Anda di halaman 1dari 2
Ra S Effects of Smoking on the Prevalence and Severity of Periodontal Disease Periodontal Disease Impact of Smoking Gingivitis | Gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing Periodontits 1 Prevalence and severity of periodon- tal destruction } Pocket depth, attachment loss, and bone loss 1 Rate of periodontal destruction 1 Prevalence of severe periodorttitis f Tooth loss Prevalence with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day | Prevalence and severity with smok- ing cessation J. Decreased | Effects of Smoking on the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease Increased, Etlologic Factor Impact of Smoking Microbiology —_No éffect_on the rate of plaque accumu- lation } Colonization of shallow periodontal pockets by periodontal pathogens J Levels of periodontal pathogens in deep periodontal pockets Immunology Altered neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocy- tosis, and oxidative burst J INF-a, andl PGE, in GCF Neutrophil collagenase and elastase In GCF 1 Production of PGE, by monocytes in response to LPS Physiology | Gingival blood vessels with f inflam- mation 1 GCF flow and bleeding on probing with 7 inflammation | Subgingival temperature } Time needed to recover {rom local anaesthesia |, Decreased; 1, increased. See text for description of other abs breviations. vey Terapy orsgial Suge and implants |Manterance “ecuent (acy) disease a Trees Ms ‘ects of Smoking on the Response to Periodont therapy Effects of Smoking { Clinical response to scaling and root planing | Recuction in pocket depth | Gaia in clnicalattachivent levels | Negative impact of smoking with | level of plaque control | Pocket cepth reduetion postsurgery | Deterioration of furcations postsurcery | Gain in clnicl attachment levels { bone fil, recession, end 7 membrane exposure {ollorsing GIR. | Pocket cepthrecucton after DFDBA allogratts | Pocket depth reduction and gain in clinical attachment levels after open flap debridement Conflicting data on the impact cf smoking on implant success ‘Smoking cessation should be recommended pra to implants { Pocket depth during maintenance | Goin in clinical attachment levels { Recurrent/retractory disease in smokers | Need fer retreatment in smokers 1 Need for antibiotics in smokers to contol the negative effects of periodontal infection ‘on surgical outcomes 1 Toth loss in smokers after surgical therapy —— | Dare | need, Se text or description of cher abbr ations