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COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

LTE BASICS & FUNDAMENTAL RADIO FEATURES


Advanced Network RF Design Engineering
November 2011
COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
3
COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

OFDM

Motivation
Based on the previous technologies used the main source of interference is
coming from multi-path channel
It induces
-

Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) in the time domain

Frequency-selectivity in the frequency domain

High data rates imply a short symbol duration:


-

For same multipath delays, short symbols encounter more ISI than longer ones

To reduce ISI:
-

symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
#1
#1
#1
#1

Conventional time-domain equalizers

symbol #2

- Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to have


frequency-domain equalization
- OFDM

ISI
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
#1#1#1#1

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symbol #2

ISI

OFDM

Motivation
Single carrier vs. multi-carrier transmissions
channel

N carriers

Channelization
Guard bands

B
Pulse length ~1/B

B
Pulse length ~ N/B

Data transmitted on 1 carrier

Data shared among MC and simultaneously


transmitted

Selective fading
Short pulse length
ISI is comparatively long
Complex equalization
Need guard band, which
reduces the spectrum
efficiency

Flat fading per carrier


Pulse length is N times longer
ISI is much shorter
Simpler equalization
Need guard bands, which
reduces the spectrum
efficiency

=> How to remove guard bands between subcarriers?


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OFDM

Motivation
Answer is OFDM!
Characteristics:
- Overlapping orthogonal subcarriers

f =

- Wideband BW divided into K subcarriers with spacing

BW
K

- Cyclic Prefix (CP): robustness to multipath


- Easy implementation with IFFT/FFT at transmitter and receiver

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Basic of OFDM
Waveform

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Basic of OFDM

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Basic of OFDM
Orthogonality lost

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Basic of OFDM

Doppler & frequency offset effects

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Basic of OFDM
Multi-path effect

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Basic of OFDM
Multi-path effect

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Basic of OFDM
CP length

Extended CP length ~ 17s

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Basic of OFDM
OFDM scalable

( 1.4MHz*, 1.6MHz**, 3MHz, 3.2MHz**, 5MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz, 20MHz)


* FDD only, **TDD only

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OFDM
Pros and cons
Summary of advantages
- Robust against Intersymbol interference (ISI) and multipath fading
- High spectral efficiency
- Efficient implementation using FFT low complexity
- Can easily adapt to severe channel conditions without complex equalization
- Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors
- Tuned sub-channel receiver filters are not required (unlike traditional FDM)
- More favorable to MIMO techniques
- Facilitates Single Frequency Networks

Summary of disadvantages
- Sensitive to Doppler shift and to frequency synchronization problems
- Inter-Carrier Interference (subcarrier orthogonality not anymore respected)

- High Peak to Average Power Ratio


- due to linear power amplifier requirement

- Loss of spectral efficiency due to the insertion of the CP


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COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
16
COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Requirements for E-UTRAN


- Scalable bandwidth :
- 1.4/1.6, 3/3.2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20MHz

- Targeted Peak Throughputs


- DL : >100Mbps for 20MHz spectrum allocation
- UL : 50Mbps for 20MHz spectrum allocation
- Scaling linearly with the spectrum allocation

- Targeted increased of spectrum efficiency vs HSPA


- DL : 3-4 times R6 HSDPA for LTE MIMO (2,2)

- UL : 2-3 times R6 E-DCH (HSUPA) for LTE (1 Tx,2 Rx)

- Ultra low latency


- <10ms for round trip delay from UE to server
- Reduced call set-up time
- Transition time (Idle -> Active) < 100 msec
- Transition time (Dormant -> Active) < 50 msec
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Requirements for E-UTRAN


- High capacity per cell
- 200 users per cell for 5MHz,
- 400 users in larger spectrum allocations

- Mobility
- LTE is optimized for low speeds 0-15km/h, high performance for speeds up to 120km/h,
and mobility maintained for speeds up to 350km/h

- Efficient support of the various types of services in the PS domain

- Co-existence and Inter-working with 3GPP RAT


- Handover between 3G & LTE:
- Real-Time services < 300ms
- Non- Real Time services < 500ms

- Both FDD and TDD modes

18
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Requirements for E-UTRAN


Air Interface characteristics
- Multiple Access Schemes:
- Downlink: OFDMA
- Uplink: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)

- Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) with up to 4 antennas per base station
- High Order Modulations:
- Downlink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
- Uplink: QPSK, 16QAM

- Turbo coding
- H-ARQ

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Frame structure
Duration is 10ms; made up with 10 subframes of 1ms
Each subframe contains Physical Resource Blocks (PRB), whose number depends on the total
bandwidth available
BW

PRBs

1.4MHz** 1.6 MHz*

3 MHz

3.2 MHz * 5 MHz

15

16

25

10 MHz

15 MHz

20 MHz

50

75

100

* TDD only, **FDD only

A PRB spans over 12 subcarriers over a subframe duration.


- Bandwidth occupancy is 180 kHz (=12*15kHz)

Several configuration of CP:


- Normal CP: 4.7s => 7 OFDM/SC-FDMA symbols per slot

- Extended CP ~ 17s => 6 OFDM/SC-FDMA symbols per slot

In 1 subframe, 14 symbols are transmitted (resp. 12 for extended CP)

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LTE Physical Channels Overview


Random access

HARQ feedback
CQI reporting
UL scheduling request
CQI reporting for MIMO
related feedback

Traffic

eNode-B

Slot/Frame
synchronization &
Cell Id identification

HARQ feedback
Transport format
UL scheduling grant
Resource allocation

Traffic

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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
22
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DL Channels Mapping

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LTE Downlink: Frame Format, Channel


Structure & Terminology

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LTE Downlink: Number of Resource


Blocks & Numerology

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Downlink common Reference Signal


structure

- Reference signal symbol distribution sequence over 12 subcarriers x 14 OFDM


symbols.
- The Reference signal sequence is correlated to Cell ID.
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Downlink common Reference Signal structure per number


of antenna port

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PBCH, SCH Time and frequency location

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Basic of cell search

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Primary BCH & Dynamic BCH

D-BCH:

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Primary BCH & Dynamic BCH

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P-BCH SINR achievable on the field


The targets specified below concern the frequency re-use 1 configuration.

These targets concern the channels transmitted in TXdiv mode so, P-BCH

For PBCH as all the cells transmit it all the time on the same spectrum allocation the
conditions are always 100% load

The achievable targets below for zones essentially interference limited which represents
99% of the conditions in which a network is deployed.

95% of the field area should have SINR -5dB, with 100% DL load

95% of the field area should have a SINR -2dB with 50% DL load

All the explanation concerning these targets will be detailed in slides RF


design rules

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PBCH

TXDIV : BLER VERSUS SINR

Based on curves above PBCH can support SINR conditions lower than -5dB for
1% BLER.
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PCFICH & PHICH

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PDCCH

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PDCCH SINR achievable on the field


The targets specified below concern the frequency re-use 1 configuration.

These targets concerned the channels transmitted in TXdiv mode so, PDCCH,

For PDCCH ( like for PDSCH) the SINR targets value depends on the traffic load, but is
not impacted by the number of Tx antennas until all the cells of a same cluster have
the same number; which is highly recommended.

These targets are valid when there is no power control

The achievable targets below for zones essentially interference limited which represents
99% of the conditions in which a network is deployed.

95% of the field area should have SINR -5dB, with 100% DL load

95% of the field area should have a SINR -2dB with 50% DL load

All the explanation concerning these targets will be detailed in slides RF


design rules

36
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PDCCH

Aggregation Level 2 is used for common transmission, and data transmission


signaling
Aggregation Level 8 is used for HHO and constraining phase
Based on the curves above PDCCH BLER is extremely high for AL2 for 5dB SINR
which measured at cell edge in 100% load conditions
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PDCCH

Power control impact


The table below shows the impact of PDCCH power control on PDSCH BLER
and transmission quality

These results have been obtained for ETU 5Hz profile; for a full loaded scenario
considering 10 users/ cells

LA3.0 implemented power control is IS-PWCTL.

Bad performances for fixed PDCCH power mode at cell edge : 48% residual PDCCH
BLER with mcs0 and AL2
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PDCCH: DCI formats carried


DCI includes resource assignments and other control information

39
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Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)

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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
41
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LTE Uplink
Overview

Uplink employs Single-carrier OFDMA (SC-FDMA)


- UL physical channel
- Shared channel PUSCH
- Control channel PUCCH
-

Carry the ACK/NACK to support the DL

Never transmitted with the PUSCH (to keep the Single-Carrier property)

UL physical signals
- Reference Signal (RS) => narrowband information
- Sounding RS => broadband: used for UL resource scheduling

Available modulation for data


- QPSK, 16QAM, (64QAM)

MIMO
- MU-MIMO
-

Collaboration between UEs to transmit on the same PRBs

- SU-MIMO will be addressed in the future


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LTE Uplink

Multiple Access Scheme


OFDMA:
High PAPR in OFDMA

amplitude of combined subcarriers


depends widely on the symbol data
transmitted
peak when identical symbols are
transmitted
waveform becomes Gaussian
practical RF amplifiers have a
certain range => non-linear distortion

- To facilitate efficient power amplifier design in the UE, 3GPP chose single
carrier frequency domain multiple access (SC-FDMA) in favor of OFDMA
for uplink multiple access
- SC-FDMA improves the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) compared to
OFDMA
- ~4 dB improvement for QPSK, ~2 dB improvement for 16-QAM
- Reduced power amplifier cost for mobile
- Reduced power amplifier back-off improved coverage
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LTE Uplink

Multiple Access Scheme

SC-FDMA

frequency

- SC-FDMA is still an orthogonal multiple access scheme (DFTprecoded OFDMA)


UE A

- Single carrier leads to ISI => need for equalization


1 tap equalization with the use of CP

UE B
Node B
UE C

- Synchronous in the time domain through the use of timing


advance (TA) signaling
-

Only need to be synchronous within a fraction of the CP length

TA command sent as a MAC control element with 0.52 ms timing resolution


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UE A Transmit Timing
b

UE B Transmit Timing
g

UE C Transmit Timing

LTE Uplink: Number of Resource Blocks &


Numerology

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UL Physical Channels

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UL Channels Mapping

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Demodulation Reference Signal & Sounding Reference Signal

49
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Demodulation Reference Signal & Sounding Reference Signal

50
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PUCCH

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PUCCH

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PUCCH

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PRACH

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RACH Cell Range Limitations LTE

LTE Systems can be limited by the time duration allocated to an RA Slot during RACH.

3GPP standards define four RACH Formats that will support different maximum cell
ranges.

In LA1.x ALU supports RACH format 0 (15km)

In LA5.0 time frame ALU will support RACH format 2 (30 km)

In LA6.0 time frame ALU will support RACH format 3 (100km) (to be confirmed).

RACH Format
Format
Format
Format
Format

0
2
1
3

RA Slot
1
2
2
3

msec
msec
msec
msec

Tcp
0.10
0.20
0.67
0.67

Tseq

msec
msec
msec
msec

0.80
1.60
0.80
1.60

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msec
msec
msec
msec

Tgap
0.10
0.20
0.50
0.67

msec
msec
msec
msec

Max Cell
Range
15 km
30 km
75 km
100 km

Radom Access procedures

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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
57
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LTE Uplink
Power control
Open-loop power control:
- To constrain the dynamic range between signals received from different UEs
- Unlike CDMA there is no intra-cell interference exploit fading by means of link
adaptation and scheduling

Classical PC:
- all users achieve the same target SINR

Fractional PC

- Interior users transmit at reduced power spectral density

Fractional PC (more flexible):


- Trade-off between spectral efficiency and cell edge rates
- Target SINR increases with decreasing path loss

Others, e.g. aperiodic fast power control


Interference over Thermal noise (IoT) is a key performance criterion: open-loop PC
params can be adjusted to reach a target IoT
crucial in reuse-1 deployment to guarantee coverage and stability
58
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Fractional Power Control


- While using the same target SINR for each user results in very good
fairness (as far as power allocation is concerned), it also results in
poor spectral efficiency
- An improved power control scheme called Fractional Power Control
adjusts the target SINR in relation to the UEs path loss to its serving
sector
- UE_TxPSD_dBm = a x PL_dB + Nominal_Target_SINR_dB +
UL_Interference_dBm

- a is called the fractional compensation factor, and is sent via cell broadcast; 0 < a
<1

Target_SINR_dB = Nominal_Target_SINR_dB
- (1-a) x PL_dB

Target SINR increases with decreasing path loss


Flexible trade-off between cell edge rate and average
spectral efficiency
59
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Target
SINR

IoT Control Mechanism (Inter-cell Power


Control)

- Setting of Target_SINR_dB determines the IoT operating point

- Especially in a reuse-1 deployment, it is critical to manage the uplink interference


level
- In LTE, e-NBs can send uplink overload indications to neighbor e-NBs via the X2
interface
- Power control parameters (i.e. Target SINR) can be adapted based on overload
indicators
- Allows control of the IoT level to ensure coverage and system stability
Overload indicator
(X-2 interface)
PC params

PC params
Measure
Interference, emit
overload indicator

interference

60
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Based on overload
indicator from
neighbor cell,
adapt PC params

Improved Power Control Based on Neighbor Cell


Path Loss
- Path loss to the serving cell is not indicative of the amount of interference
a user will generate to neighboring sectors
- An improved power control scheme adjusts the target SINR in relation to
PL_dB = PL_strongestNeighborCell_dB PL_servingCell_dB
- UE_TxPSD_dBm = PL_dB + Nominal_Target_SINR_dB + (1-b) x PL_dB +
UL_Interference_dBm
- (1-b) x PL_dB is sent to each UE via higher layer (RRC) signaling

Target SINR

Target_SINR_dB = Nominal_Target_SINR_dB
+ (1-b) x PL_dB

Target SINR increases with increasing radio


position

61
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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
62
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Scheduler

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Scheduler weighted proportional fair

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Scheduler proportional fair principles

65
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Scheduler proportional fair principles

66
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Scheduler proportional fair principles

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Scheduler proportional fair principles

68
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Frequency Non-Selective Scheme

Single priority metric formed and used in


the first stage of the MPE algorithm

Priority
3
Metric

Then MPE algorithm continues as in FSS


scheme

UE 3
UE 2
UE 1
1

UE 1
UE 2
UE 3

Resource Unit Index

The SRS SYNC SINR is a scalar quantity per user that is formed by averaging the SRS SINR across
PRBs and then filtered in time; used to form a single priority metric, which is replicated and used for
all PRBs
- To support a large number of UEs, the SRS period needs to be reduced given the multiplexing capabilities (max
of 8 UEs per SRS transmission per frequency comb)

The regular MPE algorithm as in the FSS algorithm is then utilized, which minimizes
testing/verification to just the new code introduced

69
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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
70
COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

ICIC

Part of SON functionality

In a reuse-1 deployment it is critical to manage the UL & DL interference level


- Interference measured by UE and reported to eNB

interference

Implemented to improve interference-limitations


- Also improves UE throughput at cell edge

Inter Cell Interference Coordination


- Uplink Fractional Frequency Reuse and Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse

Improvements in later releases


- Downlink - Power limitation on frequency blocks
- Semi-static interference coordination
- Antenna parameter optimisation e.g. tilt

71
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ICIC
Uplink

b
g

b
g

=> Inefficient use of BW


5 MHz

- static subcarrier restriction in each sector


a

Virtual 1/3 Frequency Reuse

F1

F3

F2

10

1.67 MHz

1.67 MHz

1.67 MHz

Sector a

Sector b

Sector g

11

5 MHz

Simulation results:
F1

F3

F2

10

11

- 1.67
Increased
user SINR due to lower interference
MHz
1.67 MHz

1.67 MHz

CDF
1
0.9

b
Sector g
- IncreasedSector
cell-edge
user throughput (~18%)

0.8

- But... reduced sector throughput

0.6

Sector a

Reuse-1

UL Sector
Throughput

5% CDF UL User
Throughput

3.33 Mbps

135 kbps

0.7

0.5
0.4
reuse-1
reuse-1/3

0.3
0.2
0.1

Reuse-1/3

2.32 Mbps

160 kbps

0
-5

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5
10
15
Scheduled User Symbol SINR (dB)

20

25

ICIC
Uplink
Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse

- Mobiles at the cell border cause most of the


interference to adjacent cells

inner cell, reuse 1 => better spectral efficiency

b
g

b
g

cell borders, reuse 1 but the transmit power for the


cell edge user is reduced in non-preferred
frequency zones
- Designate a portion of BW in each cell which bears
the interference from neighboring cells (call this the
trash heap)

b
g

b
g

Sector a

10

11

IoT

Sector b

- For cell border mobiles, the uplink scheduler


Try to
prefers to assign resources in the trash heap of the
concentrate
mobiles strongest neighboring cell
interference

in these
- If the scheduler needs to assign the mobile outside
the trash heap, it does so with a reduced transmit trash heaps
PSD level

10

11

10

11

IoT

Sector g
0

73

IoT

- Through the usual handoff measurements, the


serving cell knows the identity of the strongest
neighboring cell for each mobile

COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Pros and Cons of Interference Coordination


- Pros: Coordination of the interference between cells concentrates
interference into known portions of the system bandwidth in each cell
- Interference level is reduced over a large part of the operating bandwidth

- Cons: Reduction in uplink interference level is done by placing restrictions


on how the scheduler can allocate resources to cell border mobiles
- The size of the trash heap zone is small, which limits the number of resource
blocks that can be assigned to a cell border mobile
- Cannot assign resources across the trash heap zone and the normal zone, because cannot
have the same mobile transmit at different transmit PSD levels on different resource blocks

- Restriction on cell edge mobiles reduces the frequency selective scheduling (FSS)
gains, when FSS is utilized as there are less resource blocks available

Interference Coordination is beneficial providing it is not used in conjunction with


Frequency Selective Scheduling
74
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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
75
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DL MCS table

76
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UL MCS table

77
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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
78
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MIMO

Reminder
- Reminder on some definitions
user 2
user 1
SISO channel

SIMO channel, i.e.


RxDiv

MIMO channel

MU-MIMO channel

- SU-MIMO (Single User MIMO)


- Spatial Multiplexing (SM): increase peak rate by 2 in MIMO 2x2
- Transmit Diversity (TxDiv): improve reliability of a single data stream
- Closed-loop implementation: use channel state information at the transmitter (BF/precoding)

- MU-MIMO (Multiuser MIMO)


- Multiple data streams from/to different users sent on the same resource
- Works even with single antenna/PA mobile

- In the subsequent slides, the focus is on the downlink as uplink does not support SU-MIMO
(i.e. 1 single PA/UE to have a low cost UE)
- note that uplink MU-MIMO has an impact essentially on the scheduler algorithm

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MIMO

Terminology
The relationship between codewords, rank and layers is not unique and depends on
the MIMO scheme to be considered.
- Codeword: an independently encoded data block, corresponding to a single transport block
with one CRC
- a codeword is directly related to the channel coding operation
- #codewords #layers

- Rank: number of non-redundant data streams that can be transmitted (related to the spatial
multiplexing gain)
- coded data streams may be split into different layers and how the data stream is split depends on the
antenna scheme and the rank of the channel:
-

if rank = 1, only one codeword can be transmitted if multiple coded data streams, they carry the same information

if rank = 2, either one or two codewords can be transmitted while offering a spatial multiplexing gain of 2 2
unique coded data streams

if rank = k, up to k codewords while offering a SM gain of k k unique coded data streams

- Layer: number of streams (including redundant ones) to be transmitted


- #layers #antennas

- a layer containing data symbols is mapped onto the transmit antenna ports:
-

TxDiv: #layers = #antennas

SM (including rank-1 precoding): #layers


= rank of 80
transmission
COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

MIMO

Examples
- Spatial multiplexing can be achieved with either 1 or multiple codewords
transmission
- SU-MIMO 2x2 offers 2 possibilities: 1 or 2 codewords for rank-2 transmission

3GPP LTE

WiMAX

2 codewords

1 codeword
Advantage: save signaling overhead as the
HARQ associated signaling is rather expensive

Advantage: permit Successive Interference


Cancellation decoding at the receiver

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MIMO

Examples

- Spatial multiplexing can be achieved with either 1 or multiple codewords


transmission
- SU-MIMO 2x2 offers 2 possibilities: 1 or 2 codewords for rank-2 transmission

2 codewords

x2 x1
s2 s1

2 layers

1 codeword

2 layers

x2 x1

x2 x1
Layer
mapping

precoder

x 4 x3 x 2 x 1
s2 s1

Layer
mapping

precoder

x4 x3

Advantage: save signaling overhead as the


HARQ associated signaling is rather expensive

Advantage: permit Successive Interference


Cancellation decoding at the receiver
=> SIC allows significant gains

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MIMO in LTE

DL Transmission modes
Different transmission modes available for PDSCH (Rel8 & Rel9)
- TM1: Single transmit from eNB
- TM2: Transmit diversity (SFBC)

- TM3: Open-loop Spatial Multiplexing (SM)


- TM4: Closed-loop SM
- TM5: MU-MIMO

Beamforming solutions (1 or 2 beams)


Relying on long-term precoders e.g.
AoA (Angle of Arrival) algorithm
Good performances maintained at
high UE speed

- TM6: Closed-loop rank-1 precoding


- TM7: Single-layer beamforming (BF)
- TM8 (3GPP Rel9): Dual-layer BF
DL MU-MIMO
Relying on CSIT (Channel State Information at Transmitter)
Require accurate feedback (as interference rejection is here
also done at the transmitter side)
based on PMI Rel8 codebook designed for SU-MIMO

83
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MIMO in LTE
Downlink Overview
MIMO

Well-suited for
high speed

Well-suited for
low speed

Open Loop

Closed Loop

RI, CQI

Low SINR or
low scattering

Single Stream
Rank 1

Transmit
Diversity
(TM2)

SM = Spatial Multiplexing
RI = Rank Indication
CQI = Channel Quality Indication
PMI = Pre-coding Matrix
Indication
RS = Reference Symbol
OL = Open Loop
CL= Closed Loop
TD = Transmit Diversity

RI, CQI, PMI

High SINR and


rich scattering

Low SINR or low


scattering

Multi-Stream
Rank 2-4

Open Loop SM
(TM3)
Adapt To: OL TD

Single Stream

Multi-Stream

Rank 1

Rank 2-4

CL Rank-1
Precoding
(TM6)

Closed Loop SM
(TM4)

Adapt To: OL TD

Improve reliability of a Allow multiple data


single data stream with
streams to be sent on the
SFBC. Useful to
same frequency-time RB.
common channels

High SINR and rich


scattering

Adapt To: CL1 &


OL TD

Improve coverage and


throughput with a channeldependent precoding (PMI
reporting)

Limited channel knowledge at Tx (RI,


CQI)
84

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Codeword to layer mapping


2 Transmit Antennas

TM2 OL TxDiv SFBC is implemented which is a frequency-domain version of


the Alamouti code.
- The transmitted diversity streams are orthogonal
- SFBC/Alamouti code (2x2):
- 1 single possibility:
- transmission relies on 1 single codeword
- the codeword is duplicated on 2 layers (redundancy)

- rank = #symbols / #subcarriers


- the single codeword is sent twice over 2 subcarriers (sc)
=> 2 unique symbols on 2 subcarriers = rank-1 transmission
2 sc

2 layers

1 codeword

x2 x1
bK ... b2 b1

Modulation
+ coding

x2 x1

Layer
mapping

SFBC
precoder

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-x1*x2*

Codeword to layer mapping


2 Transmit Antennas

TM3 or TM4 LTE spatial multiplexing uses 2 codewords (see Fig. 2)


- 1 codeword corresponds to 1 Transport Block Size (TBS)
- Rank-1 transmission (TM6) is often seen as a special case of SU-MIMO spatial
multiplexing. In this case, 1 codeword is used
The codeword to layer mapping is trivial: the codeword n is mapped to the layer n.
- #codewords = #layers
- #layers = rank of transmission
The mapping between codewords and layers is shown below:
layer 1

CW#1

Rank-2
Precoding
(1x2)

CW#1
CW#2

Rank-1
Fig. 1: Rank-1 transmission

layer #1

layer #2

Precoding
(2x2)

Fig. 2: Rank-2 transmission


86

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MIMO in LTE
RF Hardware

MIMO 2x2 is supported on the RF hardware products as soon as modules have 2


RF transmit paths (2 PAs)
- the product name should end with 2x such as RRH2x, TRDU2x.
LTE Baseband Unit

RRH2x

CPRI

LTE 2x2 MIMO

- MC-RRH is MIMO ready with a single module


- however, 2 MC-TRX are required to support MIMO 2x2
MC-RRH
supporting
LTE 2x2 MIMO

LTE BBU module


89
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MIMO in LTE

Antenna Design
- Xpol
- 2 uncorrelated outputs: good diversity gains

- algorithms supported
-

TxDiv/SFBC

CL & OL SM up to 2 streams

UL MU-MIMO with 2 users

~16 cm

- XXpol closely spaced


- correlation between elements with equal polarisation: array and
diversity gains
TxDiv/SFBC

CL & OL SM up to 2 streams

UL MU-MIMO with 4 users

XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
~ 30 cm

- algorithms supported:
-

X
X
X
X
X
X

- UL performance +++
- DL performance +

recommended for balanced UL & DL performances

- Suitable radio environments: large/outdoor cell/cell border, LOS


environments
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~16 cm

MIMO in LTE

Antenna Design
- XXpol widely spaced
- 4 uncorrelated outputs: good diversity gains

- algorithms supported:
-

TxDiv/SFBC

CL & OL SM up to 4 streams

UL MU-MIMO with 4 users

- UL performance +++

- DL performance ++

X
X
X
X
X
X

>1.m

~16 cm

best UL performances

- Suitable radio environments: picoCell/indoor, high SNR, rich scattering


environment

91
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X
X
X
X
X
X

MIMO in LTE

Antenna Design
CLA-2X

DIV-2X
4 uncorrelated outputs

4 outputs:
2 uncorrelated (different polar.)
2 correlated (same polar.)

/2

10

CLA-4X

ULA-4V
4 correlated outputs:
DL OL & CL with SM up to 2 streams
(depending on correlation)
DL & UL MU-MIMO up to 4 users

8 outputs
Used in single-layer
BF with 8Tx

/2

/2

/2

/2

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Antennas Configuration

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FDD
May11

ROADMAP OVERVIEW
FDD mode

Q1

Q2

2011

Q3

Q4

LA4.0

LTE FDD

2012

Q1

Q2

Q3

LA5.0

Q4

LA6.0

INTERNAL

Q1

2013

Q2

Q3

LA7.0

LA4.0

LA5.0

LA6.0

LA7.0

Uplink:
4RxDiv (5MHz)
Downlink:
SISO & SIMO (as
back-up schemes)

Uplink:
4RxDiv (15MHz)
1 Rx

Uplink:
eNB IRC Rx

Uplink:
MU-MIMO with SIC
Downlink:
SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO
as in Rel10 (LTE-a)

- Supported configurations from Day-1:


- UL: 2RxDiv

- DL: OL TxDiv (SFBC) & MIMO 2x2

Note: All LTE UEs shall support the 2-way RxDiv


94
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UPLINK 4RxDiv

Coverage Feature

Benefits

- Peak user throughput no impact


- Coverage
- better SINR performances which depend upon the antenna correlation 2.5dB are accounted in the
link budget tool (high correlation case)

Correlation
Rx Combining Gain
Spatial Diversity Gain
4RxDiv Gain (QPSK)

Low
Large
4.2 dB

Medium
3dB (4RxDiv)
Medium
4.1 dB

High
Small
3 dB

- IoT reduction 1dB IoT reduction is accounted for in ALU link budget
coverage enhancement of 3.5dB corresponding to a site count reduction of ~36%

- Avg. Cell Throughput


- Large spectral efficiency gain with 4RxDiv compared to 2RxDiv
Spectral Efficiency
2RxDiv
4RxDiv
Delta

Case 1
Case 3
WP
0.74 bps/Hz 0.62 bps/Hz 0.60 bps/Hz
1.01 bps/Hz 0.80 bps/Hz 0.84 bps/Hz
+36%
+29%
+40%
95

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UPLINK 4RxDiv

Coverage Feature

Hardware

Hardware requirements
- RRH2x with an expander module which allows to combine the 4 radio branches
in the uplink

- 4 feeders
- 4 antenna connectors with either 2 Xpol antennas widely spaced or XXpol
2 Xpol antennas

XXpol

10

/2

2 correlated outputs
reduced diversity gains
Rx Combining gain

4 uncorrelated outputs
best diversity gains
Rx Combining gain
96

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UPLINK 1RxDiv

Fallback Feature

Benefits

- Peak user throughput no impact


- Coverage
- better SINR performances which depend upon the antenna correlation 2.5dB are
accounted in the link budget tool
RxDiv scheme

SINR

IoT

1RxDiv

-2.5 dB

+1 dB

2RxDiv

0 dB

0 dB

- IoT increased by 1 dB
coverage degradation of 3.5dB corresponding to a site count increase by ~57%

- Avg. Cell Throughput


- Large spectral efficiency loss
Spectral Efficiency
1RxDiv
2RxDiv
Delta

Case 1
0.54 bps/Hz
0.74 bps/Hz
-27%

97
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Case 3
0.48 bps/Hz
0.62 bps/Hz
-23%

WP
0.43 bps/Hz
0.60 bps/Hz
-29%

DOWNLINK Single Transmit

Fallback Feature

Benefits

- Peak user throughput


- peak user trhoughput reduction as no spatial multiplexing is allowed
- see the Peak Throughput training for more details

- Avg. Cell Throughput


- Expected throughput reduction due to the deactivation of 1 transmit antenna
- 1dB estimated in the link budget tool
- < 10% cell spectral efficiency reduction

- Note: with a single transmit & receive path (i.e. no RxDiv), the second antenna
connector is not used and should be terminated by a load
RRH
Spectral
Efficiency
SIMO
MIMO 2x2

Case 1

Case 3

WP

1.48 bps/Hz 1.36 bps/Hz 1.10 bps/Hz


1.61 bps/Hz 1.48 bps/Hz 1.20 bps/Hz

Main Tx/Rx

-8%

98
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load

Vpol antenna

DOWNLINK MIMO 4x2

Capacity Feature

Benefits

INTERNAL: Gains
under discussions

- Peak user throughput


- MIMO 4x2 same peak user rate as MIMO 2x2 (due to a maximum SM gain of 2)

- Avg. Cell Throughput


- Constant total power assumed wrt. MIMO 2x2
- Received signal strength increased by enhanced 4 antenna pre-coding
- Reduced interference due to more directional emission
Spectral
Efficiency
MIMO 2x2
MIMO 4x2

Case 1

Case 3

1.61 bps/Hz 1.48 bps/Hz


1.72 bps/Hz 1.58 bps/Hz

Today
~7%

CLA-2X: XXpol closely spaced

- Expected performances dependent upon the deployed antenna solution


- DIV-2X: 2 Xpol antennas widely spaced

99

10

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/2

DOWNLINK MIMO 4x4

Capacity Feature

Benefits

INTERNAL: Gains
under discussions

- Peak user throughput


- MIMO 4x4 double the peak user rate wrt. MIMO 2x2 as the Spatial Multiplexing (SM)
gain is up to 4 spatial layers

- UE Category 5 required expected in > 2013 timeframe


- Avg. Cell Throughput
- Constant total power assumed
- Good gains exhibited with MIMO 4x4 wrt. MIMO 2x2 today 20% gain is considered
(which seems quite low!)

4RxDiv instead of 2RxDiv

DL transmission mode up to rank-4 (potentially doubling the peak user rate)

- Future evolution of spectral efficiencies may account for larger gains as shown in some
Bell Labs simulations this would be more consistent with the 4RxDiv gain (wrt 2RxDiv)
observed in the uplink (~40%)
Spectral
Efficiency
MIMO 2x2
MIMO 4x4

Case 1

Case 3

1.61 bps/Hz 1.48 bps/Hz


1.90 bps/Hz 1.74 bps/Hz

100
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Today
~20%

Future MIMO Evolutions towards LTE-advanced


Outlook
Radio Requirements
LTE

LTE-advanced
up to 100 MHz

- Bandwidth: up to 20 MHz

1 Gbps

- High peak rates:

500 Mbps

- DL: 100 Mbps with MIMO 2x2

3GPP Case 1 perf. targets

DL: 2.6 bps/Hz with MIMO 4x2


UL: 2.0 bps/Hz with MIMO 2x4

- UL: 50 Mbps with SIMO 1x2

- Improved Cell Spectral Efficiency wrt.

3GPP Case 1 perf. targets

DL: 0.09 bps/Hz with MIMO 4x2


UL: 0.07 bps/Hz with MIMO 2x4

HSPA Rel6

- Improved cell-edge performances

40% to 60%

CAPACITY INCREASE

101
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Future MIMO Evolutions towards LTE-advanced


Outlook

Starting from Rel10, LTE-advanced introduces some new MIMO capabilities


- Uplink
- SU-MIMO up to 4x4

- Downlink
- SU-MIMO up to 8x8

- CoMP (collaborative Multi-Point) joint scheduling / processing at the eNBs


- Relays
New UE categories defined (in 36.306):
Downlink

Uplink

UE category

Maximum TBS bits


within a TTI

Maximum # layers

Maximum TBS bits


within a TTI

Is 64QAM
supported?

Cat. 1

10296

5160

No

Cat. 2

51024

25456

No

Cat. 3

102048

51024

No

Cat. 4

150752

51024

No

Cat. 5

299552

75376

Yes

Cat. 6

301504

2 or 4

51024

No

Cat. 7

301504

2 or 4

102048

No

Cat. 8

2998560

1497760

Yes

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Glossary
- RxDiv: Receive Diversity

- TxDiv: Transmit Diversity


- SM: Spatial Multiplexing
- MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output
- SISO: Single Input Single Output
- SIMO: Single Input Multiple Output

- SU-MIMO: Single User MIMO


- OL: Open-Loop, i.e. no channel knowledge at Transmitter side

- CL: Closed-Loop, i.e. channel knowledge at Transmitter side

- MU-MIMO: MultiUser MIMO


- SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access (equivalent to MU-MIMO)
- MCS: Modulation and Coding Scheme
- TBS: Transport Block Size
103
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AGENDA
1. OFDM Fundamentals
2. Physical layer
3. Downlink Structure
4. Uplink Structure
5. Fractional Power Control
6. Scheduler

7. Fractional Frequency Re-use


8. LTE Link Adaptation
9. MIMO
10. Performances and capacities
104
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LTE Air Interface Capacity Performances


How to Quantify?

As of today air interface capacity is quantified by two key metrics:


- VoIP Capacity (typically expressed in Erlangs)
- Data Capacity (typically expressed in bps/Hz or Mbps for a given BW)

This is the current approach doesnt mean that we continue to take this
approach going forward
Such capacity figures are notoriously dependent upon the underlying
assumptions
- Comparing like for like either between technologies internally with ALU let alone
between vendors is always quite a challenge .

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LTE Air Interface Capacity Performances

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LTE Air Interface Capacity Performances

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LTE Air Interface Capacity Performances

What Most Impacts Air Interface Capacity Performances?


Key assumptions impacting air interface capacities:
- Carrier Bandwidth big impact (roughly proportional to the bandwidth)
- Antenna configuration - although this has less impact than you might expect

- UE mobility assumptions, i.e. the channel modeling significant impact


- Traffic modeling (full buffer, number of UEs, real traffic model, etc) significant
impact

- Voice Codec Selected (for VoIP services)


- Channel estimation and implementation margin assumptions
- Scheduler, Overheads, Receiver modeling

Marginal Impact:
- Operating frequency, DL power

108
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Basis for ALU Capacity Figures


Overview

ALU capacity figures are based on an extensive set of system simulations


results with wide ranging simulation assumptions
There are three key sets of results used for dimensioning today:
- Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance
- NGMN Case3 large coverage limited cells
- NGMN Case1 small interference limited cells

- Multi-Techno White Paper


- Reference for KPI contractual capacity commitments

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Basis for ALU Capacity Figures


Overview

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Basis for ALU Capacity Figures


Overview

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