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Objectives

Define socialization.
List the agents of socialization.
Evaluate the functions and roles of socializing
agents.
Trace how socialization is a life long process.

Socialization

Acquiring culture, forming your


personality and personal identity
through NURTURE

Agents of Socialization

Agents of Socialization persons, groups, or


institutions that teach us what we need to know
in order to participate in society.

Family primary agent of socialization.

Family experiences give us our basic sense of identity,


values, norms and beliefs.
Families give children their geographic location and
urban or rural background as well as social class, race,
religion and ethnic group.

Agents of Socialization

Schools serve two purposes in the socialization


process:

Manifest Functions the intended purpose of formal


education is to transmit the appropriate skills and values
for earning a living and being a good citizen.
Latent Functions schooling also exposes students to
new attitudes, values, and points of view; teaches them
that the same rules apply to everyone, and that there are
lasting consequences for violating those rules.
Hidden Curriculum schools teach competition,
discipline, cooperation, order, and obedience; this is the
key to success in a society dominated by large
organizations.

Agents of Socialization

Peer Groups people linked by common


interests, equal social position, and similar
age; have a great deal of power over
members.

Peer groups are the only agent of socialization not


dominated by adults.
Children experiment with new ways of thinking, feeling,
and behaving.
Independence and self-sufficiency are promoted.
Interaction with different types of people social
flexibility.
Influence of peer groups peer pressure

Agents of Socialization

Mass Media forms of communication directed


to large audiences, and includes TV, radio,
newspapers, and magazines; it entertains us and
shapes our attitudes and values.
Mass media bombards youth with advertising
while socializing other age groups to the music
and style of the youth subculture.
Many have become concerned about the content
of what children are exposed to via mass media.

Agents of Socialization
The Work Place

Like peer groups, we form friendships at work that


teach us a perspective on the world as well on work.
Career socialization involves 4 phases
1.
Career Choice selecting and preparing for a career.
2.
Anticipatory Socialization process of mentally
rehearsing a role before assuming the role.
3.
Condition and Commitment going to work,
experiencing dull and unpleasant tasks associated with
a job, yet committing to that occupation.
4.
Continuing Commitment sticking with the job in spite
of difficulties or alternatives that may arise.

Types of Socialization

Natural
Socializationchildren explore,
play, discover
social world
around them

Planned
Socializationpeople
teaching/training
others

Types of Socialization

Positive
Socializationlearning based
pleasurable social
experiences

Negative
Socializationlearning based on
punishment/criticis
m/anger (being
taught a lesson)

Types of Socialization

Primary Socialization-children learning


appropriate attitudes/values/actions for their
culture (cultural assimilation/enculturation)
Secondary Socialization-learning what is
appropriate behavior for a smaller group in
society (job, school)
Developmental Socialization-developing
ones social skills
Anticipatory Socialization-rehearsing for
future positions/jobs/relationships

Types of Socialization

Resocialization-discarding former
behavior patterns and accepting new ones
as part of life transitions (joining military,
converting religions, cults, gangs)

Types of Socialization

Organizational Socializationemployees learn knowledge and


skills for job role

Types of Socialization

Gender Socialization-learning
culturally defined gender roles

Types of Socialization

Racial Socialization-children learning


behaviors/perceptions/values/attitudes of
an ethnic group and see themselves and
others as members of that group