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Hello,ImMichaelAeschbachfromZurich,Switzerland.

Thislessonisforweek1ofIntroduction
ToMusicProductionatCoursera.org.Iwillbeteachingvisualizingsound(withReaper).

Theaudiowewillbelookingatconsistsofasinglenote(F4)playedwithanOboe.Itistaken
fromthefirsttrackoftheCDthatcomeswiththeBook
PeterVeale,ClausSteffenMahnkopf,
TheTechniquesofOboePlaying,BrenreiterVerlag,1998.

Tolookattheaudio,onanewproject(
File>Newproject)
,wemustfirstcreateanewtrackand
importit(
Insert>Mediafile
).

InthemainviewoftheDAW,youseethewaveformdisplayoftheaudiofile.

Thisviewissimilartoanoscilloscope.Unfortunately,Reaperdoesntcomewithitsown
oscilloscopebutyoucoulddownloadSkope,anoscilloscopepluginforReaperfrom
http://jsplugins.supermaailma.net/jsplugins.php
.

Forthislesson,wellsimplyuseReaperswaveformdisplay.

Tobetterviewthewaveformofouraudiofile,wenormalizetheinserteditem(
Item>Item
processing>Normalizeitems
).

Inthemainviewswaveformdisplay,theYaxisrepresentstheamplitudeofthesoundandthe
Xaxisrepresentstime.Youseearepresentationofthecompressionandrarefactionofsoundin
theairovertime.

Intheupperpartofaboveimage,youcanseetimeunits(belowthebar:
0:02.542,0:02.546,
0:02.550,etc.
).Atmarker
0:02.546
,youseetheattackofthenoteandtheincreaseinamplitude
ofthesound.

Thevisualizationofsoundinthewaveformdisplaycomeswithlimitations.Forexample:itwould
betoodifficulttoseethetimbreoftheplayednote,hiddeninthewaveform.

Toseethefrequenciesofthesoundatagiventime,weuseaspectrumanalyzerandifwewant
toseehowthefrequencieschangeovertime,tohaveafullpictureofthesound,weusea
spectrogramanalysis.Fortunately,Reapercomeswithpluginsforboth,foraspectrumanalysis
aswellasforasonogram.

Tousetheseplugins,weaddthemtothetrackasFXbypressingtheFXbutton(
ShowTrack
FXWindow
)andthensearchingunderthesection
JS
forthe
FrequencySpectrumAnalyzer
Meter
andforthe
FrequencySpectrographMeter
.

The
FrequencySpectrumAnalyzerMeter
orspectrumanalysershowsustheenergyatdifferent
frequenciesatagivenmoment.TheXaxisrepresentsthefrequencyinHertzandtheYaxisthe
amplitudeindBFS.

ThefundamentalfrequencyofthenoteF4isfixedat349.23Hz(FrequenciesofMusicalNotes
http://www.phy.mtu.edu/~suits/notefreqs.html
).

Inthespectrumanalyser,weseethefirstspike,thefundamental,atthisfrequency.
Furthermore,wecanseetheoboesrichnessinovertonesandtheinterestingfact,thatthe
amplitudeattwooftheharmonicseriespartialsishigherthantheamplitudeatthefundamental
frequency.

Toseehowthefrequencieschangeovertime,wehavetolookatthe
FrequencySpectrograph
Meter
orsonogram.

Whatweseeintheaboveimageisaloopovertheplayednote.TheXaxisrepresentstime,the
YAxisthefrequency(lowerfrequenciesatthebottom)andtheZaxis(color)theamplitudeor
energyatagiventime/frequency.

Acombinationofthesethreesoundvisualizersgivesusagoodvisualrepresentationofsound.