBS elements. The tool is called "Easy Cost Planning".
Easy Cost Planning for projects can be accessed from the Project Builder. You can choose
a WBS element from the structure tree and then you create costing items for the selected
WBS element.
In Easy Cost Planning, cost planning is cost element based.
You can use planning templates to enter costing items in which characteristics are valued.
The example above shows work in hours being valued at 100.
The characteristic values which are linked from the planning template are quantities,
values, or actions from the costing items. In the example above, the link is to the
quantity for an internal activity.
When you accept them, the costing items appear in the structure tree beneath the
relevant WBS element.
As an easy way to create a project preliminary costing, Easy Cost Planning can be very
The costs so planned are then broken down - for example, using a quantity structure of


Easy Cost Planning can also be used to enter plan data for later project execution.
Having done this, you can later use Execution Services to enter commitment and
actual data relating to the planned costs. Use customizing to stipulate in which
plan version values planned in Easy Cost Planning are stored.
As part of the network costing, the system automatically determines planned
costs when you plan dates and resources for the following objects:
a. For internally processed activities: activity inputs
b. For externally processed activities & service activities: Primary costs
c. For genreal costs activities: primary costs
d. Material componenets: primeary costs.
You can use planning templates to create quantity structures for Easy Cost
You can enter quantities and prices in the template, or regulate activation using
formulas or conditions.
You can use characteristics assigned to the planning template as variables for the
formulas/conditions. The characteristics are valued by the user when the
planning templates are copied into Easy Cost Planning.


Unit costing is done to calculate cost plan per WBS element. Here we use
planned quantities instead of cost.
It is not period dependent
At cost element level, plan values are displayed
Input information related to sources of supply, quantities and prices mark the use
of unit costing to generate cost plan per WBS element


Structure Oriented Planning:

Simplest type of planning is structure based planning. Plan values are displayed
in hierarchy
The total cost planned is aggregate
It is neither by cost element nor is period specific
Various views are used to display the different values in structure-oriented
Planned total View-this shows total aggregate at superior WBS element (Level
1 WBS element)
The distributable or distributed view-This view is used to check distribution of
budget among child WBS element
Cumulative or remainder view-This view is used to check distribution of budget
across years
Order/network view-This displays the planned cost od appended orders/networks
assigned to WBS element
Cost Element Planning/Activity Input Planning:
When more detailed information is required, cost element planning is done. It
is independent of project scheduling
Manual reschedule of cost planning becomes mandatory if a project or


package schedule is changed

This planning is adopted if precise information is available as it becomes sure not
to reschedule/postpone the project


The plan profile is used to control overall cost/revenue planning. It contains costing variants
for the unit costing or Easy Cost Planning.
It also contains indicators for updating revenue plan values via customer quotations or sales
You assign the plan profile to the project by way of the project profile. You can change it in the
project definition.
Costs and revenues can be planned in different CO plan versions.
You either specify the plan version during planning or, if you are using Easy Cost Planning,
you assign it to the controlling area.
Planning layouts are used to plan costs, revenues, payments, and statistical key figures.
You can use the Report Painter to create the layouts and can assign them to planner profiles.
Users can choose planner profiles and assign them to the user master record.
Planning profile: Use transaction OPSB
The Planning profile contains the settings related to planning. It control overall
cost/revenue planning. Planning profile is assigned to project using project profile. Costing
variant are


relevant if we are using unit costing and easy cost planning

CO plan version is required to be specified if we are using easy cost planning.
Planner profile and planning layouts are specific to use of detailing planning
using cost element/activity input


Planning profile is contains the settings for overall planning, detailed planning
and unit costing
Details for each field can be checked using
F1 Important field details are as:
Total Value: Defines overall planning without any reference to fiscal year
Annual Planning: Defines overall planning with reference to fiscal year
Bottom up Planning: Overall planning values are extrapolated after saving
Exchange rate type: Determines which exchange rate is to be used for currency
conversion of overall values


Transaction OKKT to edit costing and valuation variant

Costing variant is mostly used for unit costing ,easy cost planning and also used for
costing networks. The field costing type determines for which WBS element
(costing object) costing is done
Valuation variant determines the prices and rates. In the above mentioned slide,
system will first check for Planned price 1 if it fails, system will check for standard
price and again if it fails it will check for moving average price from material
master. If system now fails, it will trigger an error message during cost determination


Internally-processed activities:
If no distribution key or work center is maintained in the activity, the costs are distributed
evenly over the earliest dates in the activity. Valuation is at the rate in the valuation variant.
Depending on the strategy being used, the system can determine the most current date.
valuation is determined by the rate maintained in the valuation variant. Based on the
strategy adopted, system determines the latest date. If no work center/distribution key is
maintained, the system distributes the cost evenly over the earliest dates.
Costs activity:
Case 1:Invoice plan maintained:the values in periods are as per the values mentioned
in invoicing plan
Case 2:Invoicing plan not maintained and distribution key maintained:The activity value


distributed to the periods based on the distribution key maintained in the activity
Case 3:Invoicing plan not maintained and distribution key not maintained:The
costs are distributed evenly over the earliest dates in the activity
If an invoicing plan has been maintained, the values in the periods are set
as specified in the invoicing plan.
Otherwise, the activity value is distributed to the periods using the distribution key in
the activity. If no distribution key is maintained in the activity, the costs are distributed
evenly over the earliest dates in the activity.
Service activities or externally-processed activities:
Case 1:Invoice plan maintained:the values in periods are as per the
values mentioned in invoicing plan
Case 2:Invoicing plan not maintained:The activity value is set in the period of the
latest activity start date.Also the system determines the price from the purchasing info
record or the activity value.
Invoicing plan has priority for the values
If an invoicing plan has been maintained, the values in the periods are set
as specified in the invoicing plan.
Otherwise, the activity value is set in the period of the latest activity start
The invoicing plan has priority for the values. If no invoicing plan has been
maintained, the system determines the price from the purchasing info record or
the activity value.
Material components:
Case 1:Invoice plan maintained:the periods and ,in some cases,values are
taken from invoicing plan
Case 2:Invoicing plan not maintained:The system determines the price from the
purchasing info record or the price is taken from material master as per
valuation variant.Here material requirement date determines the period
If an invoicing plan has been maintained, the periods and, in some cases, the
values are taken from the invoicing plan. If no invoicing plan has been maintained,
the values are taken from the purchasing info record or the price is taken from the


material master per the valuation variant. In this case, the period is that from
the material requirements date.


The customer accepts the quotation. A sales order is created in the system, where
appropriate using the quotation as a template. The activities listed in the quotation
are entered in the sales order as sales order items.
The items are assigned to the project. They are used for revenue planning and for
posting revenues to the project by means of milestone billing.
Two companies are responsible for executing the project - IDES AG and IDES UK.
IDES UK creates a sales order for IDES AG and assigns the document item to the
billing element T-100##.1.2.
Later on, IDES UK bills its services to IDES AG on a resource-related basis.
A billing request is created in the system via resource-related billing. This is billed and
results in revenues for IDES UK.


In SAP where project is a controlling object:

Sales order created and after structuring of project sales order will account assigned to
WBS. Then revenue planned in sales order.
Once Work completed in project, actual cost captured in WBS and Final product will
be delivered to Client.
Billing will be completed and actual revenue generated. Actual Revenue will
be transferred to WBS.
While Result analysis performed for project the Actual Revenue and Cost will settled
to the profitability segment.
Sale document structure
Sales Document type represents the type of business transaction and functions and
the flow of document with in sale order. Processing.
Item Categories are assigned to sales document category. While creation of Sales order
it will default the item category but user can change it as per requirement.
Schedule line category is assigned to Item Category. While creation of document
system will default the scheduled line category but it can changed according to


Item Category

Item Category is determine by Sales Document type and the

materials Items category group in a sales order.

Item Category controls function for Sales Order like Item Type,
Pricing, Billing Plan, resource related or delivery related.

It controls if pricing is relevance for billing, relevance for Delivery

Schedule Line Item, and contains Incompletion Log and Partner text.


(1)Represents a process of make-to-order production without a work breakdown structure.

In this case, the sales order item is the contolling instrument. Account assignment category
E specifies that the sales order item forms a separate CO object.
Costs and revenues of the sales order item are usually settled to the profitability segment.
(2)Using assembly processing, you can generate a network when you create the sales order.
When you save your data, the system creates a WBS and assigns the sales order item to a
WBS element in this WBS. In this case, the sales order depicts the sales view, the project is
the controlling instrument, and logistical processing is represented by the network.
Account assignment categories D or Q (Cons. = P in each case) specify that revenues
are assigned to the billing WBS element of the project.
(3)As an alternative to assembly processing, you can assign a sales order item to a WBS
element in a project. Controlling takes place in the project. You can assign orders or
documents to the project. Value assignment to the project is controlled via account
assignment categories G, D and Q. These differ from each other in the way that they
manage quantities.


Methods for plan revenue in a project are:

a. Manual revenue planning: this can be based on structure or revenue element
where the later is a cost element and period based.
b. PS billing plan: this is cost element and period based planning.
c. SD document: this is part of integration with SD module where sales order item
or quotation items are used as revenue planning. This kind of planning is cost
element and period based.


Revenues can be planned in projects using the following methods:

Manual planning in billing elements in the project structure.
This type of planning can follow the same procedure as cost planning, or can be by
revenue element.
Sales orders (all SD documents assigned).
Sales order items are assigned to WBS elements. In Customizing, you can stipulate, for a
combination of sales document category (quotation, order, and so on), sales
document type, controlling area, and system status, whether the billing data (for
example, in a billing plan) from a sales order should update the revenue plan for an
assigned WBS element. The dates and planned revenues concerned originate either
from the billing plan for the sales order items or (if there is no billing plan) from the
net value and apportionment data for the item. The revenue element originates from
G/L account determination in SD.
Billing plan in project billing elements.
The revenue element is defined in Customizing.


There are different ways of creating billing plans:

By copying a reference billing plan
In SD and PS, reference billing plans can be
called upon automatically
By copying billing milestones from work
breakdown structures or networks
By copying billing milestones automatically from
the network in assembly processing


In the SD document, you can define a detailed billing plan with a number of billing dates
instead of just a single billing date. A billing plan is a schedule containing individual billing
data for a particular sales document.
Milestone billing is widely used in projects (for example, construction projects).
If you use milestone billing, the total value to be billed is apportioned to the individual dates
in the billing plan per defined rules.
Billing plan dates can be blocked for billing
You can set billing blocks manually or remove them by activating billing milestones.
As of Release 4.0, billing plans can also be entered for billing elements in projects. Such
billing plans can, if required, be copied to the sales order later (make sure you delete
any existing billing plan in the billing element; if you do not, the planned revenues will be
determined via the PS billing plan and not the SD billing plan).
A billing plan can contain down payment dates. These dates affect payment, but not



The term "Version" is used in the project system in different contexts. Different
types of versions include simulation versions, project versions and CO planning
versions are available in SAP Project System which are discussed below.

Project versions, are snapshots of a project at a specific point in time, and are
used for documenting the progress of a project over time. Both quantities and
values are stored in versions and it can be created either manually, or
automatically when a status changes. In the case of status change, the project
profile contains a reference to a version profile which specifies the name of
the project version to be created when a particular user or system status is

Simulation versions: In the Project System, these are versions that you can
change. You might, for example, create simulation versions in the following
In the quotation phase: generally speaking, at this stage there is not yet
an operative project.
To draw up alternative planning scenarios for existing operative projects
or parts of these.

CO plan versions are used to plan revenues and costs. You can copy values
from one version to another. You can change planned values manually in every
version and cost values are retained.


Simulation versions are used to draw up alternative "what if?" planning

scenarios. They are created manually, can be changed, and, if necessary,
deleted again which is unlike released operative WBSs with activities.

Simulation versions are useful during the quotation phase of a project

and possible to plan several simulation versions.

You can create simulation versions even at the time of execution of project,
where you can copy from operative to simulation versions, compare, analyze
and work with other versions and transfer them back to the operative

When an operative project is copied to a simulation version or vice versa, a

log file is created which contains the objects that were transferred and any
error messages that were issued in the process.

Simulation versions can be created either for an entire WBS, or for

sub- hierarchies of a WBS.

Simulation versions are edited in the project planning board or in project

planning board from SAP R/3 4.6C release.

The system performs the test run while transfer to check if the operative
or simulation version can be transferred.

Multiple Simulation version can be created, compared and evaluated.


Simulation customization consists of two steps:

1. Version keys: one should work with permissible version keys since these cannot
be deleted once simulations has been created.
2. Simulation profile: This determines which all objects will be copied while creating
simulations (in addition to the structure information) from simulation to
operative (and vice versa). If there are no simulation profile, all the texts will be
copied. The simulation profile will be defaulted in the project due to assignment
in project profile.
Just like project version, simulation versions can be compared with each other in
information system, whereas the cost element report does not support the
simulation versions. Unlike operative projects, simulation versions cannot be
changed in structure info system.


When you transfer data from operative projects to simulation versions (or
vice versa), the following objects are copied:
Work breakdown structure

Network with activities, activity elements, relationships, and



Materials for the activity

Documents, PS texts and long texts (depending on the simulation profile


Capacity requirements

Invoicing plan for the network, and billing plan for the WBS element
(as of Release 4.5A)

The following objects are not copied:

Other orders (e.g. no production orders)

Production resources/tools


Project versions enable you to record a snapshot of a project at a specific

moment in time - this can be used for future comparison with the
operative project.

You can create a project version automatically (i.e. triggered by a system or user

You can also create a project version manually:

While changing the WBS

While changing the network

In the Structure/Dates information system for one or more projects

Data transfer when Version profile settings are used while using these transactions:
1. Status dependent project versions.
2. TC network maintenance CN22 or WBS element maintenance CJ02
Data transfer which is Independent of version profile and dependent on
database profile:
3. TC CN71 and CN72
4. Structure information system


The version profile is maintained in the PS customization and assigned to

Project profile or network profile.


You use a version profile to define two different kinds of information. First, you
specify which version is created automatically when a specific system status or
user status is set. Second, you specify which data is to be written to the
versions that are created automatically.

You need to define a version profile, if you wish to have versions created
automatically, or if you wish to generate versions directly when editing the WBS
or networks.

You do not need to define a version profile, if you wish to generate versions
manually from the Structure/Dates information system.

The version profile is entered in the project profile and network profile.


Project planning board is a tool in SAP PS which helps and enable you to
process / edit the entire project structure which are WBS element, activities,
relationships, milestones, material components, PS texts, documents and
assigned objects to them.
It is similar to Gantt chart based on interactive SAP environment.
This comprises of hierarchy structure of your project and the corresponding
date situation.
You can custom made the display in project planning board to suite your
Project planning board can also be useful for planning dates and resources
i.e. work, external processing, for planning costs using activities.


Project planning board profile contains default values for the appearance
of planning board.
The settings in this project planning board profile is valid for both, simulation
versions and operative projects.
The graphical display can be changed and adapt as per user needs in
the planning board and customization using project planning board


Project planning board is a graphical interface based on Gantt chart which can
be used for creating and maintaining data like project definition, WBS element,
activities, relationships, milestones, documents and PS texts.
Useful for Scheduling and monitoring.
You can view date view, and other overviews of project at the bottom of Gantt
chart like capacity overview.
You can view logs, hierarchal graphic of WBS element and Networks and
network activities.
This is the only transaction where we can change simulation versions for
releases earlier than SAP R34.6C, i.e. create of change of WBS elements
in simulation version based on the user specific options.
The entire period in the project planning board screen is called as Evaluation
period which consists of Pre-evaluation period, Planning period and Postevaluation period. These are defined by time settings and determined by 3
profiles which are created in customizing and assigned to project planning board


Assembly processing will be helpful while one is planning and producing or

servicing same product for several times with similar constellations. Which means
the basic structure will be same while data like duration, dates, quantities etc. will be
changing. In assembling processing, a network and WBS element & Project (if
required) is automatically created based on the customization, while a sales
document is created and saved. The project number is derived from Sales
document and this process generates assignment between sales document &
project. This incurs that the same information will be shared by sales and project
team. If the data is changed in Project will update Sales document (and vice versa)
which helps in delays and disagreement between sales and project department.
Process flow:
If a sales order is created for a material which has strategy group for assembly
processing has been assigned, the assembly processing will start.
The MRP processing is omitted in the assembly processing and creates a operative
order (network in case of PS) directly from sales order.
Assembly processing is carried out statically in PS which means only one network
for one sales document item.
Based on the customer requirements date, backward scheduling is carried out and
availability check is done for required material components. Which enables to
inform customer about feasibility of required date or else system will propose new


Also, the calculated cost will be transferred from network the sales order.
While saving the sales document, WBS element structure & project definition will
be created which is identified by sales order number.
Since the sales document and the project is directly connected, any changes
one object will update / reflect in other automatically.


The requirement class which is assigned with the sales order while creating it will
start assembly processing, one assembly order automatically created by system
and start assembly processing in the back ground. By this method MRP is ignored
and an operational order created directly from Sales Order.
Below is the list of Assembly order which can be created:Network, Production Order, planned order, Plant maintenance or Service order and
Process Order.
Assembly Processing contains all the date of Sales order and assembly order. So
if there is any change done later to any document it will reflects in both document.