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Ideal Gas: PV =RT

Use (2) to find Pcalculated until P

converges.
Use Daltons to find xi

o
o
o

Use Antoine, find Psat

Use Daltons to find P
Use Raouls to find yi

o
o
o

Use Antoine, find Psat

Use (2) to calculate P.
Use Raoults to calculate x1

Antoine : ln P sat =A

B
T+C

Raoul t ' s : y 1P=x 1P1sat

sat
Dalto n' s : P tot =x1 Psat
1 + x 2 P2

Linear with

Ideal
sat

P
K
Rel . Votality : 12 = 1sat = 1 ( weak fucntion of T )
K2
P2

4. Dew P :Given y 1T . Calculate Px 1

5.Given T PFind x i y i

sat
sat
P ( x 1P 1 + x 2P2 )1
=
P2sat
Psat
2

o
o

Use Antoine, find Psat

Use Daltons to find x

PPsat
x 1= sat 2 sat
P1 P2

P
P
> P =
=
(1)
sat
x

x 1P1
1
12 + x 2
+ x2
Psat
2
sat
2

Assume T, calculate P1sat and P2sat

from Antoine.
Use Daltons to find Pcalculated
Use Pcalculated to find y1 using
Raoults.
Repeat until ys converge. Or until
P converges.

6.Given x yFind T P

o
o

o

At given P, find T1sat and T2sat

(boiling points) if available ->
sat
T initial =x 1T sat
1 + x 2T 2

Or just assume T, calculate P1sat and

P2sat from Antoine.
Put those into Daltons Law
to see if get the same P,
repeat until P converges. Use
Raoults to find ys
Or, find P2sat from (1). Plug it
back to Antoine to find T
until T converges.

y iP

y iP

o
o
o

At Bubble Point: L = 1, V = 0 => Z1(1)

= x1
At Dew Point: L = 0, V = 1 => Z1(1) =
y1

2
Pdew=

1
Z 1 1Z1
+ sat
sat
P1
P2

P1

1
1
> P=
=
(2)
y1
y2
yi
+
sat
P2
Psat
Pi
1

x i=1x i=

( )

sat
1

= 1=

sat

sat

Assume T, find Psat

Z 1=x 1(1V ) + y 1V =V =

Z 1x 1
(4)
y 1x 1

Modified Raoults Law:

sat
y 1 P= 1x 1P1 ( 5 ) where =activity coef .

Case I:

is independent of xi ( H . C)

y 1 1Psat
1
=
x1
P

K values for light H.C chart 10.13 and

10.14

y1
=K 1 . If K >1=alcohol ,<1=H 2 O
x1

Pdew=

y1

y2
+
sat
1P 1 2P2

sat

sat
Pbubble =x1 Psat
1 1 + ( 1x1 ) P 2 2

Pbubble =x1
Find Psat using Antoine
Find K1 using:
sat
1

y 1P= x1P K 1P=P

y 1=
o

y i=1
y i=1=x 1K 1+ ( 1x 1 )K 2
12.Given x 1 , y 1Z 1Find P , T
o

Assume T, find Psat

Choose

sat
Psat
2 < P I< P 1

that satisfies

these Psat
At this P,T read Ks or use Raoults to
find out either x or y. Compare the
calculated to the given.

y 1P= x1H

Find V using (4)

Find y 1 by Substitute x 1=

Henrys Constant depends on T only

P=x 1 H 1 + x 2P2sat

sat
1

y1
into ( 3 ) ,
K1

Z 1K 1
(6)
1+ V( K 1 1 )

* Azeotrope

o

Read K 1K 2 chart , plug( 7 )

Repeat until find a P where (7) is
satisfied.

9. GivenT , y 1Find P , x1

x 1= y 1 /K 1= 1= y 1 / K 1 + ( 1 y 1 )K 2 (8)

Law*
o

Use Raoults or (4) to find x

8. GivenT , x 1Find P , y 1

Read Ks or use Raoults to find K

Assume x1 to calculate y1 until

o
o

Henr y ' s ConstantP .357 at T =25 o C

7.Given T , P , Z Calculate x , y , V

satisfied

Let

o
o

Read K 1K 2 chart , plug( 8 )

depends on T , Px i

Case II:

Solve (5)

Assume Pdew <P I < Pbubble

If i depends on xi

=> Azeotrope may

exist
az

az

az

az

x 1 = y 1 x 2 = y 2

1 P1
y2
sat
y1
2 P2
P
=
=
x1
x2
P

sat

y1
sat
x1 1P1
> 12 = =
y 2 2P2sat
x2

x1 Psat
1
y 1=
P
x2 Psat
2
y 2=
P

Test for Azeotrope

Find lim 12 lim 12

x1 1

1
o

x 2 1

compare to

If opposite sign azeotrope . No Raoul t ' s Law .

az

o
o

P = 1 P1

az

az

sat

az

sat

1 P1

P
= 1az = 2sat
sat
2P2
2 P1

az
12=1=

y 3=

( 1x 1x 2 ) P sat
3
P

4 equations, 4 unknowns.

Non Raoults

sat

Z 1K 1
1+V ( K 11 )

Find V easily then plug back in and find

individual ys.
Raoults

sat
P=x 1 P1sat + x2 Psat
2 + ( 1x 1x 2 ) P 3

Calculate x using K.