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JMK 214/4

KAJIAN TEKS MELAYU KLASIK


TERPILIH
Telesidang 1 drpd 3 (SA 2014/2015)
Fasilitator:
Dr. Md Khalid B Md Taib
(eMel: khalidtaib456@gmail.com)

TUJUAN KURSUS
Memberi faham tentang pendekatan intrinsik
ilmu sastera yg sewajarnya diterap terhadap
genre sastera sejarah;
Membezakan antara pendekatan historis yg
telah diguna pakai oleh sarjana Orientalis &
pendekatan intrinsik yg merujuk kpd
worldview pengarang;
Mengapresiasi betapa tingginya bakat
kepengaran gan pengarang/ penyususun karya
sastera sejarah.
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OBJEKTIF KURSUS
Mendedahkan kpd pelajar pendekatan historis
yg telah diterapkan oleh sarjana Orientalis Barat
(& mengetahui masalahnya) Rujuk Modul
JMK214 (Bab 1, hlm. 1-12, dan Bahan Rujukan yg
tersenarai);
Membolehkan pelajar membuat perbandingan
antara pendekatan historis & pendekatan
intrinsik ilmu sastera perbincangan akan
dibawa ke dlm Kursus Intensif;
Supaya pelajar memahami pertalian antara
sastera sejarah & kewujudan Islam di Alam
Melayu-Nusantara -- perbincangan akan dibawa
ke dlm Kursus Intensif
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TEKS-TEKS PILIHAN (i)


1) Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai , hasil resensi oleh
Russell Jones (Fajar Bakti, K.L., 1987) berasaskan
Raffles Manuscript 67 (1814).
2) Sejarah Melayu, hasil resensi oleh W.G.
Shellabear (Fajar Bakti, K.L., 1977) selenggaraan
asal disiapkan pd 1896.
3) Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa, hasil resensi oleh
Siti Hawa Salleh (Penerbit Universiti Malaya, K.L.,
1991) selenggaraan asal disiapkan pd 1970.
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TEKS-TEKS PILIHAN (ii)


4) Tuhfat al-Nafis oleh Raja Haji Ali Bin Haji
Ahmad (Penyengat, Riau, 1896); disunting oleh
Virginia Matheson, berasaskan Maxwell
Manuscript 2 & resensinya dalam tesis PhD
beliau (di Australian National University).
5) Hikayat Banjar, hasil resensi oleh J.J. Ras,
terjemahan Siti Hawa Salleh (Dewan Bahasa &
Pustaka,K.L., 1990).
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TEKS-TEKS PILIHAN (iii)


6) Syair Sultan Maulana, diselenggarakan oleh
Muhammad Yusoff Hashim (Penerbit Universiti
Malaya, K.L., 1980).
7) Hikayat Hang Tuah, diselenggarakan oleh
Kassim Ahmad (Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka, K.L.,
1976).

TARIKH-TARIKH PENTING KEDATANGAN


ISLAM KE ALAM MELAYU/NUSANTARA (i)
Petikan drpd kajian berjudul Sastera Sejarah in the Malay
World: A Structural and Contextual Study of Folkloristic
Elements in a Transitional Genre oleh M. Khalid-Taib

(University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich.,


1981)

A.D. 674 (A.H. 55) Earliest Muslim setlement in


East Sumatra (San-Fu-Chi in the Chinese Annals);
A.D. 878-89 (A.H. 265-76) Massacre of Muslims
& their Exodus from Canton to peninsular
Southeast Asia (Kalah or Kedah in Arabic
records);
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TARIKH-TARIKH PENTING KEDATANGAN


ISLAM KE ALAM MELAYU/NUSANTARA (ii)
A.D. 1039 (A.H. 431) Champa Kingdom (at
Phan-rang) became seat of Java (Leran inscription
at Gresik);
A.D. 1112 (A.H. 506) Acheh was Islamized by
Sheikh Abdullah Arif (an Arab mubaligh);
A.D. 1204 (A.H. 601) Islam came to northern
Sumatra;
A.D. 1282 (A.H. 682) Islam established at
Perlak & Samudera (tombstone of Sultan Malik
al-Salih);
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TARIKH-TARIKH PENTING KEDATANGAN


ISLAM KE ALAM MELAYU/NUSANTARA (iii)
A.D. 1302 (A.H. 702) Islam established at
Trengganu (Batu Bersurat Trengganu,
bertarikh 22 Februari 1303 Masehi,
bersamaan 4 Rejab 702 Hijri);
A.D. 1310 (A.H. 710) Jolo in Sulu Islamized;
A.D. 1345-46 (A.H. 746-47) Ibn Battutas
visit; confirmed that Pasai had become
Centre of Islamic Learning;
A.D. 1400 (A.H. 803) Java was Islamized by
Arab & Persian mubaligh;
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TARIKH-TARIKH PENTING KEDATANGAN


ISLAM KE ALAM MELAYU/NUSANTARA (iv)
A.D. 1409 (A.H. 812) Islam established at
Melaka;
A.D. 1419 (A.H. 822) Islam strengthened at
Gresik (effort of Maulana Malik Ibrahim);
A.D. 1447-51 (A.H. 851-55) Fall of
Majapahits Hindu dynasty through conversion
of the King & members of his court;
A.D. 1526 (A.H. 933) Complete Islamization
of Central-to-Western Java;
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TARIKH-TARIKH PENTING KEDATANGAN


ISLAM KE ALAM MELAYU/NUSANTARA (v)
A.D. 1474 (A.H. 874) Melaka & Pasai
consolidated as Centres of Islamic Learning &
Dakwah activities;
[A.D. 1511 (A.H. 918) ] Fall of Melaka to the
Portuguese & dispersal of the Melaka
Sultanate;
A.D. 1600 (A.H. 1009) Spread of Islam to the
Philippines Archipelago though the efforts of
Javanese mubaligh.
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TEKS SASTERA SEJARAH


& KONTEKS SEJARAHNYA (i)
Petikan drpd kajian berjudul Sastera Sejarah in the Malay
World: A Structural and Contextual Study of Folkloristic
Elements in a Transitional Genre oleh M. Khalid-Taib
(University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich.,
1981)

the sastera sejarah... emerged as part of a


literary tradition which flourished between
1350 and 1865 A.D. (p. 119)

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TEKS SASTERA SEJARAH


& KONTEKS SEJARAHNYA (ii)
the Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai is possibly the
oldest Malay language historiography known
to scholars (p. 124)
all in all, 29 manuscripts of the Sejarah
Melayu have been identified (p. 125)
the Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa originally
existed or was transmitted in the form of 5
manuscripts (p. 132)
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TENTANG KREATIVITI PENGARANG ISTANA


DLM MENGHASILKAN KARYA SASTERA SEJARAH
Petikan drpd ABSTRAK kajian berjudul Sastera Sejarah in the
Malay World: A Structural and Contextual Study of Folkloristic
Elements in a Transitional Genre oleh M. Khalid-Taib (University
Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1981)

Their manner of using the traditional epithets and


nuances of Malay court language reflects a high degree
of artistry They subtly included moral lessons and
tokens for feudal Malay kings by means of religous
(Islamic) visions on the ephemeral nature of this world.
Herein lies the enduring message of the sastera sejarah,
a genre falling between traditional Malay folklore and
creative literature. (p. iv)
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PENDEKATAN INTRINSIK (UMUM)


BERASASKAN ILMU SASTERA
Butiran Fakta dalam Naratif yg disampaikan:
o Peristiwa-peristiwa utama & sampingan
o Tempat & Persekitaran (di mana Peristiwaperistiwa berlaku)
o Waktu & Masa (berlakunya Peristiwa)
Tema & Persoalan
Struktur Naratif
Watak & Perwatakan
Bahasa & Teknik Penceritaan
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ANALISIS INTRINSIK & PERBINCANGAN:


Semasa Telesidang 2 drpd 3
Terhadap/tentang Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai :
Rujuk Modul JMK 214, hlm. 13-33.
Terhadap/tentang Sejarah Melayu :
Rujuk Modul JMK 214, hlm. 34-72.
Terhadap/tentang Hikayat Merong
Mahawangsa : Rujuk Modul JMK 214,
hlm. 73-93.
Terhadap/tentang Tuhfat al-Nafis :
Rujuk Modul JMK 214, hlm. 94-127.
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ANALISIS INTRINSIK & PERBINCANGAN :


Semasa Telesidang 3 drpd 3
Terhadap/tentang Hikayat Banjar :
Rujuk Modul JMK 214, hlm. 128-139.
Terhadap/tentang Syair Sultan Maulana :
Rujuk Modul JMK 214, hlm. 140-164.
Terhadap/tentang Hikayat Hang Tuah :
Rujuk Modul JMK 214, hlm. 165-208.

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