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Behavioral Consultation

Wallace Davis Fullerton


California State University, Chico

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Client Profile

Client: Jason

Grade: 4th

Sex: Male

Teacher: Mrs. Grey

He has great energy and he is actually a pretty bright dude, but he just wanders off
constantly and never follows any of my directions. Im lucky if he finishes an assignment.

Jason has a history of ADHD or autistic-like behaviors; I have tried to get his parents to
accept the ADHD diagnosis, but they just wont buy it.

Jason has two older brothers, both suffered from difficulty with academics; however, the
two older brothers did not have Jasons natural aptitude for academic work.

Jason loves reading and will read his preferred books during other assignments.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Consultee Profile

Mrs. Grey.

4th Grade Teacher

Age: 43

Experience: 19 years

Mrs. Grey has an interest in hiking, swimming, and biking.

Mrs. Greys background is primarily in education, both of her parents were educators.

Mrs. Grey is worried that Jason is missing out on the curriculum, because he cannot
maintain focus on assignments.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Narrative Problem
Description

Jason has ADHD, or something like that. He does like reading and if the assignment is
for ELA he will generally complete it.

Math assignments are where I see Jason at his worst, he will often tell me he is no good
at math.

When I say something to him numerous times, he will just sit there and stare at me, then
he will say, what?

I think he has been programmed to not respond the first time by someone.

Jason will hide a book under his desk and read rather than working on his assignment.

I often catch Jason talking to fellow students during individual and group work.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Target Behaviors

Off-Task Behavior (B1): When the student engages in the following behaviors:
Antecedent

Behavior

Consequence

Code

B1: Reading a book during mathematics


assignment period of the class.

C0: Mathematics assignment is avoided.


C1: Reads a book instead of mathematics.
C2: Teacher prompts to begin mathematics
assignment.

C0: RC1: R+
C2: Prompt

B2: Talking with neighboring students during


the mathematics assignment period of the
class.

C0: Mathematics assignment is avoided.


C3: Mathematics is replaced with peer
engagement.
C2: Teacher prompts to begin mathematics
assignment.

C0: RC3: R+
C2: Prompt

B3: Walking around the room during the


mathematics assignment period of the class.
B3-A: Retrieve Book
B3-B: Peer Interaction

C4: Walking allows for:


C0: Mathematics assignment is avoided.
C4-A: A book is retrieved.
C3: A peer interaction occurs.
C2:Teacher prompts to begin mathematics
assignment.

C4: R+
C4-A: R+ or C3: R+ and C0: RC2: Prompt

Behavior

Consequences

Code

B4: No response

C5: Teacher restates prompt.


C6: Recess time is lost.
C7: Avoids beginning assignment.

C5: Prompt
C6: RC
C7: R-

B5: Response of What?

C5: Teacher restates prompt.


C7: Avoids beginning assignment.

C5: Prompt
C7: R-

B6: Off-topic response to the prompt is given.

C5: Teacher restates prompt.


C6: Recess time is lost.
C7: Avoids beginning assignment.

C5: Prompt
C6: RC
C7: R-

A1: Mathematics Assignment

Multiple Uses of Prompts Required (B2): Student will not follow prompts on their first
delivery; however, when the prompt is to perform an activity which Jason enjoys
(reading), he will begin immediately without any questions.
Antecedent

A2: Teacher Prompt

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Schedule
Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

8:00 AM
Flag/Song

8:00 AM
Flag/Song

8:00 AM
Flag/Song

8:00 AM
Flag/Song

8:00 AM
Flag/Song

8:10 AM
Roll/Lunch
Count/ELA

8:10 AM
Roll/Lunch
Count/ELA

8:10 AM
Roll/Lunch
Count/ELA

8:10 AM
Roll/Lunch
Count/ELA

8:10 AM
Roll/Lunch
Count/ELA

9:05 AM PE

9:05 AM PE

10:40 AM Recess 10:40 AM Recess 10:40 AM Recess 10:40 AM Recess 10:40 AM Recess
11:05 AM Math

11:05 AM Math

11:05 AM Math

11:05 AM Math

11:05 AM Math

11:55 AM Lunch

11:55 AM Lunch

11:55 AM Lunch

11:55 AM Lunch

11:55 AM Lunch

12:35 PM Math

12:35 PM Math

12:35 PM Math

12:35 PM Math

1:00 PM Social
Studies/Science

1:00 PM Social
Studies/Science

1:00 PM Social
Studies/Science

12:45 PM
Computer Lab

1:30 PM
ELD/ELE

1:30 PM
ELD/ELE

1:30 PM
ELD/ELE

1:30 PM
ELD/ELE

1:30 ELD/ELE

1:00 PM Social
Studies/Science

All behavior modification activity will be performed during the mathematics portion of the school day.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Data Collection Form

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

On-Task Behavior Baseline

Percentage Of Time On Task Versus Off Task During Mathematics Lesson

100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%

Off Task
On Task
Mean
Baseline
M = 38.4%
SD = 27.37071
Date

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Prompts Required Baseline


12
10
8
Number Of Prompts Given During Mathematics Lesson

Prompts
Average

4
2

Baseline
M = 5.8
SD = 3.08401

0
Date

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

Sequence Analysis
Antecedent

Behavior

Consequence

Code

C0: Avoids
C0: Avoids
Mathematics
Mathematics
Assignment
Assignment

RR-

C1: Book Is Read


C1: Book Is Read

R+
R+

C2: Teacher
C2: Teacher
Prompt
Prompt

Prompt
Prompt

C3: Peer
C3: Peer
Engagement
Engagement

R+
R+

C4-A: Book
C4-A: Book
Retrieved
Retrieved

R+
R+

Assignment Is Partially
Assignment
Is Partially
Complete, Reducing
Complete,
Reducing
Homework.
Homework.

RR-

On-Task
On-Task

Assignment Is
Completed, No
Homework

RR-

Follows Prompt
Follows Prompt

Praise is Given
Praise is Given

R+
R+

C5: Teacher
C5: Teacher
Restates Prompt
Restates Prompt

Prompt
Prompt

C6: Recess Time


C6: Recess Time
Is Lost
Is Lost

RC
RC

C7: Avoids Beginning


C7: Avoids
Beginning
Assignment
Assignment

RR-

B1: Read Book


B1: Read Book

B3-A: Retrieve
B3-A: Retrieve
Book
Book
B3: Walk
B3: Walk
B3-B: Peer
B3-B: Peer
Interaction
Interaction

A1:Mathematics
A1:Mathematics
Assignment
Assignment
B2: Peer
B2: Peer
Interaction
Interaction

B4: No Response
B4: No Response
A2: Teacher
A2: Teacher
Prompt
Prompt
B6: Off-Topic
B6: Off-Topic
Response
Response

B5: Response of
B5: Response of
What?
What?

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10

Problem Analysis
WALLACE D. FULLERTON

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11

Problem Analysis Interview

Jason enjoys:
Reading books of interest to him.
Writing about stories he invents.
Recess and time to be physically active.
Prize Box (and tickets to access the prize box).
Football and all related collectibles.
Pokmon cards (the teacher uses these to reinforce behaviors).
Videogames (specifically the Call of Duty franchise).
Computer games (Roblox, Animal Gym, and the educational games at school).
Spending time playing games with his three older brothers.
Transformers toys.
Collecting baseball hats.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

12

Relevant Background Information

Jason is the youngest of four siblings.

Jasons older brothers have a reputation for violent and disrespectful behavior.

Jason does not enjoy school, but he says that he likes his teacher.

Jason understands clearly that if he completes his work he may gain something. When I
asked what kinds of rewards he likes he responded, and then he asked what he needed
to do to get these items.

Jason spends a lot of time watching football with his brothers and father. He also spends
a lot of time playing games with his siblings.
Jason enjoys time with his family who places few requirements or restrictions upon
him.

Jason is ambivalent in regard to doing work unless he gains something from the effort.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

13

Hypothesis for Problem Behavior

Consultees Perspective:
Jason is a smart child, but he has been taught at home that he can avoid doing things he doesnt like.
Jason knows what he is supposed to be doing, but lacks motivation to complete his work.

Consultants Perspective:
Jason states that his parents do not spend a lot of time with him, so he is acting out in an attempt to receive adult attention.
Jason spends much of his time off-task during math because he does not enjoy the activity and currently has no incentive to
complete the work, other than the punishment of having to do the work at home; in addition, Jason receives more attention from
Mrs. Grey when he does not complete the work than when he does.
The punishment is ineffective because Jason does not do the homework at home and his parents do not closely monitor his
work completion, nor is he rewarded for his level of work completion or his grades in any way at home. The only attention
Jason receives occurs when he does not complete his work and his parents receive a call about his lack of effort.
Thus, Jason receives attention at home for having not completed the work and then at school he receives attention for not
turning in the homework.
Jason has recognized that by pretending that he does not understand his homework he can engage in off-task behavior which
eventually results in adult attention, or he can get personalized help (attention) from the teacher.
Thus the what? response.
Feigning inability has allowed Jason to avoid response cost (loss of recess) and get adult attention.
Despite the elegant adaptation which he has applied to the situation, he is missing out on the curriculum and needs to be
made self-sufficient.
Another possible cause is that Jason is attempting to emulate his older brothers lack of academic effort due to his positive
perceptions of them.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

14

The Intervention

Target Behaviors:

On-Task Behavior: The behavior of working on the mathematics assignment between 11:05 and 11:55 AM.

Off-Task Behavior (B1): The behaviors of reading a book, talking to peers, and walking around the classroom during the
mathematics assignment between 11:05 and 11:55 AM.
The goal is to increase the duration of on-task behavior via DRI and shaping.
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior (DRI): DRI is a procedure in which an inappropriate behavior
which is currently being reinforced has its reinforcement shifted to an incompatible and appropriate behavior.
Shaping: Shaping is the reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior and the extinction of
previous versions of that behavior until the approximations mirror the desired behavioral criterion.
To measure this goal momentary time sampling will be utilized.
The reasoning behind the application of this method is that the student is seated in the front of the class and
momentary time sampling will allow for a practical method of recording on-task duration frequently (duration recording
would be preferred, but this method is overly cumbersome).

No Prompts Required: Child is working on mathematics assignment during the designated time period and no prompts are
required to redirect the child to the assignment between 11:05 and 11:55 AM.

Multiple Prompts Required to Begin Assignment (B2) : The number of prompts required to begin the mathematics assignment

between 11:05 and 11:55 AM.


The goal is to decrease the number of prompts required before work initiation via fading.
Fading: Fading is the process of gradually changing the antecedent stimulus which control a behavior. Over time the
behavior will occur in the presence of an altered or new stimulus.
To track this behavior, frequency recording will be utilized to record the number of prompts required for work initiation.
The reason this method is used is to give us an accurate estimate of the frequency with which the antecedent of
prompts (as delivered by Mrs. Grey) must be given.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

15

Rationale for Intervention


Procedures Used

Off-Task Behavior (B1):


DRI: Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior was chosen because Jason cannot be focused
on his work and simultaneously engaged in a conversation with a peer (during individual mathematics
assignments), or reading a book, or walking about the classroom at the same time. DRI is the
appropriate procedure to use because a child who is on-task cannot be simultaneously off-task.
Shaping: Shaping the time spent on-task is useful because it naturally consumes the time that would be
spent off-task and works perfectly with DRI to increase the students ability to self-regulate during his
time spent on-task.

Multiple Prompts Required to Begin Assignment (B2):


Fading: Fading is useful because it allows for a gradual reduction in the number of prompts required for
Jason to engage in his mathematics assignments over time. This works hand-in-hand with the DRI
procedure for off-task behavior because, if the student is on-task, then he will not need to be prompted,
thus naturally reducing the number of prompts required.
Token System:
Token System: A token system in the form of a self-reinforcement sheet allows for immediate
reinforcement without the need for interrupting class time, and when the necessary number of tokens
(check-marks) are achieved, it allows Jason access to a variety of reinforcers (reinforcement menu).

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

16

Details of the Intervention and


Procedures to be Used

On-Task Behavior (B1):


If Jason is on-task at the end of the interval the teacher will place a in the B1 box for that interval. At the
beginning of the intervention the required number of checkboxes will be low for reinforcement and will increase
over time.
Jason will have a paper placed in front of him with 17 boxes. Jason will be told to place a for each interval for
which he is on task and if he reaches the required number of checks he will receive reinforcement.
Jason will be asked to mark the box with a check mark each time he is on-task.
Jason will be informed of the number of required checks to reach reinforcement for that day.

When Jason is seen to be on-task he will be reinforced with a positive statement from the teacher regarding his
effort. If Jason achieves the required amount of on-task time during intervals (I) he will be allowed to choose one
activity from the reinforcement menu, including time to engage in an educational computer game (5 minutes),
reading time (5 minutes), writing time (5 minutes), a chance to present an update on his favorite sports teams
recent activities to the whole class (5 minutes), or to work on football related mathematics problems (5 minutes)
and will be verbally praised for his on-task behavior by Mrs. Grey.

Reinforcement will only be dispensed if Jason meets the criterion number of intervals (I) on-task.

No reinforcement will be dispensed if Jason fails to meet the criterion number of intervals (I) for reinforcement.

Over time the number or intervals (I) during which Jason is required to be on task will be increased in order for
him to receive reinforcement.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

17

Details of the Intervention and


Procedures to be Used

Multiple Prompts Required to Begin Assignment (B2):

Jason will be required to have a decreasing number of prompts (p) presented to him over time prior to
beginning his mathematics assignment (fading). The threshold for reinforcement will start at a high
number of prompts and slowly be reduced. Each day that the level of prompts is found to meet the
criterion level required for reinforcement he will select one activity from the reinforcement menu,
including time to engage in an educational computer game (5 minutes), reading time (5 minutes), writing
time (5 minutes), a chance to present an update on his favorite sports teams recent activities to the
whole class (5 minutes), or an opportunity to work on football related mathematics problems (5 minutes)
and he will be verbally praised for his diligence by Mrs. Grey.

Reinforcement will only be dispensed if Jason meets the criterion number of prompts (p).

No reinforcement will be dispensed if Jason fails to meet the criterion number of prompts (p) for
reinforcement.

The criterion number of prompts (p) required to receive reinforcement will decrease over time.

Jason will be rewarded with one item from the reinforcement menu if the maximum number of
prompts is not exceed and is below or equal to the reduced threshold of prompts required.

Jason will have a piece of paper in front of him with a certain number of boxes and he will be asked
to place a check mark for each time his teacher has to tell him to start work. If there are less check
marks than boxes then he will receive a reinforcement menu option at the end of the lesson.

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

18

On-Task Behavior
Intervention
Jason
Jason Does
Does Not
Not Meet
Meet
On-Task
(I)
On-Task (I)
Requirement
Requirement Between
Between
11:05
and
11:55
11:05 and 11:55 AM
AM
Mathematics
Mathematics
Assignment
Assignment

End
End of
of 50
50 Minute
Minute
Interval
Interval
Jason
Jason is
is On-Task
On-Task (I)
(I)
Required
Number
Required Number of
of
Intervals
Intervals Between
Between
11:05
11:05 and
and 11:55
11:55 AM
AM

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Jason
Jason Receives
Receives No
No
Verbal
Praise
and
Verbal Praise and No
No
Reinforcement
Reinforcement

Jason
Jason Receives
Receives Praise
Praise (R+)
(R+)
and
Can
Chose
5
Minutes
and Can Chose 5 Minutes of
of
Computer
Time
(R+),
5
Computer Time (R+), 5
minutes
minutes of
of Reading
Reading Time
Time (R+),
(R+),
55 Minutes
Minutes of
of Writing
Writing Time
Time (R+),
(R+),
55 Minutes
To
Present
On
Minutes To Present On His
His
Favorite
Sports
Teams
Current
Favorite Sports Teams Current
Standing
Standing (R+),
(R+), or
or 55 Minutes
Minutes To
To
Solve
Solve A
A Football
Football Related
Related
Mathematics
Mathematics Problem.
Problem.

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19

Phases of On-Task Behavior Intervention


Phase

Phase 1

Criterion
(Number Of Intervals
Student Must Be OnTask)

Minutes Required To
Meet Criterion

I = 3/10 (3 Minute Intervals)

15/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

Number Of Days At
Criterion Level

[SelfCheck sheet and reinforcers will be paired


with on-task behavior and Jason will be
instructed on how to acquire more reinforcers]

Phase 2

I = 4/10 (3 Minute Intervals)

20/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

Phase 3

I = 5/10 (3 Minute Intervals)

25/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

Phase 4

I = 6/10 (3 Minute Intervals)

30/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

Phase 5

I = 8/10 (3 Minute Intervals)

40/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

Phase 6

I = 9/10 (3 Minute Intervals)

45/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

Phase 7

I = 10/10 (3 Minute Intervals) 50/50 Minutes On-Task

5 Days

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

2/14/16

20

Number of Prompts Required to Begin


Assignment Intervention
Jason
Jason Does
Does Not
Not Meet
Meet
(p)
Requirement
(p) Requirement
Between
Between 11:05
11:05 and
and
11:55
AM
11:55 AM
Prompt
Prompt to
to Work
Work on
on
Mathematics
Mathematics
Assignment
Assignment

End
End of
of 50
50 Minute
Minute
Interval
Interval
Jason
Jason Meets
Meets (p)
(p)
Requirement
Requirement Between
Between
11:05
11:05 and
and 11:55
11:55 AM
AM

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Jason
Jason Receives
Receives No
No
Verbal
Praise
and
Verbal Praise and No
No
Reinforcement
Reinforcement

Jason
Jason Receives
Receives Praise
Praise (R+),
(R+), 55
Minutes
Minutes of
of Computer
Computer Time
Time
(R+),
5
minutes
of
Reading
(R+), 5 minutes of Reading
Time
Time (R+),
(R+), 55 Minutes
Minutes of
of
Writing
Writing Time
Time (R+),
(R+), 55 Minutes
Minutes
To
Present
On
His
Favorite
To Present On His Favorite
Sports
Sports Teams
Teams Current
Current
Standing
(R+),
or
5
Standing (R+), or 5 Minutes
Minutes To
To
Solve
Solve A
A Football
Football Related
Related
Mathematics
Mathematics Problem.
Problem.

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Phases Of Number Of Prompts Required


To Begin Assignment Intervention
Phase

Criterion
(Maximum Number Of
Prompts Permissable)

Number Of Days At Criterion


Level

Phase 1

p = 7 or Less
5 Days
[SelfCheck sheet and
reinforcers will be paired with the
number of prompts required and
Jason will be instructed on how
to acquire more reinforcers]

Phase 2

p = 6 or Less

5 Days

Phase 3

p = 5 or Less

5 Days

Phase 4

p = 4 or Less

5 Days

Phase 5

p = 2 or Less

5 Days

Phase 6

p=0

5 Days

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

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22

Reinforcement Menu

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

An amendment was made to the


reinforcement menu during Phase 3
which removed classroom prize box
tickets and included football related
mathematics and a 5 minute sports
report as reinforcers. Updated as of
11/11/15

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23

Student Self-Check Sheet

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24

Intervention Implementation

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25

Baseline: M = 38.40%
Phase 1: M = 70.60%
Phase 2: M = 66.20%
Phase 3A: M = 68.00%
Phase 3B: M = 78.33%
Phase 4: M = 82.40%
Phase 5: M = 90.60%
Phase 6: M =
Phase 7: M =

%
O
n
T
a
s
k

100.00%

SD = 27.37071
SD = 15.97811
SD = 10.73313
SD = 12.72792
SD = 11.93035
SD = 11.50217
SD = 8.70632
SD =
SD =

On-Task Behavior
Phase 1

e
Baselin

2
Phase

3
Phase
rs
Reinforce

Altered

4
Phase

Phase 5

6
Phase

7
Phase

80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%
0.00%
Days
On Task

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Off Task

Condition Change

Criterion

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26

Baseline: M = 5.8
Phase 1: M = 4
Phase 2: M = 3.6
Phase 3A: M = 3.5
Phase 3B: M = 2.33333
Phase 4: M = 1.60
Phase 5: M = 1.00
Phase 6: M =

#
O
f
P
r
o
m
p
t
s

12

SD = 3.08401
SD = 1.92354
SD = 0.89443
SD = 0.70711
SD = 0.57735
SD = 0.89443
SD = 0.70711
SD =

e
Baselin

Number
Of Prompts Required
Phase 1

Phase 2

3
Phase

Reinforc

d
ers Altere

4
Phase

Phase 5

6
Phase

10
8
6
4
2
0
Days
Prompts

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Condition Change

Criterion

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Plan Evaluation

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28

Plan Evaluation: On-Task Behavior


100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%

135.94% Increase
As Of Phase 5

50.00%

90.60%

40.00%
30.00%
20.00%

38.40%

10.00%
0.00%

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Baseline

Phase 5

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Plan Evaluation: Off-Task Behavior


100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%

61.60%

20.00%
10.00%
0.00%

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

84.74% Decrease
As Of Phase 5
9.40%

Baseline

Phase 5

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30

On-Task Trend
Altere
Reinforcers

Phase
Progression

Central
Tendency
Measures of
On -Task Time

Percentage of
Change from
Baseline

Baseline

M = 38.40%
SD = 27.37071

N/A

Phase 1

M = 70.60%
SD = 15.97811

83.85%
Increase

Phase 2

M = 66.20%
SD = 10.73313

72.40%
Increase

Phase 3A

M= 68.00%
SD= 12.72792

77.08%
Increase

Phase 3B

M= 78.33%
SD= 11.93035

103.98%
Increase

Phase 4

M= 82.40%
SD= 11.50217

114.58%
Increase

Phase 5

M= 90.60%
SD= 8.70632

135.94%
Increase

Phase 6

In Progress

In Progress

Phase 7

In Progress

In Progress

Percentage of On-Task Versus Off-Task Time During Mathematics


Off-Task

Criterion For
Success = 100%

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Axis Title

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31

On-Task Behavior
Extrapolated Progression
100.00%
% of On Task Behavior
80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%
0.00%

Criterion For
Success = 100%

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

Data Phase/Week

Trendline
Linear
(Trendline)
Projected
Data

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Plan Evaluation: Number Of Prompts Required To


Begin Mathematics Assignment
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00

5.80

82.76%
Decrease As Of Phase 5

2.00
1.00
-

WALLACE D. FULLERTON

1.00
Baseline

Phase 5

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Number Of Prompts Required To Begin


Mathematics Assignment Trend
tered
Reinforcers Al

Phase
Progression

Criterion For
Success =
0 Prompts

Central
Tendency
Measures of OnTask Time

Percentage of
Change from
Baseline

Baseline

M = 5.8
SD = 3.08401

N/A

Phase 1

M=4
SD = 1.92354

31.03%
Decrease

Phase 2

M = 3.6
SD = 0.89443

37.93%
Decrease

Phase 3A

M= 3.5
SD= 0.70711

39.66%
Decrease

Phase 3B

M= 2.33333
SD= 0.57735

59.83%
Decrease

Phase 4

M= 1.60
SD= 0.89443

72.41%
Decrease

Phase 5

M= 1.00
SD= 0.70711

82.76%
Decrease

Prompts Required to Begin Mathematics Assignment

Phase 6

In Progress

In Progress

Phase

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Number of Prompts Required to Begin Mathematics


Assignment Progression

Number of Prompts Required To Begin Mathematics Assignment

Criterion For
Success =
0 Prompts

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Trendline
Linear (Trendline)
Data
Projection

Data By Phase/Week

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Reinforcer Menu Choices


Number of Times
Reinforcer was Chosen

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Football Math Problem

On-Task Behavior
Reinforcement
Lower Prompt Requirement
Reinforcement

Reinforcers Chosen

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Consultees Perception Of
Intervention Success

Mrs. Grey suggests that Jason has improved markedly in on-task behavior.

Prior to the intervention, Mrs. Grey had expressed the belief that Jason needed to be put
on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication to control his impulsive
behaviors and lack of focus.
During the progress of the intervention, this view has significantly changed as Mrs.
Grey explained, You know, before you walked in here I thought this dude really
needed the meds to have any chance of making it in the class, but Im shocked how
well its working. Meds have all kinds of negative side effects, Im glad I didnt push
for the parents to put him on them.

Mrs. Grey also suggested that she has noticed marked improvement in Jasons selfefficacy and interest in learning since the behavior intervention was put into place,
especially in the area of mathematics.

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Consultants Perception of
Intervention Success

The overall success of this program is due to a strong mutual respect which was built in the
weeks prior to the behavioral consultation process.

Consistent check-ins in person were extremely helpful in showing the consultants


investment in the intervention process to the consultee.

Identification of the existing operant conditions in the environment and the relevant, as well
as powerful, reinforcers available was of paramount importance to the success of the
intervention process.
During the intervention it became apparent that the initial reinforcers chosen were too
weak to sustain continued behavioral change and a mid-intervention reassessment of
the reinforcers was required.
This resulted in a revised reinforcement menu.

Behavior change was fairly rapid with an alteration in operants during the mathematics
portion of the class and this was consistent with Jasons ability to remain on-task 100% of
the time in other subject matter.

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Maintenance & Generalization

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Maintenance & Generalization

Maintenance: The process of generalization is best begun after the maintenance period of two weeks has expired. During the
two week maintenance phase, the target behavior should remain at criterion levels. In addition the following activities are
performed:
Two weeks of post-intervention implementation recording is performed.
Intervention is continued at the same level as the final phase of treatment implementation.
Requiring: On-task behavior during 100% of the mathematics lesson or 55/55 Minutes.
Requiring: Zero prompts to be required to begin work, or sustain work during mathematics lesson.

Generalization: Multiple goals are to be met during the generalization process including:
Tangible reinforcers should be eliminated via a thinning process.
Non-tangible reinforcers such as praise and time to participate in reinforcing activities should be reduced to natural levels
found in the environment.
The delivery of reinforcers must be shifted from a continuous schedule to a variable schedule and must mirror the natural
level of reinforcement in the environment.
Generalization has been achieved once the interventions level of reinforcement is in agreement with the natural levels of
reinforcement present in the clients environment.

Contingency Plan: If target behaviors begin reversal to pre-intervention levels the following actions should be undertaken:
Observations should be performed to assess target behaviors level of reversal.
Generalization process should be closely monitored and observed to assure success.
Intervention should be reapplied at a criterion level just below current reversal levels and gradually shaped back to
criterion levels of behavior.

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Generalization Implementation

Week 1:
On-Task Behavior: Thin reinforcements from reinforcement menu.
Verbal reinforcement will be paired with checking boxes on the student self-check sheet and the ability to select from two of
the original five reinforcement menu options; as of phase 5, these options would be football math problem and mathematics
related educational computer games.
These reinforcers are the most commonly chosen options (as of phase 5) and are thus the most reinforcing options
available.
Football mathematics and mathematics educational computer games are in the greatest philosophical agreement with
the clients goals and are the most applicable to the natural environment of the classroom.
Prompts Required to Begin Assignment: Prompts are no longer necessary as student is consistently on-task.
Reinforcement menu for lower number of required prompts will be phased out as increased on-task behavior will eliminate
the need for these prompts.
Verbal reinforcement will no longer be applied at a fixed interval reinforcement schedule and will instead be applied at a
variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
This variable reinforcement will be above the natural reinforcement levels for remaining on task without prompting and
will be gradually thinned from the current variable maintenance phase level of reinforcement to a level which mirrors
the natural levels of reinforcement in the environment.

Week 2:
On-Task Behavior: Verbal reinforcement will be paired with checking boxes on the student self-check sheet and with the single
remaining reinforcement menu option, the football math problem (currently the most selected option).
Prompts Required to Begin Assignment: Prompts should no longer be necessary, as student is consistently on task. Verbal
reinforcement for lower levels of prompting (zero prompts) will continue to be applied at variable intervals, but at a reduced rate
from week one.

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Generalization Implementation

Week 3:
On-Task Behavior: Verbal reinforcement will be paired with the modified remaining reinforcement
menu option, which is a randomly selected math problem (this will still provide the possibility of a
football related problem).
Student self-check sheet will be phased out during this week.
Prompts Required to Begin Assignment: Verbal praise will be lowered to a variable rate consistent
with the natural reinforcement levels present in the classroom environment for zero required prompts.

Week 4:
On-Task Behavior: Only verbal reinforcement is applied for on-task behavior during mathematics
assignment.
Verbal reinforcement will continue to be thinned over time, and will no longer be placed on a
fixed reinforcement schedule.
Verbal reinforcement will be thinned to a variable reinforcement schedule with a mean
equal to the current maintenance phase level of reinforcement (which is above the natural
levels of reinforcement) and will continue to be reduced until it reaches the average level
of reinforcement in the environment.
The use of verbal praise is a well suited reinforcer which is readily deployable in the classroom
setting and will provide a natural contingency that can be easily maintained under natural
conditions.

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME


For Any Questions or Comments Please Feel Free To Contact Me At The Following:
Phone: 1 (530) 632-6466
Email: wfullerton@gmail.com

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