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FILSAFAT ILMU

AL MUNAWIR
LAB. PATOLOGI ANATOMI
FK UNIVERSITAS JEMBER

Filsafat ilmu di Fakultas


Kedokteran Universitas Jember
Undang-Undang No 2 tahun 1989,
tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional.
Pendidikan akademik
Pendidikan profesional
Sejak tahun 2012. di fk unej.

Jenis-jenis manusia:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Berdasar atas pengetahuannya,


manusia dalam kehidupan ini ada
empat jenis, yaitu :
manusia yang tahu di tahunya;
manusia yang tahu di tidaktahunya;
manusia yang tidak tahu di tahunya;
manusia yang tidak tahu di
tidaktahunya.

"Bagaimana cara manusia untuk


mendapatkan pengetahuan yang
benar agar dapat menempatkan
dirinya pada jenis manusia yang
berilmu?"

Ketahuilah apa yang kau tahu, dan


ketahuilah apa yang tidak kau tahu ".

"Sebenarnya kapan sih filsafat itu


dimulai?"

Bila pengetahuan dimulai dari rasa


ingin tahu, dan
kepastian dimulai dengan rasa ragu,
maka filsafat dimulai dengan
keduanya.

Dalam perkembangan penalaran manusia, filsafat juga


mengalami perkembangan. Pokok permasalahan yang
dikaji filsafat, adalah:
1.Apa yang disebut BENAR dan yang disebut SALAH
(LOGIKA).
2.Apa yang disebut BAIK dan yang disebut BURUK
(ETIKA).
3.Apa yang disebut INDAH dan JELEK
(ESTETIKA).
Selain ketiga pokok permasalahan tersebut, masih ditambah dengan :
4.Teori tentang hakekat keberadaan zat, tentang hakekat pikiran serta
kaitan antara zat dan pikiran, yang semua ini terangkum dalam
METAFISIKA.
5.Kajian mengenai organisasi sosial/pemerintah yang ideal, yang terangkum
dalam POLITIK.
Selain ketiga pokok permasalahan tersebut, masih ditambah dengan :
4.Teori tentang hakekat keberadaan zat, tentang hakekat pikiran serta
kaitan antara zat dan pikiran, yang semua ini terangkum dalam
METAFISIKA.
5.Kajian mengenai organisasi sosial/pemerintah yang ideal, yang
terangkum dalam POLITIK.

Selanjutnya terjadi perkembangan filsafat yang sangat


spesifik, yaitu :

1 .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Epistemologi (Filsafat pengetahuan).


Etika (Filsafat moral).
Estetika (Filsafat seni).
Metafisika.
Politik (Filsafat pemerintahan).
Filsafat agama.
Filsafat ilmu.
Filsafat pendidikan.
Filsafat hukum.
Filsafat sejarah.
Filsafat matematika.

CONCEPTS OF HEALTH
AND DISEASE

Basic to many clinical disciplines are the


concepts of health and of its various
defects:
illness,
disease,
disorder,
pathology,
injury,
disability, and so on.

CONCEPTUAL ISSUES
interrelations
of
health
concepts How do the concepts
health, disease, disorder, illness,
injury,
disability,
abnormality,
pathology, and so on relate to each
other? Are some primary, with
others defined in their terms?

scientific vs. lay concepts Which


of these health concepts are purely
medical? Which lay? Which, if any,
are the same in both medical and lay
usage?

vagueness What are health


concepts limits of precision? Are
there conditions, such as sickle trait,
that cannot be clearly labeled as
normal or pathological? If so, how
does this matter?

normality vs. positive health To


what degree is health a kind of
normality? Insofar as disease is
abnormality, can there also be
positive health beyond the absence
of disease e.g., unusual fitness,
happiness, or achievement?

reference class What fixes the reference class


for medical normality? Is whether a condition is
normal relative to species? To age? Race?
Environment? Other factors? Is it relative to a
particular population? E.g., why are, or are not,
pygmies [Reznek, 1987, 85], homosexuals
[Kingma, 2007, 132], or elderly female Masai
mountain bikers [Cooper, 2005, 14] appropriate
reference classes for judging normality? Might
normality, indeed, be different for each person,
based on his or her typical performance?

protodiseases Is whatever makes


illness more likely a disease? E.g.,
which of the following should be
considered pathological: early
localized cancer; precancerous tissue
changes, e.g., cervical dysplasia; a
latent virus infection, e.g., HIV; an
abnormal gene, e.g., BRCA; a clinical
risk factor, e.g., high cholesterol?

nosology and natural kinds Is the


demarcation problem to divide the normal
from the pathological independent of
nosology, the taxonomy of individual
diseases? As for nosology, how should
diseases be defined and classified by
clinical features, etiology, pathology, or some
combination? What is the best model of
disease causation? Are health and disease
natural kinds? Are individual disease entities?

organisms besides adult humans Is


the concept of health the same for babies
as for adults? More generally, do health
and disease exist for all organisms,
including lower animals and plants or,
perhaps, only for those we care about? Is
health the same for human beings,
badgers, sparrows, salmon, cicadas,
sycamores, lawn grass, and bacteria?

disease and treatment What is the relation


between
disease
judgments
and
medical
treatment? Does calling X a disease mean medical
treatment (i) must, or (ii) may, or (iii) prima facie
should or may be given? Does calling X a nondisease mean treatment (i) need not, (ii) must not,
or (iii) prima facie may or should not be given?
Should medicine actually discard the concept of
disease or even health as well [Hesslow, 1993]?
Also, what makes a treatment medical its nature,
or who gives it? If a condition is a disease, does
that mean physicians are best qualified to treat it?

values If we assume a fact/value


distinction, are health judgments pure value
judgments, pure factual judgments, or a
mixture? If they involve values, what kind
i.e., how do health evaluations relate to
other sorts? Should value judgments about
health be made by patient, physician, or
society? Must a disease be bad for its
bearer, or can it suffice that, like
psychopathy, it is bad for others?

mental vs. physical health Can there literally be


such a thing as mental health, and mental disease
or illness? Or are these dangerous metaphors
[Szasz, 1960]? Must mental health be a species of
the same genus as physical health? Or can mental
health be conceptually independent of physical
health, or at least of medicine? What makes a
disorder mental rather than physicale.g., signs an
symptoms, etiology, pathology, treatment, or some
mixture? Are the two classes mutually exclusive, or
can a disorder be both? Does it matter whether we
call a disorder mental or physical?

cultural relativism about health How significant is it that disease


judgments vary with culture? Some diseases in current Western
medicine have been seen as normal elsewhere: measles in rural
China [Topley, 1970], intestinal worms in Africa [Reznek, 1987, 93],
dyschromic spirochetosis in a South American tribe [Dubos, 1965,
251]. Some of our most serious disorders were highly valued by
other cultures: epilepsy in classical Greece, hallucinations among
Plains Indians. Countless societies inflict wounds during rites of
passage. Conversely, what we view as normal, such as
lefthandedness or the female orgasm, our own ancestors called
pathological. Given cultural variation in disease judgments, is there
any fact of the matter? Or must we accept cultural relativism? Can
we say only that masturbation was a disease in 19th-century
America and homosexuality in 20th-, but neither is today, and a
clitoris is normal or abnormal for a woman depending on where in
Africa she lives