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Analysis diving board by Macaulay’s methods and Strain rosette

Project Study For

BDA 3033 Solid Mechanics II


Department of Engineering Mechanics

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Johor

BDA 3033 - Solid Project

Analysis diving board by Macaulay’s methods and Strain rosette

1.1 Introduction of Diving

On a roof slab of a vast burial vault south of Naples is a painting of a young man diving from
a narrow platform. The discovery of the "Tomba Del Tuffatore" (The Tomb of the Diver) shows us
that the excitement and grace of diving from high places into water has lured people from at least 480
BC - the date established for the construction of the tomb. As with most sports dating back to ancient
times, little information on competitive diving has survived. The origins of modern diving can be
traced to two European venues - Halle in Germany and Sweden.

It was a traditional specialty of the guild of salt boilers, called Halloren to practise certa in
swimming and diving skills. The Halloren used to perform a series of diving feats from a bridge into
the River Saale. In 1840 in contact with the German gymnastics movement the world's first diving
association was formed. Most of its members were gymnasts starting their tumbling routines as a
kind of water gymnastic. Thus diving became very popular in Germany.

In Sweden wooden scaffolding was erected around many lakes, inviting courageous fellows
to perform diving feats. Somersaulting from great heights and swallow-like flights of a whole team
are common. The beginning of competitive diving corresponded to the rise of swimming clubs and
associations. In Germany, the oldest club called "Neptun" started international diving contests from a
lower board and from a tower in 1882. In 1891 the first diving rules were adopted and the following
year the first tables were published in Germany.

At the turn of the century, another branch of diving found numerous followers in the USA -
the bridge and artistic leaping. However, its development was stopped due to the high number of
serious accidents. In 1940 in Saint-Louis, with the support of the Germans, diving was added to the
Olympic programme. German divers dominated the springboard scene during the first two decades.
When high diving from a platform was introduced in 1908, the Swedish athletes dominated these

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1.2 Introduction of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board

Figure 1: Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board

The Frontier board is timber reinforced and encased in fiberglass for durability and
appearance. A non-slip top ensures maximum safety. There are no unusual climate
restrictions to consider, the boards are designed to be exposed to the elements and live for

Product features

The diving board includes a streamlined and cantilevered stand with spring.
The units are powder-coated Radiant White as Standard color
Made of strong steel, powder coated for increased corrosion resistance.
Stainless Steel Hardware - resists corrosion (the type of material)
Matching, slip-resistant sand tread - for maximum safety
Weight limit: 113 kg (maximum load)
Various Length of diving broad: 1.83m, 2.44m, 3.05m (maximum length)
All diving board and diving stand equipment is supplied with a comprehensive
instruction manual
Installation of all board and stand apparatus can be carried out without special skills
or materials by any home handyman

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2.0 Proble m State ment

A springboard or diving board is used for diving and is a board that is itself a
spring, i.e. a linear flex-spring, of the cantilever type. Springboards are commonly fixed by a
hinge at one end (so they can be flipped up when not in use), and the other end usually hangs
over a swimming pool, with a point midway between the hinge and the end resting on an
adjustable fulcrum.

Diving board is used in Olympic Games or other diving game. This study analyses
which diving board is have more deflection when 113 kg/1108.53 N loads applied. This study
also analyses the principle strain in the plane of rosette and the maximum in plane shearing

3.0 Objective

The main objective of this project study is to analyze the Frontier III - Cantilever Diving
Board using solid mechanics principles. The solid mechanic method use is stress & strain rosette to
find out the principle strain in the plane of rosette and the maximum in plane shearing strain.
By using Macaulay’s methods the maximum deflection in various length of diving board also
can calculate.

4.0 Scope

The analysis on air plane wing is carried out using the following basic concepts of solid
mechanics only
(i) Deflection of Beam
(ii) Principle strain in the plane of rosette
(iii) Maximum in plane shearing strain
The following assumptions are made in this study with respect to Frontier III - Cantilever
Diving Board
• The board is assumed to be horizontal
• The self weight of board is neglected
• The cross section is assumed as rectangular instead of air foil geometry
• Material is assumed to be Stainless steel with high strength

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5.0 Analysis of method are use

 Deflection of Beams (first method)

The deflection of a spring beam depends on its length, its cross-sectional shape, the
material, where the deflecting force is applied, and how the beam is supported. The equations
given here are for homogenous, linearly elastic materials, and where the rotations of a beam
are small. In the following examples, only loads applying at a single point or single points are
considered - the application point of force F in the diagrams is intended to denote a model
locomotive horn block (or vehicle axle box) able to move vertically in a horn guide, and
acting against the force of the spring beam fixed to or carried by the locomotive or vehicle
mainframes. The proportion of the total weight acting on each axle of a loco or vehicle will
depend on the position of its centre of gravity in relation to the axle (or the chassis fixing
points of equalizing beams where these are used).

5.1 Choosing a deflection value

For reasonable 4mm scale fine scale track, a recommended value for horn block
deflection, δ, under the final load of a locomotive, is 0.5mm.The above recommendation is
known to be an over simplistic and possibly incorrect assumption on what the design value
for the deflection should be, and has given rise to considerable debate. Any experience on
applying this recommendation to real chassis modeling practice is welcomed - the purpose of
this article is a starter for discussion rather than a conclusion of it.

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5.3 Example: A Cantilever beam is subjected to a bending mome nt M at the force

EI = Ma…………….(1)
dx 2

By Integrating of equation 1 (first integration)

dy d2y
= EI
dx dx 2

EI dy/dx = Ma x + C1…………….(2) (slope equation)

At X = 0; =0
Which is C1 = 0

By Integrating of equation 2 (second integration)

dy 1
y= EI = Max + C1
dx EI
Max 2
EI y = + C1x + C2 …………….(2) (max. deflection equation)

Since the value of C1 = 0

At X = 0; y = 0

So the maximum deflection equation will be:

Max 2
y= ……………….(3) (maximum elastic curve equation)
2 EI

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 Strain gauge and rosette (second method)

The strain gauge has been in use for many years and is the fundamental
sensing element for many types of sensors, including pressure sensors, load cells,
torque sensors, position sensors, etc. The majority of strain gauges are foil types,
available in a wide choice of shapes and sizes to suit a variety of applications. They
consist of a pattern of resistive foil which is mounted on a backing material. They
operate on the principle that as the foil is subjected to stress, the resistance of the foil
changes in a defined way.

The strain gauge is connected into a Wheatstone Bridge circuit with a

combination of four active gauges (full bridge), two gauges (half bridge), or, less
commonly, a single gauge (quarter bridge). In the half and q uarter circuits, the bridge
is completed with precision resistors.

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1. Transformation equation:

1 = x cos 2 1 + x sin2 1 + xy sin 1 .cos 1

2 = x cos 2 2 + x sin2 2 + xy sin 2 .cos 2

3 = x cos 2 3 + x sin2 3 + xy sin 1 .cos 3

2. Principal strain equation

x + y x - y xy
1, 2 = (( )2 ( )2 )
2 2 2

3. Max Shear Strain

x - y xy
= (( )2 ( )2 )
2 2 2

4. Principal planes

Tan2 p
x y

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5.3 Data of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board

Figure: Data of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board from website:


5.4 specification of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board

Raw data which is use in calculation


Table: specification of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board in three various lengths

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5.5 Material

Stainless steels resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, relatively low
cost, and familiar luster make it an ideal base material for a host of commercial applicat ions.
There are over 150 grades of stainless steel, of which fifteen are most common. The alloy is
milled into coils, sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing to be used in cookware, cutlery,
hardware, surgical instruments, major appliances, industrial equipment, and as an automotive
and aerospace structural alloy and construction material in large buildings. Storage tanks and
tankers used to transport orange juice and other food are often made of stainless steel, due to
its corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties. This also influences its use in commercial
kitchens and food processing plants, as it can be steam-cleaned, sterilized, and does not need
painting or application of other surface finishes. The material is uses for Frontier III -
Cantilever Diving Board are the stainless steel High strength which is Modulus o f elastic is

BDA 3033 - Solid Project

5.6 Loading

Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board is used to dive when having swimming
activities. The maximum load can applied is 1108.53 N/ 113 KG. So by using three different
lengths, we can determine the maximum deflection. To determine the maximum deflection,
we are using Macaulay’s method which is just sectioning the last section of beam (Frontier
III - Cantilever Diving Board).

5.7 Case 1: Maximum deflection

Max. Load =
113 kg/1108.53 N

5.7.1 Analysis of case:

Case 1: deflection of beam

Figure: before the swimmer stand on the diving plate

Max. Deflection

Figure: After the swimmer stand on the diving plat

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 Solution for deflection of beam

M 1108.53 N

Rax 0.44 m

x=L 0.8 m
L = 1.83m
When x = L
bd dy
I= (moment inertia) 0
12 dx
y= 0
(0.8)(0.44) 3
I= = 5.679 x 10-3 m4

 Find out support reaction

Rax = 0

Fy = Fy

Ray = 1108.53 N / 1.109 KN

 Find out slope of beam

Ma 0

Ma = (1.109 KN) (1.83m) - M

= 2029.47 Nm + M
M = - 2029.47Nm
1108.53 N

• Sectioning method

EI 2 -1108.53 N(X)
dx X
d y
EI -1108.53 N(X) ----------- (first Integrating)
dx 2

BDA 3033 - Solid Project

The Slope equation , Ө

dy 1108.53 N(X 2 )
=- + C1
dx 2 EI

When X = L, 0 ..……… (Applying boundary condition)

1108.53 N(L2 )
C1 =
2 EI

The maximum deflection, y

dy 1108.53 N(X 2 )
=- + C1…………….. (From slope equation)
dx 2 EI

1108.53( X 2 )
y = C1
1108.53( X 3 )
y =- C 1X C2

When X = L, y = 0.

1108.53( L3 ) 1108.53( L) 2 ( X )
C2 =
1108.53( L3 ) 1108.53( L3 )
6 EI 2 EI

The specific deflection equation:

1108.53( X 3 ) 1108.53 N(L2 )(X) 1108.53L3

y= - +
6EI 2 EI 3EI

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When X = 0, y = Maximum.

1108.53( X 3 ) 1108.53 N(L2 )(X) 1108.53L3

y= - +
6EI 2 EI 3EI

By using, I = 5.679 x 10-3 m4 & E = 200 GPa

The Slope

dy 1108.53 N(X 2 )
dx 2 EI
When X = 1.83 m

dy 1108.53 N(1.832 )
dx 2(200G )(5.679x10 3 )

The maximum deflection, y

1108.53(1.83) 3
3(200G)(5.679x10 3 )

= 0.00199mm

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Case 2: Strain rosette

1 = 400 x 10-6 mm
2 = 200 x 10-6 mm
3 = 350 x 10-6 mm

 Solution for Strain rosette

400 = x cos 2 0 + y sin2 0 + xy sin 0 .cos 0 ……….. (1)

200 = x cos 2 45 + y sin2 45 + xy sin 45 .cos 45 ……… (2)

350 = x cos 2 90 + y sin2 90 + xy sin 90 .cos 90 ……… (3)

From equation (1):

x 400 mm …………..(4)

From equation (2):

200 (400 )(0.5) (0.5) y (0.5) xy ……………… (5)

From equation (3):

y 350 mm……………(6)

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From equation 4 & 5, substitute y 350 mm & x 400 mm to equation 4

200 (400 )(0.5) (350 )(0.5) (0.5) xy

200 (2 10 4 ) (1.75 10 4 ) (0.5) xy

200 375

xy 350 mm

 Principal strain equation

400 + 350 400 350 350 2

1, 2 = (( )2 ( ) )
2 2 2

1, 2 375 (25 ) 2 ( 175 ) 2




 Max. Shear Strain

max 400 - 350 2 350 2

= (( ) ( ) )
2 2 2

(25 ) 2 ( 175 ) 2

2 mm

max 353.55

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 Principal planes

Tan2 p
400 350

Tan2 p 7.071

2 p 81.95

1 40.97°

2 130.98°

6.0 Results

Methods Type of calculation Results

Reaction of force, Ray 1.109 KN

Macaulay’s method Slope of beam 0.00163 mm

Max. deflection of beam 0.00199 mm

ξ1 = 551.78µ mm

Principal strain
ξ 2 = 198.22 µ mm

Strain rosette
Max Shear Strain γmax = 353.55 µ mm
1 40.97°
Principal planes
2 130.98°

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1.7 Conclusion

The analysis gives out the maximum defection by using Macaulay’s method a nd the
Principal strain, Max Shear Strain, Principal Planes by using Strain rosette of Frontier III -
Cantilever Diving Board. The specification of Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board is found
from the trusted website because they are one of the diving board deliver for big game event
such as Olympic Games. So the specification follows the original length and width of
Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board. This diving board use Stainless steels material with
200G (this is I assume own).

Along I did this solid project; I was able to calculate the deflection of beam (Frontier
III - Cantilever Diving Board) by Macaulay’s method and strain rosette to find the strain in
the beam (Frontier III - Cantilever Diving Board). I also learn how to apply the concept I
learn in class, in the real world or our daily life such as deflection occur in bridge by loads

So this project is really worth it if a student applying the concepts are learn in the
class such as buckling of strut, strain energy, Euler theory and many more to apply in our real

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1. Ferdinand P. Beer,E Russell Johnston, John T. DeWolf. "Third Edition:

Mechanics of Materials”
6. fibredive.htm

BDA 3033 - Solid Project