4.1K tayangan

Diunggah oleh K.Magenthran (UTHM)

- Design of Diving Board
- Diving boards and stands
- test 1 mekanik mesin
- Control System Project 1
- Beam Anal
- Friction Between Belt and Pulley
- Strain Gage Report
- TOPIC 4 - Principle of Moments lab report
- Deflection of Beams
- truss design Fundamentals
- design project phase 3 final report
- Macaulays Method
- Plank and Beam Framing for Residential Buildings
- RIB-2B-26-2BWaffle-2BSlab
- Structural Beam Calculator Guided on One End, Rigid One End With Single Load
- MultiFrame_ShipAnalysis
- Slide Final
- Beam Analysis
- 16 AAC Load Handout Color
- HW 1 EMA 405

Anda di halaman 1dari 19

BDA 3033 Solid Mechanics II

By

MAGENTHRAN KUPPUSAMY

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Johor

Analysis diving board by Macaulay’s methods and Strain rosette

On a roof slab of a vast burial vault south of Naples is a painting of a young man diving from

a narrow platform. The discovery of the "Tomba Del Tuffatore" (The Tomb of the Diver) shows us

that the excitement and grace of diving from high places into water has lured people from at least 480

BC - the date established for the construction of the tomb. As with most sports dating back to ancient

times, little information on competitive diving has survived. The origins of modern diving can be

traced to two European venues - Halle in Germany and Sweden.

It was a traditional specialty of the guild of salt boilers, called Halloren to practise certa in

swimming and diving skills. The Halloren used to perform a series of diving feats from a bridge into

the River Saale. In 1840 in contact with the German gymnastics movement the world's first diving

association was formed. Most of its members were gymnasts starting their tumbling routines as a

kind of water gymnastic. Thus diving became very popular in Germany.

In Sweden wooden scaffolding was erected around many lakes, inviting courageous fellows

to perform diving feats. Somersaulting from great heights and swallow-like flights of a whole team

are common. The beginning of competitive diving corresponded to the rise of swimming clubs and

associations. In Germany, the oldest club called "Neptun" started international diving contests from a

lower board and from a tower in 1882. In 1891 the first diving rules were adopted and the following

year the first tables were published in Germany.

At the turn of the century, another branch of diving found numerous followers in the USA -

the bridge and artistic leaping. However, its development was stopped due to the high number of

serious accidents. In 1940 in Saint-Louis, with the support of the Germans, diving was added to the

Olympic programme. German divers dominated the springboard scene during the first two decades.

When high diving from a platform was introduced in 1908, the Swedish athletes dominated these

contests.

1.2 Introduction of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board

The Frontier board is timber reinforced and encased in fiberglass for durability and

appearance. A non-slip top ensures maximum safety. There are no unusual climate

restrictions to consider, the boards are designed to be exposed to the elements and live for

years.

Product features

The diving board includes a streamlined and cantilevered stand with spring.

The units are powder-coated Radiant White as Standard color

Made of strong steel, powder coated for increased corrosion resistance.

Stainless Steel Hardware - resists corrosion (the type of material)

Matching, slip-resistant sand tread - for maximum safety

Weight limit: 113 kg (maximum load)

Various Length of diving broad: 1.83m, 2.44m, 3.05m (maximum length)

All diving board and diving stand equipment is supplied with a comprehensive

instruction manual

Installation of all board and stand apparatus can be carried out without special skills

or materials by any home handyman

2.0 Proble m State ment

A springboard or diving board is used for diving and is a board that is itself a

spring, i.e. a linear flex-spring, of the cantilever type. Springboards are commonly fixed by a

hinge at one end (so they can be flipped up when not in use), and the other end usually hangs

over a swimming pool, with a point midway between the hinge and the end resting on an

adjustable fulcrum.

Diving board is used in Olympic Games or other diving game. This study analyses

which diving board is have more deflection when 113 kg/1108.53 N loads applied. This study

also analyses the principle strain in the plane of rosette and the maximum in plane shearing

strain.

3.0 Objective

The main objective of this project study is to analyze the Frontier III - Cantilever Diving

Board using solid mechanics principles. The solid mechanic method use is stress & strain rosette to

find out the principle strain in the plane of rosette and the maximum in plane shearing strain.

By using Macaulay’s methods the maximum deflection in various length of diving board also

can calculate.

4.0 Scope

The analysis on air plane wing is carried out using the following basic concepts of solid

mechanics only

(i) Deflection of Beam

(ii) Principle strain in the plane of rosette

(iii) Maximum in plane shearing strain

The following assumptions are made in this study with respect to Frontier III - Cantilever

Diving Board

• The board is assumed to be horizontal

• The self weight of board is neglected

• The cross section is assumed as rectangular instead of air foil geometry

• Material is assumed to be Stainless steel with high strength

5.0 Analysis of method are use

The deflection of a spring beam depends on its length, its cross-sectional shape, the

material, where the deflecting force is applied, and how the beam is supported. The equations

given here are for homogenous, linearly elastic materials, and where the rotations of a beam

are small. In the following examples, only loads applying at a single point or single points are

considered - the application point of force F in the diagrams is intended to denote a model

locomotive horn block (or vehicle axle box) able to move vertically in a horn guide, and

acting against the force of the spring beam fixed to or carried by the locomotive or vehicle

mainframes. The proportion of the total weight acting on each axle of a loco or vehicle will

depend on the position of its centre of gravity in relation to the axle (or the chassis fixing

points of equalizing beams where these are used).

For reasonable 4mm scale fine scale track, a recommended value for horn block

deflection, δ, under the final load of a locomotive, is 0.5mm.The above recommendation is

known to be an over simplistic and possibly incorrect assumption on what the design value

for the deflection should be, and has given rise to considerable debate. Any experience on

applying this recommendation to real chassis modeling practice is welcomed - the purpose of

this article is a starter for discussion rather than a conclusion of it.

5.3 Example: A Cantilever beam is subjected to a bending mome nt M at the force

end.

d2y

EI = Ma…………….(1)

dx 2

dy d2y

= EI

dx dx 2

dy

At X = 0; =0

dx

Which is C1 = 0

dy 1

y= EI = Max + C1

dx EI

Max 2

EI y = + C1x + C2 …………….(2) (max. deflection equation)

2

At X = 0; y = 0

Max 2

y= ……………….(3) (maximum elastic curve equation)

2 EI

Strain gauge and rosette (second method)

The strain gauge has been in use for many years and is the fundamental

sensing element for many types of sensors, including pressure sensors, load cells,

torque sensors, position sensors, etc. The majority of strain gauges are foil types,

available in a wide choice of shapes and sizes to suit a variety of applications. They

consist of a pattern of resistive foil which is mounted on a backing material. They

operate on the principle that as the foil is subjected to stress, the resistance of the foil

changes in a defined way.

combination of four active gauges (full bridge), two gauges (half bridge), or, less

commonly, a single gauge (quarter bridge). In the half and q uarter circuits, the bridge

is completed with precision resistors.

1. Transformation equation:

x + y x - y xy

1, 2 = (( )2 ( )2 )

2 2 2

x - y xy

max

= (( )2 ( )2 )

2 2 2

4. Principal planes

xy

Tan2 p

x y

5.3 Data of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board

(http://www.interfab.com/userfiles/2009_U-Stand.pdf)

method

Table: specification of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board in three various lengths

(Website: http://divingboard.net/info/selection_chart.asp)

5.5 Material

Stainless steels resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, relatively low

cost, and familiar luster make it an ideal base material for a host of commercial applicat ions.

There are over 150 grades of stainless steel, of which fifteen are most common. The alloy is

milled into coils, sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing to be used in cookware, cutlery,

hardware, surgical instruments, major appliances, industrial equipment, and as an automotive

and aerospace structural alloy and construction material in large buildings. Storage tanks and

tankers used to transport orange juice and other food are often made of stainless steel, due to

its corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties. This also influences its use in commercial

kitchens and food processing plants, as it can be steam-cleaned, sterilized, and does not need

painting or application of other surface finishes. The material is uses for Frontier III -

Cantilever Diving Board are the stainless steel High strength which is Modulus o f elastic is

200GPa.

5.6 Loading

Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board is used to dive when having swimming

activities. The maximum load can applied is 1108.53 N/ 113 KG. So by using three different

lengths, we can determine the maximum deflection. To determine the maximum deflection,

we are using Macaulay’s method which is just sectioning the last section of beam (Frontier

III - Cantilever Diving Board).

Max. Load =

113 kg/1108.53 N

Max. Deflection

Solution for deflection of beam

M 1108.53 N

Rax 0.44 m

x=0

x=L 0.8 m

L = 1.83m

Ray

When x = L

3

bd dy

I= (moment inertia) 0

12 dx

y= 0

(0.8)(0.44) 3

I= = 5.679 x 10-3 m4

12

Rax = 0

Fy = Fy

Ma 0

= 2029.47 Nm + M

M = - 2029.47Nm

1108.53 N

• Sectioning method

M V

d2y

EI 2 -1108.53 N(X)

dx X

x=0

2

d y

EI -1108.53 N(X) ----------- (first Integrating)

dx 2

The Slope equation , Ө

dy 1108.53 N(X 2 )

=- + C1

dx 2 EI

dy

When X = L, 0 ..……… (Applying boundary condition)

dx

1108.53 N(L2 )

C1 =

2 EI

dy 1108.53 N(X 2 )

=- + C1…………….. (From slope equation)

dx 2 EI

1108.53( X 2 )

y = C1

2EI

1108.53( X 3 )

y =- C 1X C2

6EI

When X = L, y = 0.

1108.53( L3 ) 1108.53( L) 2 ( X )

C2 =

6EI 2EI

1108.53( L3 ) 1108.53( L3 )

=

6 EI 2 EI

1108.53L3

=

3EI

y= - +

6EI 2 EI 3EI

When X = 0, y = Maximum.

y= - +

6EI 2 EI 3EI

1108.53L3

y=

3EI

The Slope

dy 1108.53 N(X 2 )

=

dx 2 EI

When X = 1.83 m

dy 1108.53 N(1.832 )

=

dx 2(200G )(5.679x10 3 )

dy

0.00163mm

dx

1108.53L3

y=

3EI

1108.53(1.83) 3

=

3(200G)(5.679x10 3 )

= 0.00199mm

Case 2: Strain rosette

1 = 400 x 10-6 mm

2 = 200 x 10-6 mm

3 = 350 x 10-6 mm

350 = x cos 2 90 + y sin2 90 + xy sin 90 .cos 90 ……… (3)

x 400 mm …………..(4)

From equation (3):

y 350 mm……………(6)

From equation 4 & 5, substitute y 350 mm & x 400 mm to equation 4

200 375

xy

0.5

xy 350 mm

1, 2 = (( )2 ( ) )

2 2 2

Ans:

551.78

1

mm

198.22

2

mm

= (( ) ( ) )

2 2 2

max

(25 ) 2 ( 175 ) 2

2

max

176.78

2 mm

max 353.55

mm

Principal planes

353.55

Tan2 p

400 350

Tan2 p 7.071

2 p 81.95

1 40.97°

2 130.98°

6.0 Results

ξ1 = 551.78µ mm

Principal strain

ξ 2 = 198.22 µ mm

Strain rosette

Max Shear Strain γmax = 353.55 µ mm

1 40.97°

Principal planes

2 130.98°

1.7 Conclusion

The analysis gives out the maximum defection by using Macaulay’s method a nd the

Principal strain, Max Shear Strain, Principal Planes by using Strain rosette of Frontier III -

Cantilever Diving Board. The specification of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board is found

from the trusted website because they are one of the diving board deliver for big game event

such as Olympic Games. So the specification follows the original length and width of

Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board. This diving board use Stainless steels material with

200G (this is I assume own).

Along I did this solid project; I was able to calculate the deflection of beam (Frontier

III - Cantilever Diving Board) by Macaulay’s method and strain rosette to find the strain in

the beam (Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board). I also learn how to apply the concept I

learn in class, in the real world or our daily life such as deflection occur in bridge by loads

(cars).

So this project is really worth it if a student applying the concepts are learn in the

class such as buckling of strut, strain energy, Euler theory and many more to apply in our real

life.

Referents:

Mechanics of Materials”

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strain_gauge

3. http://divingboard.net/info/selection_chart.asp

4. http://diving.about.com/od/divingglossary/g/fulcrumDef.ht

5. http://www.interfab.com/userfiles/2009_U-Stand.pdf

6. http://www.aquanet.net/pool-diving-boards- fibredive.htm

7. http://www.poolwarehouse.net/Catalogs/catDivingBoards/fibreDiveDivingBoa

rds.asp

- Design of Diving BoardDiunggah olehFazeel Sajid
- Diving boards and standsDiunggah olehCanadaPool
- test 1 mekanik mesinDiunggah olehApek Suasana
- Control System Project 1Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Beam AnalDiunggah olehgercho23
- Friction Between Belt and PulleyDiunggah olehDan Wolf
- Strain Gage ReportDiunggah olehapi-3730129
- TOPIC 4 - Principle of Moments lab reportDiunggah olehMuhammad Amir Bin Kunhammad
- Deflection of BeamsDiunggah olehAGEGTAM
- truss design FundamentalsDiunggah olehAtul Kumar Engineer
- design project phase 3 final reportDiunggah olehapi-233198198
- Macaulays MethodDiunggah olehvigneshwarimahamuni
- Plank and Beam Framing for Residential BuildingsDiunggah olehMenteri Passola
- RIB-2B-26-2BWaffle-2BSlabDiunggah olehVimalan Kannan
- Structural Beam Calculator Guided on One End, Rigid One End With Single LoadDiunggah olehSpreadsheetZONE
- MultiFrame_ShipAnalysisDiunggah olehPoowadol Niyomka
- Slide FinalDiunggah olehDipendraGautam
- Beam AnalysisDiunggah olehakram1978
- 16 AAC Load Handout ColorDiunggah olehSatyasapath Roy
- HW 1 EMA 405Diunggah olehMeng X Xiong
- Gilbert-Time-Dependent Stiffness of Cracked Reinforced & Composite Concrete SlabsDiunggah olehjausingchi
- Basic ConceptsDiunggah olehAmro Ahmad Ali
- 01. Kapasitas Dukung Tiang Terhadap Gaya Lateral -EnGDiunggah olehWidana Bayu Nugraha
- Comp Joist1 14.0mDiunggah olehmaheshbandham
- chapter 7.pdfDiunggah olehgilbert850507
- Structural Concepts and Systems 3Diunggah oleharif_rubin
- Deck Slab LSD (12.9m)_14mDiunggah olehGaurav Singh
- 파일수평지지력(Broms)Diunggah olehSigit Bintan
- (Almen,J. O. & a. Laszlo,1936)- The Uniform-section Disk SpringDiunggah olehchristos032
- RCC 12-Deflection 1Diunggah olehEngr Swapan

- Plc Final Project (Uthm)Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Technical paper (2)Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Guardian - Technical PresentationDiunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Manufacturing Control Technology 2_control 1Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Introduction of CADCAMDiunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Child Education Plan (Great Eastern)Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Control System 2 (Cont of 1)Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Plc 1Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Savings for Your Child GraduationDiunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- Assignment 1 (Magen)Diunggah olehK.Magenthran (UTHM)
- docslide.us_computerized-gear-system.docDiunggah olehAkmalFadzli

- Homework Unit 1 and 2Diunggah oleheugeska
- Reading Starter1-Answer KeyDiunggah olehtip89
- Dellis Cay BrochuresDiunggah olehsimplyadvanced
- Angliski-SeminarskaDiunggah olehTome J
- MAKE A SPLASH READ WebliographyDiunggah olehjamzak305129
- Grow Taller ExercisesDiunggah olehs28928
- USA_Season Planning_NataçãoDiunggah olehFrancisco Júlio de Sousa
- Kyra C.K Scuba Diving CVDiunggah olehКира Калагеорги
- Tomtom-runner-gps Plus Heart Rate Monitor GuideDiunggah olehMian Bial
- 1999 Hi-Yu Summer Festival Souvenir BookletDiunggah olehPeter Richards
- Group Lessons for Children With ASDDiunggah olehMark Peterson
- trm8Diunggah olehwayinblue
- 2015 Lifeguard Candidate PacketDiunggah olehMichelle Breidenbach
- 6. Total Knee Replacement ProtocolDiunggah olehRamesh Govindan Adikesavan
- BBC Learning English - Today's Phrase_2012_2013Diunggah olehNahiwant
- Swimming PoolsDiunggah olehspzemun
- Extreme SportDiunggah olehTatiana Lizeth Lazo Palacios
- Therapeutic Recreation Wire June 2010Diunggah olehTherapeutic and Inclusive Recreation Services
- NAUI Advanced SCUBA DiverDiunggah olehCarmen Andrei
- Berlin_2014_Vorontsov.pdfDiunggah olehNeagu Andrei
- aodhan fogarty resumeDiunggah olehapi-246006750
- Newman News December 2016 EditionDiunggah olehSonya Matheson
- Montgomery County Guide Recreation and Park Programs: Summer 2010Diunggah olehM-NCPPC
- Carifta 2017 Psych SheetsDiunggah olehBrianne Dyer
- IDIOM BOOK.pdfDiunggah olehIntan Nurbaizurra Mohd Rosmi
- Comparatives and Superlatives TestDiunggah olehJuan Antonio Dominguez Arroyo
- Mayer Kaplan JCC Day Camp BrochureDiunggah olehjccchicago
- Results Shorecrest vs MtVernon vs Oak HarborDiunggah olehSean Kramer
- Reading English Contest 8th GradeDiunggah olehCorina Apostu
- Introduction to SwimmingDiunggah olehSheena Mae Palaspas