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Becoming a Mentor

Carol Bush
Center for School Improvement and Professional Development
Orleans/Niagara BOCES

Intended Learning
Outcomes
To understand the purpose of mentoring
To explore the various roles and

responsibilities of the mentor


To identify what mentoring looks like in action
To recognize the importance of aligning the

mentor program to the teacher evaluation


method used by your district

Purpose of
Mentoring

Why mentoring?
To improve teaching performance in order to raise

student achievement;
To promote the personal and professional well-

being of protg teachers;


To transmit the culture of the school system to

protg teachers; and


To increase retention of promising protg

teachers
Johnson, 2002

Teacher Retention
Statistics
17% of teachers leave after one year
30% of teachers leave after two years
40% leave after three years
Nearly half leave after five years
Boreen, Johnson, Niday and Potts (2000)

Cost Impact

The cost of replacing a teacher is 25-35% of

the annual salary and benefit costs.


It costs $11,000 every time a teacher leaves

the profession.

Center of Best Practices of the National Governors Association

Understanding the Needs


of Beginning Teachers
Work with your table

partners
Use chart paper to draw

what a first-year teacher


looks like (pictures, words,
diagrams, etc.)

Most Commonly Reported


Challenges for New
Teachers
Struggling with classroom management
Burdened by curriculuar freedom
Sinking in an unsupportive environment
Goodwin (2012)

Phases of First Year Teachers


Attitudes Towards Teaching

Yes!
I
can
!

Im ready!

Anticipation

Anticipation

Reflection

HELP!

Survival

Rejuvenation

Disillusionment

Aug
9

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Winte
r
Break
Jan!
Feb

Mar

Apr

Ellen Moir, UC Santa Cruz, 1990

May

June

July

Aug

Roles and
Responsibilities of a
Mentor

What is a mentor?
Someone who teaches or gives help and advice

to a less experienced and often younger person


A trusted counselor or guide
An experienced and trusted adviser
Someone who guides another to greater

success
A wise and trusted counselor or teacher

Roles and Responsibilities


of a Mentor
Resource

Facilitator

Trusted Listener

Collaborator

Problem Solver

Learner

Teacher

Assessor

Coach

Advocate

Roles in Each Phase


Using your Post-It Notes, place each Post-It Note
on the beginning teacher phase where you feel it
would most benefit the beginning teacher.

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Anticipation
Survival
Disillusionment
Rejuvenation
Reflection
Anticipation

An effective mentor
demonstrates
Commitment to the role of mentoring
Acceptance of the novice teacher
Skill in providing instructional support
Effectiveness in different interpersonal contexts
Model of being a continuous learner
Ability to communicate hope and optimism
Rowley (1999)
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An effective mentor
does NOT
Evaluate
Judge
Assume the role of an expert
Force his/her style of teaching on the new

teacher

15

Importance of Trust
Teachers and principals are under

unprecedented scrutiny so trust is essential


Trust increases the likelihood of success in

creating a productive learning environment

16

16

Facets of Trust
Benevolence
Honesty
Openness
Reliability
Competence

17

Language of Support
Paraphrasing

Clarifying

In other words

Let me see if I understand

What Im hearing

To what extent?

From what I hear you say

Im curious to know more

about

Im hearing many things

Im interested in

As I listen to you, Im

hearing

Tell me how that idea is like

(or different from)

So, you think

So, are you suggesting?

It sounds like you want

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Language of Support
Mediating

Imagining

Whats another way you

Its sometimes useful to

might ...?

A couple of things you

What criteria do you use ?

need to keep in mind

What would it look like if ?

Something you might try

considering is

When have you done it like this

To what extent might

before ?

work in your situation?

What might you see happening

There are a number of

if ?

approaches to

How was different from ?

What do you imagine

might ?

How do you determine ?


19

What does
mentoring look like
in action?

Formative Assessment
Is an ongoing measurement of growth over time

21

Uses evidence of student learning and teacher


practice to help identify areas of strength and
those that need growth

Is objective and data-based

Is responsive to the teachers developmental


needs

Is interactive and collaborative

Involves assessment tools that support inquiry


and reflection

The Role of Evidence in


Formative Assessment
We collect evidence to help the beginning

teacher assess his or her practice selfassessment


As a mentor, we apply professional judgment

to this evidence for the purpose of analyzing


practice and student learning and for guiding
future development.
Formative assessment is free of any potential
penalty.
22

Opinion vs. Evidence


Opinion
Opinion is based on
the observers
interpretation of
events.
Perspective
Subjectivity

Evidence
Evidence is the factual
reporting of events and
may
include:
student actions/ behaviors
teacher actions/behaviors
student/teacher artifacts
It does not include personal opinions or

biases.

Types of
Observation Evidence
Verbatim scripting of teacher or student

comments:
Bring your white boards, markers, and erasers
to the carpet and sit on your square.
Non-evaluative statements of observed

teacher or student behavior:


Teacher presented the content from the front of
the room.

Types of
Observation Evidence

(continued)

Numeric information about time, student

participation, resource use, etc.:


(9:14-9:29) Warm-up. 8 of 22 students finished
at 9:20, sat still until 9:29
An observed aspect of the environment:

Desks were arranged in groups of four with room


to walk between each group.

Opinion or Evidence?
1. The students were engaged in the lesson.
2. The class was out of control.
3. The students didnt understand expectations.
4. That was a great lesson!

On the right track


1. The students were engaged in the lesson.

26 out of 28 students actively participated in


the lab exercise
2. The class was out of control.

You stopped the lesson 5 times to address


students who were offtask.

Much better
1. The students were engaged in the lesson.
26 out of 28 students were writing or working on
the lab.
2. The class was out of control.
You stopped the lesson 5 times when giving
instructions.

On the right track


3. The students didnt understand
expectations.
After the initial explanation of the task, 4
students began work immediately. 13 students
asked for more clarification or were off
task.
4. That was a great lesson!
10 students asked higher level questions ,
such as, How did Haiti come to be such a poor
country?, Why doesnt the World Bank just
forgive their loans? The other 12 students were

Much better
3. The students didnt understand expectations.
After the initial explanation of the task, 4 students
began the assignment, 13 students raised their
hands when you asked if there were any questions.
4. That was a great lesson!
10 students asked questions beginning with Why
or How (ie How did Haiti come to be such a poor
country?, Why doesnt the World Bank just forgive
their loans?) , The other 12 students were writing in
their notebooks or looking at the students asking
questions.

Opinion vs. Evidence


Carousel
With a BLUE highlighter/marker, underline all

examples of evidence.

With a RED highlighter/marker, underline all

examples of opinion.

Rephrase all opinion statements to make them

evidence.

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Tools for Collecting


Evidence
Lesson observations/videotaping
Document review (lesson plans, professional

growth plan, reflective journals etc.)


Student work samples
Anecdotal records from meetings (formal or

informal)
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Instructional Coaching

Stage 1: Pre-Observation
Stage 2: Observation
Stage 3: Post-Observation

33

Pre Observation
Conference
Brainstorm in your table groups:
What is the purpose of the pre-observation

conference?
What questions should you ask?
What materials will you need to bring?
What issues do you need to be sensitive about ?
34

Observation

Remember:
You are a silent observer
Honor the pre-observation conference

decisions/focus
Collect evidence
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Post Observation
Conference
Post-observation conferences should be:
Timely!
Confidential
Focused on evidence collected
Non-evaluative/non-judgmental
Reflective for the beginning teacher
Designed to promote growth for the beginning

teacher (goal-setting)
USE YOUR LANGUAGE OF SUPPORT
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Lets practice!

Read case study


Individually analyze the observation data
As a table group, generate questions you

might ask the beginning teacher in the post


observation conference

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Additional Mentoring
Strategies
Start of the
Year

Ongoing

End of the
Year

Meet, Greet, and


Share

Got It/Need It

Packing Up

Welcome to. Basket

Lively Lifelines

Celebrate Success

New Teacher
Luncheon

Professional Nook

Aha Chart

Joint Planning
Sessions

Problem-Solving
Partnership

Learning All Levels

Incredible Ideas
Scrapbook

Collaborative Support
Groups

Professional Portfolios

Collaborative PD

Mentoring At a Glance

Support: emotional, physical, instructional, and

institutional
Challenge: goal-driven, data-focused, thought-

provoking
Facilitate Vision: high expectations for self and

students, lifelong learning, professional identity

What if.?
your beginning teacher refuses your assistance.
you go to observe and the classroom is totally out of

control?
you see no improvement in the beginning teachers

practice despite repeated discussions?


your beginning teacher is not following school/district

policy?
an administrator comes to you and suggests that you

work on a particular thing with your beginning teacher?


your beginning teacher is dressing or acting

unprofessionally.
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Aligning the Mentor


Program to Teacher
Evaluation

Danielsons Framework
for Teaching
4 domains, 22 components, 76 elements
Performance levels (based on evidence

collection)
Distinguished.Highly effective
Proficient.Effective
Basic.Developing
Unsatisfactory..Ineffective

Domain #1:
Planning & Preparation
1a Demonstrating Knowledge of Content & Pedagogy
1b Demonstrating Knowledge of Students
1c Setting Instructional Outcomes
1d Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources
1e Demonstrating Coherent Instruction
1f Designing Student Assessment

Domain #2:
Classroom Environment
2a Creating an Environment of Respect & Rapport
2b Establishing a Culture for Learning
2c Managing Classroom Procedures
2d Managing Student Behavior
2e Organizing Physical Space

Domain #3:
Instruction
3a Communicating with Students
3b Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques
3c Engaging Students in Learning
3d Using Assessment in Instruction
3e Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness

Domain #4:
Professional
Responsibilities
4a Reflection on Teaching
4b Maintaining Accurate Records
4c Communicating with Families
4d Participating in a Professional Community
4e Growing and Developing Professionally
4f Showing Professionalism

Danielsons Framework
for Teaching
4 domains, 22 components, 76 elements
Performance levels (based on evidence

collection)
Distinguished.Highly effective
Proficient.Effective
Basic.Developing
Unsatisfactory..Ineffective

Questions?

Carol H. Bush
Professional Development Specialist
cbush@onboces.org
(716) 731-6800 x3755