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TOYOS ACES Process for UREA Synthesis

This report is submitted to department of Chemical Engineering,


Wah Engineering College, University of Wah, Wah Cantt, Pakistan
For the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelors Degree In
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Session
2010-2014

Group Members
Hafiz Adeel Hassan

UW-10-Ch.E-BSc-011

Muhammad Imran Salim

UW-10-Ch.E-BSc-025

Noman Rasool

UW-10-Ch.E-BSc-028

Muhammad Usman

UW-10-Ch.E-BSc-036

Department of Chemical Engineering


Wah Engineering College
University of Wah

DEDICATION
The project is dedicated to our beloved parents, who nurtured
us from our childhood and not only prayed for our better
future but even did struggle for while getting all troubles on
their own heads.
In addition, we would also like to dedicate this project to our
honorable and respected teachers who helped us in compiling
this report.

PREFACE
UREA is a major FERTILIZER product. Different processes are available for the production
of urea. This design report is about the TOYOS ACES process for Urea synthesis. This
report is divided in different sections. First of all the introduction of ACES process is given,
which highlights the importance of this process. Different manufacturing processes for urea
are also described. Detail description of TOYOS ACES process for Urea synthesis.
Afterwards material and energy balance of equipments is presented.
In preceding chapters introduction to different equipments of plant along with their designing
procedure and specification sheets are presented.
Hazop study, Instrumentation & Control and Cost Estimation for this plant are also included
in this report.

ii

ABSTRACT
Urea is in many ways the most convenient form for fixed nitrogen. It has the highest nitrogen
content available in a solid fertilizer (46 %).It is easy to produce as prills or granules and
easily transported in bulk or bags with no explosive hazard. It leaves no salt residue after use
on crops. Its specific gravity is 1.335, decomposes on boiling and is fairly soluble in water.
The principal raw materials required for this purpose are NH3 & CO2.Two reactions are
involved in the manufacture of urea. First, ammonium carbamate is formed under pressure by
reaction between CO2 & NH3.
CO2 + 2NH3

NH2COONH4

H= -37.4 Kcal

This highly exothermic reaction is followed by an endothermic decomposition of the


ammonium carbamate.
NH2COONH4

NH2CONH2 + H2O H= + 6.3 Kcal

Various processes of urea manufacture are:


1) Advanced Cost and Energy Saving (ACES) Process
2) Stamicarbon CO2 stripping process
3) Snamprogetti ammonia stripping process
4) Once through urea process

We selected the Advanced Cost and Energy Saving process for the manufacture of urea. The
preference of ACES process to other urea manufacturing processes is briefly discussed in first
chapter. Some advantages of ACES process include High CO2 conversion, efficient stripping,
maximum heat recovery, less corrosion and product quality.

Energy balance & material balance of the plant is done. The selected capacity of the plant is 6,
00,000 tons/year of urea producing 75, 583.33 kg/hr of urea with 98.5 % purity. Urea reactor
is mechanically designed. The volume of reactor is calculated & found to be 129 m3. The
length & diameter of the reactor are 25 m & 2.5 m respectively. The Reactor used is of plug
flow type.

iii

Advanced Cost and Energy Saving process involves a high NH3 to CO2 ratio in the reactor,
usually 4/1 and 66-68% conversion of CO2 is done. CO2 is used as stripping agent. NH3 (l) is
entered into reactor and CO2 (g) into stripper.
Uses of Urea:
About 56 % of Urea manufactured is used in solid fertilizer.
About 31 % of Urea manufactured is used in liquid fertilizer.
Urea-formaldehyde resins have large use as a plywood adhesive.
Melamine-formaldehyde resins are used as dinnerware & for making extra hard surfaces.

The wide nature of the subject and the size restrictions left many areas to be touched very
briefly, however an effort has been made to cover significant facet of the topic.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express gratitude and praise to ALMIGHTY ALLAH, The Creator of universe, who is
beneficent and merciful, guided us in difficult circumstance, who endowed us with the will to
undertake this design project. Great respect our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH),
who taught us to learn till lap of grave.
We are highly thankful to honorable Prof. Dr. A.K Salariya who provided us with a chance
to work on such an interesting topic. His constructive suggestions, constant guidance and
friendly attitude encouraged us to work in a better manner.
We are grateful to our honorable group advisor Prof. Dr. G.M. Mamoor and group
supervisor Mr. Kashif Iqbal for their nice cooperation in our design work.
We also show appreciation to our friends who encouraged and cooperated with us throughout
our work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO UREA

1.1 Fertilizer
1.2 Characteristics of Urea
1.3 Commercial Production of Urea
1.4 Fertilizers Available In Pakistan
1.5 Demand and Supply of Urea in Pakistan

2
4
5
8
11
CHAPTER 2
PROCESS SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION

2.1 Conventional Processes


2.2 Process Comparison
2.3 Selection of Process
2.4 Detail Process Description of ACES process
2.5 Process Flow Diagram of ACES Process

13
19
20
22
26
CHAPTER 3
MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS

3.1 Material Balance on Overall Plant


3.2 Reactor Balance
3.3 Stripper Balance
3.4 Balance around Medium Pressure Decomposer
3.5 Balance around Carbamate Condenser
3.6 Balance around Lower Pressure Decomposer
3.7 Balance around Lower Pressure Absorber
3.8 Balance around Medium Pressure Absorber
3.9 Balance around Scrubber
3.10 Balance around Condenser
3.11 Balance around Evaporator
3.12 Balance around Prilling Tower

29
31
32
34
35
36
38
39
40
41
43
45

C H A P TE R 4
E N ER G Y B A LA N C E C A LC U LA T I O N S
4.1 Specific Heat Calculations
4.2 Energy Balance around Reactor
4.3 Energy Balance around Stripper
4.4 Energy Balance around Scrubber

47
49
51
53

4.5 Energy Balance around Carbamate Condenser


4.6 Energy Balance around Medium Pressure Decomposer
4.7 Energy Balance around Low Pressure Absorber
4.8 Tabulated Heat Balance

53
55
56
57
CHAPTER 5
PROCESS DESIGN

5.1 Reactor Design


5.2 Specification Sheet
5.3 Stripper Design
5.4 Specification Sheet
5.5 Condenser Design
5.6 Specification Sheet
5.7 Evaporator Design
5.8 Specification Sheet
5.9 Absorber Design
5.10 Specification Sheet
5.9 Selection of Pump
5.10 Specification Sheet
5.11 Selection of Compressor
5.12 Specification Sheet

59
62
63
73
74
81
82
87
88
97
98
101
102
104
CHAPTER 6
MECHANICAL DESIGN

6.1 Mechanical Design of Reactor


6.2 Specification Sheet
6.3 Mechanical Drawing of Reactor

106
112
113
CHAPTER 7
INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL

7.1 Instrumentation and Control


7.2 Components of Control System
7.3 Typical Control Systems
7.4 Consideration of PFR in ACES Urea Plant

115
116
118
120
CHAPTER 8
HAZOP STUDY

8.1 Hazard and Operability Study


8.2 Steps Conducted In HAZOP Study
8.3 Safety of the Urea Plant
8.4 Hazard Identification
8.5 First Aid (Emergency Procedure)

123
123
125
126
126

CHAPTER 9
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

9.1 Environmental Impact Assessment


9.2 Impact of the Urea Plant on the environment
9.3 Emission to air
9.4 Emission to water
9.5 Emission to land
9.6 Elimination Methods

129
130
130
131
131
132
CHAPTER 10
COST ESTIMATION

10.1 Purchased Equipment Cost


10.2 Total Capital Investment
10.3 Total Product Cost
10.4 Profitability Analysis

135
137
138
140
CHAPTER 11
SIMULATION IN ASPEN HYSYS

11.1 Introduction to ASPEN HYSYS


11.2 Simulation of Synthesis Section

143

REFERENCES
References

143

CHAPTER 01: Introduction To Urea

1.1 FERTILIZER
Fertilizers restore soil fertility by supplying nutrients to the soil. These nutrients
are utilized by crops for their growth and development. Without the addition of
fertilizers, crop yield would be significantly reduced as our soils are deficient in
major nutrients, like, N, P & K. Mineral fertilizers are used to increase the
nutrient concentration of the soil and these minerals can be quickly absorbed and
used by the crops.
Urea is the most concentrated solid straight nitrogen fertilizer.
fertilizer Its prills or
granules are white in color and free flowing. Urea is readily soluble in water. It
contains 46 per cent Nitrogen
N
in amide (NH2) form which is changed to
ammonium (NH4+) in the soil. Because of its high water solubility, it is well
suited for use in solution fertilizers or foliar sprays.
Urea is an organic compound with chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also
known by international nonproprietary name (INN) carbide, as established by
world health organization. Other names include Carbide Resin,
R
Isourea,
Carbonyl Diamide, and Carbonyl Diamine.

Figure 1.1 Chemical structures of urea molecules

Production of Urea by ACES process

Synthetic Urea:
It was first organic compound to be artificially synthesized from inorganic
starting materials, in 1828 by friedrich Wohler, who prepared it by reaction of
potassium cyanate with maximum sulfate. Although Wohler was attempting to
prepare ammonium cynate by foaming urea, he inadvertently discredited
vitalism the theory that the chemicals of living organisms are fundamentally
different from inanimate matter, thus starting the discipline of organic
chemistry.
This artificially urea synthesis was mainly relevant to human health because of
urea cycle in human beings. Urea was discovered: synthesis in human liver in
order to expel excess nitrogen from the body. So in past urea was not considered
as a chemical for agriculture and industrial use. Within 20th century it was found
to be a best for the iatrogenic fertilizer for the plant and become widely used as a
fertilizer. Urea was the leading fertilizer worldwide in 1990s. Apart from the
urea is being utilized in many other industries.
Urea is produced on a scale of some 100,000,000 ton per year worldwide. For
use in industry, urea is from produce synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide.
Urea can be produce as prillers, granuls, flakes, pellets, crystal and solution.
More than 90% of world production is destined for use as a fertilizer. Urea has
the highest nitrogen content of all nitrogenous fertilizer in common use (46.7%).
Therefore, it has the lowest transportation cost per unit of nitrogen nutrient. Urea
is highly soluble in water and is therefore, also very suitable for use in fertilizer
solution (in combination of ammonium nitrate).

CHAPTER 01: Introduction To Urea

1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF UREA


Urea is white odorless solid. Due to extensive hydrogen bonding with water (up
to six hydrogen bonds may forms two from the oxygen atom and one from
each hydrogen urea is very soluble)
Table 1.1 Physical Characteristics of Urea
Density

1.33 10

Melting point

solid

132.7c (406 k) decompose

Boiling point

NA

Solubility in water

108

(20c)

167

(40c)

251

(60c)

400

(80c)

733

(100c)

Vapor pressure

<10pa

Bulk density

0.8

Table 1.2 Chemical Characteristics of Urea


IUPAC name

Di amino methanal

Chemical formula

(NH2)2CO

Molecular mass

60.07g/mole

Dipole moment

4.56 p/d

pH

(100g.L-1 in water, 20C) ~9

Production of Urea by ACES process

1.3 COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF UREA


Urea is commercial produced from two raw material, ammonia and carbon
dioxide. Large quantities of carbon dioxide are produced during the manufacture
of ammonia from coal or from hydrocarbon such as natural gas. This allows
direct synthesis of urea from these raw materials. The production of urea from
ammonia and carbon dioxide takes place in equilibrium reaction with
incomplete conversion of reactants.
The various urea processes are characterized by conditions under which with
urea formation take place and the way in which unconverted reactant s are
further processed. Unconverted reactant can be used for the manufacture of
other products, for example ammonium nitrate and sulfate, or they can be
recycled for complete conversion to urea in a total recycle process. Two
principal reactions take place in formation of urea from ammonia and carbon
dioxide.
The first reaction is exothermic:
2NH3 + CO2

H2N-COONH4 (ammonium carbamate)

Whereas the second reaction is endothermic


H2N-COONH4

(NH2)2CO+H2O

Both reaction combined are exothermic.


2NH3 + CO2

(NH2)2CO + H2O

The urea molecule is planar and retains its molecular symmetry, due to
conjugation of one of each nitrogen s p orbits to the carbonyl double bond.
Each carbonyl oxygen atom accept four N-H-O hydrogen bonds, a very usual
feature for such a bond type .This dense (and energetically favorable) hydrogen
5

CHAPTER 01: Introduction To Urea

bond network is probably established at the cost of efficient molecular packing.


The structure is quite open, the ribbon, forming tunnels with square cross
section. Urea is stable under normal condition.

Uses of Urea:
(1) Industrial uses

As a raw material for the manufacture of plastics specifically, ureaformaldehyde resin.

As a raw material for the manufacture of various glues (ureaformaldehyde or urea-melamine-formaldehyde). The latter is waterproof
and is used for marine plywood.

As a component of fertilizer and animal feed, providing a relatively cheap


source of fixed nitrogen to promote growth.

As an alternative to rock salt in the deicing of roadways and runways. It


does not promote metal corrosion to the extent that salt does.

As an additive ingredient in cigarettes, designed to enhance flavor.

As an ingredient in some hair conditioners, facial cleansers, bath oils and


lotions.

It is also used as a reactant in some ready-to-use cold compresses for firstaid use, due to the endothermic reaction it creates when mixed with water.

Used, along with salts, as a cloud seeding agent to expedite the


condensation of water in clouds, producing precipitation.

The ability of urea to form catharses (also called host-guest complexes,


inclusion compounds, and adducts) was used in the past to separate
paraffins.

As a flame-proofing agent.

As a clean burning fuel for motor vehicles and stationary engines.

Production of Urea by ACES process

(2) Laboratory uses


Urea is a powerful protein denaturant. This property can be exploited to increase
the solubility of some proteins. Urea is used to effectively disrupt the non
covalent bonds in proteins. Urea is an ingredient in the synthesis of urea nitrate.
(3) Medical uses
Urea is used in topical dermatological products to promote rehydration of
the skin. If covered by an occlusive dressing, 40% urea preparations may
also be used for nonsurgical debridement of nails.
See blood urea nitrogen ("BUN") for a commonly performed urea test,
and marker of renal function.
Isotopically-labeled urea (carbon 14 - radioactive, or carbon 13 - stable
isotope) is used in the Urea breath test, which is used to detect the
presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, a bacterium) in the stomach
and duodenum of humans. The test detects the characteristic enzyme urea,
produced by H. pylori, by a reaction that produces ammonia from urea.
This increases the pH (reduces acidity) of the stomach environment
around the bacteria.

Urea Demand:
Ureas demand in world survey of 2011 is some 170.348 million MT and it is
expected to 180 million MT in 2015. Asia would contribute 68% in this
increment India 25%, China 24% and Pakistan 5%. On the other hand, in
America the major contribution would be from Brazil (6%) and USA 6%. In
Europe notable increment is expected in Russia (4%). To fulfill all this demand,
investors are trying to install urea plants in highly populated countries where
food demand is at its peak.
7

CHAPTER 01: Introduction To Urea

South Asia

Total Demand:175.348 MT

East Asia

4.90%
12%
31.50%
5.90%

Cental Europe

3%
West Europe
0.80%
East Europe &

8.10%

Cental Asia
1%
3.40%

Oceania
31.60%

Africa

Figure 1.2 Cross-Sectional


Cross
Graph of Regional Urea demand
Pakistan is also one of these locations where urea demand exists and is
increasing day by day. We are interested in installing our new project at
Pakistan. Hence it is necessary for us to study about our competitors in Pakistan.
Moreover, we should know about
about existing Urea producing capacity of plants in
Pakistan as well as demand of urea which we have to fulfill.
1.4 FERTILIZERS AVAILABLE IN PAKISTAN
The sources of fertilizer supply in Pakistan are domestic production and imports.
Those manufactured locally include urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and
ammonium sulphate (AS) as straight nitrogen fertilizers. Single superphosphate
is the only straightt phosphate fertilizer and nitrophos is NP, a complex fertilizer.
All other fertilizers are imported. Recently the production of SSP and AS has
been stopped due to high cost of production.
8

Production of Urea by ACES process

Table 1.3 Grades of Fertilizers available in Pakistan


Grade or Analysis (%)
Common name

P2O5

K2O Sulphur

Urea

46

Ammonium sulphate

21

24

Calcium ammonium Nitrate (CAN)

26

Single Superphosphate (SSP)

18

12

Triple superphosphate (TSP)

46

1.5

Diammonium phosphate (DAP)

18

46

Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP)

11

52

Sulphate of potash (SOP)

50

18

Muriate of potash (MOP)

60

Nitrophosphate (Nitrophos)

23

23

Complete NPKs

15

15

15

10

20

20

6.8

13

13

21

6.0

17.8

Nitrogenous fertilizers

Phosphatic fertilizers

Potassic fertilizers

Complex fertilizers

Micronutrients
Zinc sulphate (Zn 36.0 %)

CHAPTER 01: Introduction To Urea

Urea Market Environment in Pakistan:

Figure 1.3 Urea market participation in Pakistan

Table 1.4 Urea Competitors in Pakistan and their Production Capacities


Sr. No

Company

Capacity(MT/year)

1.

Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd.

2.32106

2.

Engro Fertilizer corporation

2.275106

3.

Fatima Fertilizer Company Ltd.

0.45106

4.

Agri tech Ltd.

0.426106

5.

Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Ltd.

0.501106

6.

Dawood Hercules Ltd

0.445106

10

Production of Urea by ACES process

1.5 DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF UREA IN PAKISTAN


Overview for last 20 years of urea demand and production is given in following
graph. Pakistan has been lagging demand forever. Now days a new plant of
capacity 1.3 million ton has been installed which enabled the country to meet its
requirement. But demand is increasing very rapidly due to high population
concentration and agriculture dependence of countrys GDP. It is expected that
in 2014 demand of Pakistan will reach some 9 million MT and installed capacity
will remain only 6.9million ton. So a huge demand is there for new capacity
installing.

8
7

metric ton

6
5
Demand
4

production

3
2
1
0
1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

Figure 1.4 Pakistans Urea demand and production

11

Production of Urea by ACES process

Several processes are used to urea manufacturing. Some of them are used
conventional technologies and others use modern technologies to achieve high
efficiency. These processes have several comparable advantages and
disadvantages based on capital cost, maintenance cost, energy cost, efficiency
and product quality. Some of the widely used urea production processes are:
1. Conventional Processes
2. Snamprogetti Ammonia and self stripping processes
3. Isobaric double recycle process
4. Advanced Cost and Energy Saving (ACES) process

2.1 CONVENTIONAL PROCESSES


(1) Once through Process
In this process non converted ammonia was neutralized with acid such as nitric
acid to produce ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate as co products of
urea production. In this way, a relatively simple urea process scheme was
realized. The main disadvantages of this process are the large quantity of
ammonia salt formed as co product and the limited amount of overall carbon
dioxide conversion that can be achieved.
(1) Conventional Recycle Process
Here all of the non converted ammonia and carbon dioxide were recycled to the
urea reactor. In first generation of this process the recirculation of non converted
NH3 and CO2 was performed in two stages. The first recirculation was operated
at medium pressure (18-25 bar), the second at low pressure (2-5 bar). The first
recirculation comprises at least a decomposition heater, in which carbamate

13

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

Decomposes into gaseous NH3 evaporate simultaneously. The off gas from this
first decomposition step was subjected to rectification, from which relatively
pure ammonia at the top and a bottom product consisting of an aqueous
ammonium carbamate solution were obtain. Both products are recycled
separately to the urea reactor. Because of the detrimental effect of water on
reaction conversion, achieving a minimum CO2 recycle so achieve maximum
CO2 conversion was more important than achieving a low NH3 recycle. All
conventional processes therefore typically operate at high NH3:CO2 ratios
(4-5mole/mole) to maximize CO2 conversion per pass. Although some of these
conventional processes partly equipped with ingenious heat exchanging net
works have survived until now. Their importance decreased rapidly as the socalled stripping process was developed.

Figure 2.1 Once Through Urea Process

14

Production of Urea by ACES process

Stamicarbon (Holland) CO2 stripping process:


The novelty of the CO2 stripping process consists of the fact that the reactor
effluent is not let down to a lower pressure as in the conventional liquid recycle
urea process, but is stripped at synthesis pressure by the gaseous CO2 reactor
feed stream in a steam heated vertical heat exchanger. The high pressure stripper
operates at about 140 atm & 190 o C. The stripped urea solution still contains
about 15 % of the unconverted carbamate, & it is let down to about 3 atm for
further degassing in the steam heated low pressure decomposer at about 120 o C.
The off gas recovered is condensed with cooling water in the low pressure
condenser, operating at about 65 o C & 3 atm. The solution thus obtained is
pumped to the high pressure condenser by means of high pressure carbamate
pump. The off gas recovered from the high pressure stripper is condensed in the
high pressure condenser, which operates at about 170 o C & 140 atm.

The heat of condensation is removed on the shell side of the condenser by


vaporizing the equivalent amount of condensate. The 3.4 atm steam thus
produced can be reused in another section of the plant.

The mixture of gas & liquid issuing from the high pressure condenser is fed to
the reactor for total CO2 condensation to carbamate & subsequent conversion to
urea. The inerts are vented from the reactor through a water cooled vent
condenser. The reactor effluent, at about 185 o C & 140 atm, is fed to the high
pressure stripper as described above.

15

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

Figure 2.2 Stamicarbon process

Snamprogetti (Italy) Ammonia and self stripping process:


This process is based on the principle of the internal carbamate recycle
technique and is commonly called the Snam NH3 stripping process. The basic
difference between the Snam process & the conventional carbamate solution
recycle urea processes is the fact that in this case the unconverted carbamate is
stripped and recovered from the urea synthesis reactor effluent solution at reactor
pressure, condensed to an aqueous solution in a steam producing high pressure
condenser, & recycle back to the reactor by gravity. Part of the liquid NH3
reactor feed, vaporized in a steam heated exchanger, is used as inert gas to
decompose & strip ammonium carbamate in the steam heated high pressure
stripper.

16

Production of Urea by ACES process

The reactor operates at about 130 atm & 180-190 C and the stripper operates at
about 130 atm & 190 o C. The stripper off-gas is condensed in a vertical shell &
tube condenser, operating at about 130 atm & 148-160 o C. Low pressure steam
is produced in the high pressure carbamate condenser. The urea product
solution, leaving the stripper & still containing 2-3 % of residual unreacted
carbamate, is further degassed in a low pressure decomposition-absorption
system. The recovered ammoniacal solution of ammonium carbamate is
pumped back to the reactor.

Figure 2.3 Snamprogetti process

17

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

ACES process:
ACES (Advanced Process for Cost and Energy Saving) process has been
developed by Toyo Engineering Corporation. Its synthesis section consists of
the reactor, stripper, two parallel carbamate condensers and a scrubber all
operated at 175 bars.
The reactor is operated at 1900C and an NH3:CO2 molar feed ratio of 4:1.
Liquid ammonia is fed directly to the reactor, whereas gaseous carbon dioxide
after compression is introduced into the bottom of the stripper as a stripping aid.
The synthesis mixture from the reactor, consisting of urea, unconverted
ammonia carbamate, excess ammonia, and water, is fed to the top of the
stripper. This process consists of following sections.
1) Synthesis section
2) Purification section
3) Absorption section
4) Evaporation section
5) Condensate treatment section
6) Finishing section
Synthesis section is operated at 175 bars. It has following components:
Reactor
Stripper
Carbamate condenser
Scrubber

18

Production of Urea by ACES process

2.2 PROCESS COMPARISON


Table 2.1 Comparison of different urea processes
Process
Conventional Process-

Advantages

Simple process

Once through process

Conventional Processes

High CO2
conversion

High production cost


High energy cost
High environmental pollution

Has high urea


yield per pass
High purity

High production cost


High energy cost

Low consumption
of low pressure
steam

High production cost


High energy cost

Complex process

High capital cost

Isobaric double recycle


process
ACES process

Large quantity of ammonia


salt is formed as co product.
Overall carbon dioxide
conversion is low.
High production cost
High energy cost
High environmental pollution

Snamprogetti Ammonia
and self stripping process

Conventional recycle
process

Stamicarbon CO2
stripping process

Disadvantages

Low production
cost
High energy
recovery
Low
environmental
pollution
High efficiency

19

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

2.3 SELECTION OF PROCESS


Among above urea manufacturing processes, ACES process is selected because
of it has following advantages compared to other processes:
(1) High CO2 Conversion and Efficient Stripping
ACES process focuses on reduced energy use. It is only possible through
combination of high one pass CO2 conversion and efficient stripping. It causes
reduction in energy consumption in lower section. This has become a basic
feature of ACES process.
(2) Maximum Heat Recovery
ACES process is proven lowest energy consumption process through following
technologies.
Heat of condensation of stripped gases is used for generation of
5kg/cm2 steam as well as to heat outlet of stripper.
Heat of condensation of HP absorber is used to evaporate water in
vacuum evaporation section.
Heat carried by gases of steam condensate stripper is consumed in
LPD.
Steam condensate is used in MPD as well as ammonia and urea
pre-heaters.

(3) High On-stream factor


ACES process enables us to restart our plant to 100% production merely in three
hours after emergency shutdown troubleshoot. This is all due to high ammonia
to carbon dioxide molar ratio which not only lowers the solidification
temperature but also makes synthesis solution to stay for two days intact.

20

Production of Urea by ACES process

(4) Less Corrosion


Stripper and carbamate condensers operate at corrosive conditions. However,
Toyo Corporation has developed duplex-12 which is most stable to corrosion
under given conditions. It also reduced the amount of oxygen introduced to air.
(5) Flexibility
High molar ratio of N/C gives operational flexibility. A minor change in feed
will not affect much the given reaction. Further, two carbamate condensers also
enables us to heat urea solution to required temperature.
(6) Less Maintenance
In spite of being operated at corrosive conditions, ACES process material
selection reduces maintenance required. Scrubber and reactor are fabricated of
316L stainless steel and condenser plus stripper are manufactured of duplex
stain less steel.
(7) Pollution Control
Air from cooling tower is washed with 30% urea solution to scrub out urea dust
within dust recovery system located at top of column. There is only single point
for leaking of ammonia. This is vent of washing column from where inert are
removed. However, air is relatively low, so emission of ammonia is also low.
Evaporated water also contains small fractions of urea and ammonia which are
removed in steam condensate section. Thus drainage of urea plant finally
consists of 5ppm urea and ammonia.
(8) Product Quality
Prills size of ACES process is 1.7 mm, higher than 1.4mm produced by other
technologies.
21

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

This prill size may have following advantages:


Easy product handling
High crushing strength
Less dust formation
Desirable qualities
2.4 DETAIL PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF ACES PROCESS
ACES process was introduced by TOYO corporation in1980 in replacement of
total recycle process. Since then a lot of work has been carried out on the
process. Now days it has become only cost and energy saving process due to its
high efficiency.
This production process starts with two raw materials NH3 and CO2. Ammonia is
fed to reactor to liquefied form at temperature of 55

()

C. Reactor contains

internal baffle plates to keep off from back mixing of product formed. This urea
solution is ejected out of reactor through funnel at top. This funnel is kept
dipped in solution to avoid any recycle from stripper. A stream from carbamate
condenser operated at 176C is also fed to bottom of reactor. This stream consists
of mostly ammonia, carbon dioxide. Through these two streams, N/C molar ratio
fed to reactor is 4.1 and operating conditions of reactor are 190c and 175 bars. It
gives 68% of CO2 conversion into urea through following two steps:
CO2 + 2NH3
NH4COONH2

NH4COONH2
(NH2)2CO + H2O

Remaining 32% could be converted only into carbamate due to residence time.
If more residence time is given to solution in reactor, urea decomposition may
start. This effluent with 54% urea concentration is piped to stripper under
gravitational flow.
22

Production of Urea by ACES process

Stripper of Toyo Corporation has unique design of falling film accompanied


with heating plates in upper section. Plates assist in removal of access ammonia
lowering the N/C ratio to 3.1 which is ideal for stripping purpose. Moreover
carbamate is also decomposed and resulting liquefied gaseous mixture is
separated by stripping. Solution coming out of reactor is approximately 60-63%
urea and 12-14% ammonia gas. Operating conditions of stripper are 175 bars
and 180C. Ammonia and carbon dioxide from top of stripper are distributed on
the tubes of condensers. Recycle carbamate solution is also distributed there and
it absorbs gases and condense them. Feed to carbamate condenser two is kept
such that it heats striper bottom effluent up to 180

()

C. Remaining heat is used

for steam production in NO 1 carbamate condensers.


Top stream of reactor is contaminated with inert and scrubbed in scrubber by
washing it with recycle from absorption section to remove any quantities of
reactants accompanied with.
Effluent of stripper is lead towards Decomposition section. This section is
composed of two stages mentioned below.
1) MPDS (Medium Pressure Decomposition stage)
2) LPDS (Low Pressure decomposition stage)
Bottom stream of stripper is relaxed to 18 bars and then heated up to 155 oC in
2nd carbamate condenser. This solution is fed to top of MPD where flashed and
decomposed gas is separated. Urea solution flows across falling-film
Temperature is kept around 158 oC to save urea product from side reactions.
Further decomposition of carbamate takes place by heating via condensate. Top
gases of MP decomposer are sent towards absorption section.

23

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

Bottom effluent of MP decomposer contains 70 wt% ammonia and 30 wt% CO2.


This is fed to LPDS at decreased pressure of 2.5 bars. LP decomposer is
composed of sieve trays, packed bed and falling-film sections.

Gaseous

ammonia is separated by flash and pressure force of upward coming gas. A


small portion of fresh CO2 from compressor of synthesis section is introduced
from bottom of LPD. Its purpose is to strip out the residual ammonia and carbon
dioxide completely. Carbamate is decomposed and removed as head stream.
This head stream of LPD is directed to absorption section. Exit stream of LPD
bottom is 70% urea containing and 0.4% ammonia.
Overhead streams of both stages of decomposition section are condensed and
absorbed into water coming from Condensate Treatment Section. This
carbamate solution is recycled back to scrubbers top for washing overhead
gaseous stream of reactor.
Solution from purification section is fed to evaporation section. It incorporates
two steps:
(i)

Vacuum concentrator

(ii)

Final concentrator

Each concentrator consists of two sections lower and upper. Solution is fed to
lower section of vacuum concentrator which is operated at 150mmHg and 77C.
Heat required for evaporation of water is obtained from absorption section
(HPA). This solution is then transmitted to upper section where vaporized water
is separated and resultant urea solution achieves concentration of 84%. Then it is
lead to final concentrator operating at 132C and 25mmHg. It gives further
rectification of product up to 97.7% accompanied with Biuret and a small
fraction of moisture content.

24

Production of Urea by ACES process

Steam from concentration section contains urea as well as ammonia


contaminants. So it is further treated in Condensate Treatment Section. This
section prominently incorporates hydrolyser and stripper. Condensate is partially
sent towards absorption section and partly towards Condensate Strippers top.
Steam is directly introduced from bottom. Stripped off gaseous mixture is sent
towards LPD. Rest of solution is ejected from mid of stripper and fed to
hydrolyser after heating. Effluent is returned to lower height of stripper. It
practically gives water with CO2 & NH3 fractions lower than 5ppm.
Molten urea from Evaporation Section is sent to finishing section. Solution is
sprayed into cooling tower and air is blown through the tower. It helps in
solidifying and production of prilled urea. Urea thus produced is collected on
scraper.
Table 2.2 List of ACES Urea Plants
CLIENT

COUNTRY

ON-STREAM

SPAIN
BANGLADESH

PLANT CAPACITY
(MT/D)
750
1,422

FERTIBERIA S.L
UREA FERTILIZER
FACTORYLTD.
P.T.PUPUK
SRIWIDJAJA
P.T.PETROKIMIA
GRESIK
P.T.PUPUK
SRIWIDJAJA
WEIHE CHEMICAL
FERTILIZER
WEIXIAN
CHEMICAL
FERTILIZER
PAK-AMERICAN
FERTILIZER
ENGRO CHEMICAL
PAKISTAN LTD
CHAMBAL
FERTILIZERS LTD
PT.PUPUK
ISKANDAR MUDA

INDONESIA

1,725

MAR. 1994

INDONESIA

1,400

MAY 1994

INDONESIA

1,725

FEB 1994

CHINA

1,760

MAY. 1996

CHINA

180

JAN.1997

PAKISTAN

1050

SEP.1998

PAKISTAN

1,755

OCT. 1998

INDIA

2,350

OCT.1999

INDONESIA

1,725

2001

25

OCT. 1988
FEB. 1993

CHAPTER 02: Process Selection and Description

2.5 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF ACES PROCESS

Figure 2.4 Schematic of the original ACES Process


26

Production of Urea by ACES process

Nomenclatures used in PFD:


a) Urea Reactor
b) High Pressure Ammonia Pump
c) Co2 Compressor
d) Stripper
e) High Pressure Carbamate Condensers
f) High Pressure Scrubber
g) High Pressure Carbamate Pump
h) Medium Pressure Absorber
i) Medium Pressure Decomposer
j) Low Pressure Decomposer
k) Evaporator
l) Prilling Tower

27

Production of Urea by ACES process

Pakistan is an agricultural country. Its economy mostly depends upon agricultural production.
This need is increasing exponentially with time for multiplying population. More over for
many years continually Pakistan is facing natural disasters in terms of earth quack, flood and
storm. These disasters also reduce fertility and production capacity of a country. Hence
demand of food from rest of area increases to meat necessities.
All these needs of Pakistan can be met only if some agricultural aid is provided to nation.
There would be no best assistance other than installing a urea plant. This plant is not only a
suitable for nation but also more economical for investment. Urea has best vicinity for export
from Pakistan as mostly region is agriculture dependent.

3.1 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND OVERALL PLANT


Plant capacity per day

2000 TPD (75583.33 )

Number of working Days

300 days

Total capacity of plant

Product Composition
Urea

98.85%wt

Biuret

0.9%

Moisture

0.25%

Component Amounts
.

Urea

) 75583.33kg/hr

Biuret

(0.9/100) 75583.33kg/hr

= 680.25

Moisture

(0.25/100)75583.33kg/hr

=188.9

29

= 74714.12

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

Raw Materials
2(NH2)2CO
103kg Biuret is produced by :
1 kg Biuret is produced by
680

NH2CONHCONH2 + NH3
120 kg urea

Biuret is produced by :

) 680.25 = 792.52

Total urea produced =

urea in product + used in Biuret production

Total urea produced =

74714.12 + 792.52

Total urea produced =

75506.64

Now, we calculate raw materials required for given production of urea.


We know:
CO2 + 2NH3
(NH2)2CO produced :

(NH2)2CO + H2O

CO2 consumed

: 2NH3 consumed

H2O generated

44g

18g

60g

: 55371.54

: 42787.1

75506.64

34g

22651.94

Urea=7414.12
CO2=55371.54

Urea Plant of

Biuret=680.15

2000.37 TPD

Water=188.9

Capacity
Water=?

NH3=42787.10

30

Production of Urea by ACES process

Water in 4th stream is:


Total water produced water in product
22651.94
22463.04

- 188.95

4th stream

22463.04

is by-product of urea process.

3.2 REACTOR BALANCE


Assumptions: Raw materials are 100% pure basis.
CO2 & NH3

From Condenser

CO2=?
NH3=?
Carba=?
Total=?

UREA=75506.64
To
Stripper
NH3= 42787.1 kg/hr
Fresh feed

Water=22651.99
Ammonia=?
Carbamate=?

Stream to Stripper
We know;
Fraction

0.36

Total flow

! " "! #

!$ % &
% &
'

.
( .

= 209740.66

31

(36%

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

Stream to Scrubber
Un-reacted CO2

Total top flow

(0.1) feed CO2


5537.154 /0.39

Un-reacted ammonia =

5537.154

14089.450

total- Un-reacted CO2 =

8552.296

Rests of unknowns are determined after applying balance on stripper and condenser.

3.3 STRIPPER BALANCE


Assumption: all of CO2 entered from bottom of column is received out in top effluent.
From Reactor

UREA=75506.64

To Condenser

Water=22651.99
CO2= 56% Et
NH3=44%Et

NH3=?
Carba=?
Total= 209740.66

UREA=75506.64
Water=22651.99

CO2= 55371.54

Carba=? NH3=14%Eb

Fresh CO2
To MPD

Note that some symbols used are actually:


Et effluent from top
Eb effluent from bottom
Total flow rate of bottom effluent

Eb

= 75506.64 / (54/100) = 139827.11

Given that ammonia is 14% of bottom effluent,


NH3

(14/100) 139827.11
32

19575.795

Production of Urea by ACES process

Now carbamate in Eb =

total flow sum of known individuals

Carbamate in Eb

139827.11 (22651.99 + 75506.64 + 19575.795) = 22092.68

In-out + generation- consumption


209740.66 +55371.54

=
=

Et

accumulation
139827.11+ Et

125285.095

*+

Component balance on top effluent


CO2

= 56%Et

(56/100) 125285.095 =

70159.653

NH3

= 44%Et

(44/100) 125285.095 =

55125.442

CO2 generated within system =

*+

*+

total carbon dioxide in top effluent CO2 entered


bottom

70159.653 55371.54

14788.113

CO2 generated within stripper

CO2 was produced by reaction;


NH4COONH2

CO2 + 2NH3

CO2 generated

Carbamate Consumed

44g

1g
14788.11

2NH3 Produced

78g

34g

1.773

0.773

26215.29

11427.17

So,
Total carbamate in stream from reactor (Fr):
Carbamate in Fr

carbamate decomposed + carbamate in Eb


33

at

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

26215.29

+ 22092.68

= 48307.97

Ammonia in Fr

ammonia in Eb + ammonia in Et generation of ammonia

Ammonia in Fr

55125.442 + 19575.795

Ammonia in Fr

63274.05

Total in

Total out

265112.20

265112.20

So,

-11427.17

3.4 BALANCE AROUND MEDIUM PRESSURE DECOMPOSER

Urea=75506.64
Water=22651.99
To MPA
NH3=19575.79

CO2=30%Et
NH3=70%Et
total=Et=?

Carbamate =
22092.68
From stripper: Fs

Total= 139827.11

Urea=75506.64

To LPD

Balance on stream To LPD


Total flow rate

= Eb

'

.
,.//

Overall Balance:

34

117979.125

Water=22651.99
NH3=?
Carba=?
Total=Eb=?

Production of Urea by ACES process

Inflow

outflow

Fs

Et + Eb

139827.11

Et + 117979.1

21847.98

6554.39

Et
Now components of Et are:
CO2

30% of Et

) 21847.98

The whole quantity of CO2 is generated within decomposer


NH3

70% of Et

'

) 21847.98

= 15293.590

CO2 is produced by Carbamate decomposition


So,
CO2 generated :

Carbamate Consumed

2NH3 Produced

44g

78g

34g

1g

1.773

0.773

6554.39

11619.15

5064.76

3.5 BALANCE AROUND CARBAMATE CONDENSER


Bottom effluent

Feed

Bottom effluent

Carbamate in Eb

Carbamate in Eb

generation

consumption

22092.68

11619.15

22092.68

10473.52
35

11619.15

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

Balance on NH3
(Bottom effluent + top effluent) = Feed + generation - consumption
Bottom effluent

19575.79 + 5064.76-15293.590

Total in

Total out

139827.11

139827.11

9346.96

3.6 BALANCE AROUND LOWER PRESSURE DECOMPOSER


Urea = 75506.64

CO2=?
NH3=?
Total=?

Water= 22651.99
NH3 = 9346.96

To LPA=Et

Carbamate = 10473.52
Total =117979.125

From MPD=Fd

Urea=?
H2O= 22651.99

Fresh feed=Ff
To Evaporation

Biuret=679.55

CO2= 6312.35

Carbamate is decomposed so
CO2 generated

44

Carbamate Consumed
78

:
:

0.56

5908.14

10473.52

2NH3 Produced
34
:

Another reaction that takes place in LPD is:

36

0.43
4565.38

Production of Urea by ACES process

2(NH2)2CO

NHCONHCONH2 + NH3

Biuret Formed

urea decomposed

: ammonia produced

103

120

17

1.16

0.165

679.55

112.15

791.71

Total Ammonia generated

4677.54

Urea Balance
Feed

- effluent + generation consumption

75506.64 Effluent

effluent
=

= accumulation

+ 0 - 791.7

74714.92

Ammonia Balance
Feed - effluent + generation 9346.96 Nt
Nt =

consumption

+ 4677.54

= accumulation

14024.51

Carbon dioxide Balance


Feed - effluent + generation

- consumption

6312.35 - Ct + 5908.144

Ct

= 12220.50

Total in

Total out

124291.48

124291.48

= accumulation

37

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

3.7 BALANCE AROUND LOWER PRESSURE ABSORBER

CO2 = 12220.50
Effluent= E

NH3 = 14024.51
Total = 26245.01

NH3=?
Carba=?
Total=?

From LPD = Fl

Following reaction will take place in absorber:


2NH3 +

CO2

NH4COONH2

CO2 consumed

2NH3 consumed

Carbamate generated

44

34

78

0.773

1.773

12220.50

9443.11

21663.61

Ammonia Balance
Feed

effluent

14024.5101

Ne

4581.39

Ne

+ 0

Total in

Total out

26245.01

26245.010

generation consumption

= accumulation

9443.113865

38

Production of Urea by ACES process

3.8 BALANCE ON MEDIUM PRESSURE ABSORBER


NH3 = 4581.39
Carbamate = 21663.61
Total = 26245.01

CO2 =
From LPA=Fa

6554.39
NH3 =
15293.59
Total =

To scrubber=

From MPD=Fd

21847.98

Reaction also takes place in MPA:


CO2 consumed

2NH3 consumed

Carba generated

44

34

78

0.773

1.773

6554.39

5064.76

11619.15

Carbamate Balance
In -

out - consumption

+ generation = accumulation

21663.61416 - Carbamate in Es - 0 + 11619.15625 = 0


Carbamate in Es

33282.77

NH3 Balance
In -

out - consumption + generation

39

accumulation

NH3=?
Carba=?
Total=?

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

19874.98651 - NH3 in Es

- 5064.760417 + 0

NH3 in Es

14810.22

Total in

48092.99

Total out
48092.99

3.9 BALANCE AROUND SCRUBBER

NH3
=14810.22
Carbamate =
From MPA=Fm

33282.7
Total
=48092.9
kg/hr

Vent

CO2 = 5537.1
To condenser

Carba=?
NH3=?
Total?

NH3 = 8552.2
From reactor=Fr
Inerts=6424.5
Total: 20513.9

Reaction in Scrubber:
2NH3 +

CO2

NH4COONH2

CO2 Consumed

NH3 Consumed

Carba generated

44

34

78

0.773

1.773

40

Production of Urea by ACES process

5537.1

4278.7

Carbamate in effluent

43098.63432

NH3 in effluent

19083.81257

Vent (top outlet flow)

6424.5

Total in

Total out

68606.97

68606.97

9815.8

3.10 BALANCE AROUND CONDENSER

Co2= 70159.6kg/hr
NH3 =55125.4kg/hr
Total =125285.0kg/hr
From stripper=Fs

Carbmate 43098.63

To reactor=Er

NH3= 19083.81
Total 62182.44

From scrubber=Fu

Assumption: efficiency of condenser is 70%.


CO2 converted to carbamate by reaction:
(70/100) 70159.6

49111.75

CO2 consumed

2NH3 consumed

44

34

Carba generated
:

41

78

NH3=?
CO2=?
Carba=?

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

49111.75

0.773
37949.9

1.7

87061.7

Carbon dioxide balance


In -

out - consumption

70159.65351 - CO2 in Er
CO2 in Er

+ generation
-

accumulation

49111.75746 +

= 21047.89

NH3 Balance
In -

out - consumption + generation

= accumulation

74209.25461 - NH3 in Er - 37949.9944 + 0

NH3 in Er = 36259.26

Carbamate Balance
In - out - consumption

+ generation =

accumulation

43098.63432 - Carba in Er - 0 + 87061.75186


Carba in Er =

130160.38

Total in

Total out

187467.54

187467.54

42

Production of Urea by ACES process

3.11 BALANCE AROUND EVAPORATOR

Vapour =?

Urea= 74714.92 kg/hr


H2O = 22651.99 kg/hr
Biuret=679.55 kg/hr

Urea= 74714.92 kg/hr


H2O =?
Biuret=679.55 kg/hr

Total= 98046.47kg/hr

Material Balance
Let x & y be the mass fractions of Urea in feed (F) & product (P) resp.
x

0.76

0.902

Making urea balance:


F.x

P.y

74714.92

= P 0.902

P(outlet)

= 82832.50

Overall material balance gives:


F

98046.47

83274.80 + E

15213.96

E (vapor Flow rate) top outlet

Water outlet with Urea =

P+E

7438.02

(from water balance)

43

CHAPTER 03: Mass Balance Calculations

Total in
98046.47

Total out

98046.47017

3.12 BALANCE AROUND PRILLING TOWER


Bottom outlet (to Prilling Tower)
Vapour = 655.5 kg/hr

Air 26C

Urea= 74714.92 kg/hr


H2O =845.23 kg/hr
Biuret=679.55 kg/hr

Air (25C)

Urea= 74714.92 kg/hr


H2O =?
Biuret=679.55 kg/hr

Material Balance

Let x & y be the mass fractions of Urea in feed (F) & product (P) resp.
x

= 0.98

= 0.9885

Making urea balance:


F.x

= P.y

44

Production of Urea by ACES process

74714.92

P (out let bottom) =

P 0.9885
75584.14 kg/hr

Overall material balance gives:


F = P+E
E (Vapor)

Total in

76239.71

655.57
Total out
76239.71

45

Production of Urea by ACES process

4.1 SPECIFIC HEAT CALCULATIONS


2 NH3 + CO2

NH2COONH4 + HEAT

NH2COONH4 + HEAT

-84

NH2CONH2 + H2O

2NH3 + CO2

+23

NH2CONH2 + H2O

-60

Ammonia Liquid
T (C)
Cp (

60

80

5.6

5.87

112
8.6

Ammonia Vapor
T (C)
Cp (

87

127

167

207

2.2

2.3

2.37

2.44

CO2 (g)
T (C)
Cp (

27

127

227

0.84

0.94

1.01

Urea Vapour
T (C)
Cp (

80

120

200

1.26

1.36

1.56

80

120

200

1.4

1.6

2.1

Urea Liquid
T (C)
Cp (

47

CHAPTER 04: Energy Balance Calculations

Urea Solid
T (C)
Cp (

27

77

127

1.56

1.8

2.04

27

127

177

4.18

4.26

4.39

Water Liquid
T (C)
Cp (

Cp of the Carbamate = 2.3

For NH3 liquid:


Cp

a + bT + cT2

5.6

a + 333b + 3332 oC

(1)

5.87

a + 353b + 3532 oC

(2)

8.6

a + 385b + 3852 oC

(3)

b = - 0.9338

c = 1.38 10

From (1), (2) & (3)


a

= 163.44

For NH3 gas:


Cp

a + bT + cT2

2.2

a + 360b + 3602 oC

(4)

2.3

a + 400b + 4002 oC

(5)

2.44

a + 480b + 4802 oC

(6)

b = 7.2510

c = -6.2510

From (4), (5) & (6)


a

= 0.4

48

Production of Urea by ACES process

For CO2 gas:


Cp

a + bT + cT2

0.84

a + 300b + 3002 oC

0.94

a + 400b + 4002 oC

(8)

1.01

a + 500b + 5002 oC

(9)

(7)

From (7), (8) & (9)


a

= 0.36

c = -1.510

b = 2.0510

For Urea:
Cp

a + bT + cT2

1.4

a + 353b + 3532 oC

(10)

1.6

a + 393b + 3932 oC

(11)

2.1

a + 473b + 4732 oC

(12)

From (10), (11) & (12)


a

= 1.08

c = 1.0410

b = -2.7710

4.2 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND REACTOR

(163.44 0.9338 + 1.38 10 )

42787.1

42787.1785.6

33617261.05

42787.1

42787.1500.13

"#

(163.44 0.9338 + 1.38 10 )

49

CHAPTER 04: Energy Balance Calculations

21399137.89

"#

Low pressure steam load at 5 bar pressure and 151.8 C for ammonia heating
% 2109

33617261.05

15939.90

"#

"#

Medium pressure steam load at 13 bar and 191.6 C for ammonia heating
%$ 1972

21399137.89

%$

10851.48

"#

"#

Urea formation heat by decomposing Ammonium Carbamate


$

&'

75506.64

&'

28944.21

"#

Ammonium Carbamate formation heat


&'

48307.97

&'

-52023.97

(
!(

"#

Heat required for increasing raw materials to 190 C


=
1.38 10 )
2.05 10

(42787.1+

36259.26)

(163.44 0.9338 +

+ 130160.382.3 (463-443) +21047.89605

1.5 10

$)

36713240.09+5987377.764+412959.7206

43113577.58

"#

50

(0.36 +

Production of Urea by ACES process

Energy required to reactor


Q

43113577.58 + 28944.21 - 52023.97

43090497.81

+,
-.

Medium pressure steam load at 15 bar and 198.3C for reactor heating
% 1947

43090497.81

22131.74

"#

"#

4.3 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND STRIPPER

Decomposition energy of Ammonium Carbamate


=

(48307.97-22092.68)

28231.85

(
!(

"#

Heat released from Urea


(1.08 2.77 10

75506.64

75506.64 -23.83

-1799713.586

"#

Heat released from Ammonium Carbamate


=

22092.685562.3 (451- 463)

-609758.1213

"#

51

+ 1.04 10

$)

CHAPTER 04: Energy Balance Calculations

Heat released from Water


=

22651.994.4 (451- 463)

-1196025.072

"#

Heat absorbed by Carbon Dioxide


(0.36 + 2.05 10

55371.54

55371.5476.63

4243481.816

1.5 10

$)

"#

Heat absorbed for Ammonia vaporization


=
{(63274.05 19575.79) 2 (463-383)} + {(55125.44)(63274.05-19575.79)} 2 (463-383)
=

8820070.727

55125.44 2 (463-383)

8820070.727

"#

Or

"#

Energy required for stripper


Q
=
28231.85 -1799713.586-609758.1213-1196025.072+
4243481.816 + 8820070.727
Q

9486287.617

+,
-.

Medium pressure steam load at 13bar and 191.6 C for heating


% 1972

9486287.617

4810.490678

"#

"#

52

Production of Urea by ACES process

4.4 ENERGY BALANCE ON SCRUBBER


Heat released from up flow
=
=

6424.525 1.024 (462-463)


-6578.71 Kj/hr

Heat released from down flow


$

= {19083.812.48 (426-463)} + {43098.634322.3 (426-463)}

-1751130.641 -3667693.781

-5418824.422 Kj/hr

Heat absorbed by Ammonia and Ammonium Carbamate


=

14810.22 {

$
$

(163.44 0.9338 + 1.38 10 )

+33282.77 2.3 (426-463)


=

698479.883 + 229651.1158

928130.99

-6578.71 -5418824.422 + 928130.99

-4497272.13

"#

Energy loss

"#

4.5 ENERGY BALANCE ON CARBAMATE CONDENSER

Formation energy of Ammonium Carbamate at 170 oC


= 130160.38 - 43098.63
= -93758.80

(
!(

"#

53

CHAPTER 04: Energy Balance Calculations

Heat absorbed by Ammonium Carbamate


$

43098.632.3 (443)-(423)

1982537.179

"#

Heat absorbed by Ammonia


(163.44 0.9338 + 1.38 10 )

19083.81

19083.81310.55

5926477.992

"#

Condensation heat and sensible heat released by Ammonia


(163.44 0.9338 + 1.38 10 )

55125.44

55125.44 - 473.25

-26088115.45

"#

Heat released by Carbon Dioxide

10

(0.36 + 2.05 10

70159.65

70159.65 -19.615

-1376181.604

1.5

$)

"#

Heat released from Carbamate condenser


Q
=
-93758.80 + 1982537.179 + 5926477.992 26088115.45-1376181.604
Q

-19649040.69

"#

54

Production of Urea by ACES process

Production of steam load at 5bar


Assume Cp of water at 145 0C - 150 0C

4.27

%01 2109 +%01 4.29 (151.8-145)

19649040.69

%01

9189.64 kg/hr

4.6 ENERGY BALANCE ON MEDIUM PRESSURE DECOMPOSER

Decomposition energy of Ammonium Carbamate


=

(22092.68 - 10473.52) (84/78)

12512.93

"#

Heat released from Urea


75506.64

(1.08 2.77 10

75506.64 -90.68

-6846942.115

"#

Heat released from Ammonium Carbamate


=

22092.682.3 (430-451)

-1067076.712

"#

Heat released from Water


=

22651.99 4.3 (430-451)

-2045474.69

"#

55

+ 1.04 10

$)

CHAPTER 04: Energy Balance Calculations

Heat released by Ammonia


(163.44 0.9338 + 1.38 10 )

9346.96

-165391847.3

"#

Heat absorbed for Ammonia vaporization


=

14024.5101 200

2804902.01

"#

Energy loss
Q

= 12512.93 -6846942.115 -1067076.712-2045474.69- 165391847.3


+ 2804902.01

-172533925.9

+,
-.

4.7 ENERGY BALANCE ON LOW PRESSURE ABSORBER

Formation energy of Ammonium Carbamate at 129 C


=

21663.61

-23330.04

(
!(

"#

Condensation heat released by Ammonia


$

14024.51 (-210)

-2945147.12 Kj/hr

Heat released from LP Absorber


Q

-23330.04 -2945147.12

-2968477.166

+,
-.

56

Production of Urea by ACES process

4.8 TABULATED HEAT BALANCE


Total Input
Heating of Ammonia due to low pressure
steam
Heating of Ammonia due to high pressure
steam
Heat supplied to Reactor
Heat supplied to Stripper
Total input energy

Total Out put


Heat out from Scrubber
Heat out from Carbamate condenser
Heat out from HPD
Heat out from LP Absorber
Total Output energy

KJ/hr
33617261.05
21399137.89
43090497.81
9486287.617
107593184.4

KJ/hr
4497272.137
19649040.69
172533925.9
2968477.166
199648715.9

Difference between input and output energy = 92055531.53

+,
-.

Total heat output greater than the total heat input. So this difference is due to
heat generated in the reaction. But the amount of theoretical heat generated in
the reaction is much higher than this value. That difference between actual and
theoretical value happens because of the heat losses occurred during the process.

57

Production of Urea by ACES process

5.1 REACTOR DESIGN


Chemical reactor is the heart of the chemical reaction process. Chemical reactors are vessels
that are designed for a chemical reaction to occur inside of them. The performance of the
reactor influences overall performance of the whole urea plant in production capacity and
utilities consumption.

Reactor Selection Criteria:


Phase
Operating conditions (Temperature and pressure)
Feed condition
Rector types (batch ,continuous, plug flow)
Catalyst
Size
Table 5.1 Reactor Comparisons
Batch Reactors

CSTR

Plug Flow Reactors

Used for small scale


operation.

Used for liquid


phase reactions

Normally used for gas


phase reactions.

For testing new


processes that have
not
been
fully
developed.

Organic chemical
industries.

High pressure conditions.

Manufacturing of
expensive products.

No back mixing required


due
to
reversible
reactions.
Careful
control
residence time.

Pharmaceutical
industries.

PFR is the best choice for our process.

59

of

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Design parameters:
Operating Temperature

190

463 k

Operating Pressure

175 bar

17.5

Designing Pressure

(17.5-1) 1.1

18.15

Reactions:
2 NH3 (g) + CO2 (g)
NH2 COONH4 (aq)

HR0 = -84 kJ/mol

NH2COONH4 (aq)

HR0 = 23 kJ/mol

NH2CONH2 (aq) + H2O (liq)

Volume of reactor:
Second reaction is slow reaction so volume of rector will depend on this reaction. For Plug
flow reactor Performance Equation is given as:
=

Now, Reaction Kinetics for the urea formation reaction:


=

mate

Where,
!

exp ("# )

= 1.9 105 $%

'.) + ,

-..+' '/.

= 3.46921 hr -1
Above Plug flow reactor Performance Equation can be written as:
=

(1

Taking the constants out of integration term:

60

(1

Production of Urea by ACES process

As we know that

2 3
4 3

= 5 (volumetric flow rate) and conversion of carbamate to urea is 68%,

so above equation becomes:


=

./-

(1

677 89 : ;6<= >?< <@= ;=6A< ;

Volumetric flow rate =

B=?7><C 8 8==B 7<;=6

Volumetric flow rate =

). ).D..E)'

FG

/+- K
J

372.55

FG
HI

@;

Now, integrate the rate equation:


372.55

.E).DD

V=

1
|ln(1
3.46921

..'/X)+

)|

0.68
0

Yln (1 0.68)Z = 122.42 m3

Apply safety factor of 20%


V (volume of reactor) = 122.42 1.20 = 147 m3

Length and Diameter of Reactor:


[

= 10

(For high pressure vessels)

Reactor is cylindrical and Volume of Cylinder is


=

..+'

Diameter of the reactor (D)

2.6 m

Length of the reactor (L)

10D

Volume

147

D3

E.-D

'

]
'

^) L

^) 10^

+'E

61

2.610

26 m

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Resistance time:
_ =

5 `ab c
d c` e

5 `ab

_ =

147
= 0.39 = 24 bdga h
372.55

Number of Stages:
Assumptions:
Sieve trays are used
Plate spacing is 2.5m
Number of Sieve trays

Number of Trays

Number of sieve Trays

ijklmn op qjrsmot
uvrmj wxrsykl

)/

).D

10

2.2 SPECIFICATION SHEET


Name of equipment

Reactor

Operating Pressure

17.5

Operating Temperature

463 K

Rate Constant

3.46921 hr -1

V (volume of reactor)

147 m3

Diameter of the reactor (D)

2.6 m

Length of the reactor (L)

26 m

Resistance time

24 mint

Plates used

Sieve tray

Number of sieve Trays

10

62

Production of Urea by ACES process

5.3 STRIPPER DESIGN


It is a unit operation in which one or more components of liquid stream are removed by
placing them in contact with a gas stream that is insoluble in liquid stream.

Functionality in the ACES loop:


To strip ammonia (solute) in the urea synthesis effluent, where it is transferred from
the liquid phase to the gas phase, with the help of stripping agent which is carbon
dioxide here.

Selection criteria:
For using the stripper in ACES process several characteristics should be focused upon:
Flow rate of liquid and gas streams, here our flow rates are very high and also the
liquid holdup is more so we are not using the packed column.
Pressure within the column is very high; therefore our main preference should be the
use of plates within the column.
Within the choice of packing or plates the main factors governed are:
1.

Factors that depend on the system i.e. scale, foaming, fouling factors,
corrosive systems, heat evolution, pressure drop, liquid holdup.

2.

Factors that depend on the fluid flow moment.

3.

Factors that depends upon the physical characteristics of the column and
its internals i.e. maintenance, weight, side stream, size and cost.

The relative merits of plate over packed column are as follows:


1.

Plate column are designed to handle wide range of liquid flow rates
without flooding.

2.

For large column heights, weight of the packed column is more than
plate column.

3.

If periodic cleaning is required, man holes will be provided for cleaning.


In packed columns packing must be removed before cleaning.

63

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

4.

Design information for plate column is more readily available and more
reliable than that for packed column.

5.

When large temperature changes are involved, tray column are often
preferred because thermal expansion or contraction of the equipment
components may crush the packing.

Vertical tubes have been used to provide heat from the external source (indirect
heating) within the stripper.
The efficient stripper been used by us is TRAY FALLING FILM STRIPPER.

Utilization:
In our stripper the urea synthesis effluent firstly drops on plates and then after passing through
the tray stages, fall in two passes onto the tubes via swirl plate. There the tubes are placed
vertically, where CO2 is coming from the bottom of the tubes as the stripping agent where it
strips NH3 which is been present in excess and also form from the decomposition of
ammonium carbamate (with the help of steam) with CO2 itself.
On plates presence of excess ammonia in urea synthesis effluent is even stripped off with the
help of gases coming out from the tubes.

Choice of Plate Type:


There are four main tray types, the bubble cap, sieve tray, ballast or valve trays and the
counter flow trays. We have selected sieve tray because:
1.

They are lighter in weight and less expensive. It is easier and cheaper to install.

2.

Pressure drop is low as compared to bubble cap trays.

3.

Peak efficiency is generally high.

4.

Maintenance cost is reduced due to the ease of cleaning.

5.

Tray geometry is available widely in literature.

64

Production of Urea by ACES process

Figure 5.1 Structure of Tray Falling Film Stripper

Design procedure for stripper:


Calculating number of tubes
Calculating tube bundle diameter
Calculating shell ID
Conforming UD
Pressure drop within the tubes
Calculating number of plates
Calculating number of Holes
Determining shell OD & Shell Thickness
Length of shell
Volume of shell

65

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

No of tubes:
Steam entering temp

471.3 K

Steam condensate leaving temp

471.3 K

Fluid temp at bottom

451 K

Fluid temp above tubes

463 K

LMTD

24.49 K

Overall Heat transfer coefficient (Ud)

0.550

Heat load

2635.07 KW

So, Trial Area

|=6< [ 6B

Trial area

195.627 m2

Surface area of 1 tube

DL

Here OD of tube (D)

0.025 m

Length of tube (L)

5m

Hence, surface area of 1 tube

0.39m2

Number of tubes

tprsj rtjr op + mj

Number of tubes

Suppose;
{

}~ [\#

tyrv rtjr

497.96 498

Confirming UD:
As we have,
Tube OD

0.025 m

Thickness (t)

16 BWG

66

Production of Urea by ACES process

From this, surface per lin m S

0.0243 m2

So, Total Surface Area (A)

no of tubes t S

Total Surface Area

194 m2

From here; Heat Transfer Coefficient

Heat Transfer Coefficient (Ud)

+XD./)E )'.'X

Heat Transfer Coefficient (Ud)

0.556

)/.D. E

As we firstly suppose our Ud to be 0.550 which tallies with Ud find above


So our taken Ud is correct.

Calculating Tube Bundle Diameter & Shell ID:

o op j
)

^ (

Pt

1.25OD

So, for no of passes

Constant (k1

0.215

n1

2.107

Db

25 (

Db (Tube Bundle Diameter)

0.988 m

Db (Tube Bundle Diameter)


As, we are using square pitches

'XE.X/

)
.)+D

0.031 m

Now from graph in b/w bundle diameter Vs shell ID-bundle diameter (Coulson & Richardson,
ED 3; volume 6, Pg 647)
We found that,
Clearance

73 mm

67

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Putting value of tube bundle diameter we get,


Shell ID

988.285 + 73

Shell ID

1061.285 mm

Shell ID

1.061 m

Pressure drop within the tubes:


Firstly finding flow area;
at

no of tubes

vo rtjr xjt mj
ko op xrj

For 25mm tube having 16 BWG;


Flow Area per Tube

0.594 in2

at

497.96

55371.54

Gt

290159.2285 @;.

Re

At, temperature

360 F

Viscosity

0.021 cp

Re

84814.08441

0.00016 ft2/in2

Specific Gravity

1.29

Pt

As mass velocity,

Gt

.E

0.00037 m2

0.190 m2

59429.35168

kg/hr

@;.8<

ym

= 0.000021

pm)ik
D.))+ ym

68

.7=A

= 0.0508

8<.@;

Production of Urea by ACES process

0.001898798 psi

For return losses,


At Gt from graph;

Pr

4 ( )

Total pressure drop within the tubes

7 )

Total pressure drop within the tubes

3.100 Psi

Pt+ Pr
=

3.102 Psi

Calculating number of plates:


Y1

mol ratio of NH3 coming in gas phase

Y2

mole ratio of NH3 leaving in gas phase

0.670

X1

mol ratio of NH3 entering in liquid phase

0.542

X2

mole ratio of NH3 leaving in liquid phase

0.291

Our equation is:


Lm(X1-X2) = Vm (Y2e-Y1)
Here Y2e=K(X1)
K1

K2

(1 2)

0.48

Y2e

0.26

equilibrium at top temp and constant pressure

equilibrium at bottom temp and same pressure


[

0.486

Putting values in above eq,we can find

69

>
>

= 0.59
= 0.39

21.38kpa

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

0.952

1.4 - 1.6 (

Hence ( ) actual

1.33

Stripping factor Si

K ( [ )

As, actual
[

Taking 1.4

0.648

Now taking Kresmer Equation:

S Ne+1 S
S Ne+1 1

Fraction strip =
Where;
Fraction strip =
0.463

+ )
+

If Ne=1.51then,
0.46
By putting Ne

(from Perry page 1180)

0.463

S Ne+1 S
S Ne+1 1

0.46

1.51 above equation is proved

So, No of theoretical plates

As in stripper plate efficiency tends to be in b/w 40-70%


By taking efficiency

Actual no of plates

60%
)

./

3.3

Shell Thickness & Outer Diameter (O.D):


Shell thickness is given by:
t

)w u

70

(from Perry pg 1181)

Production of Urea by ACES process

As material of construction of stripper is duplex stainless steel, for this


Stress value

(S)

95000 kPa

Operating Pressure (P)

17500 kPa

Design Pressure

19248.9 kPa

Ej

Allowance for corrosion (C)

0.003 m

Put all these values in above equation


Thickness of shell

0.119 m

Outer diameter of shell is given by:


Outer Diameter (O.D) =

Inner Diameter (I.D) + thickness (t)

Outer Diameter

1.061 + 0.119

Outer Diameter

1.18 m

Calculating No of holes on sieve plate:


Cross sectional area of column

Ac

Down corner area

Ad

]
'

^)

1.101 b)
cross sectional area x plate cross section
0.165

(Plate cross section 15%, From Perry Book page 1198)


Net area used = cross sectional area of column Ad
An

Ac - Ad

Active area

Ac - 2Ad

Active Area

0.770 b)

= 0.936 m^2

71

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Hole area (Ah)

Active area x 0.1

Hole Area

0.077 b)

Diameter of hole (Dh)

= 0.0052 m

Area of single hole Ai

Area of Single Hole

= 1.96429 10

Total no. of holes

yklvj novj rtjr

Total no. of holes

3924.701

]
'

(From Perry Book Page 1199)

^)
D

b)

ovj rtjr

Calculating Length of Shell


No of plates

Tray spacing

0.61

Distance b/w 3 plates

1.83

Let plate thickness

0.005 m

Total plate thickness

0.005 3

Length of tubes

5m

Total Shell length

7.455 m

Upper clearance

Below clearance (below tubes) =


Length of column

0.745 m
1.118 m

9.31 m

Volume of column

]
'

0.015 m

(10% of total length)


(15% of total length)

Volume of Column:
Volume of column

^)

8.246

72

Production of Urea by ACES process

5.4 SPECIFICATION SHEET

Name of equipment

Stripper

Pressure in column

17500 kPa

Temperature at bottom

451 K

Temperature at top

463 K

Number of tubes

498

Tube bundle dia

0.988 m

Shell Internal dia

1.061 m

Pressure drop within tubes

21.38 kPa

Length of tubes

5m

Actual number of plates

No of holes per plate

3900

Plates used

Sieve tray

Sieve tray material

Stainless steel 316

Thickness of shell

0.122 m

Shell outer dia

1.183 m

Height of shell

9.31m

Volume of shell

8.246 m3

Material of shell

Ferrite Austenic (duplex stainless


steel)

73

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

5.5 CONDENSER DESIGN


A condenser is a two-phase flow heat exchanger in which heat is generated from the
conversion of vapor into liquid (condensation) and the heat generated is removed from the
system by a coolant.
Types of Condensers:
Steam Turbine Exhaust Condensers / surface condensers
Plate Condensers
Air-Cooled Condensers
Direct Contact Condensers
Shell & tube type

Selection of Condenser Configuration:


Four Condenser Configurations are Possible,
Horizontal with condensation in shell side and cooling medium in the tubes.
Horizontal with condensation in tube side cooling medium in shell side.
Vertical with condensation in the shell.
Vertical with condensation in the tubes.
Horizontal shell side and vertical tube side are the most commonly used types of condensers.
In this process we have used the horizontal with condensation in shell side & cooling medium
in tube.

Process Design of Carbamate Condenser:


The ACES process has two parallel carbamate condensers. One is for low pressure steam
generation and the other is for heating urea solution for MP decomposition stage. Therefore,
each carbamate condenser size is relatively small compared to the reactor and the stripper.
Both are vertical falling film type condensers.
Carbamate Condenser functions to condense NH3 and CO2 gas from the stripper to form
ammonium Carbamate and synthesize urea by dehydration of ammonium Carbamate.
Vertical submerged design is employed for the Carbamate condenser from process view point.

74

Production of Urea by ACES process

This provides the following advantages:


High gas velocity, appropriate gas hold up and sufficient liquid depth in the bubble
column promote mass and heat transfer.
A vertical design inevitably requires smaller plot area.

Designing Steps of Condenser:


Heat Balance.
Assumed Calculations.
Calculations of Heat Transfer Coefficients.
Calculations of Pressure Drops.

Heat balance:
Formation energy of ammonium carbamate at 170 o C
|

(Outlet to reactor) (inlet of scrubber) (.z )

(130160.3862) (43098.63432) ( E- )

-93758.80969

-'

{
@;

Heat absorbed by ammonium carbamate


{

Cp of ammonium carbamate

2.3

43098.63432 2.3(443 -423)

1982537.179

@;

{
@;

Heat absorbed by ammonia


{

19083.81257 310.55 @;

5926477.992 @;

Condensation heat and sensible heat released by ammonia


Q

''.

'/. (163.44 0.9338 + (1.38 10 . )^2)

75

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

(-473.26) (55125.44204)

-26088115.45

{
@;

Heat released by carbon dioxide


''.

'/. 0.36 + 2.05 10 . (1.510 / ) ) dT

(70159.6531) (-19.616)

-1376232.812

{
@;

Heat released from carbamate condenser


Q

=
-93758.80969 +1982537.179 +5926477.992 -26088115.45 1376232.812

-1969040.69 @;

Total heat load


Q

-1969040.69

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference:


T1

38.2k

T2

25k

TLMTD

#+ #)

vk (

31.135 K

Area of Condenser:

By using, U

550

5699.733 KW

TLMTD

31.135 K

} i
z

DD

= +

Put all these values in equation

76

0.55

{z

Production of Urea by ACES process

318.732 m2

Outer diameter of the tube (D0) =

0.025 m

Length of the tube

6.096 m

One tube area A

D L = (3.14) (0.025) (6.096)

One tube area A

0.4789 m2

No. of tubes

N
T

NT

665

O.D

0.025 m

Thickness

16 BWG

Surface per linear ft

0.029 m2 (0.312 ft2)

Total surface area

No of tube Thickness surface per linear ft

Total surface area

308.56 m2

Equivalent Diameter:
'um

Equivalent Diameter (De)

Pt

0.0275 m

D0

0.0220 m

De

0.172 m

]o

Confirmation U
Q
TLMTD

=
=

5699.733 KW
31.135 K

77

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Total surface area

322.4 m2

0.567

Put all these value,


U

{z

For 25 mm tube having 16 BWG;


Flow area (At)

<89 : 6;=6 =; <=

Flow area per tube

0.594 in2

665

No of passes

Flow area (At)

395.278 in2

(I.D)t

0.0725 ft (0.0220 m)

Nt

? 8 677=7

2.744 ft2

Mass velocity:
Gt

Gt

<

9189.644561 @;
X+-X./''D/+

.)DD +-+./

Calculate Reynolds Number:


ym

Re

Di

0.0725 ft (0.0220 m)

0.25 cp (temperature at 151.8 o C of CO2 )

Re

884.453

78

36035.25892 .

Production of Urea by ACES process

Total Pressure Drop within the Tube:


f

( P )t

1
2

0.0002

fG 2 Ln
(
)
5 . 22 10 10 Dis t

= 4.463 10

psi

Also for return losses


From Graph,

1
?

pr

4 7 ( ))

pr

0.1085 psi
pr +pt

Total Pressure Drop =

0.109 psi

762 atm

Thickness of tube (t):


t

)(

./

Allowable stress for Duplex- stainless steel (S)


t

+ED+.)
)(E/) ./ (+ED))

0.162 cm

Outer diameter of tube (d0)

di + t =0.0220 +0.00162

Outer diameter of tube (d0)

0.024 m

Shell diameter:
No of tube at bundle diameter:
ND

[4 NT -0.333]0.50

ND

51.75 52

79

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

8 <=

Total no of bundle =
Ds

= 12.89

8 ?B9=

13

pt (ND +1)

For square pitch,


Pt

1.25 d0

ND

52

Ds

2m

1.250.024

Equivalent diameter:
+.+

(Pt2 0.917 do2)

De

Pt

0.0275 m

D0

0.0236 m

Put all these values in above equation:


De

0.0172 m

Viscosity calculation:
NH3 (Gas)

0.27

CO2

0.42

Carbamate

0.307

NH3 (liquid)

0.692

7.78 10

Re

Gs de /

Re

8400

Kg/m sec

Friction factor for shell side f =0.0025 sq ft/squ inch

80

0.03

Production of Urea by ACES process

Gs

shell side mass velocity

38.06kg/sec.m2

length of tube

20ft

No of passes =

De

Equivalent diameter=0.0172 m

=
2

fG s Ln
Ps =
5.22x1010 De t
PS = 0.125 psi

5.6 SPECIFICATIONS SHEET


Name of Equipment

Carbamate Condenser

Area (A)

318.732 m2

Over-all heat transfer coefficient (assumed

0.55 KW/m2. K

Over-all heat transfer coefficient (calculated)

0.567 KW/m2 k

No of tubes

665

Material of construction

Duplex stain less steel

Type of Pitch

Square

Baffle Cut

25%

Wall thickness

0.00162 mm

Calculated Surface Area

308.56 m2

81

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

5.7 EVAPORATOR DESIGN


In case of climbing film evaporator, the liquid feed enters the evaporator through bottom
header and moves upward through tubes. It receives heat from the heating media on shell side.
The vapour is generated in the tubes which start rising up pulling the liquid in the film form.
The vapour and liquid enters the vapour-liquid separator where they are separated. Vapour
moves upward to vapour nozzle while the concentrate moves down to concentrate nozzle.
This is useful during evaporation of highly viscous and fouling solutions.

Figure 5.2 Structure of climbing-film type evaporator

Features:
Cost effective construction, ideal for simple evaporation, concentration applications.
Ideal for volume reduction of dilute streams.
Can be used under recirculation mode.
Continuous operation.
Good for moderately heat sensitive products.

82

Production of Urea by ACES process

Energy Balance:
Inlet Flow Rates are:
Component

Flow Rate

Specific Heat

(. )
Urea
Water
Biuret
Total

107.76
75.37
149

Flow Rate
(

74714.92
22651.99
679.5566
98046.47

Mole Fraction

1245.2487
1258.4439
6.5976373

0.496058
0.501314
0.002628

2510.2903

1.00

Flow Rate

Mole Fraction

Cp of mixture =

x Cpi

18401597.32 @;

Inlet T

80 oC

= 91.63082 .

Outlet Liquid T

85 oC

Stream T

147.165 oC

Vapour space pressure

0.23 atm

Vapour space temperature

63.1 oC

Outlet Flow Rates are:


Component

Specific Heat

Urea
Water
Biuret
Total

Flow Rate

(. )

( )

109.28
75.37
149

74714.92
7438.029
679.5566

1245.2487
413.22385
6.5976373

0.747866
0.248172
0.003962

82832.51

1665.0702

1.00

( )

Cp of mixture

xCpi

101.0218722

{.

mCpt

14297723.37

@;

83

9= 4

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Heat balance:
Heat input (feed) + Heat input by steam

heat carried by water vapour + energy of

2123.2

the bottom product


For steam at 147.165;
s1 (Heat input by steam)
Putting the values we get

Heat input (feed)

18401597.32 @;

S1s

S1 2123.2

E1 (vapour Flow rate)

15213.960 @;

H1

2614.97

E1HE1 (heat carried by water vapour)

39784050.84 @;

Energy of the bottom product

14297723.37 @;

After putting in Equation we get:

S1s1

35680176.89

S1

16804.90622 @;

Economy

@;

0.90

U1value is obtained from fig-11.21(From Perry's Chemical Engineer 8th Edition page 18) At
63.1 0C U1 is 270

nt.pm

5519.308 kj/hr m2 k

T1

147.165- 85

84

62.165 oC

Production of Urea by ACES process

w++

A1

Heat Transfer Area A1

103.9 b)

Tube Length

6m

Tube OD inch

0.0254 m

Tube ID [14 BWG]

0.021 m

Minimum pitch

1.25 x OD

One tube area A

0.478971429

b)

No. of tubes (N):

217.1135

217

N0 0f passes

K1

0.215

N1

2.107

Db

0.677 m (tube bundle diameter)

Clearance

64 mm

Shell ID

0.74 m

Down comer area

0.5 {Nt ( ' )

Down comer diameter

0.264 m

++

Assuming:

= 0.03175 m

Total area of tube sheet in evaporator

= 0.055 b)

down comer area + area

Total area of tube sheet in evaporator

0.149 b)

Tube sheet diameter

0.436 m

occupied by tubes

85

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Wall Thickness Calculation:


Material of construction

Mild steel

0.93 x 10-

0.85

4.5 Atm

Design P

3.905 bar

t (thickness)

0.0017 m

Shell Outer Dia

ID + thickness

Shell Outer Dia

0.74 + 0.0017 =

86

380500

0.741 m

Production of Urea by ACES process

5.8 SPECIFICATION SHEET

Name of equipment

Evaporator

Pressure in Evaporator

4.5 atm

Steam T

420.165 k

Inlet Temperature at bottom

353 k

Out let Temperature of Liquid

358 K

Number of tubes

217

U1

5519.308 @;.

Tube bundle dia

0.677 m

Heat Transfer Area

103.9 b)

Shell Internal dia

0.74 m

Length of tubes

6m

Tube OD

0.025 m

Total Area of Tube Sheet

0.149 b)

Thickness of shell

0.0017 m

Shell outer diameter

0.741 m

Material of shell

Mild steel

87

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

5.9 DESIGN OF ABSORBER


The removal of one or more component from the mixture of gases by using a suitable solvent
is second major operation of Chemical Engineering that based on mass transfer.
In gas absorption a soluble vapors are more or less absorbed in the solvent from its mixture
with inert gas. The 'purpose of such gas scrubbing operations may be any of the following;
a)

For Separation of component having the economic value.

b)

As a stage in the preparation of some compound.

c)

For removing of undesired component (pollution).

Types of Absor5srs:
There are two major types of absorbers which are used for absorption purposes:
Packed column
Plate column

Comparison Between Packed And Plate Column:


1)

The packed column provides continuous contact between vapor and liquid phases
while the plate column brings the two phases into contact on stage wise basis.

2)

SCALE: For column diameter of less than approximately 3 ft. It is more usual to
employ packed towers because of high fabrication cost of small trays. But if the
column is very large then the liquid distribution is problem and large volume of
packing and its weight is problem.

3)

PRESSURE DROP: Pressure drop in packed column is less than the plate column. In
plate column there is additional friction generated as the vapor passes through the
liquid on each tray. If there are large No. of Plates in the tower, this pressure drop may
be quite high and the use of packed column could effect considerable saving.

4)

LIQUID HOLD UP: Because of the liquid on each plate there may be an Urge
quantity of the liquid in plate column, whereas in a packed tower the liquid flows as a
thin film over the packing.

5)

SIZE AND COST: For diameters of less than 3 ft. packed tower require lower
fabrication and material costs than plate tower with regard to height, a packed column
is usually shorter than the equivalent plate column.

88

Production of Urea by ACES process

From the previous consideration packed column is selected as the absorber, because in our
case the diameter of the column is approximately 0.8 meter which is less than 3 ft. As the
solubility is infinity so the liquid will absorb as much gases as it remain in contact with gases
so packed tower provide more contact. It is easy to operate.

Selection of Packed Column:


Continuous contacting device.
Packed columns operate over a wide range of air flow rates.
Packed columns are suitable for foaming liquids.
In packed columns two streams never reach equilibrium
Thus most packing is made of cheap, inert, fairly light materials such as clay, porcelain, or
graphite. Thin-walled metal rings of steel or aluminum are some limes used.

Common Packings are:


Berl Saddle.
Intalox Saddle.
Rasching rings.
Single spiral ring.
Double - Spiral ring.
Triple - Spiral ring.

Designing Steps For Absorption Column:


Determining the approximate dia of the column
Selection of column.
Selection of packing and material
Calculating the size of packing
Calculating the actual dia of column
Finding the no. of transfer units (NoG)
Determining the height of packing
Determining the height of the column
Determining the pressure

89

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Design parameters:
Column Diameter
Area of column
Height of packing
Flow Rates and Physical Properties:
Flow rate of un-reacted carbon dioxide in (from Reactor)

= 1.53kg/sec

Flow rate of un-reacted ammonia

2.37 kg/sec

Flow rate of carbamate (To condenser)

11.97kg/sec

Flow rate of ammonia

5.29kg/sec

Flow rate of carbamate in MPA

9.24 kg/sec

Flow rate of ammonia in (MPA)

4.11 kg/sec

Temperature of gases in T1

463K

Temperature of gases out T2

462 K

Temperature of liquid in t1

423 K

Temperature of liquid out t2

426 K

Density of gases g

77.26kg/m3

Viscosity of gases s

0.00014 kg/m.sec

Density of Liquid L

1690 Kg/m3

Viscosity of liquid L

0.00015 kg/m.sec

90

Production of Urea by ACES process

Packing Specifications:
Packing Type

ceramic Intalox Saddles

Packing Size dp

1.00 inch = 0.0250 m

Surface area of packing a

253.00 m2/m3

Packing factor (Fp)

300.00

Column Area and Diameter:


Ac

V/V*w

To find V*w
V*w =

[{K4*g*(L- g)}/{13.1*Fp( L /L )0.1}]0.5

Now we will find k4 and k4 is finding from graph against FLV


For FLV
FLV

(Lw/Gw) * (g/L) 0.5

By putting the values we get


FLV

(9.24/2.37) * (77.26/1690)0.5 =

Floading Velocity =

Floading Velocity =

2.37

9.24

0.83

77.26 / 1690

0.06

Pressure drop taken 20 mm of water/m of packing (it should b/w 15-50)


At 0.83 we find the value of k4 from figure below

91

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Above Figure Generalized pressure drop correlation, adopted from a fig by the Norton Co. with
permission
For pressure drop of 20 mmH2O/m packing
K4 (y-axis)

= 0.58

At flooding K4

= 0.85

Now putting the value in equation 7.2


Vw* = [{0.58*77.26*(1690 - 77.26)}/{13.1*300(.00015/1690)0.1}]0.5
Vw* = 9.66kg/m2 .sec
For Area
Putting the values in equation
Column area required
A

= V/Vw* = 9.24/9.66

= 0.95m2

Diameter of column

(4/ * A) 0.5

Diameter

[(4/3.14) * 0.95]0.5

Diameter of column

1.10 m

92

Production of Urea by ACES process

Column area

3.14/4 * (1.10)2

A =0.95 m2
Estimation of HOG:
By Ondas method
HOG

= HG+ (mGm/Lm)*HL

HOG

= height of an overall gas phase transfer unit

HG

= height of a gas phase transfer unit, m

HL

= height of a liquid phase transfer unit, m

HG

= Gm/KG * aW * P

HL

Lm/KL * aW * Ct

For HG
Find
aw=? ,

kG=? ,

Gm=?

For aw

L*w

liquid mass flow rate per unit cross-sectional area, kg/m2s

aw

effective interfacial area of packing per unit volume, m2/m3

actual area of packing per unit volume m3/m3

critical surface tension for Ceramic= 61 mN/m

liquid(ammonia solution) surface tension=0.005 mN/m

By putting the values in equation


aW/a=1-exp[-1.45*{(61*10-3/0.005)0.75}*{(12.6/253 *0.00015)0.1}*{(12.62*253/16902*9.8)}0.05
*{(12.62/1690*0.005*253)0.2}]
aw

0.93*253

93

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

aw

226 m2/m3

Now we find the value of KG for calculating HG


(KG/a)*(R*T/Dg) = {K5}*{(Vw/a*g) 0.7}*{(g/g*Dg)0.33}*{(a*dp)-2}
Here
K5

5.23[31]

Dp

packing size, m

0.08314 bar m3/kmol k

426 K

Kinematic viscosity of gases DV =v/v


By putting the values
Dg = 1.81*10-6
By inserting the values in the equation, we get
(KG/253* 1.81*10-6)*(0.08314*426) = {5.23}*{(5.30/253*0.00014)0.7}*
{(0.00014/77.26*1.81*10-6)0.33}*{(253*0.025)-2}
KG = 5.75 * 10-5 Kmol/s.m2 bar
Now we find the value of KL for calculating HG
KL*{(L/L*g).33} = {0.0051}*{(Lw/aW*) 2/3}*{(L/L*DL)-0.5}*{(a*dp)0.4}
Here

= 9.8 m/sce2

Kinematic viscosity of amine solution DL= L/L


By putting the values
DL

0.00015 /1690

DL

8.88*10-8 m2/sec

By putting the values in the equation (7.9), we get


KL*{(1690/0.00015*9.8)0.33} =
0.5
}*{(253*0.025)0.4}
KL

{0.0051}*{(11.97/226*0.00015)2/3}*{(0.00015/1690*8.88* 10-8)-

= 0.453/99.26

94

Production of Urea by ACES process

KL

= 5.43*10-3 m/sec

Now we estimate the value of HOG


HOG = HG + (m Gm/Lm) * HL
For this first we calculate the value of HG and HL
HG

Gm/KG * aw * P

Gm

molar gas flow-rate per unit cross-sectional area

Gm

5.30/17* 0.95=0.328Kmol/m2 s

Pressure

175 bar

Now putting the value in equation


Gm =

0.328/5.75* 10-5 * 226 *175

HG =0.144m
HL

Lm/KL*aW*Ct

Lm

molar liquid flow rate per unit cross-sectional area

9.24/78* 0.95=0.125 kmol/m2s.

Ct

total concentration, as solution

Ct

density of liquid/molecular weight of liquid

1690/78

21.67 kmole/m3

Ct

By putting the values in equation


HL

0.125/5.43* 10-3* 226 *21.67

HL

0.0047 m

Value of HOG:
Now value of HG and HL putting in equation
HOG =

0.144 + 0.75*0.0047

HOG =

0.145m

95

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Estimation of NOG:
y1

mole fraction of gas at inlet

= 0.68

y2

mole fraction of gas at outlet

= .01

y1/y2

0.68/0.01= 69

Now take the value of NOG from Fig.16

Number of transfer units NOG as a function of y1/y2 with mGm /Lm as parameter
So,
NOG = 13 m
Height of packing (Z)
Z

HOG*NOG =

1.872 m

0.144*13

Allowance for internals = 0.25* D+ 1 = 1.275 m


Height of column = 1.872+1.275
= 3.14 m

96

Production of Urea by ACES process

Pressure Drop calculations:

FLV

0.58

Vw* =

9.66kg/m2 .sec

K4

0.85

For these values of FLV see the value of pressure drop from fig 11.44 the pressure drop is 20mm of
water per meter of packing..

5.10 SPECIFICATION SHEET OF SCRUBBER


Equipment Name

Packed scrubber

Function

To absorb ammonia in carbamate solution

No-of
of transfer units

13

Height of transfer unit

0.144 m

Diameter of column
Height of packing section

1.10 m
1.872 m

Size and type of packing

Ceramic intalox saddle

Total height of the column

3.14 m

Packing arrangement

Dumped

Type of packing support

Gas injection support

Liquid distributors

Orifice type

Material of construction

316 L stainless steel

97

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

5.11 SELECTION OF PUMP


Pumps are used to transfer fluids from one location to another. The pump accomplishes this
transfer by increasing the pressure of the fluid and, thereby, supplying the driving force
necessary for flow. Power must be delivered to the pump from some outside source. Thus,
electrical or steam energy may be transformed into mechanical energy which is used to drive
the pump. Part of this mechanical energy is added to the fluid as work energy, and the rest is
lost as friction due to inefficiency of the pump and drive.
The different types of pumps commonly employed in industrial operations can be classified as
follows:
Reciprocating or positive-displacement pumps with valve action: piston pumps,
diaphragm pumps, plunger pumps.
Rotary positive-displacement pumps with no valve action: gear pumps, lobe pumps,
screw pumps, eccentric-cam pumps, metering pumps.
Rotary centrifugal pumps with no valve action: open impeller, closed impeller, volute
pumps, and turbine pumps.
Air-displacement systems: air lifts, acid eggs or blow cases, jet pumps, barometric
legs.

Factors influence the final choice of a pump:


Many different factors can influence the final choice of a pump for a particular operation. The
following list indicates the major factors that govern pump selection:
1. The amount of fluid that must be pumped. This factor determines the size of pump (or
pumps) necessary.
2. The properties of the fluid. The density and the viscosity of the fluid influence the
power requirement for a given set of operating conditions; corrosive properties of the
fluid determine the acceptable materials of construction.
3. The increase in pressure of the fluid due to the work input of the pumps.
4. The head change across the pump is influenced by the inlet and downstream-reservoir
pressures, the change in vertical height of the delivery line, and frictional effects. This
factor is a major item in determining the power requirements.

98

Production of Urea by ACES process

5. Type of flow distribution. If non pulsating flow is required, certain types of pumps,
such as simplex reciprocating pumps, may be unsatisfactory. Similarly, if operation is
intermittent, a self-priming pump may be desirable, and corrosion difficulties may be
increased.
6. Type of power supply. Rotary positive-displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps are
readily adaptable for use with electric-motor or internal-combustion- engine drives;
reciprocating pumps can be used with steam or gas drives.
7. Cost and mechanical efficiency of the pump.

Selected Pump:
From above factors that influence the pump selection, we select H.P centrifugal for
pumping the Ammonia to the reactor.
Advantages of centrifugal pump
They are simple in construction and cheap.
Fluid is delivered at uniform pressure without shocks or pulsations.
They can be coupled directly to motor drives. In general, the higher the speed, the
smaller the pump and motor required for a given duty.
The discharge line may be partly shut off or completely closed off without damaging
the pump.
They can handle liquid with large amounts of solids.
There are no valves involved in the pump operation.
Maintenance costs are lower than for other types of pumps.

Calculations:

Mass flow rate of Ammonia = 42787.1 @; = 11.88 7=A


Density of Ammonia at inlet temperature and pressure (150 oC & 1atm) = 618
Viscosity
Volumetric flow rate =

=
++.-/+-

1.52 10-5
=

99

.7=A
K

0.019 7=A

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

Velocity in the pipe

Velocity in the pipe

9 =<;>A 89 : ;6<=
89 : 6;=6

. +X

Velocity in the pipe

2.42

Reynolds Number

Reynolds Number

. +X

E-D

(Selecting 4 inch, schedule 40 pipes)

7=A

/+- .+).')
+.D) + ,

98392

Flow is turbulent, so fanning friction factor (f) can be calculated by using:


Fanning friction factor
Friction factor (f)

=
=

.+)D

0.0014 +

"= .K

0.005

Head losses in term of height of liquid flowing


Head losses (8 )

Efficiency of a Pump =

8) [

(L=10m)

0.186 m
78%

(From using Figure 12.17 of Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, fifth
edition at capacity of 0.019

7=A

or 68.4

@;

Now, pump work is calculated by Using Bernoullis equation:

Wp = A (Z2-Z1) +
hha ^dcc

+ 8 + )

g (P) = 8 = 115

Level difference between Discharge and suction (Z2-Z1) = 10m


After putting all the values in above Bernoullis Equation;
Wp

14

100

Production of Urea by ACES process

Power

Wp mass flow rate =

Power

166.32

7=A

14 11.88
1170

= 1568 hp

5.12 SPECIFICATION SHEET

Pump Type

Single Stage (radial) HP Centrifugal

Fluid Handle

Ammonia

Capacity

68.4 @;

Efficiency

0.78

Pressure Developed

115

Inlet Pressure

Atmospheric (1.01325 bar)

Outlet pressure

175 bar

Power Required

1568 hp

Losses due to Head

0.186 m

Density of fluid

618

101

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

5.13 SELECTION OF COMPRESSOR


Movement of gases can be accomplished by use of fans, blowers, vacuum pumps, and
compressors. Fans are useful for moving gases when pressure differences less than about 0.5
psi are involved. Centrifugal blowers can handle large volumes of gases, but the delivery
pressure is limited to approximately 50 psig. Reciprocating compressors can be employed
over a wide range of capacities and pressures, and they are used extensively in industrial
operations. Sizes of reciprocating compressors ranging from less than 1 to 3000 hp are
available, and some types can give delivery pressures as high as 4000 atm.

Steps Involved in Compressor Calculations:


Selection of Compressor Type according to requirement
Calculation of Compressor Work for Single Stage
Calculation of Discharge Temperature for Single Stage
Calculation of Compressor Work and Discharge Temperature for Two Stages
Calculation of Compressor Power for two stages
Calculation of motor Power for two stages

Important Conditions Required for Calculations:


Temperature = 25 oC = 298 K
Inlet Pressure P1 = 1.01325 bar = 101325 pa
Outlet pressure P2 = 175 bar = 17500000 pa

Mass flow rate into the compressor = 55371.54 @; = 15.38 7=A


Molecular weight of fluid (CO2) = 44
Molar flow rate into the compressor =
Density of CO2 = 209.9

+D..''

7=A

9=

+D..-

Inlet volumetric flow rate = )

= 0.35

= 0.07 7=A
X.X

Selection of Compressor Type:


There are different types of compressors used in chemical and petrochemical industries,
Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Compressors are two main types. We select
Centrifugal and Axial Compressor for compress the CO2 before entering the stripper, due to
following reasons:

102

Production of Urea by ACES process

Both centrifugal and axial units are continuous-flow compressors. Centrifugal


compressors, in general, are used for higher pressure ratios and lower flow rates.
The pressure ratio in a single-stage centrifugal compressors used in petrochemical
industries is about 1.2 : 1
Because of the low pressure ratios for each stage, a single compressor may include a
number of stages in one casing to achieve the desired overall pressure ratio.
The operating ratio of a centrifugal compressor is between that of surge, which is the
lower flow limit of stable operation, and choke, which is the maximum flow through
the compressor at a given operating speed.

Calculations:
(1) Adiabatic Head
6B = + (

) +
) ( )( ) 1
1
+

Where;
6B

Adiabatic head in .

Gas constant in .{

+
k

=
=

P1 & P2 =

0.189

Inlet gas temperature in K

298

heat capacity ratio ( 4 )

+.'+//
.-//

= 1.64

Inlet and outlet pressures in kPa

Put all these values in above equation to get adiabatic head:


6B = 0.189 298 (
6B = 630 .

1.64
7500 (+./' +)
) (
) +./' 1
1.64 1
101.325

(2) Adiabatic Power For Single Stage Compression:


6B = b hh c` e

6B

6B = 15.38 630
6B = 9690

103

CHAPTER 05: Process Design

(3) Adiabatic Discharge Temperature:


) +
) = + ( )
+
) = 298 (

7500 +./' +
) +./'
101.35

) = 1600
(4) Efficiency:

75% from table 12.8 of Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, fifth edition

5.12 SPECIFICATION SHEET

Compressor Type

Centrifugal

Fluid Handle

Carbon Di Oxide

Capacity

0.07

Efficiency

7=A

or 252

@;

0.75

Pressure Developed

115

Inlet Pressure

Atmospheric (101.325 kPa)

Outlet pressure

7500 kPa

Power Required

9690 kW

Inlet Temperature

298 K

Outlet Temperature

1600 K

Density of fluid

209.9

Heat Capacity Ratio Of Fluid

1.64

Handled (CO2)

104

CHAPTER 06: Mechanical Design

6.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR


The mechanical design of a reactor resemble with that of a pressure vessel. It is generally
accepted that any closed vessel over 150 mm diameter, subjected to a pressure difference of
more than 1 bar, should be designed as a pressure vessel.
There are two types of vessels normally:
Thin walled vessels
Thick walled vessels
Our urea reactor is designed as thin walled vessel because it satisfies the condition that the
ratio of wall thickness to wall diameter is less than 1:10.

Basic design data required by a specialist designer will include followings:


Vessel function
Process materials and services
Operating and design temperatures and pressures
Material of construction
Vessel dimensions and orientation
Types of vessel heads to be used
Opening and connections required
Specifications of heating and cooling jackets or coils
Specifications of internal fittings

Steps to be followed for designing a reactor:


Vessel dimensions
Material of construction selection
Thickness of the shell required
Type of trays required
Total pressure drop estimation
Head selection and thickness calculations
Weight of the shell calculations
Stress Calculations
106

Production of Urea by ACES process

Selection of Material of construction:


Duplex stainless steel DP28W
Alloying Elements

Mass %

Cr

27.0

Ni

7.00

Mo

0.80

2.10

0.30

TOYO Engineering Co. (Designers of ACES process) and Sumitomo Metal Ind., Ltd. (SMI)
has jointly developed new duplex stainless steel DP28W for urea plant.

Excellent corrosion resistance

Improves reliability and maintainability

Less maintenance cost

Prolong life of equipment and plant

Excellent passivation property

Less passivation air injection

Improves safety and operability

High mechanical strength

Reduce thickness & weight of pressure parts

Reduce required surface area of tubes

107

CHAPTER 06: Mechanical Design

Thickness of reactor wall:


Operating Pressure

175 bar

17.5

Design Pressure

(17.5-1) 1.1

18.15

t=
Where;
t

Thickness

Design Pressure

18.15

Diameter of Reactor

2.6 m =

Maximum Allowable Stress

Corrosion Allowance = 2mm

Joint Factor

= 240

1 (Fully Radiography)

2.8 m

Put all these values in above equation:


t=

+ 2 = 101.0983 mm = 0.1 m

Outer Diameter of Reactor:


O.D

I.D + 2(t)

2.6 + 2(0.1)

108

2600 mm

Production of Urea by ACES process

Weight of the shell:


= 240

+ 0.8

Where;
=

a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, internal supports etc.

1.08 for vessels having only a few internals

mean diameter of vessel = I.D + t = 2.6 + 0.1 = 2.7 m

height or length of cylindrical section of vessel = 26 m

wall thickness in mm

Put all these values in above equation to find the weight of shell:
= 240 1.08 2.7 26 + 0.8 2.7 101.0983 = &''()'*. &+ ,
= &''( -,

Selection of Reactor Head:


There are basically three types of shell heads:
Hemispherical
Ellipsoidal
Torispherical
The basic features and characteristics of these head types are given in tabulated form:

109

CHAPTER 06: Mechanical Design

Table 6.1 Comparisons between Different Head Types


Hemispherical
Strongest in pressure
bearing (2 times P
than that of
Torispherical head)
Very difficult to join
with shell with the
help of flanges. Extra
sealing are required to
prevent leakage.
Very difficult to avoid
agitator from
fluctuations.

Pressure bearing

Assembly

Agitator assembly

Most expensive
Ratio of head
thickness to
cylindrical shell
thickness = 7/17

Cost of forming
Thickness
calculations

Ellipsoidal
Moderate pressure
can be bear

Torispherical
Moderate pressure can
be bear

Easy joining with


shell by flanges.
Extra sealing is
not required.

Easy joining with shell


by flanges. Extra
sealing is not required.

Very easy to
maintain agitator
on a constant
speed without
fluctuations.
Less expensive
PD
i i
t=
2 JS 0.2 Pi

A bit difficult
maintenance than that in
ellipsoidal heads.

Less expensive
PR
i c Cs
t=
2 JS Pi (Cs 0.2)

From above given criterion, we select hemispherical head for our case because of the
following reasons:
Pressure inside the tank must not be fluctuating, therefore head should be so
tightly fixed with cylindrical shell and no leakage should be there. For this
purpose, best recommendations are for hemispherical heads.
Its thickness calculations are easier than those for other two head types.
Cost of forming these types of heads is lower than that for other two head types.

Thickness of the hemispherical head:


=

.
+
4/0 0.4.

18.15 2600
+ 2 = 51 33 = 4. 45 6
4 240 1 0.4 18.15

110

Production of Urea by ACES process

Thickness of the shell is 0.1 m and from above calculation it is clear that thickness of head is
half of the shell thickness.

Stress Calculations:
789:;< =>899?>8 7:@.AB C8@DEA>

1) Longitudinal Stress

Longitudinal Stress

233.38

2) Circumferential Stress

Circumferential Stress

116 .69 LL(

3) Dead weight Stress

Dead weight Stress

2350075.702 pa

Dead weight Stress

235 LL(

4) Compressive Stress

Compressive Stress

FG:DH<899


. I J

,
66(

789:;< =>899?>8 7:@.AB C8@DEA>


FG:DH<899
K

MN
P QR R

J.

II JI .
. Q .

2350075.702

S FG:DH<899

7:@.TB C8@DEA>

777

. I J

K
LL(

Selection of Vessel Support:


The method used to support a vessel depends on:
Size, shape and weight of the vessel
The design temperature and pressure
The vessel location and arrangement
Internal and external fittings and attachments
Skirt support is selected for urea reactor. Skirt Support has following advantages:
A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the
vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.
Skirt supports are recommended for vertical vessels as they do not impose
concentrated loads on the vessel shell.

111

CHAPTER 06: Mechanical Design

6.2 SPECIFICATION SHEET


190 0C

Operating temperature
Operating pressure

17.5
190 0C

Design temperature
Design pressure

18.5

Diameter

2.6 m

Reactor Length

26 m

Volume of reactor

147m3

Residence time

24 min

Catalyst

No catalyst

Material of Construction

DP28W

Thickness of wall

0.1 m

Reactor external diameter

2.8m

Number of trays

10

Type of head

Hemispherical head

Thickness of head

0.05 m

Weight of shell

1992 kN

Longitudinal stress

233.38

Circumferential stress

116.69

Dead weight stress

235

112

Production of Urea by ACES process

6.3 MECHANICAL DRAWING OF REACTOR


Scaling; 3m = 1in

113

Production of Urea by ACES process

7.1 INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL


A chemical plant is combination of many integrated units which are responsible for
converting raw materials into useful products. During its operation a plant has to satisfy many
operating conditions and requirements specified by designer. Such requirements ask for
continuous checking system for a chemical plant. This system guarantees the satisfaction of
operational objectives. System is composed of equipments and humane support and known as
Instrumentation and process control.
(1) Safer Plant Operation
To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits.
To detect dangerous situations as they develop and to provide alarms and
automatic shut-down systems.
To provide inter locks and alarms to prevent dangerous operating procedures
(2) Production Rate
To achieve the design product output.
(3) Product Quality
To maintain the product composition within the specified quality standards
(4) Cost
To operate at the lowest production cost, commensurate with the other
objectives.

These are not separate objectives and must be considered together. The order in which they
are listed is not meant to imply the precedence of any objective over another, other than that
of putting safety first. Product quality, production rate and the cost of production will be
dependent on sales requirements. For example, it may be a better strategy to produce a better
quality product at a higher cost.
In a typical chemical processing plant these objectives are achieved by a combination of
automatic control, manual monitoring and laboratory analysis.

115

CHAPTER 07: Instrumentation and Process Control

7.2 COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM


(1) Process
Process is defined as series of steps which are used to produce final desired product
from available raw materials. In this discussion the process is synthesis of urea.
(2) Control
Control is defined as use of techniques for fixing the given parameters of process
around required value. Sometimes we also use term process control for same meanings.
Parameter which is to be kept fixed is measured by some output variables ranging from
temperature to time and distance measurements. This signal is forwarded to a device which
compares the two values and sends error to final control element to take action. There are
three main parts of a control system.
1. Sensor

( sensor, transducer and transmitter)

2. Controller

( processor, memory and summing circuit)

3. Final Control Element

( actuator, power control circuit )

(3) Control Loop


A control loop is a process management system which is designed to manipulate input
variable around set point. A control loop is said to be made of three or four steps listed below:
(i)

Sense

(ii)

compare

(iii)

respond

(iv)

Action

Control loops used in industries are mainly of two types:


Feed Forward Control Loop
Feed Backward Control Loop
Feed forward control loop measures disturbances and manipulates the controlled variable
directly. While in feed backward control loop, we measure controlled variable and manipulate
the disturbances.

Classification of Controllers:
In general the process controllers can be classified as:
1. Pneumatic controllers
2. Electronic controllers
3. Hydraulic controllers

116

Production of Urea by ACES process

In the urea manufacturing, the controller and the final control element may be pneumatically
operated due to the following reasons:
The pneumatic controller is very rugged and almost free of maintenance. The
maintenance men have not had sufficient training and background in electronics, so
basically pneumatic equipment is simple.
The pneumatic controller appears to be safer in a potentially explosive atmosphere
which is often present in the urea.
Transmission distances are short. Pneumatic and electronic transmission systems are
generally equal up to about 250 to 300 feet. Above this distance, electronic systems
begin to offer savings.

Modes of Control:
The various types of control are called "modes" and they determine the type of response
obtained. In other words these describe the action of the controller that is the relationship of
output signal to the input or error signal. It must be noted that it is error that actuates the
controller. The four basic modes of control are:
1. On-off Control
2. Integral Control
3. Proportional Control
4. Rate or Derivative Control
In industry purely integral, proportional or derivative modes seldom occur alone in the control
system. The On-off controller is the controller with very high gain. In this case the error
signal at once off the valve or any other parameter upon which it sits or completely sets the
system.

Alarms and Safety Trips and Interlocks:


Alarms are used to alert operators of serious, and potentially hazardous, deviations in process
conditions. Key instruments are fitted with switches and relays to operate audible and visual
alarms on the control panels.

117

CHAPTER 07: Instrumentation and Process Control

The basic components of automatic trip systems are:


A sensor to monitor the control variable and provide an output signal when a
preset valve is exceeded (the instrument).
A link to transfer the signal to the actuator usually consisting of a system of
pneumatic or electric relays.
An actuator to carry out the required action; close or open a valve, switch off a
motor.
A safety trip can be incorporated in control loop; as shown in figure. In this system the hightemperature alarm operates a solenoid valve, releasing the air on the pneumatic activator
closing the valve on high temperature.

Interlocks
Where it is necessary to follow the fixed sequence of operations for example, during a plant
start-up and shut-down, or in batch operations-inter-locks are included to prevent operators
departed from the required sequence. They may be incorporated in the control system design,
as pneumatic and electric relays or may be mechanical interlocks.

7.3 TYPICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS


Measurement is defined as the extraction from physical and chemical systems or processes of
signals, which represent parameters or variable. The performance of an automation system
can never surpass that the associated measuring devices. A basic example is a human being.
1. Temperature Measurement and Control
Temperature measurement is used to control the temperature of outlet and inlet streams in
heat exchangers, reactors, etc. Most temperature measurements in the industry are made by
means of thermo-couples to facilitate bringing the measurements to centralized location. For
local measurements at the equipment bi-metallic or filled system thermometers are used to a
lesser extent. Usually, for high measurement accuracy, resistance thermometers are used.
2. Pressure Measurement and Control
Like temperature pressure is a valuable indication of material state and composition. In fact,
these two measurements considered together are the primary evaluating devices of industrial
materials. Pumps, compressor and other process equipment associated with pressure changes

118

Production of Urea by ACES process

in the process material are furnished with pressure measuring devices.

Thus pressure

measurement becomes an indication of energy increase or decrease.


Most pressure measurement in industry is elastic element devices, either directly connected
for local use or transmission type to centralized location. Most extensively used industrial
pressure element is the Bourden Tube or a Diaphragm or Bellows gauges.
3. Level Controller
Liquid levels are detected in a variety of ways. The three most common are:
Following the position of a float, that is lighter then fluid
Measuring the apparent weight of a heavy cylinder as it buoyed up more or less by the liquid
(these are called displacement meters).
Measuring the difference in static pressure between two fixed elevations, one in the vapors
above the liquid and the other under the liquid surface
The differential pressure between the two level taps is directly related to the liquid level in
the vessel.
4. Flow Measurement and Control
Flow-indicator-controllers are used to control the amount of liquid. Also all manually set
streams require some flow indication or some easy means for occasional sample
measurement. For accounting purposes, feed and product stream are metered. In addition
utilities to individual and grouped equipment are also metered. Most flow measures in the
industry are/ by Variable Head devices. To a lesser extent Variable Area is used, as are the
many available types as special metering situations arise.
These are used to control feed rate into a process unit. Orifice plates are by far the most type
of flow rate sensor. Normally, orifice plates are designed to give pressure drops in the range
of 20 to 200inch of water. Venture tubes and turbine meters are also used.

119

CHAPTER 07: Instrumentation and Process Control

Figure 9.1 Vaporizer Control

7.4 CONSIDERATION OF PFR IN ACES UREA PLANT


Level Measurement
A sensor measures a level of reacting fluids inside PFR and signals to controller. If level is
below or above the given level signal is sent towards the exit stream control element at urea
solution. As a result it throttles between open-closed situations.

Temperature Measurement
In PFR operation, temperature is controlled by controlling the flow rate of water inside
reactor. This water removes heat from reactor by absorption of heat. In case that temperature
is raised inside, water inlet valve is opened and it removes higher amounts of heat from
reactor while stabilizing temperature.

Composition Measurement
A sensor for measuring composition is also introduced into system as higher N/C ratio will
cause energy load on plant. Similarly, lower ratio will cause less conversion leading towards
in-economic process.
For this reason, composition controller checks the valve on fresh ammonia stream maintain
N/C ratio around 4/1.

120

Production of Urea by ACES process

Figure 9.2 Process Control Scheme of PFR Installed in ACES Urea Plant

121

Production of Urea by ACES process

8.1 HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY (HAZOP)


A HAZOP survey is one of the most common and widely accepted methods of systematic
qualitative hazard analysis. It is used for both new or existing facilities and can be applied to a
whole plant, a production unit, or a piece of equipment It uses as its database the usual sort of
plant and process information and relies on the judgment of engineering and safety experts in
the areas with which they are most familiar. The end result is, therefore reliable in terms of
engineering and operational expectations, but it is not quantitative and may not consider the
consequences of complex sequences of human errors. The objectives of a HAZOP study can
be summarized as follows:

To identify areas of the design that may possess a significant hazard potential.
To identify and study features of the design that influence the probability of a
hazardous incident occurring.
To familiarize the study team with the design information available.
To ensure that a systematic study is made of the areas of significant hazard
potential.
To identify pertinent design information not currently available to the team.

8.2 STEPS CONDUCTED IN HAZOP STUDY


Specify the purpose, objective, and scope of the study.
Select the HAZOP study team.
Collect data. The odore16 has listed the following materials that are usually
needed.

Process description.

Process flow sheets.

Data on the chemical, physical and toxicological properties of all raw


materials, intermediates, and products.

Piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs).

123

CHAPTER 08: HAZOP Study

Equipment, piping, and instrument specifications.

Process control logic diagrams.

Layout drawings.

Operating procedures.

Maintenance procedures.

Emergency response procedures.

Safety and training manuals.

Conduct the study. When the nodes are identified and the parameters are
identified, each node is studied by applying the specialized guidewords to each
parameter. These guide words and their meanings are key elements of the HAZOP
procedure.
They are listed in Table (8.1)

Table 8.1 HAZOP Guide Words and Meanings


Guide Words

Meaning

No

Negation of design intent

Less

Quantitative decrease

More

Quantitative increase

Part of

Qualitative decrease

As well as

Qualitative Increase

Reverse

Logical opposite of the intent

Other than

Complete substitution

124

Production of Urea by ACES process

8.3 SAFETY OF THE UREA PLANT


It is must to consider occupational safety and health when designing a manufacturing plant.
Safety is the major factor in any industrial process to safeguard employees, environment,
surrounding living peoples etc. Also there are legal obligations which are imposed by
government for chemical processing factories to operate and maintain.
When considering the safety, it is mainly due to the risk of urea which is the main product of
plant and ammonia; one of the main raw materials for production and risk caused by other
intermediate product.

Safety factors relevant to urea:


Stability and Reactivity
Produce biuret when expose to heat.
Urea has high solubility. So it should store under dry conditions.
It has high stability and low reactivity with normal conditions.

Flammability
Urea is non-flammable material

Flash point: Not applicable


Flammability limits: Not applicable
Auto-ignition temperature: Not applicable
The substance decomposes on heating above melting point, producing toxic gases, and reacts
violently with strong oxidants, nitrites, inorganic chlorides, chlorites and per chlorates,
causing fire and explosion hazard.

125

CHAPTER 08: HAZOP Study

8.4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION


Classified as hazardous chemical according to criteria in the HS (Minimum Degrees of
Hazard) Regulations 2001
Route of entry and health hazards:
Harmful if swallowed. - It may cause irritation
Harmful if inhaled.
Causes serious eye irritation.
Harmful to terrestrial vertebrates.

8.5 FIRST AID (EMERGENCY PROCEDURE)


In the event of an emergency, remove the victim from further exposure, send for medical
assistance, and initiate the following emergency procedures:

Skin
Wash exposed area with soap and water. If irritation persists, get medical attention as
soon as possible.

Eyes
Wash eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lids occasionally. Seek
Medical Aid.

Inhalation
Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is
difficult, give oxygen.

Ingestion
If swallowed, induce vomiting immediately after giving two glasses of water. Never
give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

126

Production of Urea by ACES process

Fire Extinguisher
Any means suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire. Fire extinguisher should available in
any risky places in the plant.
Extinguishing media: CO2, foam, dry powder, water

Handling & Storage:


Precautionary Statements
Keep out of reach of children.
Avoid breathing vapors, or dusts.
Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
Do not eat drink or smoke when using this product.
Avoid unintended release to the environment.
Use with adequate ventilation.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothes.

Exposure Control:
Exposure Standards
Workplace Exposure Standards (WES): Particulates not otherwise classified
Inspirable dust 10mg/m3
Respirable dust 3mg/m3
Disposal Considerations
Observe local authority restrictions that may apply. Collection into sealable
Containers and dispose of in an approved land fill.
Rinse containers thoroughly prior to re-use. Otherwise render unusable, and dispose of as
waste.

127

CHAPTER 08: HAZOP Study

Figure 8.1 HAZOP method flow diagrams

128

Production of Urea by ACES process

9.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


An Environment Impact Assessment is an assessment of the possible positive impact or
negative impact which the project may have on the natural environment. The purpose of the
assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider environmental impacts used to decide
whether to proceed with the project. The International Association for Impact Assessment
(IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting,
evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development
proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made.

Objectives of EIA Assessment:


To ensure that proponents take primary responsibility for protection of the
environment influenced by their proposals
To ensure that best practicable measures are taken to minimize adverse impacts on the
environment, and that proposals meet relevant environmental objectives and standards
to protect the environment, and implement the principles of sustainability
To provide opportunities for local community and public participation, as appropriate,
during the assessment of proposals
To encourage proponents to implement continuous improvement in environmental
performance and the application of best practice environmental management in
implementing their proposal
To ensure that independent, reliable advice is provided to the Government before
decisions are made

129

CHAPTER 09: Environmental Impact

9.2 IMPACT OF THE UREA PLANT ON THE ENVIRONMENT


In the early part of previous decade ammonia consumption per ton of final product of 575 kg
or even higher used to be acceptable. This figure implies however a loss of some 8 kg per
tonne of final product produced (Table 9.1), which for a 2000 mtd plant would result in a loss
of 16 mtpd ammonia either in the form of urea or straight ammonia. Presently ammonia
consumptions of some 567 kg per tonne are released in the large single stream plants. Since
this figure is very close to the theoretical consumption figure, the conclusion is that losses in
steady operation are approaching the zero targets.
Table 9.1 Ammonia releases from urea plants
Early nineteen eighties
Presently

8 kg NH3/mt final product


0.7 kg NH3/mt final product

Not only ammonia, carbon dioxide and urea releases from process plants have a negative
influence on the environment but also the unnecessary use of energy is negative from an
environmental point of view and from the economic point of view as well.

9.3 EMISSIONS TO AIR


Air emissions may be categorized as either fugitive or point source emissions.

Fugitive Emissions
These are emissions that are not released through a vent or stack. Examples of fugitive
emissions include dust from stockpiles, volatilization of vapor from vats, open vessels, or
spills and materials handling. Emissions emanating from ridgeline roof-vents and open doors
of a building as well as equipment leaks, and leaks from valves and flanges are also examples
of fugitive emissions.

Point Source Emissions


These emissions are exhausted into a vent or stack and emitted through a single point source
into the atmosphere. Above table highlights common air emissions from urea manufacturing
processes.

130

Production of Urea by ACES process

9.4 EMISSIONS TO WATER


Emissions of substances to water can be categorized as discharges to:
Surface waters (eg. lakes, rivers, dams, and estuaries);
Coastal or marine waters
Storm water
Because of the significant environmental hazards posed by emitting toxic substances to water,
most facilities emitting above listed substances to waterways are required by the relevant
environment authority to closely monitor and measure these emissions. The existing sampling
data can be used to calculate annual emissions. If no wastewater monitoring data exists,
emissions to process water can be calculated based on a mass balance or using emission
factors.

9.5 EMISSIONS TO LAND


Emissions of substances to land on-site include solid wastes, slurries, and sediments.
Emissions arising from spills, leaks, and storage and distribution of materials containing listed
substances may also occur to land. These emission sources can be broadly categorized as:
Surface impoundments of liquids and slurries; and
Unintentional leaks and spills.
In general, there are four types of emission estimation techniques (EETs) that may be used to
estimate emissions from the facility. The four types are:
Sampling or direct measurement;
Mass balance;
Fuel analysis or other engineering calculations; and
Emission factors.

131

CHAPTER 09: Environmental Impact

9.6 ELIMINATION METHODS


Presently plants are equipped with the following features to keep the effluent and emission at
extremely low levels:
1. N/C ratio meter
2. Waste water treatment section
3. Absorbers
4. Special operational facilities

1. N/C ratio meter in the Synthesis section


Instead of using a gas chromatograph or a mass spectrometer in the gas phase of the synthesis
section, Nitrogen/Carbon (N/C) ratio meters are installed in the liquid phase (reactor liquid
outlet) of the urea synthesis section. The principle of this N/C meter is based on the linear
relationship between liquid density and the N/C ratio. The density is measured continuously
with a solartron meter, being an instrument in which vibrations are measured in an extremely
accurate way whereby the vibrations are a measure of the density of the reactor liquid.
This N/C ratio meter allows the process at all times to be operated at the optimum ratio to
achieve highest reactor efficiency combined with higher energy efficiency. Special procedures
are used to eliminate emissions during start-up.

2. Urea plant waste water treatment section


The process water in urea plants contains ammonia, carbon dioxide and urea. The
concentrations of these components vary within a range depending on the operating
conditions, On average, the concentrations in the process water are about 6 wt.% ammonia, 4
wt.% carbon dioxide and 1 wt.% urea.
Sources of the ammonia and urea are:
Condensate from the evaporators.
Off-gases from the recirculation section, which are absorbed in the process water.
Off-gases from the synthesis section, which are absorbed in the process water.
Flush and purge water for pumps.
Liquid drains.
The purpose of the process water treatment is to remove ammonia, carbon dioxide and urea
from the process condensate. For every tonne of urea produced, approximately 0.3 tonnes of
water are formed. This water is usually discharged from the urea concentration and

132

Production of Urea by ACES process

evaporation section of the plant. Removal of ammonia and urea from wastewaters can be a
problem as it is difficult to remove one in the presence of the other.
One method used to overcome this problem is the hydrolysis of urea to ammonium carbamate,
which is decomposed to ammonia and carbon dioxide. These gases can then be stripped from
the wastewaters. Urea plants are in operation that produces wastewaters with ammonia and
urea levels below 1ppm. This water can then be used for a variety of purposes depending on
the required quality suchas cooling water or Boiling Feed Water make-up. The recovered
ammonia and carbon dioxide are returned to the process to be subsequently converted into
urea.

3. Absorbers
Absorbers are used in urea plant to eliminate emissions to the atmosphere, can be classified as
follows:
The vent from the synthesis section of the plant
The purge from the urea synthesis section contains inerts, ammonia and carbon
dioxide. To avoid ammonia emissions from this purge a low pressure absorber is installed in
purge stream. First the ammonia is washed out with a large flow of low concentrated and
cooled process water and secondly the remaining ammonia is absorbed in cooled condensate
or clean waste water.
The vent from the low pressure section of the plant
The ammonia and carbon dioxide present in the off gases of the recirculation section, the
Process Water Treatment System and the evaporation section are washed out in an
atmospheric absorber where large amounts of cooled low concentrated process water are used
to absorb all the ammonia present in off gases.

4. Special start-up, shut-down and draining facilities


A change in the start-up procedure of the urea synthesis section has reduced the impact on the
environment considerably. Presently the ability to measure the feed flows (NH3 and CO2)
very accurate in combination with the ability to measure the N/C ratio have enabled us to feed
the synthesis section from the very beginning of the start-up with the correct NH3/CO2 ratio,
thus eliminating the need, during the initial stage of start-up, to vent excess CO2 accompanied
by some NH3 into the atmosphere.
Special shut-down and draining facilities assure that non converted NH3 and CO2 are
recovered by the process after a shut-down.

133

Production of Urea by ACES process

Before the plant to be operated, specified money must be supplied to purchase and install the
equipment. The capital needed to supply the necessary plant facilities is called fixed capital
investment while that for the operation of the plant is called the working principal and sum of
two capitals is called total capital investment.
An acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable of operating under
conditions which will yield a profit. Since,
Net profit = total income - all expenses
It is essential that chemical engineer be aware of the many different types of cost involved in
manufacturing processes. Capital must be allocated for direct plant expenses; such as those
for raw materials, labor, and equipment. Besides direct expenses, many other indirect
expenses are incurred, and these must be included if a complete analysis of the total cost is to
be obtained. Some examples of these indirect expenses are administrative salaries, product
distribution costs and cost for interplant communication.

10.1 PURCHASED EQUIPMENT COST


Cost in year A = Cost in year B

Cost of major equipments of Urea ACES plant is calculated by using CEPCI (Chemical
Engineering Plant Cost Index) of September 2001 and then evaluated that cost by using above
formula.
Cost index In September 2003

397

Cost Index in 2014

603

135

CHAPTER 10: Cost Estimation

Table 10.1 Purchased Cost of equipments in 2003

Sr. No.

Equipment

No. of
Equipment

Per Equipment

Total Cost In 2003

Cost In 2003

(US Dollar)

(US Dollar)
1

Autoclave

123,000

123,000

Reactor
2

Stripper

16,400

16,400

Condenser

38,300

76,600

Scrubber

7,460

7,460

Vacuum

23,900

47,800

10,0000

10,0000

Evaporator
6

CO2
Compressor

NH3 Pump

115,000

115,000

Prilling Tower

20,0500

20,5000
691260 $

Total

Cost in 2014 = 691260

1049949 $

136

Production of Urea by ACES process

10.2 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT


Total Capital Investment =

Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) + Working Capital Investment


(WCI)

A. Fixed Capital Investment (FCI)


Fixed Capital Investment

Direct Cost + Indirect Cost

(1) Direct Cost


Sr. No.

Item

% Purchased
Equipment Cost

Total Cost
(US Dollar)

Equipment Cost

100%

1049949

Installation

25%

262487.25

Instrumentation &
Control

10%

104994.9

Piping

25%

262487.25

Electrification

20%

209989.8

Building

30%

314984.7

Service Facilities

40%

419979.6

Land Requisition

4%

41997.96

Total

2666870.46 $

137

CHAPTER 10: Cost Estimation

(2) Indirect Cost


Sr. No.

Item

% Purchased
Equipment Cost

Total Cost
(US Dollar)

Engineering &
Supervision

10%

104994.9

Construction

10%

104994.9

Contractor

5%

52497.45

Total

Fixed Capital Investment =

$ 262487.25

26, 66870.46 + 26, 2487.25 = 52, 9357 $

B. Working Capital Cost (WCI)


WCI = 15% of FCI
WCI = 0.15(52, 9357) = 79403 $
Now, Total Capital Cost = FCI + WCI
Total Capital Cost = 52, 9357 + 79,403 = $ 56, 5760

10.3 TOTAL PRODUCT COST (TPC)


(A) Direct Production Cost
1. Operating Labor Cost

0.10(TPC)

2. Utility Cost

0.20(TPC)

3. Maintenance & Repair Cost

0.04(FCI)

4. Operating & Supply Cost

0.15(Maintenance & Repair Cost)

Operating & Supply Cost

$ 3176.142

138

$ 21174.28

Production of Urea by ACES process

5. Laboratory & Testing Cost

0.15 (Labor Cost)

Laboratory & Testing Cost

0.15(0.10TPC)

6. Patents & Royalties

0.03(TPC)

Direct Product Cost

1+2+3+4+5+6

Direct Product Cost

0.10(TPC) + 0.20(TPC) + 41997.96

6299.694 + 0.015(TPC) + 0.03(TPC)

0.345(TPC) + 24350.422

Direct Product Cost (DPC)

(B) Fixed Charges


1. Deprecation

0.10(FCI)

$ 52935.7

2. Local Tax

0.015(FCI)

$ 7940.35

3. Insurance

0.01(FCI)

$ 5293.57

Fixed Charges

1+ 2 +3

$ 66169.62

(C) Plant Overhead Cost


Plant Overhead Cost =

60% of Labor and Maintenance Cost

Plant Overhead Cost =

0.60 [0.10(TCP) + 21174.28]

(D) Administrative Expenses


Administrative Expenses

25% of Labor Cost

Administrative Expenses

0.25 [0.10 (TCP)]

(E) Distributions & Market Expenses


Distributions & Market Expenses

10% of Total Product Cost

Distributions & Market Expenses

0.10(TCP)

139

CHAPTER 10: Cost Estimation

(F) R&D Cost


Research & Development Cost

5% of FCI

Research & Development Cost

$ 26467.85

(G) Interest
Interest

8% of FCI

Interest

42348.56 $

Now, Total Product Cost (TPC)

A+B+C+D+E+F+G

Total Product Cost (TPC)

0.345(TPC) + 24350.422+ 66169.62


0.60 [0.10(TPC) + 21174.28] +
0.25 [0.10 (TPC)] + 0.10(TPC)
26467.85+ 42348.56

TPC

68816.41 + 0.53 (TCP)

1-0.53 TCP

68816.41

Total Product Cost (TPC)

$ 146417.8936

10.4 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS


(A) Income
Wholesale selling price per bag (50 kg) in Pakistan = 1800 Rs. = 18 $
Per kg price of Urea in Pakistan

0.36 $

Total Income

Selling Price Quantity of Product

Quantity of Product (Urea)

74714.92

140

53794742

Production of Urea by ACES process

Total Income

53794742 0.36

Total Income

$ 1.9 10

Gross Profit

Total Income Total Product Cost

Gross Profit

1.9 10 - 146417.8936

Gross Profit

$ 1.88 10

Taxes

0.40 (Gross Profit)

Net profit

Total Income Taxes

Net Profit

1.9 10 7541432.843

(B) Gross Profit

(C) Net Profit


Let the tax rate is 40 %
=

7541432.843

(D)Pay out Period


Pay out Period

Pay out Period

Pay out Period

!! "
$ %&'(&)*+,*-.
#

/,
1.33 156
$
#

7 years

141

= 6.9 7
/

$ 11 10

Production of Urea by ACES process

11.1 INTRODUCTION OF ASPEN HYSYS


AspenTech is the worlds leading supplier of software that optimizes process manufacturing.
Aspen Tech was foundend in 1981 by Dr. Larry Evans, a professor of chemical engineering at
MIT. Larry Evans, now 69, was named one of 7 heroes of US manufacturing by FORTUNE
magazine in 1999 and was elected to the National A cademy OF Engineering in 2001 for
leadership in the development and application of integrated systems for modeling, simulation
and optimization of industrial chemical processes.
AspenONE software enables process industry companies to optimize their engineering,
manufacturing, and supply chain operations. As a result, AspenTech customers are better able
to increase capacity, improve margins, reduce costs, become more energy efficient, and
achieve operational excellence goals.
HYSYS is a powerful simulation engineering tool, has been uniquely created with respect to
the program architecture, interface design, Engineering capabilities, and interactive operation.
The various components that comprises HYSYS provide an extremely powerful approach to
steady state modeling.
Hysys is widely used in colleges and universities in introductory and advanced courses
especially in chemical engineering. In industry the software is used in research, development,
modeling and design. HYSYS serves as the engineering platform for modeling processes and
design from upsteam, through gas processing and cryogenic facilities, to refining chemical
processes.

143

CHAPTER 11: Simulation in HYSYS

Steps Involved In Simulation Of Aspen Urea Synthesis Section:


Following are the steps done for the simulation of synthesis section of ACES
Urea plant:
Open New File.
Add Components.
Add Fluid Package.
Add Reaction.
View of Reaction.
Select The Desired Reaction.
Add Set To Fluid Package.
Enter Simulation Environment.
Select Equilibrium Reaction And Drag It Into Main Screen.
Name The Streams.
Enter Stream Conditions (Feed)
Vapor Steam Conditions Shown.
Show Full Process with Tables.

View of Reactor and Scrubber in Simulation Environment:

144

Production of Urea by ACES process

11.2 COMPLETE SYNTHESIS SECTION

145

Production of Urea by ACES process

1. Peters, M.S. and Timmerhaus, K.D., Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineering , 5th ed, McGraw Hill, 1991.
2. J.M. Coulson and J.F. Richardson: Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering,
volume 6, 5th Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.
3. Ludwig, E.E, Applied Process Design, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Gulf Professional Publishers,
2002.
4. J.M. Coulson and J.F. Richardson: Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering,
volume 2, 4th Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 1998.
5. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C., Smith J.C., Harrioatt, P., Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 5th Ed., McGraw Hill Book Co., 1993.
6. Kern D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill Inc., 2000.
7. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering:, 3rd ed ,John Wily and Sons Inc.,
1999.
8. Stephanophoulos, G., Chemical Process Control, Prentice Hall, 2007.
9. Perry, R.H., Perrys R.H., Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7th Ed.,
McGraw Hill Book Co., 1997.
10. Manual of Toyo Corporation
11. ACES21_Brochure
12. Fertilizer Manual by UN industrial developmental organization
13. Khan Eqan Ali, Fertilizers in Pakistan, Demand, Production and Imports March 30,
2011.
14. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13728575/Urea-Final-Report
15. http://www.stamicarbon.com/
16. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/

147