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1. Identify the circled functional groups and linkages in the compound below.


A. A Thiol (sulfhydryl) group

B. Carbonyl group
C. Amide linkage
D. Phosphoanhydride (pyrophosphoryl) linkage
E. Phosphoryl group (Pi)
F. Hydroxyl group
2. Why is the cell membrane not an absolute barrier between the cytoplasm and the external environment?


The cell membrane must be semipermeable so that the cell can retain essential compounds while allowing
nutrients to enter and wastes to exit.
3. A spheroidal bacterium with a diameter of 1 μm contains two molecules of a particular protein. What is
the molar concentration of the protein?


Concentration = (number of moles)/(volume)

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4. How many glucose molecules does the cell in Problem 3 contain when its internal glucose concentration is
1.0 mM?


5. (a) Which has greater entropy, liquid water at 0°C or ice at 0°C? (b) How does the entropy of ice at –5°C
differ, if at all, from its entropy at –50°C?


(a) Liquid water;

(b) ice has less entropy at the lower temperature.
6. Does entropy increase or decrease in the following processes?





(a) Decreases;
(b) increases;
(c) increases;
(d) no change.

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7. Consider a reaction with ΔH = 15 kJ and ΔS = 50 J · K–1. Is the reaction spontaneous (a) at 10°C, (b) at



ΔG is greater than zero, so the reaction is not spontaneous.


ΔG is less than zero, so the reaction is spontaneous.

8. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction

at pH 7.0 and 25°C (ΔG°′ = –20.9 kJ · mol–1).


9. Calculate ΔG°′ for the reaction A + B C + D at 25°C when the equilibrium concentrations are [A] =
10 μM, [B] = 15 μM, [C] = 3 μM, and [D] = 5 μM. Is the reaction exergonic or endergonic under standard


Since ΔG°′ is positive, the reaction is endergonic under standard conditions.

10. ΔG°′ for the isomerization reaction

is –7.1 kJ · mol–1. Calculate the equilibrium ratio of [G1P] to [G6P] at 25°C.


From Eq. 1-17,

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11. For the reaction A → B at 298 K, the change in enthalpy is –7 kJ · mol–1 and the change in entropy is
–25 J · K–1 · mol–1. Is the reaction spontaneous? If not, should the temperature be increased or
decreased to make the reaction spontaneous?


The reaction is not spontaneous because ΔG > 0. The temperature must be decreased in order to
decrease the value of the TΔS term.
12. For the conversion of reactant A to product B, the change in enthalpy is 7 kJ · mol–1 and the change in
entropy is 20 J · K–1 · mol–1. Above what temperature does the reaction become spontaneous?


In order for ΔG to have a negative value (a spontaneous reaction), TΔS must be greater than ΔH.

13. Label the following statements true or false:

(a) A reaction is said to be spontaneous when it can proceed in either the forward or reverse
(b) spontaneous process always happens very quickly.
(c) A nonspontaneous reaction will proceed spontaneously in the reverse direction.
(d) A spontaneous process can occur with a large decrease in entropy.


(a) False. A spontaneous reaction only occurs in one direction.

(b) False. Thermodynamics does not specify the rate of a reaction.
(c) True.
(d) True. A reaction is spontaneous so long as ΔS > ΔH/T.
14. Two biochemical reactions have the same Keq = 5 × 108 at temperature T1 = 298 K. However, Reaction
1 has ΔH° = –28 kJ · mol–1 and Reaction 2 has ΔH° = +28 kJ · mol–1. The two reactions utilize the same
reactants. Your lab partner has proposed that you can get more of the reactants to proceed via Reaction
2 rather than Reaction 1 by lowering the temperature of the reaction. Will this strategy work? Why or
why not? How much would the temperature have to be raised or lowered in order to change the value of

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K2/K1 from 1 to 10?


This strategy will NOT work because Reaction 1 has a negative enthalpy change, releasing heat, and will
therefore become more favorable with decreasing temperature, whereas Reaction 2, which has a positive
enthalpy change, will become less favorable. Thus decreasing the temperature will favor Reaction 1, not
Reaction 2. In order to make Reaction 2 more favorable, the temperature must be raised.

To calculate the amount that the temperature must be raised, Equation 1-18 may be used as follows:

On subtraction of the previous two equations, and taking into account that , we get

We would like . Substituting in all values and solving for T2 we get

Solving for T2 we get

Hence to increase K2/K1 from 1 to 10, the temperature must be raised from 298 K to 332 K.

Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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