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1,0K tayangan7 halamanThis tackles about the propagation of errors in an experiment using a foot rule, a Vernier caliper and a micrometer caliper.

Feb 08, 2016

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This tackles about the propagation of errors in an experiment using a foot rule, a Vernier caliper and a micrometer caliper.

© All Rights Reserved

1,0K tayangan

This tackles about the propagation of errors in an experiment using a foot rule, a Vernier caliper and a micrometer caliper.

© All Rights Reserved

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Laboratory Report

Kamylle Consebido, Hazel Dacuycuy, Jose Gerardo Del Rosario, Ira Gabrielli Delos Reyes,

Ancilla Diamante

Department of Occupational Therapy

College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Santo Tomas

Espaa, Manila Philippines

Abstract

This experiment aims to study and

determine the kinds of errors and how they

turn up in an experiment with the use of

certain instruments such as a foot rule, a

Vernier and micrometer caliper. With the

diameter of a sphere as the experimental

value, the mean of the diameter as well as

the average deviation of the mean were

obtained, as well as the density of the sphere

was also determined given its mass and

dimensions. The results of the experiment

showed that the accuracy of the measuring

devices is affected by their least count,

emphasizing that the utilization of the

micrometer caliper gave the least %error

among the three measuring devices.

1. Introduction

Physics is defined to be a branch of science

which deals with matter and energy. Over

time, this particular science has produced

many discoveries, equations and theories

explaining the phenomena around us. These

would not be possible if it werent for

recorded measurements.

be compared to a standard length, mass or

time. Two systems are currently used to

measure matter namely, the International

System of Units (SI System) and the English

System. However, errors, both random and

recorded measure.

aspects of measurement such as to analyze

errors and how they propagate in a simple

experiment, to determine the average

deviation and mean of the recorded

measurements, to familiarize the students

with various measuring devices, and to

compare the accuracy of these measuring

devices.

2. Theory

Knowing that errors may occur

randomly, meaning that its source cannot be

found and occurs by the repetition of

measures that is done, a person may measure

a certain object with the same tools of

measurement differently depending on how

they perceive it. In this case, how one

measures the diameter, volume, density and

mass of an iron sphere may differ from

person to person.

From each measurement, the least

count for each tool is distinct and varies

from one another. Based from each result

gathered from one measurement of a tool, be

it foot rule, Vernier caliper, or micrometer

caliper, each one proves the element of

randomness is present since the tool and

object itself is constant and unchanged,

rather each margin of error is subjective to

the person's perspective.

perspective, the following formulas are

used:

a. Mean Diameter - the sum of measured

data on each trial divided by the total

number of observation.

d

b. Average Deviation (a.d.):

n

c. Average Deviation of the Mean (A.D.):

a .d .

n

A. D.

mean

d. %Error of Diameter:

e. Volume of Sphere: V =

4 3

r

3

mass

volume

g. %Error for Density:

E A

x 100

A

3. Methodology

Materials used: Vernier caliper, micrometer

caliper, foot rule, gram balance, sphere of

known composition

To determine the diameter of the

sphere, each of the three measuring devices

were used for ten consecutive times. The

sphere was first measured using the plastic

foot rule. Secondly, the spheres diameter

was measured using the Vernier caliper. The

sphere was placed in between the jaws of the

Vernier caliper and with the use of the screw

lamp, the spheres position was fixed.

Lastly, the micrometer caliper was used to

measure the diameter of the sphere. Placed

between the anvil and spindle, it was

secured in place by rotating the thimble. All

results of the three measuring devices were

recorded on the data sheet. After that,

formulas prescribed in the theory section.

This included the mean diameter, average

deviation, average deviation of the mean,

and the %error of the diameter.

To determine the mass of the sphere,

the gram balance was used. Then, the

volume of the sphere was calculated.

Furthermore, the experimental value of

density was obtained and was then

compared with the accepted value of

density. Both of the values mentioned above

were used to get the %error of density.

For the last activity, each member of

the group measured the width of their

thumbs using a foot rule.

Experimental Setup:

Table 1 includes the different values

obtained regarding the diameter of the

sphere using three different measuring

devices, such as the foot rule, Vernier caliper

and the micrometer caliper. Ten trials were

done with each of the measuring devices.

Meanwhile, Table 2 includes the data

derived from the previous measurements

listen in Table 1 (above). Certain formulas

were needed to achieve the data shown in

Table 2. Lastly, Table 3 shows every

measurement of the group members thumbs

in inches.

Table 1. Diameter of the Sphere (in

centimeters) according to Three Different

Measuring Devices

Previous Measurements

Group Members Thumb (in inches)

depending on which measuring device is

used. 10 trials were done in order to see if

the values obtained were accurate and/or

precise. The least accurate measurements of

the sphere were obtained using the foot rule

while the most accurate measurements were

obtained using the micrometer caliper. It is

understandable that a sphere would not be

measured accurately and a less accurate

value would be obtained using a foot rule.

By just merely holding the sphere and

placing it in front of the ruler, the

experimenters may have viewed the results

differently than the others, which likely

results to various interpretations of the

measurements of the spheres diameter. A

Vernier caliper measures more accurately

than a foot rule because a Vernier caliper

could hold the sphere in place for

measuring. However, a micrometer caliper

could

obtain

the

most

accurate

measurement, among the three. Its parts are

appropriate and could tightly hold a sphere

in place to make the measurement more

convenient.

It is apparent that the data obtained

using the foot rule and micrometer caliper

were precise with each other. However, the

sphere using the Vernier caliper is larger

than using the foot rule and the micrometer

caliper. In addition to that, the average

deviation, average deviations of the mean

and volume measurements using the Vernier

caliper were also larger than the

measurements obtained using the other

measuring devices. The % error of diameter

using the Vernier caliper was 0.5, which

makes it larger than the % error of both

measurements using the foot rule and

micrometer caliper. This error can be

attributed to the fact that the sphere was not

hold tightly in place, leading to a space left

between the sphere and the external jaws of

the caliper.

The mass was consistent in all three

measurement devices since an electronic

gram balance was used. After calculating the

volume of the sphere, the experimental

value of density was obtained and the

closest to the accepted value was the value

obtained using the micrometer caliper. The

value obtained using the foot rule was the

farthest from the accepted value. This may

be due to the fact that a foot rule is not the

most appropriate measuring device to

measure a sphere, since a foot rule can only

measure objects with edges most accurately.

The % error for density using the foot rule is

15.6 which are the largest among all three

values obtained. Nonetheless, the % error

for density is the smallest using the

micrometer caliper. The % error is less than

1% because the experimental value is 7.915

g/cm which is very close to the accepted

value of 7.874 g/cm.

The width of thumb varies for every

person. Some say gender could affect the

size of our body parts. A foot rule was used

to measure the width of the thumbs of every

member. There are 11 divisions in one inch

of a ruler. The number of divisions were

counted and divided by 16 to get the

measurement. The measurements obtained

were obtained.

Since %errors were evident in the

experiment, there are techniques to be

followed in order to minimize the presence

of errors. When using a ruler, position eyes

directly above the markings in order to

avoid parallax errors. Systematic errors can

be eliminated by careful planning and

performance of the experiment. Measuring

instruments should be used correctly and

under the appropriate conditions, and they

should be checked for zero error.

5. Conclusion

In accordance to the data gathered

during the activity, errors were observed

after using the three measuring devices

required for the experiment. The micrometer

caliper gave the smallest values of %error

which lead to the conclusion that this

instrument gave the most accurate

measurement among the other remaining

instruments. However, the foot rule was the

least accurate measuring device since it gave

the largest values of %error. The accuracy

and precision of an instrument can be

attributed to its least count. Since the

micrometer caliper has the smallest least

count of 0.01 mm among the other

instruments, thus it can be said that it has the

most accuracy and precision compared to

the other devices, with the Vernier caliper

having 0.05 mm and the foot rule with 1

mm. On the other hand, the width of a

thumb cannot be used as a standard of

measurement since it varies from person to

person.

6. Applications

1. Which among the three measuring

devices give you the least % error? Is the

accuracy of a measurement affected by the

least count of the measuring device?

least % error. This shows that the least count

of the measuring device affects the accuracy

of the measurement. The micrometer caliper

has a least count of 0.01 mm, which is the

smallest least count among the other

instrument.

2. What do you mean by error? What

are the types of errors? What are the errors

you encountered in this experiment?

An error or a mistake is a deviation

from accuracy or correctness. It is also the

difference between the observed or

approximately determined value and the true

value of a quantity. A personal error comes

to play because of faulty procedure adopted

on by the observer. Personal error comes

into existence due to making an error in

reading a scale. Meanwhile, a systematic

error is a type of error that arises due to a

defect in the measuring device, and a

random error is an error produced due to

sudden change in experimental conditions. It

is an accidental error and is beyond the

control of the person making the

measurement. Some errors were observed

in the experiment such as parallax errors,

wherein some of the experimenters viewed

the scale of a measuring instrument at an

angle rather than from directly in front of it.

A systematic error was also encountered

when the Vernier caliper was put into use

even though its jaws did not tightly hold the

sphere into place.

3. Sketch a.) a Vernier caliper that

reads 5.08 cm. b.) a micrometer that reads

2.5 mm.

bathroom scale calibrated in kilograms. He

reported his weight in pounds. What is the

percentage error in his reported weight if he

use this conversion: 1kg = 2.2 pounds? The

standard kilogram is equal to 2.2046 pounds.

Percentage Error:

I .ValueExact Value I

x 100

Exact Value

I 2.22.2046 I

x 100

2.2046

Answer: The percentage error is 0.21 %

5. In an experiment on determination

of mass of a sample, your group consisting

of 5 students obtained the following results:

14.34g, 14.32g, 14.33g, 14.30g, and 14.23 g.

Find the mean, a.d. and A.D. Suppose that

your group is required to make only four

determinations for the mass of the sample. If

you are the leader of the group, which data

will you omit? Recalculate the mean, a.d.

and A.D. without this data. Which results

will you prefer?

Mean:

(14.34+14.32+14. 33+14.30+ 14.23)

5

= 14.304

a.d.

( 0.036+0.016+0.026+ 0.004+0.074 )

5

= 0.0312

A.D.

0.0312

5

= 0.01395

If I were the leader of the group, I would

omit 14.23 since it has a farther value and

deviates from the pattern of repeatability

evident from the other values.

Mean:

(14.34+14.32+14. 33+14.30)

4

= 14.3225

a.d.

( 0.036+0.016+0.026+ 0.004 )

4

= 0.0125

A.D.

0.0125

4

= 0.00625

I prefer the latter results.

7. References

[1]Avison, J. (1989). The world of physics.

UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

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