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Sonia Gutierrez

Freud vs. Jung Paper

In the world of psychology few have been known to study human behavior and the mind
as much as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Previously working together, they split and each
created their own theories. Freud and Jungs interpretations of the aspects of personality vary,
particularly in their analysis of the consciousness, unconsciousness, and the interactions between
their different aspects.
The unconscious is the portion of the psyche that one is not aware of, this is mostly where
the reasons for ones behavior stems from. Freud compares the human psyche to an iceberg, only
a small portion of the ice is actually visible but the most important and largest part is underwater.
This is the unconscious. The Id is only a portion of the unconscious but it is powerful because its
contains ones raw emotions, desires and instincts. Freud believes the Id isnt acknowledged by
the conscious because it holds thoughts that would not be socially acceptable or traumatic
memories. Freud divided the Id into two different drives or instincts. The first instinct is Eros, it
drives an individual to survive. The Eros creates an energy called libido that allows one to do
activities such as eating, reproducing and breathing. Thanatos, the second instinct, is the selfdestructive instinct that is present in every human. It includes destructive actions against ones
self or aggression towards others. Freud believes that Eros overpowers this instinct allowing for
the survival of the human race (McLeod, 2013).
Unlike Freud who believed that the unconscious must be suppressed, Jung believed that
the unconscious must be accepted and have communication with the conscious to strengthen
ones personality. He divides the unconsciousness into two parts: the personal unconscious and
the collective unconscious. The personal unconscious is similar to Freuds in that it depends on a
persons past experiences, but he also believed that the unconscious contains parts of a persons
personality that have never been recognized. The collective unconscious contains images and

ideas that are shared with all of humanity. Jung believed that every persons mind has, innate
characteristics imprinted on it as a result of evolution (McLeod, 2014). These characteristics,
or archetypes, are present in all cultures. An example an archetypal situation is a heros quest; an
archetypal figure would be a king. Jung discovered many different archetypes but five describe
the major aspects of the human psyche: the Ego, the Persona, the Shadow, the Animus/Anima,
and the Self. The Ego is similar to Freuds Ego, arising from the unconscious. It is the center of
ones consciousness. The Persona is the mask one puts on to show others and uses to define
ones role in society. The Shadow holds repressed feeling that are not socially acceptable or
arent consistent with ones Persona. The Animus/Anima complements ones Persona. In men it
is the Anima, or the archetype of a woman, and in women it is the Animus, or the archetype of a
man. The Self is the totality of ones personality including the conscious and unconscious (2015).
Jungs theory of the unconscious makes more sense because to be emotionally healthy and
improve oneself, everything must be accepted about ones self and work to remove unwanted
qualities. Suppressing feelings and thoughts will not solve an issue, it will just hide it.
The consciousness is the thoughts and behavior that one is aware of at the moment. Using
the iceberg comparison made by Freud, the portion of the ice above water is the consciousness.
He divides the consciousness into two parts: the Ego and the Super Ego. The Ego is developed
from the Id with the purpose to do what the Id wants in a, socially acceptable way (2013). The
Super Ego is essentially ones conscience, motivating one to do what is morally correct and
responsible. Like Freud, Jung also includes the Ego as part of the consciousness but the main
difference is that it is an archetype. Jung also created the concepts of two different attitudes. The
first, Introversion, is focused on what goes on in ones mind. Extroversion, the second attitude, is
the opposite of Introversion, focusing on what goes on outside of ones mind. The Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator Test was derived from another of Jungs theories. He identified four functions and

found that everyone has a certain degree of one or the other. Thinking is the first function,
decisions are made by analyzing a situation. Feeling can be seen as the alternative to thinking,
decisions are based off of value. Sensation is the third function and is how one picks up on
information around them, by feeling, touching, tasting, smelling or seeing. Intuition, the
alternative to Sensation, looks at possibilities and implications of an event or decisions (2015).
Jungs idea of the consciousness is preferable because it is better at explaining and predicting
peoples behavior based on these qualities and degree of strength.
Regardless of the differences between Freud and Jungs theories, the different parts of
each theory still need to interact. Freud believed that because the Id held the undesirable part of
the mind it needed to be held back and that is what the Super Ego does. An example of this is
feeling guilt. The Ego then employs several defense mechanisms to counteract the anxiety
(2013). While Freud believed in suppressing the Id, Jung believed that it is necessary to
acknowledge and accept all parts of the psyche, conscious and unconscious. Without
communication between the different aspects there would be a deficit in ones personality and an
inability to fulfill individuation, or union of the different aspects into one being (2005). In this
case, Feuds ideas are preferable because his defense mechanism relate more to how people react
to anxiety and conflict between the different aspects of the psyche.
For Freud, the unconscious is suppressed by the conscious. For Jung, the unconscious is
accepted and integrated. Maybe both happen in different areas to create unique personalities in
every human.
Fadiman, J., & Frager, R. (2005). Personality and personal growth (6th ed.). New York: Pearson.
McLeod, S. A. (2013). Retrieved from
McLeod, S. A. (2014). Carl Jung. Retrieved from