Anda di halaman 1dari 515

# Reinforced Concrete Design

g I

Lecture 0
Syllabus

## Reinforced Concrete Design

I
Instructor

D N
Dr.
d Ok
Okasha.
h

Email

nao204@lehigh.edu

Offi Hours
Office
H

A needed.
As
d d

## This course iis only

Thi
l offered
ff d for
f 2010 students
d
who
h
have passed strength of materials.

If you d
dont
meet this
hi criteria
i i you will
ill not be
b
allowed to continue this course.

## Reinforced Concrete Design

References:
Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and
commentary (ACI 318M-08). American Concrete Institute,
2008.
2008
Design of Reinforced Concrete. 7th edition, McCormac, J.C.
and
nd N
Nelson,
l n JJ.K.,
K 2006.
2006
Reinforced Concrete Design. By Dr. Sameer Shihada.

## Additional references (internationally recognized books in

reinforced concrete design):
Reinforced Concrete, A fundamental Approach. Edward Nawy.
Design of Concrete Structure. Nilson A. et al.
Reinforced Concrete Design.
Design Kenneth Leet.
Leet
Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design. James K. Wight,
and James G
G. MacGregor
MacGregor.

## The art of design

Design
g is an analysis
y of trial sections. The strength
g
of each trial section is compared with the expected
The load effect on a section is determined using
g
structural analysis and mechanics of materials.
The strength of a reinforced concrete section is
g the concepts
p taught
g in this class.
determined using

## Reinforced Concrete Design

Course outline
Week

2 3,4
2,
34

Topic
Introduction:
Syllabus and course policies.
policies
-Syllabus
-Introduction to reinforced concrete.
paths and tributaryy areas.
-Design philosophies and design codes.
Analysis and design of beams for bending:
-Analysis of beams in bending at service loads.
-Strength analysis of beams according to ACI Code.
-Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams.
beams
-Design of T and L beams.
-Design of doubly reinforced beams.

Midterm
Midterm.

Course outline
Week

Topic

ribbed slabs.

columns

7,8

8,9

## Design of isolated footings.

Staircase design.

10

Final

Course work:

20%

-Homework

4%

-Attendance

4%

-Project

12%

Mid-term
t
exam

20%

Final exam

60%

## Reinforced Concrete Design

Exam Policy

Mid-term exam:
Only one A4 cheat-sheet is allowed.
Necessary figures and tables will be provided with the exam forms.

Final exam:
Open book.

## Reinforced Concrete Design

Homework Policy
Show all your assumptions and work details. Prepare neat
sketches showing the reinforcement and dimensions.
Markingg will consider pprimarilyy neatness of presentation,
p
,
completeness and accuracy of results.
You may get the HW points if you copy the solution from
other students. However, you will have lost your chance in
practicing the concepts through doing the HW. This will lead
you to loosing points in the exams, which you could have
No late HWs will be accepted. Homework solutions will be
posted on upinar immediately after the submission deadline.

cell-phone
phone use

## Policy towards discipline during class

Zero tolerance will be practiced.
practiced
No talking with other students is allowed.
allowed
questions.
Leaving during class is not allowed (especially for
answering the cell-phone) unless a previous permission is
g
granted.
ed.
Violation of discipline
p
rules mayy have you
y dismissed from
class and jeopardize your participation points.

## Policy towards missed classes

Any collectively missed class MUST be made up.
up
p either on a
A collectivelyy missed class will be made up
Thursday or during the discussion lecture.
An absence from a lecture will loose you attendance points,
and the lecture will not be repeated for you. You are on your
own. You may use the
h llecture videos.
id
No late students will be allowed in class.
class
Anything mentioned in class is binding.
binding No excuse for not
being there or not paying attention.

## Units used in class

In all equations,
equations the input and output units are as follows:
Distance (L,b,d,h
L b d h): mm
Area (Ac,Ag,As): mm2
Volume (V): mm3
Force (P,V,N): N
Moment (M): N.mm
N mm
Stress (fy, fc): N/mm2 = MPa = 106 N/m2
Pressure (qs): N/mm2
Distributed load per unit length (wu): N/mm
Distributed load per unit area (qu): N/mm2
Weight per unit volume (): N/mm3

## Units used in class

However these quantities may be presented as
However,
Distance (L,b,d,h
L b d h): cm , m
Area (Ac,Ag,As): cm2, m2
Volume (V): cm3, m3
Force (P,V,N): kN
Moment (M): kN.m
kN m
Pressure (qs): kN/m2
Distributed load per unit length (wu): kN/m
Distributed load per unit area (qu): kN/m2
Weight per unit volume (): kN/m3

## Reinforced Concrete Design

Unit conversions
1 m = 102 cm = 103 mm
1 m2 = 104 cm2 = 106 mm2
1 m3 = 106 cm3 = 109 mm3
1 kN = 103 N
1 kN.m
kN m = 106 N.mm
N mm
1 kN/m2 = 10-3 N/mm2
1 kN/m3 = 10-66 N/mm3

## Reinforced Concrete Design

ACI Equations
The equations taken from the ACI code will be indicated throughout the
slides by their section or equation number in the code provided in
Examples:

Ec = 4700
4 00 f c
f r = 0.62 f c

ACI 8.5.1
851
ACI E
Eq. 9-10
9 10

Some of the original equations may have included the symbol = 1.0
for normal weight concrete and omitted in slides.

## Advices for excelling in this course:

Keep up with the teacher and pay attention in class.
class
Study the lectures up to date.
date
Re-do
Re
do the lecture examples
examples.

upinar

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 1
Introduction to reinforced concrete

Contents
1.

2.

Concrete-producing materials
Mechanical properties of concrete
3.

Steel reinforcement

Part 1:
Concrete-Producing
Materials

as a structural material
1. It has considerable compressive strength.
2. It has great resistance to the actions of fire and water.
3. Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid.
4. It is a low maintenance material.
5. It has very long service life.

as a structural material
6. It is usually the only economical material for footings,
basement walls, etc.
7. It can be cast into many shapes.
8. It can be made from inexpensive local materials.
9. A lower grade of skilled labor is required for erecting.

concrete as a structural material
1. It has a very low tensile strength.
2. Forms are required to hold the concrete in place until it
hardens.
3. Concrete members are very large and heavy because of the
low strength per unit weight of concrete.
4. Properties of concrete vary due to variations in
proportioning and mixing.

## Compatibility of concrete and steel

1. Concrete is strong in compression, and steel is strong in
tension.

## 2. The two materials bond very well together.

3. Concrete protects the steel from corrosive environments
and high temperatures in fire.
4. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the two
materials are quite close.

Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine and coarse
aggregates, and water. This mixture creates a formable
paste that hardens into a rocklike mass.

## Concrete Producing Materials

Portland Cement
Aggregates
Water

Portland Cement
The most common type of hydraulic cement used in the
manufacture of concrete is known as Portland cement, which is
available in various types.

## Although there are several types of ordinary Portland cements,

most concrete for buildings is made from Type I ordinary
cement.
weeks to achieve a sufficient strength to permit the removal of
forms and the application of moderate loads.

10

Types of Cement
Type I: General Purpose
Type II: Lower heat of hydration than
Type I
Type III: High Early Strength
Quicker strength
Higher heat of hydration

11

Types of Cement
Type IV: Low Heat of Hydration
Slowly dissipates heat less distortion (used for
large structures).
Type V: Sulfate Resisting
For footings, basements, sewers, etc. exposed to
soils with sulfates.
If the desired type of cement is not available, different
admixtures may be used to modify the properties of Type 1
cement and produce the desired effect.
12

Aggregates
Aggregates are particles that form about three-fourths of the
volume of finished concrete. According to their particle size,
aggregates are classified as fine or coarse.

Coarse Aggregates
Coarse aggregates consist of gravel or crushed rock particles
not less than 5 mm in size.

Fine Aggregates
Fine aggregates consist of sand or pulverized rock particles
usually less than 5 mm in size.
13

Water
Mixing water should be clean and free of organic materials that
react with the cement or the reinforcing bars.
The quantity of water relative to that of the cement, called
water-cement ratio, is the most important item in determining
concrete strength.
An increase in this ratio leads to a reduction in the compressive
strength of concrete.
It is important that concrete has adequate workability to assure
its consolidation in the forms without excessive voids.

14

Applications:
Improve workability (superplasticizers)
Accelerate or retard setting and hardening
Aid in curing
Improve durability

15

Concrete Mixing
In the design of concrete mixes, three principal
requirements for concrete are of importance:
Quality
Workability
Economy

16

Part 2:
Mechanical Properties of
Concrete

17

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

'
f
Compressive Strength, c

strength.

18

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

'
f
Compressive Strength, c

## It is determined through testing standard cylinders 15

cm in diameter and 30 cm in height in uniaxial
compression at 28 days (ASTM C470).

## Test cubes 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm are also tested in

uniaxial compression at 28 days (BS 1881).

19

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

'
f
Compressive Strength, c

## The ACI Code is based on the concrete compressive

strength as measured by a standard test cylinder.
f c Cylinder 0.8f c Cube

## For ordinary applications, concrete compressive

strengths from 20 MPa to 30 MPa are usually used.

20

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

Compressive-Strength Test

21

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

Modulus of Elasticity, Ec
'
f
Corresponds to the secant modulus at 0.45 c
For normal-weight concrete:
Ec 4700 f c

22

0.002

ACI 8.5.1

0.003

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

Tensile Strength
Tensile strength ~ 8% to 15% of f c'
Tensile strength of concrete is quite difficult to measure
with direct axial tension loads because of problems of
gripping the specimen and due to the secondary stresses
developing at the ends of the specimens.
Instead, two indirect tests are used to measure the tensile
strength of concrete. These are given in the next two slides.

23

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

Tensile Strength
Modulus of Rupture, fr

f r 0.62 f c

P

24

Mc 6M
fr
2
I bh

unreinforced
concrete beam

fr

## Mechanical Concrete Properties

Tensile Strength
Splitting Tensile Strength, fct

f ct 0.56 f c

ACI R8.6.1

## Split Cylinder Test

Concrete Cylinder

Poissons
Effect

f ct

2P

Ld

25

Creep
Creep is defined as the long-term deformation caused
by the application of loads for long periods of time,
usually years.
Creep strain occurs due to sustaining the same load
over time.

26

Creep
The total deformation is divided into two parts; the first
is called elastic deformation occurring right after the
application of loads, and the second which is time
dependent, is called creep

27

Shrinkage
Shrinkage of concrete is defined as the reduction in
volume of concrete due to loss of moisture. As a
result, shrinkage cracks develop.
Shrinkage continues for many years, but under ordinary
conditions about 90% of it occurs during the first
year.

28

Part 3:
Steel Reinforcement

29

Steel Reinforcement
Tensile tests

30

Steel Reinforcement
Tensile tests

31

Steel Reinforcement
Stress-strain diagrams
fs = Es fy
Yield point

elastic

plastic

All steel grades have same modulus of elasticity Es= 2x105 MPa
= 200 GPa

32

Steel Reinforcement
Bar sizes, f, #
Bars are available in nominal diameters ranging from 5mm
to 50mm, and may be plain or deformed. When bars have
smooth surfaces, they are called plain, and when they have
projections on their surfaces, they are called deformed.

ksi

MPa

40

276

60

414

80

552
33

Steel Reinforcement
Bars are deformed to increase bonding with concrete

34

Steel Reinforcement
Marks for ASTM Standard bars

35

Steel Reinforcement
Bar sizes according to ASTM Standards
U.S. customary units

36

Steel Reinforcement
Bar sizes according to ASTM Standards
SI Units

37

Steel Reinforcement
Bar sizes according to European Standard (EN 10080)
W
mm

N/m

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
25
26
28
30
32

2.2
3.9
6.2
8.9
12.1
15.8
19.9
24.7
29.8
35.5
38.5
41.7
45.4
55.4
63.1

28
50
79
113
154
201
254
314
380
452
491
531
616
707
804

57
101
157
226
308
402
509
628
760
905
982
1062
1232
1414
1608

85
151
236
339
462
603
763
942
1140
1357
1473
1593
1847
2121
2413

Number of bars
4
5
6
7
113
201
314
452
616
804
1018
1257
1521
1810
1963
2124
2463
2827
3217

141
251
393
565
770
1005
1272
1571
1901
2262
2454
2655
3079
3534
4021

170
302
471
679
924
1206
1527
1885
2281
2714
2945
3186
3695
4241
4825

198
352
550
792
1078
1407
1781
2199
2661
3167
3436
3717
4310
4948
5630

10

226
402
628
905
1232
1608
2036
2513
3041
3619
3927
4247
4926
5655
6434

254
452
707
1018
1385
1810
2290
2827
3421
4072
4418
4778
5542
6362
7238

283
503
785
1131
1539
2011
2545
3142
3801
4524
4909
5309
6158
7069
8042

Areas
are in
mm2

38

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 2

Structural systems transfer gravity loads from the floors
and roof to the ground through load paths that need to
be clearly identified in the design process.

## Identifying the correct path is important for determining

the load carried by each structural member.

## The tributary area concept is used to determine the load

that each structural component is subjected to.
2

## The area tributary to a

joist equals the length of
the joist times the sum of
half the distance to each

## The area tributary to a girder

equals the length of the
girder times the sum of half
girder.

Load is distributed over the area of the floor. This distributed load
has units of (force/area), e.g. kN/m2.
w {kN/m}
q {kN/m2}
Beam

Beam

Slab
Column

Column

Beam

Beam

Beam
Footing

Slab
Beam

Beam
Soil

P {kN}

In order to design a beam, the tributary load from the floor carried
by the beam and distributed over its span is determined. This load
has units of (force/distance), e.g. kN/m.
Notes:
-In some cases, there may be concentrated loads carried by the beams as well.
-All spans of the beam must be considered together (as a continuous beam) for design.

w {kN/m}

This tributary load is determined by multiplying q by the tributary
width for the beam.

## w {kN/m} = q {kN/m2} (S1+S2)/2 {m}

S1

S2

The tributary areas for a beam in a two way system are areas which
are bounded by 45-degree lines drawn from the corners of the
panels and the centerlines of the adjacent panels parallel to the long
sides.
A panel is part of the slab formed by column centerlines.

An edge beam is bounded
by panels from one side.
An interior beam is
bounded by panels from
two sides.
qD

D=S/2
qD

## For interior beams:

D=S
10

11

12

The tributary load for the column is concentrated. It has units of
(force) e.g., kN. It is determined by multiplying q by the tributary
area for the column.

## P {kN} = q {kN/m2} (x y){m2}

13

Example
Determine the loads acting on beams B1 and B2 and columns C1
and C2. Distributed load over the slab is q = 10 kN/m2. This is a 5
story structure.
B1
4m
B2
5m
4.5 m

14

C2

C1
6m

5.5 m

Example
B1:

w = 10 (4)/2 = 20 kN/m
B1
4m
B2
5m
4.5 m

15

C2

C1
6m

5.5 m

Example
B2:

w = 10 (4+5)/2 = 45 kN/m
B1
4m
B2
5m
4.5 m

16

C2

C1
6m

5.5 m

Example
B1:

w = 20 kN/m

B2:

w = 45 kN/m

17

Example
C1:

B1
4m
B2
5m
4.5 m

18

C2

C1
6m

5.5 m

Example
C2:

## P = 10 [(4.5+5)/2 (6+5.5)/2] 5 = 1366 kN

B1
4m
B2
5m
4.5 m

19

C2

C1
6m

5.5 m

Classification by direction

20

Classification by source and activity

21

All structural elements must be designed for all loads anticipated to
act during the life span of such elements. These loads should not
cause the structural elements to fail or deflect excessively under
working conditions.

Weight of all permanent construction
Constant magnitude and fixed location
Examples: * Weight of the Structure
(Walls, Floors, Roofs, Ceilings, Stairways, Partitions)
* Fixed Service Equipment
22

## Minimum live Load values on slabs

Type of Use

The live load is a moving or
as occupants, furniture, etc.
buildings are usually
specified by local building
the intended use of the
structure and the number of
occupants at a particular
time.

23

## See IBC 2009 TABLE

http://publicecodes.citation.
com/icod/ibc/2009/index.ht
m?bu=IC-P-2009000001&bu2=IC-P-2009000019

kN/m2
Residential

Residential balconies
Computer use
Offices
Warehouses

3
5
2

Light storage

Heavy Storage
Schools

12

Classrooms
Libraries

Rooms

Stack rooms
Hospitals
Assembly Halls

6
2

Fixed seating

Movable seating
Garages (cars)
Stores

2.5
5
2.5

Retail

Wholesale
Exit facilities
Manufacturing

5
5

Light

Heavy

The wind load is a lateral load produced by wind pressure and
gusts. It is a type of dynamic load that is considered static to
simplify analysis. The magnitude of this force depends on the
shape of the building, its height, the velocity of the wind and the
type of terrain in which the building exists.
resulting from earthquakes. The magnitude of such a load depends
on the mass of the structure and the acceleration caused by the
earthquake.
24

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 3
Design philosophies and design codes

## Design Versus Analysis

be used, the cross sectional dimensions, and the required
reinforcement. The designed structure should be able to resist all
forces expected to act during the life span of the structure safely and
without excessive deformation or cracking.
Analysis involves the determination of the capacity of a section of
known dimensions, material properties and steel reinforcement, if
any to external forces and moments.

## Structural Design Requirements:

The design of a structure must satisfy three basic requirements:
1)Strength to resist safely the stresses induced by the loads in the
various structural members.
2)Serviceability to ensure satisfactory performance under service
contain deflections, crack widths and vibrations within acceptable
limits.
3)Stability to prevent overturning, sliding or buckling of the
structure, or part of it under the action of loads.
There are two other considerations that a sensible designer should
keep in mind: Economy and aesthetics.
3

## Building Codes, Standards, and Specifications:

Standards and Specifications: Detailed statement of
procedures for design (i.e., AISC Structural Steel Spec;
ACI 318 Standards, ANSI/ASCE7-05). Not legally
binding. Think of as Recommended Practice.
Code: Systematically arranged and comprehensive
collection of laws and regulations

## Building Codes, Standards, and Specifications:

Model Codes: Consensus documents that can be adopted
by government agencies as legal documents.
3 Model Codes in the U.S.
1.

Conference of Building Officials (ICBO).

2.

Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA).

3.

Code Congress International (SBCCI).

## Building Codes, Standards, and Specifications:

3 Model Codes in the U.S.

## Building Codes, Standards, and Specifications:

Code Council (2000 ,1st edition). To replace the 3 model codes for
national and international use.

Building Code: covers all aspects related to structural safety loads, structural design using various kinds of materials (e.g., structural
steel, reinforced concrete, timber), architectural details, fire protection,
plumbing, HVAC. Is a legal document. Purpose of building codes: to
establish minimum acceptable requirements considered necessary for
preserving public health, safety, and welfare in the built environment.

## Building Codes, Standards, and Specifications:

Summary:
The standards that will be used extensively throughout
this course is Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Concrete and commentary, known as the ACI 318M-08 code.
The building code that will be used for this course is
the IBC 2009, in conjunction with the ANSI/ASCE7-02.

## Design Methods (Philosophies)

Two methods of design have long prevalent.
Working Stress Method focuses on conditions at service
Strength Design Method focusing on conditions at loads
greater than the service loads when failure may be imminent.
The Strength Design Method is deemed conceptually more realistic
to establish structural safety.

## The Working-Stress Design Method

This method is based on the condition that the stresses caused by
stresses which are taken as a fraction of the ultimate stresses of the
materials, fc for concrete and fy for steel.

## The Ultimate Strength Design Method

At the present time, the ultimate-strength design method is the
method adopted by most prestigious design codes.
In this method, elements are designed so that the internal forces
produced by factored loads do not exceed the corresponding
reduced strength capacities.

(service loads) by factors usually greater than unity.
10

## Safety Provisions (the strength requirement)

Safety is required to insure that the structure can sustain all expected
loads during its construction stage and its life span with an
appropriate factor of safety.
There are three main reasons why some sort of safety factor are
necessary in structural design
Variability in resistance. *Variability of fc and fy, *assumptions are made
during design and *differences between the as-built dimensions and those found in
structural drawings.

or distributed differently.

## Consequences of failure. *Potential loss of life, *cost of clearing the

debris and replacement of the structure and its contents and *cost to society.
11

## Safety Provisions (the strength requirement)

The strength design method, involves a two-way safety measure. The
first of which involves using load factors, usually greater than unity
to increase the service loads. The second safety measure specified by
the ACI Code involves a strength reduction factor multiplied by the
nominal strength to obtain design strength. The magnitude of such a
reduction factor is usually smaller than unity

R i Li
i

ACI 9.3

ACI 9.2
12

ACI 9.2.1
U = 1.4D
U = 1.2D+1.6L
U=1.2D+1.0L+1.6W
U=1.2D+0.8W or U=0.9D+1.6W
U=1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
U=0.9D+1.0E
13

ACI 9.2
Symbols

14

## Strength Reduction Factors

ACI 9.3
According to ACI, strength reduction factors are given as follows:
a- For tension-controlled sections
= 0.90
b- For compression-controlled sections,
Members with spiral reinforcement
= 0.75
Other reinforced members
= 0.65
c- For shear and torsion
= 0.75

Tension-controlled section

compression-controlled section

15

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 4
Analysis of beams in bending at service loads

Introduction
A beam is a structural member used to support the internal moments
and shears and in some cases torsion.

## Basic Assumptions in Beam Theory

Plane sections remain plane after bending. This means that in an initially straight
beam, strain varies linearly over the depth of the section after bending.

## Its cross section

Strain distribution

## Basic Assumptions in Beam Theory

The strain in the reinforcement is equal to the strain in the concrete at the same
level, i.e. s = c at same level.
Concrete is assumed to fail in compression, when c = 0.003.
Tensile strength of concrete is neglected in flexural strength.
Perfect bond is assumed between concrete and steel.

## Stages of flexural behavior

w {kN/m}

If load w varies from zero to until the beam fails, the beam will
go through three stages of behavior:

## 1. Uncracked concrete stage

2. Concrete cracked Elastic Stress stage
3. Beam failure Ultimate Strength stage
5

## Stage I: Uncracked concrete stage

At small loads, when the tensile stresses are less than the
modulus of rupture, the beam behaves like a solid rectangular

## Stage II: Concrete cracked Elastic Stress range

Once the tensile stresses reach the modulus of rupture, the
section cracks. The bending moment at which this
transformation takes place is called the cracking moment Mcr.

## Stage III: Beam failure Ultimate Strength stage

As the stresses in the concrete exceed the linear limit (0.45
fc), the concrete stress distribution over the depth of the beam
varies non-linearly.

0.002 0.003

w {kN/m}

## Flexural properties to be determined:

1- Cracking moment.
2- Elastic stresses due to a given moment.
3- Moments at given (allowable) elastic stresses.
4- Ultimate strength moment (next lecture).

Note:

## In calculating stresses and moments (Parts 1 and 2),

you need to always check the maximum tensile stress with the
modulus of rupture to determine if cracked or uncracked
section analysis is appropriate.
10

## Cracking moment Mcr

When the section is still uncracked, the contribution of the
steel to the strength is negligible because it is a very small
percentage of the gross area of the concrete.
Therefore, the cracking moment can be calculated using the
uncracked section properties.

11

## Cracking moment Mcr

Example 1:
Calculate the cracking moment
for the section shown
1 3
bh
12
1
I g (350)(750) 3 1.2305 1010 mm4
12
f r 0.62 f c 0.62 30 3.4MPa

750 mm

1500 mm2

Ig

M cr

fr I g
yt

f c 30MPa

(750 / 2)
12

## Elastic stresses Cracked section

After cracking, the steel bars carry the entire
tensile load below the neutral surface. The
upper part of the concrete beam carries the
In the transformed section, the cross sectional area
of the steel, As, is replaced by the equivalent area
nAs where

## n = the modular ratio= Es/Ec

To determine the location of the neutral axis,

bx x n As d x 0
2

1 b x2
2

n As x n As d 0

fc

My
It

fs n

My
It

13

Example 2:
f c 30MPa

## Calculate the bending stresses for the

section shown, M= 180 kN.m
Note: M > Mcr = 111 kN.m from previous
example. Thus, section is cracked.

750 mm

1500 mm2

## E c 4700 f c 4700 30 25743MPa

E s 2 105
n

7.77
E c 25743
x
( 350 ) x ( ) 1500( 7.77 )( 700 x )
2
x 185.16mm
14

## Elastic stresses Cracked section

Example 2:
1
I t bx 3 nA s ( d x ) 2
3
1
I t ( 350 )( 185.16 ) 3 7.77 1500( 700 185.16 ) 2
3
750 mm
I t 3.8295 109 mm 4

## My 180 106 185.16

fc

8.7 MPa
9
It
3.8295 10
f c 8.7 MPa 0.45f c 0.45( 30 ) 13.5MPa

f c 30MPa

1500 mm2

OK

My
180 106 ( 700 185.16 )
fs n
7.77
188MPa
It
3.8295 109

15

Example 3:
f c 30MPa

## Calculate the allowable moment for the

section shown, f s(allowable)= 180 MPa,
f c(allowable)= 12 MPa
f s It
180 3.8295 109
Ms

ny
( 7.77 )( 700 185.16 )

750 mm

1500 mm2

## M s 1.7234 108 N .mm 172.34kN .m

f c I t 12 3.8295 109
Mc

y
185.16
M c 2.4819 108 N .mm 248.19kN .m
M allowable 172.34kN .m

16

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 5
Strength analysis of beams according to ACI Code

## Strength requirement for flexure in beams

Md Mu
M d Design moment strength (also known as moment resistance)
M u Internal ultimate moment
M u 1.2M D 1.6M L

Md Mn

2

## The equivalent stress (Whitney) block

Strain
Distribution

Actual
Stress Distribution

Approximate
Stress Distribution

## The equivalent stress (Whitney) block

The shape of the
stress block is not
important.
However, the
equivalent block must
provide the same
resultant (volume)
acting at the same
location (centroid).
The Whitney block
has average stress
0.85fc and depth
a=b1c.
ACI 10.2.7.1
4

## The equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution has what

is known as the b1 coefficient. It relates the actual NA depth to
the depth of the compression block by a=b1c.
b1 0.85
for f c ' 28 MPa
ACI 10.2.7.1
0.05( f c '28)
b1 0.85
0.65 for f c ' 28 MPa
7

Fx=0

C=T

## Derivation of beam expressions

Design aids can also be used:
Assume
Md = Mu = Mn

= Rn

fMn=fRnbd2

Design Aids

Design Aids

10

## Tension strain in flexural members

fy
Es

t y ?

Strain Distribution
11

## Types of flexural failure:

Flexural failure may occur in three different ways
[1] Balanced Failure
(balanced reinforcement)
[2] Compression Failure
(over-reinforced beam)
[3] Tension Failure (under-reinforced beam)

12

## Types of flexural failure:

[1] Balanced Failure
The concrete crushes and the steel yields simultaneously.
cu=0.003
cb
d

t = y

## Such a beam has a balanced reinforcement, its failure mode is

brittle, thus sudden, and is not allowed by the ACI Strength Design
Method.

13

## Types of flexural failure:

[2] Compression Failure
The concrete will crush before the steel yields.
cu=0.003
cu=0.003
c>c
c>cb b
h

t <t y< y

brittle,

Design Method.
14

## Types of flexural failure:

[3] Tension Failure
The reinforcement yields before the concrete crushes.
cu=0.003
cu=0.003

c<cb
c<cb
h

d
h

ductile,

## thus giving a sufficient amount of warning before

collapse, and is required by the ACI Strength Design Method
15

## Types of sections according to the ACI Code

ACI 10.3.4
[1] Tension-controlled section
The tensile strain in the tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005
when the concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of
0.003. This is a ductile section.
[2] Compression-controlled section
The tensile strain in the tension steel is equal to or less than y (y =
fy/Es=0.002 for fy =420 MPa) when the concrete in compression
reaches its crushing strain of 0.003. This is a brittle section.
[3] Transition section
The tensile strain in the tension steel is between 0.005 and y (y
=fy/Es=0.002 for fy =420 MPa) when the concrete in compression
reaches its crushing strain of 0.003.
16

ACI 10.3.5

17

## Strength reduction factor

cu=0.003
c

y
c

y
Es
at

b1

d c

ACI R9.3.2.2

18

Balanced steel
0.003
cb
d
0.003 f y E S
Es 2105 MPa

600
cb
d
600 f y

=b1c
0.85 b1 f c ' 600

b
600 f
fy
y

19

0.003
cmax
d
0.003 0.005
3
cmax d
8

=b1c b1cmax

max

3
db1
8

3 0.85 b1 f c '

8
fy

20

## Minimum steel allowed

ACI 10.5.1

A s,min

0.25 f c
bw d

fy
max
1.4 b d
w

f
y

bw = width of section
d = effective depth of section

21

Design Aids

22

Summary:
To calculate the moment capacity of a section:
0.25 f c
bw d

fy
max
1.4 b d
w

f
y

1-) As,min

2-) a

3-)

As f y
0.85f c b

b1 0.85
b1 0.85

or a

df y
0.85f c

## for f c ' 28 MPa

0.05( f c '28)
0.65 for f c ' 28 MPa
7

4-) c b
1

23

Summary:
d c

5-) t c 0.003
if t> 0.005: tension controlled f = 0.9
if 0.004 < t <0.005: in transition zone f =0.65+( t -0.002) (250/3)
if t < 0.004: compression controlled reject section
a

6-) M d M n As f y d
2

## 7-) M u M n if not reject section

24

Example
A singly reinforced concrete beam has the cross-section shown in the figure
below. Calculate the design moment strength. Can the section carry an
Mu = 350 kN.m?

f y 414MPa
a) f c 20.7MPa, b) f c 34.5MPa, c) f c 62.1M Pa

25

Example
Solution
a) f c 20.7MPa
1 A s,min

0.25 f c
0.25 20.7
bw d
(254)(457)=319 mm 2

414
fy
max
1.4
1.4

bw d
(254)(457)=393 mm 2

fy
414

## =393 mm 2 < A s,sup =2580 mm 2 OK

2580 414
2 a

239mm
0.85f c b 0.85 20.7 254
As f y

3 b1 0.85

## for f c ' 20.7MPa 28 MPa

26

Example
Solution
a) f c 20.7MPa
a

239
4 c

281mm
b1 0.85
d c
457 281
5 t
0.003
0.003 0.00186
c
281
t 0.004 Section is compression controlled
==> Does not satisfy ACI requirements
==> Reject section

27

Example
Solution
b) f c 34.5MPa
1 A s,min

0.25 f c
0.25 34.5
bw d
(254)(457)=412 mm 2

414
fy
max
1.4
1.4

bw d
(254)(457)=393 mm 2

fy
414

## =412 mm 2 < A s,sup =2580 mm 2 OK

2580 414
2 a

143.4mm
0.85f c b 0.85 34.5 254
As f y

0.05( f c ' 28 )
0.65 for f c ' 34.5MPa 28 MPa
7
0.05( 34.5 28 )
b1 0.85
0.804 0.65
7

3 b1 0.85

28

Example
Solution
b) f c 34.5MPa
a

143.4
4 c

178.5mm
b1 0.804
d c
457 178.5
5 t
0.003
0.003 0.00468
c
178.5
0.004 t 0.005 Section is in transision zone
f =0.65+( t -0.002) (250/3) =0.65+(0.00468-0.002) (250/3)=0.874

29

Example
Solution
b) f c 34.5MPa

6 M d M n A s f y d
2

143.4

6
0.874 2850 414 457

360

10
N .mm

360 kN .m
7 M u 350kN .m M n 360kN .m

30

Example
Solution
c) f c 62.1MPa

1 A s,min

0.25 f c
0.25 62.1
2
b
d

(254)(457)=552
mm

w
414
fy
max
1.4
1.4

bw d
(254)(457)=393 mm 2

fy
414

## =552 mm 2 < A s,sup =2580 mm 2 OK

2580 414
2 a

80mm
0.85f c b 0.85 62.1 254
As f y

31

Example
Solution
c) f c 62.1MPa
0.05( f c ' 28 )
0.65 for f c ' 62.1MPa 28 MPa
7
0.05( 62.1 28 )
b1 0.85
0.61 0.65
7
b1 0.65

3 b1 0.85

80
4 c

123mm
b1 0.65
d c
457 123
5 t
0.003
0.003 0.0081
c
123
t 0.005 Section is tension controlled
==> Satisfes ACI requirements ==> f =0.9

32

Example
Solution
c) f c 62.1MPa

6 M d M n A s f y d
2

80

## 0.9 2850 414 457 520 106 N .mm

2

520kN .m
7 M u 350kN .m M n 520kN .m

33

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 6
Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams

## Design of Beams For Flexure

The main two objectives of design is to satisfy the:
1) Strength and 2) Serviceability requirements
1) Strength
M d M n Mu
M d Design moment strength (also known as moment resistance)

Mn

## Theoretical or nominal resisting moment.

M u 1.2M D 1.6M L
2

## Design of Beams For Flexure

Derivation of design expressions

d
As

Assume
Mn = Mu

b
Beam cross section

Solve for r:
0.85 f c'

fy

2M u
1 1
2

0
.
85
f
'
b
d
c

As = rbd
3

## Design of Beams For Flexure

Design aids can also be used:

0.85 f c'

fy

2M u
1 1
2

0
.
85
f
'
b
d
c

Calculate:
Then r is found from tables and figures of design aids.

Design Aids

## Design of Beams For Flexure

2) Serviceability
The serviceability requirement ensures adequate performance
at service load without excessive deflection and cracking.
Two methods are given by the ACI for controlling deflections:
1) by calculating the deflection and comparing it with code
specified maximum values.
2) by using member thickness equal to the minimum values
provided in by the code as shown in the next slide.

## Minimum Beam Thickness

ACI 9.5.2.2

hmin
l = span length measured center to center of support.

h hmin

d
As
b
Beam cross section

Detailing issues:
Concrete Cover
Concrete cover is necessary for protecting the reinforcement from
fire, corrosion, and other effects. Concrete cover is measured from
the concrete surface to the closest surface of steel reinforcement.

Side
cover

ACI 7.7.1

Bottom
cove

Detailing issues:
Spacing of Reinforcing Bars
The ACI Code specifies limits for bar spacing to permit concrete to
flow smoothly into spaces between bars without honeycombing.
According to the ACI code, S Smin must be satisfied, where:

S min

bar diameter, d b
ACI 7.6.1

max 25 mm
4/3 maximum size of coarse aggregate

ACI 3.3.2
When two or more layers are used, bars in
the upper layers are placed directly above
the bars in the bottom layer with clear distance
between layers not less than 25 mm.
ACI 7.6.2

Clear
distance

Clear spacing S

## Estimation of applied moments Mu

Beams are designed for maximum moments along the spans in both
negative and positive directions.

10

Positive moment

Negative moment

Tension at bottom
Needs bottom reinforcement

Tension at top
Needs top reinforcement

## Estimation of applied moments Mu

The magnitude of each moment is found from structural analysis of the
beam. To find the moments in a continuous (indeterminate) beam, one
can use: (1) indeterminate structural analysis (2) structural analysis
software (3) ACI approximate method for the analysis.
Simply Supported Beams

Continuous Beams

Determinate

Indeterminate

+
+
11

Moment Diagram

Moment Diagram

## Estimation of applied moments Mu

Simply Supported Beams

Continuous Beams

+
+

Moment Diagram
Section at midspan

12

Moment Diagram
Section over support

## Estimation of applied moments Mu

Approximate Structural Analysis

ACI 8.3.3

ACI Code permits the use of the following approximate moments for
design of continuous beams, provided that:
There are two or more spans.
Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans
not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.
Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths
(prismatic).

13

## Estimation of applied moments Mu

Approximate Structural Analysis
More than two spans

14

ACI 8.3.3

## Estimation of applied moments Mu

Approximate Structural Analysis
Two spans
l n = length of clear

span measured
face-to-face of
supports.
For calculating
negative moments,
l n is taken as the
average of the
lengths.

15

ACI 8.3.3

Design procedures
Method 1: When b and h are unknown
1- Determine h (h>hmin from deflection control) and assume b.
2- Calculate the factored load wu and bending moment Mu.
3- Assume that =0.9 and calculate the reinforcement ( and As).
4- Check solution:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## Check spacing between bars

Check minimum steel requirement
Check = 0.9 (tension controlled assumption)
Check moment capacity (Md Mu ?)

## 5- Sketch the cross section and its reinforcement.

16

Design procedures
Method 2: When b and h are known
1- Calculate the factored load wu and bending moment Mu.
2- Assume that =0.9 and calculate the reinforcement ( and As).
3- Check solution:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## Check spacing between bars

Check minimum steel requirement
Check = 0.9 (tension controlled assumption)
Check moment capacity (Md Mu ?)

## 4- Sketch the cross section and its reinforcement.

17

Example 1
Design a rectangular reinforced concrete beam having a 6 m simple span. A
service dead load of 25 kN/m (not including the beam weight) and a
service live load of 10 kN/m are to be supported.
wd=25 kN/m & wl =10 kN/m
Use fc =25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.
Solution:b & d are unknown
1- Estimate beam dimensions and weight
hmin = l /16 =6000/16 = 375 mm
Assume that h = 500mm and b = 300mm
Beam wt. = 0.5x0.3x25 = 3.75 kN/m

6m

wu=50.5 kN/m
6m

2- Calculate wu and Mu
wu = 1.2 D+1.6 L =1.2(25+3.75)+1.6(10)
=50.5 kN/m
Mu = wul2/8 = 50.5(6)2/8 =227.3 kN.m

227.3 kN.m
18

Example 1
3- Assume that =0.9 and calculate and As
d = 500 40 8 (20/2) = 442 mm
(assuming one layer of 20mm reinforcement and 8mm stirrups)
0.85f c '

fy

2 Mu
1 1
2

0.85f
'
b
d
c

0.85(25)

420

2 227.3 106
1 1
2

(0.9)
0.85(25)
300
(442)

0.0116

## As = b d = 0.0116(300)(442) =1536 mm2

Use 5 20 mm (As,sup=1571 mm2)

19

Number of bars

mm

N/m

10

2.2

28

57

85

113

141

170

198

226

254

283

3.9

50

101

151

201

251

302

352

402

452

503

10

6.2

79

157

236

314

393

471

550

628

707

785

12

8.9

113

226

339

452

565

679

792

905

1018

1131

14

12.1

154

308

462

616

770

924

1078

1232

1385

1539

16

15.8

201

402

603

804

1005

1206

1407

1608

1810

2011

18

19.9

254

509

763

1018

1272

1527

1781

2036

2290

2545

20

24.7

314

628

942

1257

1571

1885

2199

2513

2827

3142

22

29.8

380

760

1140

1521

1901

2281

2661

3041

3421

3801

24

35.5

452

905

1357

1810

2262

2714

3167

3619

4072

4524

25

38.5

491

982

1473

1963

2454

2945

3436

3927

4418

4909

26

41.7

531

1062

1593

2124

2655

3186

3717

4247

4778

5309

28

45.4

616

1232

1847

2463

3079

3695

4310

4926

5542

6158

30

55.4

707

1414

2121

2827

3534

4241

4948

5655

6362

7069

32

63.1

804

1608

2413

3217

4021

4825

5630

6434

7238

8042

20

Example 1
4- Check solution

520

## a) Check spacing between bars

sc

300 2 40 2 8 5 20
26 mm d b 20 mm
5 1
25 mm

300

OK

## b) Check minimum steel requirement

A s,min

0.25 f c
0.25 25
b
d

(300)(442)=395 mm 2

w
420
fy
max
1.4
1.4

bw d
(300)(442)=442 mm 2

fy
420

## =442 mm 2 < A s,sup =1571 mm 2 OK

21

Example 1
c) Check =0.9 (tension controlled assumption)
a

As f y
0.85f c ' b

1 0.85

1571 420
103.5 mm
0.85(25)300

a 103.5

121.7 mm
1 0.85

dc
442 121.7
t
0.003

## 0.003 0.0079 0.005

c
121.7
for t 0.005 0.90, the assumption is true the section is tension controlled

## d) Check moment capacity

a

M d As f y d
2

103.5

6
0.90 1571 420 442
231.7 10 N.mm = 231.7 kN.m
2

## M d 231.7 kN.m M u 227.3kN.m OK

22

Example 1
5- Sketch the cross section and its reinforcement

44.2

50
520

30
Beam cross section

23

Example 2
The rectangular beam B1 shown in the figure has b = 800mm and h =
316mm. Design the section of the beam over an interior support. Columns
have a cross section of 800x300 mm. The factored distributed load over the
slab is qu =14.4 kN/m2.
Use fc =25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.
L1 = L2 = L3 = 6 m
S1 = S2= S3 = 4 m
B1

Solution:
b & d are known
1- Calculate wu and Mu
wu=4(14.4) = 57.6 kN/m
ln = 6 0.3=5.7 m
wu
24

Example 2
Moment diagram using the approximate ACI method:

## Mu = wu(ln )2/10 = 57.6 (5.7)2/10

Mu = 187.5 kN.m

25

Example 2
2- Assume =0.9 and calculate and As
d = 316 40 (16/2) 8 = 260 mm
(assuming one layer of 16 mm reinforcement and 8mm stirrups)

0.85f c '

fy

2 Mu
1

0.85f
'
b
d
c

0.85(25)

420

2 187.5 106
1 1
2

(0.9)
0.85(25)800
(260)

0.0102

## As= b d = 0.0102(800)(260) = 2120 mm2

Use 11 16 mm (As,sup =11[(16)2/4]=2212 mm2)
26

Example 2
3- Check solution

## a) Check spacing between bars

sc

800 2 40 2 8 1116
52.8 mm
11 1

d b 16 mm
25 mm

OK

## b) Check minimum steel requirement

A s,min

0.25 f c
0.25 25
b
d

(800)(260)=620 mm 2

w
420
fy
max
1.4
1.4

bw d
(800)(260)=693 mm 2

fy
420

27

Example 2
c) Check =0.9
a

As f y
0.85f c ' b

1 0.85

2212 420
55 mm
0.85(25)800

## for f c ' 25MPa 28 MPa c

a
55

64 mm
1 0.85

dc
260 64
t
0.003
0.003 0.0091 0.005
c
64
for t 0.005 0.90, the assumption is true the section is tension controlled

a

M d As f y d
2

55

2

## M d 194.5 kN.m M u 187.5 kN.m OK

28

Example 2
4- Sketch the cross section and its reinforcement

1116
316

260

800

29

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 7
Design of T and L beams

T Beams
Reinforced concrete systems may consist of slabs and dropped
beams that are placed monolithically. As a result, the two parts act
together to resist loads. The beams have extra widths at their tops
called flanges, which are parts of the slabs they are supporting, and
the part below the slab is called the web or stem.

Flange

web

Flange Width b
Parts of the slab near the webs are more highly stressed than areas
away from the web.

effective flange
width be

effective flange
width be

hf

stirrup
bw

bw

L-beam

T-beam

d: effective depth.
hf : height of flange.
bw : width of web.
be : effective width.
b: distance from center to center of adjacent web spacings

## Effective Flange Width be

be is the width that is stressed uniformly to give the same compression
force actually developed in the compression zone of width b.

## Effective Flange Width be

ACI Code Provisions for Estimating be

ACI 8.12.2
According to the ACI code, the effective flange width of a T-beam,
be is not to exceed the smallest of:
1. One-fourth the span length of the beam, L/4.
2. Width of web plus 16 times slab thickness, bw +16 hf .
3. Center-to-center spacing of beams, b.

beff

L /4

min b w +16hf
b

## Effective Flange Width be

ACI Code Provisions for Estimating be

ACI 8.12.3
According to the ACI code, the effective flange width of an L-beam,
be is not to exceed the smallest of:
1. bw + L/12.
2. bw + 6 hf .
3. bw + 0.5(clear distance to next web).
b w L /12

b 0.5b
c
w

Single Tee

Double Tee

Box

Flange

Flange

web

web

Same as

## T- versus Rectangular Sections

If the neutral axis falls within the slab depth: analyze the beam as a
rectangular beam, otherwise as a T-beam.

10

## T- versus Rectangular Sections

When T-beams are subjected to negative moments, the flange is
located in the tension zone. Since concrete strength in tension is
usually neglected in ultimate strength design, the sections are treated
as rectangular sections of width bw.
When sections are subjected to positive moments, the flange is
located in the compression zone and the section is treated as a Tsection.

Compression zone

+
11

Tension
zone

Moment Diagram

Section at midspan
Positive moment

Section at support
Negative moment

Analysis of T-beams
Case 1: when a hf

## [Same as rectangular section]

T C
Asf y
a
0.85 f c b e

12

M n A s f y d
2

Analysis of T-beams
Case 2: when a > hf
C f 0.85 f c be bw hf
C w 0.85 f c bw a
T As f y

## From equilibrium of forces

T C f Cw

A s f y 0.85 f c be bw hf
a
0.85 f c bw

a
hf

M n C w d Cf d
2
2

13

ACI 10.5.2

hf
As

be

As

hf

bw

14

bw

-ve Moment

A s,min

0.25 f c
bw d

fy
max
1.4 b d
w

f
y

+ve Moment

be

## Analysis procedure for calculating he ultimate strength of T-beams

To calculate the moment capacity of a T-section:
1- Calculate be
2- Check As,sup> As,min
3- Assume a hf and calculate a using:
Asf y
a
0.85 f c b e
If a hf a is correct
If a > hf

As f y 0.85 f c be bw hf
a
0.85 f c bw

## 4- Calculate b1, c, and check t

5- Calculate Mn, and check M u M n
15

Example 1
Calculate Md for the T-Beam:
hf = 150 mm
d = 400 mm

As = 5000mm2

## fy = 420MPa fc= 25MPa

bw= 300mm

L = 5.5m

b=2.15m
Determine be according to ACI requirements

L 5500
4 4 1370mm

b 2150 mm

16

Example 1
Check min. steel

1.4
0.25 f c '

As,min max
bw d ;
bw d max
fy

fy

0.25 25

1.4

300 400 ;
300 400

420
420

## Calculate a (assuming a<hf) and check the strain in the steel et

As f y
5000 420 71.9mm h 150mm OK
a

f
0.85f c b e 0.85 25 1370
a

71.9
c

85 mm
b1 0.85
d c

17

400 85
0.003 0.011 0.005 Tension controled
85

es
0.003
c

Example 1
Calculate Md
a

M d A s f y d
2

71.8

## 688 106 N.mm 688 kN.m

18

Example 2
Determine the ACI design moment strength Md (Mn) of the T-beam
shown in the figure if fc =25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.
10

90

## 1- Check min. steel

25
d 750-40-10-32- 655.5mm
832
2
0.25 f c '

1.4
A s,min max
bw d ;
bw d
fy
f y

0.25 25

1.4
A s,min max
300 655.5 ;
300 655.5
420
420

## A s,min 656 mm 2 A s,sup 6434 mm 2

19

10

h= 75

Solution:-

OK

30

Example 2
2- Check if a < hf = 10cm
Asf y
6434 420
a

141.3mm

## Section is T NA is in the web

20

10
10

h= 75

a= 141.3> hf = 100 mm
i.e. assumption is wrong

90

832
30

Example 2
3- Calculate b1, c, and check t
A s f y - 0.85 f c be bw hf
a
0.85 f c bw
a

224mm
0.85 25 300

a
224

264 mm
1 0.85

dc
655.5 264
t
0.003

0.003
264
c

## =0.65+(e t -0.002) (250/3) =0.65+(0.00447-0.002) (250/3)=0.855

21

Example 2
4- Calculate Md
Cf 0.85f c ' (be b w ) h f 0.85 25 900 300 100 1275 103 N 1275 kN
Cw 0.85f c ' a b w 0.85 25 224 300 1427.4 103 N 1427.4 kN

M d C w

hf

224
100

3
0.855 1427.4 103 655.5

1275

10
655
.
5

2
2

C f
2

22

## Design of T-Beams --- Positive moment

To analyze the section, the steel is divided in two portions: (1) Asf, which provides a
tension force in equilibrium with the compression force of the overhanging flanges, and
providing a section with capacity Muf and (2) Asw, the remaining of the steel, providing
a section with capacity Muw.

M u M uf M uw

23

## Mu : Ultimate moment applied, requiring steel As.

Muf : Moment resisted by overhanging flange parts, requiring steel Asf.
Muw : Moment resisted by web, requiring steel Asw.

Step 1

24

24

Step 2

M u M uf M uw

M uw M u M uf
0.85 f c '

fy

25

2M uw
1

0
.
85
f
'
b
d
c
w

Step 3

Step 4

Asw bw d

Step 5

As Asf Asw

Step 6

be

be

Same as
bw

26

## Design of T-Beams --- Negative moment

be

bw

Design as a rectangular
section with width bw

27

Flange Reinforcement
When flanges of T-beams are in tension, part of the flexural
reinforcement shall be distributed over effective flange width, or a
width equal to one-tenth of the span, whichever is smaller

-ve moment

Reinforcement

## min (beff & l/10)

Reinforcement

Main Reinforcement

## If beff > l/10, some longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided in

outer portions of flange.

## Design of T-Beams --- Positive moment

Design Procedure:
1- Establish h based on serviceability requirements of the slab and calculate d

2- Choose bw
3- Determine be according to ACI requirements.
4- Calculate As assuming that a < hf with beam width = be & =0.90
b

2M
u
1 1

hf
2

0.85
f
'
b
d
c
e

As
As f y
As = be d
a
bw
0.85 f c ' b e
5- If a hf: the assumption is right continue as rectangular section
If a > hf: revise As using T-beam equations (steps 1-6).
6- Check the =0.90 assumption (t 0.005) and As,sup As,min

0.85 f c '

fy

29

Example 3

fy = 420 MPa.

Lm

## A floor system consists of a 14.0cm

concrete slab supported by continuous
T-beams with a span L. Given that
bw=30cm and d=55cm, fc =28 MPa and
Determine the steel required at
midspan of an interior beam to resist
kN.m and a service live load moment
250 kN.m in the following two cases:
(A) L = 8 m
Spandrel
(B) L = 2 m
beam

3.0 m

3.0 m

Slab

hf

bw

30

3.0 m

Solution (A) L = 8 m
Determine be according to ACI requirements

784 kN.m

200

L 8000
4 4 2000mm

b 3000 mm

14
55
As
30

## Calculate As assuming that a < hf with beam width = be & =0.90

Mu = 1.2(320)+1.6(250)=784 kN.m
0.85 f c '

fy
31

2M u
1- 12

0
.
85
f
'
b
d
c
e

Solution (A) L = 8 m

2 784 10
1 1
2

0
.
9

0.85

28

2000

550

784 kN.m

0.85 28

420

200

14
55
As
30

0.00354
As be d 0.00354 2000 550 3892 mm 2

Check a hf assumption
a

As f y
0.85f c 'be

3892 420
34.3mm h f 140mm
0.85 28 2000

## Use 825mm (As,sup= 3927 mm2) arranged in two layers.

sc
32

300 2 40 2 8 4 25
34.5 mm d b 25 mm
4 1
25 mm

OK

Solution (A) L = 8 m
Check the =0.90 assumption (t 0.005) and As,sup As,min

1.4
0.25 f c '

As ,min max
bw d ;
bw d max
fy

fy

## As,min 550 mm 2 As,sup 3927 mm 2 OK

1.4
0.25 28

300 550 ;
300 550

420
420

3927 420
a

34.7 mm
0.85f c 'be 0.85 28 2000
As f y

55

14

200

33

a 34.7

40.8 mm
1 0.85

dc
550 40.8
t
0.003
0.003
c
40.8
0.0374 0.005 0.9 OK

825
30

Solution (A) L = 8 m
Check moment capacity
a

M d As f y d
2

34.7

## M d 790.7 106 N.mm 790.7 kN.m M u 784 kN.m

55

14

200

825
30

34

Solution (B) L = 2 m
784 kN.m

50

L 2000
4 4 500mm

b 3000 mm

14
55
As
30

## Calculate As assuming that a < hf with beam width = be & =0.90

Mu = 1.2(320)+1.6(250)=784 kN.m
0.85 f c '

fy
35

2M u
1

0
.
85
f
'
b
d
c
e

Solution (B) L = 2 m

2 784 10
1 1
2

0
.
9

0.85

28

500

550

784 kN.m

0.85 28

420

50

0.0159
As be d 0.0159 500 550 4389 mm 2

Check a h assumption
f

As f y
0.85 f c ' be

4389 420
155mm > h f 140mm
0.85 28 500

## The assumption is wrong T section design

36

14
55
As
30

Solution (B) L = 2 m
14

50

55

## Calculate required reinforcement

Asf

0.85 f c '( b bw ) hf
fy

Asf

1586mm 2
420

30

hf

M uf As f y d
2

140

6
0.9 1586 420 550

288

10
N .m

## M uw M u M uf 784 106 288 106 496 106 N .m

37

Solution (B) L = 2 m
0.85 f c '

fy

2M u
1 1
2

0
.
85
f
'
b
d
c
w

0.85 ( 28 )

( 420 )

2( 496 ) 106
1 1
2

0
.
9
0
.
85
(
28
)
(
300
)
(
550
)

0.017

55

14

50

828
30

## Use 828 mm (As,sup= 4926mm2) arranged in two layers.

Check solution: (Do as in Example 2)

38

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 8
Design of doubly reinforced beams

## Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Beams having steel reinforcement on both the tension and
compression sides are called doubly reinforced sections. Doubly
reinforced sections are useful in the case of limited cross sectional
dimensions being unable to provide the required bending strength.
Increasing the area of reinforcement makes the section brittle.

## Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement

1- Increased strength.
2- Increased ductility.
3- Reduced sustained load deflections due to shrinkage and creep.

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Divide the section:

Mn

Mn2

Mn1

To analyze the section, the tension steel is divided in two portions: (1) As2, which is in
equilibrium with the compression steel, and providing a section with capacity Mn2 and
(2) As1, the remaining of the tension steel, providing a section with capacity Mn1.
4

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Find As1 and As2:

T s 2 C s As 2f y Asf s

Asf s
As 2
fy
5

## We need fs to find As2

As As 1 As 2 A s 1 A s A s 2

Find fs:
c d
0.003
c

c d

f s sE s
0.003E s f y
c
E s 2 105 MPa

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Find c:

T C c C s
As f y 0.85f cab Asf s

c d
As f y 0.85f c1cb As
0.003E s
c
7

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Find Md:

M d M n
8

As 1f y

d - A s f s d - d '
2

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections

Procedure:
1)
2)

c d
As f y 0.85f c1cb As
0.003E s
c
c d

f s
0.003E s f y
c

find c, a

3) As 2 Asf s

fy
4) As 1 As As 2

5)
6)
9

d c
Check if f = 0.9 s c 0.003 0.005?

M d M n As 1f y d - Asf s d - d '
2

Example 1
For the beam with double reinforcement shown in the figure,
calculate the design moment Md.
5.0
225
fc =35MPa and fy = 420 MPa.
60
632

Solution:0.05( f c ' 28 )
0.65 for f c ' 35MPa 28 MPa
7
0.05( 35 28 )
1 0.85
0.8 0.65
7
c d

As f y 0.85f c 1cb A s
0.003E s
c

1 0.85

10

c 50
5
4825(420) 0.85(35)(0.8)c (300) 982
0.003(2

10
)

30

Example 1
c 50
5
4825(420) 0.85(35)(0.8)c (300) 982
0.003(2

10
)

c
229.5c 2 1437300c 29460000 0
5.0
c 220mm

225

60
632

c d

fs
0.003E s f y
c
220 50
5
f s
0.003(2

10
) 463 f y 420MPa

220
f s f y 420
11

30

Example 1
Asf s 982(420)
As 2

982mm 2
fy
(420)

5.0
225
60
632

## As 1 As As 2 4825 982 3843mm 2

d c
s
0.003 0.005?
c

30

600 220
0.003 0.0052 0.005 Tension Controlled , f 0.9
220

M d M n A s 1f y d - A sf s d - d '
2

176

982
(
420
)
600

50

12

0.003
cmax
d
0.003 0.005
3
cmax d
8

=1c 1cmax

3 0.85 1 f c '
max

8
fy

3 0.85 1f c '
As ,max
bd

8
fy

3
d1
8

13

## 1) Design the section as singly reinforced, and calculate t

2) If t < 0.004 Comp. steel is needed (or enlarge section if possible)

3) Design As1 for maximum reinforcement (slide 13) and find Mn1, a, c
4) M n M u
f
5) Mn2 = Mn Mn1

c d
0.003E s f y
c
Asf s
M n2
7) As
As 2
fy
f s(d d )
6) f s sE s

As As 1 As 2

14

Example 2
Design the beam shown in the figure to resist Mu=1225 kN.m. If
compression steel is required, place it 70 mm from the compression
face.
fc =21 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.
Solution:
Try first to design the section as a singly reinforced section:
0.85f c '

fy

2 Mu
1

0.85f
'
b
d
c

0.85(21)

420

2 1225 106
1 1
2

(0.9)
0.85(21)
350
(700)

0.0284

15

## Use 10 32 mm in two rows (As,sup =7069 mm2)

Example 2
Check the ductility of the singly reinforced section:
a

As f y
0.85f c ' b

7069 420
475 mm
0.85(21)350

475
559mm
0.85

dc
700 559
t
0.003

## 0.003 0.00076 0.004

c
559
Section is brittle! can not be used.
Use compression reinforcement.
Mu

1225
Mn

1361kN .m
f
0.9
As 1 As ,max
16

3 0.85 1f c '

8
fy

As 1 3307mm 2

## 3 0.85 ( 0.85 )( 21)

bd
( 350 )( 700 )
8
( 420 )

Example 2
As f y

3307( 420 )
a

222.3mm
0.85f cb 0.85( 21)( 350 )
a

222.3
c

261.55mm
1 0.85
222.3
a
M n 1 A s f y d - ( 3307 )( 420 )( 700
)
2
2

## M n 1 818 106 N .mm 818kN .m

Mn2 = Mn Mn1 = 1361 818 = 543 kN.m

17

Example 2
c d

f s
0.003E s f y
c
261.55 70
5

fs
0.003(2

10
) 439MPa f y 420MPa

261.55
f s f y 420
M n2
543 106
As

2052mm 2
f s(d d ) 420(700 70)
Asf s (2052)(420)
As 2

2052mm 2
fy
(420)

## As As 1 As 2 3307 2052 5359mm 2

Use 830 in two rows for tension steel (As,sup = 5655 mm 2 )

18

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 9
Design of beams for shear

## Shear Design vs Moment Design

Beams are usually designed
for bending moment first.
Accordingly, cross sectional
dimensions are determined
along with the required
amounts
of
longitudinal
reinforcement.
Once this is done, sections are
checked for shear to determine
whether shear reinforcement
is required or not.
2

## Shear Design vs Moment Design

This by no means indicates that shear is less important than
bending. On the contrary, shear failure which is usually
initiated by diagonal tension, is far more dangerous than
flexural failure due to its brittle nature. It occurs without
warning. Therefore, beams are designed to rather fail in
bending. This is done by providing larger safety factor
against shear failure than those provided for bending.

## Shear and flexural stresses

In linearly elastic beams, two types of stresses occur:

Flexural stresses:

Shear stresses:

## An element of a beam not on the NA or an extreme fiber is

subjected to both stress types combined
4

## Shear and flexural stresses

The combined stress (called principal stresses) are calculated
as:

## which act on a direction inclined with respect to the beam

axis by the angle:

## Types of Shear Cracks

Two types of inclined cracking occur in beams:

## 1- Web Shear Cracks

Web shear cracking begins from an interior point in a member at the level of
the centroid of the uncracked section and moves on a diagonal path to the
tension face when the diagonal tensile stresses produced by shear exceed the
tensile strength of concrete.

2- Flexure-Shear Cracks
The most common type, develops from the tip of a flexural crack at the tension
side of the beam and propagates towards mid depth until it reaches the
compression side of the beam.
8

## Shear and cracks in beams

It is concluded that the shearing force acting on a vertical
section in a reinforced concrete beam does not cause direct
rupture of that section. Shear by itself or in combination with
flexure may cause failure indirectly by producing tensile
stresses on inclined planes. If these stresses exceed the
relatively low tensile strength of concrete, diagonal cracks

## develop. If these cracks are not checked, splitting of the beam

or what is known as diagonal tension failure will take place.

10

## Types of Shear Reinforcement

The code allows the use of three types of Shear Reinforcement
Vertical stirrups
Inclined stirrups
Bent up bars
Inclined Stirrups

Bent up bars

11

Vertical Stirrups

## Designing to Resist Shear

The strength requirement for shear that has to be satisfied is:

Vn Vu

## Vu = factored shear force at section

Vn = nominal shear strength
= strength reduction factor for shear = 0.75

## The nominal shear force is generally resisted by concrete and shear

reinforcement:
Vn Vc Vs ACI Eq. 11-2
Vc = nominal shear force resisted by concrete
Vs = nominal shear force resisted by shear reinforcement
12

## Strength of Concrete in Shear

For members subject to shear Vu and bending Mu only, ACI Code
gives the following equation for calculating Vc
Simple formula

Vc 0.17 f c ' bw d

## ACI Eq. 11-3

Detailed formula
Vc

13

Vu d
bw d 0.29 f c ' bw d
0.16 f c ' 17 w
Mu

As
where w
b wd

## Strength of Concrete in Shear

For members subject to axial compression Nu plus shear Vu, ACI
Code gives the following equation for calculating Vc

N
Vc 0.17 1 u
14 A
g

f c' bw d

## ACI Eq. 11-4

For members subject to axial tension Nu plus shear Vu, ACI Code
gives the following equation for calculating Vc

14

0.29 N u
f c' bw d
Vc 0.17 1

A
g

## Designing to Resist Shear

To find the force required to be resisted by shear reinforcement:

Vu Vn

Vn Vc Vs

Vu
V s V c

15

## Three cases of shear requirement:

Case 1:
For Vu Vc shear reinforcement is required
Case 2:
For Vu 0.50Vc minimum shear reinforcement is required

Case 3:
For Vu < 0.50Vc no shear reinforcement is required

16

Design of Stirrups
Shear reinforcement required when

Vu Vc

Vs

Vu
V c

ACI 11.4.7.1
The bar size of the stirrups is established and the spacing is calculated:

Vs

A vf yd

Av f y d

Vs

Av f y d sin cos
s

Vs

Av f y d sin cos

## ACI Eq. 11-16

Vs

where Av = the area of shear reinforcement within spacing s (for a 2-legged stirrup in
a beam: Av = 2 times the area of the stirrup bar).
17

## Minimum Amount of Shear Reinforcement

ACI 11.4.6.1

1
Minimum Shear Reinforcement (Av,min) required when Vu Vc
2
bw s
bw s
Av min 0.062 f c '
0.35
ACI Eq. 11-13
f ys
f ys

Av f ys
Av f ys

s=min
;

## 0.062 f c ' bw 0.35 bw

except in:
(a) Footings and solid slabs
(b) Concrete joist construction
(c) Beams with h not greater than 250 mm
(d) Beams integral with slabs with h not greater than 600 mm and
not greater than the larger of 2.5 times the thickness of flange, and
0.5 times width of web.

18

## Spacing limits for Shear Reinforcement

If V s 0.33 f c bw d s max
If V s 0.33 f c bw d s max

min ;600mm
2

min ;300mm
4

ACI 11.4.5

## Upper limit for Vs

ACI Code requires that the maximum force resisted by shear
reinforcement Vs is as follows

V s 0.66 f c ' bw d

ACI 11.4.7.9

## If this condition is not satisfied

Section dimensions must be increased
19

## Critical Section for Shear

ACI 11.1.3.1

Critical section for shear may be taken a distance d away from the
face of the support if:
(a) Support reaction, introduces compression into the end regions of member;
(b) Loads are applied at or near the top of the member;
(c) No concentrated load occurs between face of support and location of critical
section.

20

## Critical Section for Shear

ACI 11.1.3.1

Critical section for shear may be taken a distance d away from the
face of the support as in cases (a) and (b), but must be taken at face
of the support as in cases (c) and (d).

21

## Approximate Structural Analysis

ACI 8.3.3

ACI Code permits the use of the following approximate shears for design
of continuous beams, provided:
There are two or more spans.
Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans
not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.
Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths
(prismatic).

22

## Approximate Structural Analysis

More than two spans

23

ACI 8.3.3

## Approximate Structural Analysis

ACI 8.3.3
Two spans
l n = length of clear

span measured
face-to-face of
supports.

24

## Summary of ACI Shear Design Procedure for Beams

1- Draw the shearing force diagram and establish the critical section
for shear Vu.
2- Calculate the nominal capacity of concrete in shear Vs.
Vc 0.17 f c ' bw d

Vu
V s V c

## 4- Check the code limit on Vs

Vu
V s V c 0.66 f c ' bw d

increased.
25

## Summary of ACI Shear Design Procedure for Beams

5- Classify the factored shearing forces acting on the beam according
to the following
* For Vu < 0.50Vc , no shear reinforcement is required.
* For Vu 0.50Vc , minimum shear reinforcement is required

Av f ys
Av f ys

s=min
;

## *For Vu Vc , shear reinforcement is required (in addition, check min shear)

A v f yd
Av f y d sin cos
For vertical
For inclined
s

s
stirrups
stirrups
Vs
Vs
6- Maximum spacing smax must be checked

26

2

4

Example

## A rectangular beam has the dimensions shown in the figure and is

weight of beam) and a uniform service live load of 25 kN/m.
Design the necessary shear reinforcement given that fc =28 MPa and
fy=420 MPa. Width of support is equal to 30 cm.
wD=40 kNm & wL=25 kN/m

60

0.3m

0.3m
7.0 m

27

30

Example

Solution:
Assuming 8 mm stirrups and
20 mm flexural steel,
d=60-4-0.8-1.0=54.2 cm

wu=1.2(40)+1.6(25)=88 kN/m

0.3m
54.2

308 kN

## Critical section for shear is located

at a distance of d = 54.2 cm from the face
of support.

28

7.0 m
247.1 kN

308 kN

Example

## 2- Calculate the shear capacity of concrete:

V c 0.17 f c ' bw d 0.17 28 300 542 146.3 103 N 146.3kN
V c 0.75 144.2kN 109.7kN
V c
54.85 kN
2

V
247.1
V s u V c
146.3 183.2kN

0.75

## 4- Check the code limit on Vs :

0.66 f c ' bw d 0.66 28 300 542 567. 9 103 N 567. 9kN
V s 183.2kN 0.66 f c ' bw d 567.9kN
29

OK

Example

## 5- Classify the factored shear force:

Vu= 247.1 kN > Vc = 109.7 kN, shear reinforcement is required.
The beam can be designed to resist shear based on Vu= 247.1 kN over the
entire span. However, to reduce reinforcement cost, the beam will not be
designed for this shear over the entire span. The span will rather be divided
into zones of different shear demands as shown below
308 kN

247.1 kN
Vc=109.7 kN
Zone C

Zone B

0.5Vc=54.85 kN
Zone A
0.61 m
1.23 m

30

Example

## No shear reinforcement is required, but it is recommended to use minimum

area of shear reinforcement.
Try 8 mm vertical stirrups

Av f ys
Av f ys
s=min
;
0.062 f c ' bw 0.35 bw

2(50) 420

2(50) 420
s min
427mm ;
400 mm s 400mm
0.35 300
0.0062 28 300

## Maximum stirrup spacing is not to exceed the smaller of d/2 = 271 mm or

600mm. So, use 8 mm vertical stirrups spaced at 250 mm.
31

Example

## Zone (B): [Vc > Vu > 0.5Vc ]

minimum shear reinforcement is required.
use 8 mm vertical stirrups spaced at 25 cm (Calculated from Zone A).
Zone (C): [Vu > Vc ]

V s 183.2kN
Trying two-legged 8 mm vertical stirrups,
s

32

A v f yd
Vs

2 50 420 542
125 mm
3
183.2 10

Example

## Check maximum stirrup spacing:

0.33 f c ' bw d 0.33 28 300 542 284 kN V s 183.2kN
Maximum stirrup spacing is not to exceed the smaller of d/2 = 271 mm or 600mm.

## Check with minimum stirrup requirement:

Av f ys
Av f ys
s max =min
;
0.062 f c ' bw 0.35 bw
s max

2(50) 420

2(50) 420
min
427mm ;
400 mm 400mm
0.35 300
0.062 28 300

So, use
33

## 8 mm vertical stirrups spaced at 12 cm.

Example
308 kN

247.1 kN

Zone C

8@12

Zone B

8@25

60

8@25

Vc=109.7 kN
0.5Vc=54.85 kN
Zone A

8@25

0.61 m

30
Section in zones A&B

1.23 m
60

8@12

8@12

8@25

30
Section in zone C

34

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 10
Design of slabs

Regula
(3

Introduction

Plate/Shell (2D)
x z
t<<(x,z)

x
A slab is a structural element whose thickness is small compared
to
its own length and width.

t L , S

h
t

zS

Lx

Slabs in buildings are usually used to transmit the loads on floors and
roofs to the supporting beams
Dimensional Hierarchy of Structural
Beam

Beam

Slab
Column

Beam

Beam
Footing

Slab
Beam

Column

Beam

Beam
Soil

Introduction
Slabs are flexural members. Their flexure strength requirement may
be expressed by

Mu M n

Types of Slabs

## Solid slabs :- which are divided into

- One way solid slabs
- Two way solid slabs
Ribbed slabs :- which are divided into
- One way ribbed slabs
- Two way ribbed slabs
3

One-way slab

Two-way slab

Solid Slab

L
2
S

One-way slab

One-way slab

L
2
S

## One-way solid slabs

shrinkage Reinft.

## A one-way solid slab curves under loads in one direction only.

Accordingly, slabs supported on two opposite sides only and slabs
supported on all four sides, but L/S 2 are classified as one-way
slabs.

Main Reinft.

## Main reinforcement is placed in the shorter direction, while the

longer direction is provided with shrinkage reinforcement to limit
cracking.
7

Main Reinft.

## A two-way solid slab curves under loads in two directions.

Accordingly slabs supported on all four sides, and L/S < 2 are
classified as two-way slabs.

S
Main Reinft.

## Bending will take place in the two directions in a dish-like form.

Accordingly, main reinforcement is required in the two directions.
8

## One-way v.s two-way ribbed slabs

If the ribs are provided in one direction only, the slab is classified as
being one-way, regardless of the ratio of longer to shorter panel
dimensions. It is classified as two-way if the ribs are provided in two
directions .

Minimum Cover

10

ACI 7.7.1

## a - Concrete exposed to earth or weather

for <16mm------40 mm and for >16mm----- 50 mm
b - Concrete not exposed to earth or weather
for <32mm------20 mm, otherwise ------ 40 mm

## Spacing of Reinforcement Bars

a- Flexural Reinforcement Bars
Flexural reinforcement is to be spaced not farther than three times the slab
thickness (hs), nor farther apart than 45 cm, center-to-center.
3 hs
Smax smaller of
ACI 10.5.4
45cm
b- Shrinkage Reinforcement Bars
Shrinkage reinforcement is to be spaced not farther than five times the slab
thickness, nor farther apart than 45 cm, center-to-center.
5 hs
Smax smaller of
ACI 7.12.2.2
45cm

11

wu=1.2 D.L + 1.6 L.L

1- Weight of slab covering materials
2-Equivalent partition weight
3- Own weight of slab

12

## 1- Weight of slab covering materials, total =2.315 kN/m2

tiles
(2.5cm thick) =0.02523 = 0.575 kN/m2
cement mortar (2.5cm thick) =0.02521 = 0.525 kN/m2
sand
(5.0cm thick) =0.0518 = 0.9 kN/m2
plaster
(1.5cm thick) =0.01521 = 0.315 kN/m2

tiles
cement mortar
sand

2.5 cm
2.5 cm
5 cm

slab

plaster
13

1.5 cm

## 2-Equivalent partition weight

This load is usually taken as the weight of all walls (weight of 1m span
of wall total spans of all walls) carried by the slab divided by the floor
To calculate the weight of 1m span of wall:
Each 1m2 surface of wall contains 12.5 blocks
A block with thickness 10cm weighs 10 kg
A block with thickness 20cm weighs 20 kg
Each face of 1m2 surface has 30kg plaster
Load / 1m2 surface for 10 cm block =
12.5 10 +230=185 kg/m2 = 1.85 kN/m2
Load / 1m2 surface for 20 cm block =
12.5 20 +230=310 kg/m2 = 3.1 kN/m2

14

20 cm

## Weight of 1m span of wall with height 3m:

For 10 cm block wt. = 1.85 kN/m2 3 = 5.6 kN/m
For 20 cm block wt. = 3.1 kN/m2 3 = 9.3 kN/m

## 3- Own weight of slab

1- Solid slab:
Own weight of solid slab (per 1m2)=

gc h = 25 h

kN/m2

2- Ribbed slab:

Example
Find the total ultimate load per rib for the ribbed slab shown:
Assume depth of slab = 25 cm (20cm block +5cm toping slab)
Hollow blocks are 40 cm 25 cm 20 cm in dimension
Assume ribs have 10 cm width of web
Assume equivalent partition load = 0.75 kN/m2
Consider live load = 2 kN/m2.

15

Solution

## Total slab own weight= 2.25 + 1.6= 3.85kN/m2

Ultimate load = 1.2(6.915) + 1.6(2) = 11.5 kN/m2
16

Type of Use

kN/m2

## It depends on the function for

which the floor is constructed.

Residential

Residential balconies
Computer use
Offices
Warehouses

3
5
2

Light storage

Heavy Storage
Schools

12

Classrooms
Libraries

rooms

Stack rooms
Hospitals
Assembly Halls

6
2

Fixed seating

Movable seating
Garages (cars)
Stores

17

2.5
5
2.5

Retail

wholesale
Exit facilities
Manufacturing

5
5

Light

Heavy

Beams are usually designed to carry the following loads:
- Their own weight
- Weights of partitions applied directly on them

S1
18

S2

19

S1

S2

1m

## One-way solid slabs are designed as a number of independent 1 m

wide strips which span in the short direction and are supported on
crossing beams. These strips are designed as rectangular beams.

0.85f c
2M u
1 1

2
fy
0.85 f c bd

S1

20

S2

shrinkage Reinft.

Main Reinft.

21

## Check on tension/compression control (maximum allowed steel)

Method 1: Check et

0.003
cmax
d
0.003 0.005
3
cmax d
8
=b1c b1cmax

max

3 0.85 b1 f c '

8
fy

3
db1
8

22

## Shrinkage Reinforcement Ratio

According to ACI Code and for fy =420 MPa

ACI 7.12.2.1

## shrinkage 0.0018 As ,shrinkage 0.0018 b h

where, b = width of strip, and h = slab thickness

ACI 10.5.4

## V u V c 0.17 f c ' bwd

Otherwise enlarge depth of slab
23

## Approximate Structural Analysis

ACI 8.3.3

ACI Code permits the use of the following approximate moments and
shears for design of continuous beams and one-way slabs, provided:
There are two or more spans.
Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans
not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.
Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths
(prismatic).

24

## Approximate Structural Analysis

Bending Moment
More than two spans

25

ACI 8.3.3

## Approximate Structural Analysis

Bending Moment
Two spans
l n = length of clear

span measured
face-to-face of
supports.
For calculating
negative moments,
l n is taken as the
average of the
lengths.

26

ACI 8.3.3

## Approximate Structural Analysis

Shear
More than two spans

27

ACI 8.3.3

Shear
Two spans

28

ACI 8.3.3

## Summary of One-way Solid Slab Design Procedure

1- Select representative 1m wide design strip/strips to span in the
short direction.
2- Choose a slab thickness to satisfy deflection control requirements.
When several numbers of slab panels exist, select the largest
calculated thickness.
3- Calculate the factored load wu
4- Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for each of
the strips.
5- Check adequacy of slab thickness in terms of resisting shear by
satisfying the following equation: V u 0.17 f c ' b d
where b = 1000 mm

## If the previous equation is not satisfied, go ahead and enlarge the

thickness to do so.
29

## Summary of One-way Solid Slab Design Procedure

6- Design flexural and shrinkage reinforcement:
Flexural reinforcement ratio is calculated from the following
equation

0.85f c
2M u
1 1

2
fy
0.85 f c bd

where b = 1000 mm

## You need to check tension controlled requirement, minimum

reinforcement requirement and spacing of selected bars.
Compute the area of shrinkage reinforcement, where
Ashrinkage=0.0018bh, where b = 1000 mm.

30

## 7- Draw a plan of the slab and representative cross sections showing

the dimensions and the selected reinforcement.

Example 1
Using the ACI-Code approximate structural analysis, design for a
warehouse, a continuous one-way solid slab supported on beams 4.0 m
apart as shown in the figure. Assume that the beam webs are 30 cm wide.

8.0 m

## Use fc=28MPa, fy=420MPa

4.0 m

31

4.0 m

4.0 m

Solution:
1- Select a representative 1 m wide slab strip:

## For one-end continuous spans,

hmin = l/24 =4.0/24=0.167m
Slab thickness is taken as 17 cm

8.0 m

1.0 m

17cm

4.0 m
Wu

32

4.0 m

4.0 m

Solution:
3- Calculate the factored load wu per unit length of the selected strip:

## Own weight of slab = 0.17 25 = 4.25 kN/m2

wu= 1.20 (3+4.25) +1.60 (3)= 13.5 kN/m2
For a strip 1 m wide, wu=13.5 kN/m
4- Evaluate the maximum factored shear forces and bending moments
in the strip:

wu=13.5 kN/m

33

Solution:

18.5
7.7

16.8

16.8

16.8

34

18.5
7.7
16.8

Solution:

25

25

28.7

## Units of shear are in kN

35

28.7

25

25

Solution:
5- Check slab thickness for beam shear:

## Effective depth d = 17 2 0.60 = 14.40 cm, assuming 12 mm bars.

Vu,max = 28.7 kN.
V c 0.17 f c ' bd 0.75 0.17 28 1000 144 95.8 kN

## i.e. , slab thickness is adequate in terms of resisting beam shear.

6- Design flexural and shrinkage reinforcement:

0.85f c
2M u
1 1

2
fy
0.85 f c bd

## Where b = 1000 mm & d = 144mm

36

Solution:
For max. negative moment, Mu = 18.5 kN.m

0.85 28
2 18.5 106
1 1
0.00241

420
0.85 0.9 28 1000 144

## 3 0.85 b1f c ' 3 0.85 0.85 28

max

0.01806 0.90

8
fy
420

8
As, ve 0.002411000 144 347 mm 2
As,min 0.0018 1000 170 306 mm 2 As, ve OK
79
347mm 2
10 S 227.5 mm
1000mmstrip
S
Smax min(450 or 3 170) 450mm
37

use 10@20cm

Solution:
For max. positive moment, Mu = 16.8 kN.m

0.85 28
2 16.8 106
1 1
0.00219

420
0.85 0.9 28 1000 144

max

0.01806 0.90
8
fy
8
420

## As, ve 0.00219 1000 144 315 mm 2

As,min 0.0018 1000 170 306 mm 2 As, ve OK
7910
315mm 2

S 251mm
1000mmstrip
S
Smax min(450 or 3 170) 450 use 10@25cm
38

Solution:
Calculate the area of shrinkage reinforcement:
Area of shrinkage reinforcement = 0.0018 (100) (17) = 306 mm2
For shrinkage reinforcement use 10 mm @ 25 cm (from previous slides calculations)
Shrinkage reinft.
10@25 10@25

10@20

10@20

10@25
17cm

10@25

10@25

10@25

39

Solution:

8.0 m

10@25
10@25

4.0 m

40

10@20

10@20
10@25

4.0 m

10@25
10@25

4.0 m

41

## One-way ribbed slabs

Ribbed slabs consist of regularly spaced ribs monolithically built
with a toping slab. The voids between the ribs may be either light
material such as hollow blocks [figure 1] or it may be left unfilled
[figure 2].
Topping slab

Rib

Hollow block

## Figure [1] Hollow block floor

Temporary form
Figure [2] Moulded floor

## The use of these blocks makes it possible to have smooth ceiling

which is often required for architectural considerations and have
good sound and temperature insulation properties besides reducing
42

## Key components of one-way ribbed slabs

ACI 8.13.6.1
Topping slab thickness (t) is not to be less than 1/12 the clear
distance (lc) between ribs, nor less than 50 mm
a. Topping slab:

lc

t 12
50 mm

## and should satisfy for a unit strip:

t

lc
Slab thickness (t)

w u l c2
1240 f c

## Shrinkage reinforcement is provided in the topping slab in both

directions in a mesh form.
43

## Key components of one-way ribbed slabs

b. Regularly spaced ribs:
Minimum dimensions:

Ribs are not to be less than 100 mm in width, and a depth of not
more than 3.5 times the minimum web width and clear spacing
between ribs is not to exceed 750 mm.
ACI 8.13.2
ACI 8.13.3
l 750 mm
c

h 3.5 bw

bw 100

44

## Key components of one-way ribbed slabs

ACI 8.13.8
Shear strength provided by rib concrete Vc may be taken 10% greater
than those for beams.
Shear strength:

Flexural strength:

## Ribs are designed as rectangular beams in the regions of negative

moment at the supports and as T-shaped beams in the regions of
positive moments between the supports.
Effective flange width be is taken as half the distance between ribs,
center-to-center.
b
e

45

## Key components of one-way ribbed slabs

Hollow blocks:
Hollow blocks are made of lightweight concrete or other lightweight
materials. The most common concrete hollow block sizes are 40 25
cm in plan and heights of 14, 17, 20, and 24 cm.

46

## Summary of one-way ribbed slab design procedure

1. The direction of ribs is chosen.
2. Determine h, and select the hollow block size, bw and t
3. Provide shrinkage reinforcement for the topping slab in both
directions.
4. The factored load on each of the ribs is computed.
5. The shear force and bending moment diagrams are drawn.
6. The strength of the web in shear is checked.
7. Design the ribs as T-section shaped beams in the positive moment
regions and rectangular beams in the regions of negative moment.
8. Neat sketches showing arrangement of ribs and details of the
reinforcement are to be prepared.
47

Example
Design a one-way ribbed slab to cover a 3.8 m x 10 m panel, shown in the
figure below. The covering materials weigh 2.25 kN/m2, equivalent
partition load is equal to 0.75 kN/m2, and the live load is 2 kN/m2.

3.8 m

## Use fc=25 MPa, fy=420MPa

10 m

48

Solution
1. The direction of ribs is chosen:

3.8 m

5.0 m

5.0 m

## From ACI Table 9.5(a), hmin = 380/16 = 23.75cm use h = 24 cm.

Let width of web, bw =10 cm
Use hollow blocks of size 40 cm 25 cm 17 cm (weight=0.17 kN)
Topping slab thickness = 24 17 = 7cm > lc/12 =40/12= 3.3cm > 5cm OK
For a unit strip of topping slab:
wu=[1.2(0.07 25 + 0.75 + 2.25) + 1.6(2)] 1m = 8.9 kN/m = 8.9 N/mm
w u l c2

8.9( 400 ) 2
t

16mm OK
( 0.9 )1240 25
1240 f c

49

Solution
3. Provide shrinkage reinforcement for the topping slab in both directions:

## Area of shrinkage reinforcement, As=0.0018(1000)70=126 mm2

Use 5 6 mm/m in both directions.
4. The factored load on each of the ribs is to be computed:

50

1.0 m

0.4 m

0.1 m

0.4 m

7 cm

0.25 m

1.0 m

0.05 m

0.24 m

## Total volume (in 1m2 surface)

= 1.0 1.0 0.24 = 0.24 m3
Volume of hollow blocks in 1m2
= 8 0.4 0.25 0.17 = 0.136 m3
Net concrete volume in 1m2
= 0.24- 0.136 = 0.104 m3
Weight of concrete in 1m2
= 0.104 25 = 2.6 kN/m2
Weight of hollow blocks in 1m2
= 8 0.17= 1.36 kN/m2
= 2.25 + 0.75 + 2.6 + 1.36
= 7.0 kN/m2

Solution
wu=1.2(7)+1.6(2)=11.6 kN/m2
wu/m of rib =11.6x0.5= 5.8 kN/m of rib
5. Critical shear forces and bending moments are determined (simply supported beam):

## Maximum factored shear force = wul/2 = 5.8 (3.8/2) = 11 kN

Maximum factored bending moment = wul2/8 = 5.8 (3.8)2/8 = 10.5 kN.m
6. Check rib strength for beam shear:

## Effective depth d = 2420.60.6 =20.8 cm, assuming 12mm reinforcing

bars and 6 mm stirrups.
1.1V c 1.1 0.75 0.17 25 100 208 14400 N = 14.4 kN Vu,max 11kN

## Though shear reinforcement is not required, 4 6 mm stirrups per meter

run are to be used to carry the bottom flexural reinforcement.

51

Solution
7. Design flexural reinforcement for the ribs:

There is only positive moments over the simply supported beam, and the
section of maximum positive moment is to be designed as a T-section
Assume that a<70mm and =0.90Rectangular section with b = be =500mm

## Use 210mm (As,sup= 157 mm2)

157 420
6.2 mm 70mm
0.85f c 'be 0.85 25 500
The assumption is right

52

As f y

50

105 kN.m

0.85 25
2 10.5 106

1 1
420
0.9 0.85 25 500 2082
0.0013

7
24

As
10

Solution
Check As,min

1.4
0.25 f c '

As,min max
bw d ;
bw d
fy
fy

## As,min 70 mm 2 A s,sup 157 mm 2

OK

Check =0.9

a
6.2

7.3 mm
1 0.85

dc
208 7.3
t
0.003

0.003
c
7.3
t 0.083 0.005 0.9 OK

53

Solution

110 m

110 m

110 m

110 m

3.8 m

8. Neat sketches showing arrangement of ribs and details of the reinforcement are to be
prepared

5.0 m

5.0 m
6mm mesh
@20 cm

6mm stirrups
@25 cm

7cm
24cm
17cm

210mm

10

40 cm

10

210mm

Section A-A

54

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 11
Design of short concentric columns

Columns
Columns are vertical compression members of a structural frame intended to support the
load-carrying beams. They transmit loads from the upper floors to the lower levels and then
to the soil through the foundations.

Beam

Column

Slab

Beam

Beam

Column

Beam

Beam

Slab
Footing
Beam

Beam
Soil

Columns
Usually columns carry bending moment as well, about one or both axes of the cross
section, and the bending action may produce tensile forces over a part of the cross
section.

The main reinforcement in a columns is longitudinal, parallel to the direction of the load
and consists of bars arranged in a square, rectangular, or circular shape.
3

## Length of the column in relation to its lateral dimensions

Columns can be classified as

1- Short Columns, for which the strength is governed by the strength of the materials
and the dimensions of the cross section

2- Slender Columns, for which the strength may be significantly reduced by lateral
deflections.

## Position of the load on the cross-section

Columns can be classified as

## 1-Concentrically loaded columns, which are subjected to axial force only

2-Eccentrically loaded columns, which are subjected to moment in addition to the
axial force.
4

Column Types:
1. Tied
2. Spiral
3. Composite

## Behavior of Tied and Spirally-Reinforced Columns

Axial load tests have proven that tied and spirally reinforced columns
having the same cross-sectional areas of concrete and steel reinforcement
behave in the same manner up to the ultimate load.
At that load, tied columns fail suddenly due to excessive cracking in

## the concrete section followed by buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement

between ties within the failure region. For spirally reinforced columns, once the
ultimate load is reached, the concrete shell covering the spiral starts to spall off
spiral provides a confining force to the concrete core, thus enabling
the column to sustain large deformations before final collapse.
6

or

## P0 Ag 0.85f c Ast (f y 0.85f c)

Ag = gross area = b*h
Ast = area of longitudinal steel
fc =concrete compressive strength
8

## Maximum Nominal Capacity under Concentric Axial Loads

Pn rP0
Pn r Ag 0.85f c Ast (f y 0.85f c)
r = Reduction factor to account for accidental eccentricity

r = 0.80 ( tied )
r = 0.85 ( spiral )
9

ACI 10.3.6.3

## Design Capacity under Concentric Axial Loads

Pn Pu
Pn r Ag 0.85f c Ast f y 0.85f c Pu
or

Pn r A g 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu
where g = Ast / Ag
ACI 9.3.2.2

10

## = 0.65 for tied columns

ACI 10.3.6.3
r = 0.80 ( tied )

## = 0.75 for spiral columns

r = 0.85 ( spiral )

## Design of Short Concentrically Loaded Columns

Pn Pu
Pn r Ag 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu
Both Ag and g are unknown in this equation. There are
two options to design the column:
1- Select Ag and calculate g. The Ag may be selected from initial
sizing (Ag = Pu / 0.5fc ).

11

starting point.

## Calculation of required cross section, if steel ratio is known

Pn Pu
Pn r Ag 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu
* when g is known or assumed:

Ag

Pu

r 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c

12

## Calculation of required steel ratio, if cross section is known

Pn Pu
Pn r Ag 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu
* when Ag is known or assumed:

Pu
1
g
0.85f c
r A g
f y 0.85f c
13

Design of spirals
Spiral Reinforcement Ratio, s

s

Volume of Core
Dc s

Asp D c

from: s

2
[( / 4 ) D c ] s

## Asp cross-sectional area of spiral reinforcement

D c core diameter: outside edge to outside edge of spiral
14

## s spacing pitch of spiral steel (center to center)

Design of spirals
Spiral Reinforcement Spacing, s

A g f c
s 0.45 1
ACI Eq. 10-5

Ac
fy
4Asp
s
from previous slide
D cs
s

4Asp
Ag
fc '
0.45Dc
1

Ac
f y

A c core area
15

D c2

A g gross area

D2
4

Design Considerations

Longitudinal Steel

ACI 10.9.1

## 0.01Ag Ast 0.08Ag

or

0.01 g 0.08
16

Design Considerations

Longitudinal Steel

ACI 10.9.2

## min. of 6 bars in spiral arrangement

min. of 4 bars in rectangular or circular ties
min. of 3 bars in triangular ties
17

Design Considerations

Longitudinal Steel
- Clear Distance between Reinforcing Bars (Longitudinal Steel)
For tied or spirally reinforced columns, clear
distance between bars, shown in the figure, is not to
be less than the larger of 1.50 times bar diameter or
40 mm. This is done to ensure free flow of concrete
among reinforcing bars.

ACI 7.6.3

## S c max 1.5 d b , 40mm

18

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

## - Arrangement of ties and longitudinal bars:

ACI 7.10.5.3
1.) At least every other longitudinal bar shall have lateral
support from the corner of a tie with an included angle
135o.
2.) No longitudinal bar shall be more than 150 mm clear
on either side from a laterally supported bar.
19

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.3

20

## Ties shown dashed may be omitted if x < 150 mm

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.2

s
s
s

21

## 16 db ( db = diameter for longitudinal bars )

48 dstirrup (dstirrup = diameter for stirrups)
least lateral dimension of column

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.1

size

22

## 8 bar if longitudinal bar 30 bar

12 bar if longitudinal bar 32 bar
12 bar if longitudinal bars are bundled

Design Considerations

Spirals

## - Size and spacing of spiral

ACI 7.10.4.2

size 10 mm diameter
ACI 7.10.4.3
25mm
23

clear spacing
between spirals

75mm

Design Considerations
Concrete Protection Cover

ACI 7.7.1

The clear concrete cover is not to be taken less than 4 cm for columns not exposed to
weather or in contact with ground.
Minimum Cross Sectional Dimensions
The ACI Code does not specify minimum cross sectional dimensions for columns.
Column cross sections 20 25 cm are considered as the smallest practicable sections.
For practical considerations, column dimensions are taken as multiples of 5 cm.
Lateral Reinforcement
Ties are effective in restraining the longitudinal bars from buckling out through the
surface of the column, holding the reinforcement cage together during the construction
process, confining the concrete core and when columns are subjected to horizontal
forces, they serve as shear reinforcement.
24

## Design Procedure for Short Concentrically Loaded Columns

1. Evaluate the factored axial load Pu acting on the column. This can be done by:
a- Tributary Area Method

## b- Pu is the sum of the reactions of the beams supported by the column.

2. Assume a starting reinforcement ratio g that satisfies ACI Code limits. Usually a
2 % ratio is chosen for economic considerations.
3. Determine the gross sectional area Ag of the concrete section.
4. Choose the dimensions of the cross section based on its shape.
5. Readjust the reinforcement ratio by substituting the actual cross sectional area in the
respective equation. This ratio has to fall within the specified code limits.
25

## Design Procedure for Short Concentrically Loaded Columns

6.

Calculate the needed area of longitudinal reinforcement ratio based on the adjusted
reinforced ratio and the chosen concrete dimensions.

7.

From reinforcement tables, choose the number and diameters of needed reinforcing
bars. For rectangular sections, a minimum of four bars is needed, while a minimum
of six bars is used for circular columns.

8.

Design the lateral reinforcement according to the type of column, either ties or
spirals.

9.

Check whether the spacing between longitudinal reinforcing bars satisfies ACI
Code requirements.

10. Draw the designed section showing concrete dimensions and with required
longitudinal and lateral reinforcement.

26

Example 1
The cross section of a short axially loaded tied column is shown in the
figure. It is reinforced with 616mm bars. Calculate the design load
Ties 8@25cm
capacity of the cross section.
Use fc =28 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.
25

Solution:
A
1206
g st
0.012 1.21%
A g 250 400
min 1 % g 1.21% max 8%

616

40
Figure [1]

OK

## 40 2(4) 2(0.8) 3(1.6)

12.8cm
3 1
max 1.5 d b 2.4cm , 4cm <Sc 12.8cm

Sc=12.8 cm

25

616

Sc

## Only, one tie is required for the cross section

27

40

Example 1
The spacing between ties
16 db =16(1.6) = 25.4 cm S = 25 cm
48 ds = 48(0.8) = 38.4 cm S = 25 cm
smaller of b or d = 25 cm S = 25 cm
Thus, ACI requirements regarding reinforcement ratio, clear distance
between bars and tie spacing are all satisfied.

## Pn 0.65(0.8) A g 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c

Pn 0.52A g 0.85f c ' g f y 0.85f c '
Pn 0.65(0.8) 400 250 0.85 28 0.0121 420 0.85 28
Pn 1487 kN

28

Example 2
Design a short tied column to support a factored concentric load
of 1000 kN, with one side of the cross section equals to 25 cm.
f c 30MPa

f y 420MPa

Solution
Assume first that g 2%
Ag

Pu

## 0.65 0.8 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c

1000 103
Ag
0.65 0.8 0.85 30 0.02 420 0.85 30
29

A g 57594mm 2

Example 2
A g 57594mm 2
b 250mm
h 230mm
use column 25cm 25cm

Pu
1

g
0.85f c
r A g
f y 0.85f c

1000 103
1
g =
0.85(30)
=0.0134
0.65 0.8 250 250
420 0.85(30)
0.01<g <0.08 OK
A s g bh 0.0134(250)(250) 835mm 2
30

Example 2
Check spacing
s

## h (No. of bars/2) d b 2 cover 2 d stirrup

(No. of bars/2) 1
250 (6 / 2) 14 2 40 2(8)

56mm
3 1

## max 1.5 d b 21mm , 40mm 56mm < 150mm

OK

Stirrup design
Use 8 mm (for longitudinal bars with 14 mm < 30 mm)

s max

31

## min 48d stirrup 48 8 384mm

smaller of b or d 250mm

Use 8 mm @ 200 mm

governs

6 14 mm

Example 2

8 mm @ 200 mm

250 mm

250 mm

32

Example 3
Design a short, spirally reinforced column to support a service
f c 28MPa

f y 420MPa

Use g 1%

Solution

Ag

Pu

## 0.75 0.85 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c

1600 103
Ag
0.75 0.85 0.85 28 0.01 420 0.85 28
33

A g 90405mm 2

Example 3
360/N

A g 90405mm 2
for circular column D=

Ag

=339mm
0.5D

## use column with D = 350 mm

A s 0.01 (3502 ) 962mm 2
4
use 714 (A s,sup =1078 mm 2 )
Check spacing between longitudinal bars
D =350-2(40)-2(8)-14=240 mm,

N=7

360/N
51.43
S D'sin

240

sin

104.1mm
2
2
Sc 104.1 14 90.1mm 1.5(14)=21mm
34

40mm

OK

360/N

2
0.5D

## 0.5Sc = 0.5D sin(360/N/2)

Example 3
Design the needed spiral, try 8
Dc 350 2(40) 270 mm
S

4 A sp

4 50

/4 350 2 28
0.45 270
1

2
/4 270
420
S 36.3mm, taken as 35 mm (center to center)
Ag fc'
0.45Dc
1

Ac f y

Sc 35 8/2 8/2 27 mm,i.e within ACI code limit ( 25mm & 75mm)
Use 8mm spiral with a pitch of 35mm center to center.

35

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 12 Part I
Bond, development length, and splicing

Bond

## Concept of Bond Stress

Bond stresses are existent whenever the tensile stress or force in a reinforcing bar
changes from point to point along the length of the bar in order to maintain equilibrium.
Without bond stresses, the reinforcement will pull out of the concrete.

Concrete
Reinforcing bar

PL/4

M+dM

dx
Moment diagram

avg

## Concept of Bond Stress

F 0.0
T2 T1 Fbond
If this equation is not true (bond force Fbond is not strong enough), the bar will pull out
A bar f s2 f s1 avg A surface
d
4

2
b

db

=Bond stress

avg

f - f d
= s2 s1 b
4l

T1=fs1Ab

T2=fs2Ab
fs2=fs1+fs

## Mechanism of Bond Transfer

A smooth bar embedded in concrete develops bond by adhesion between concrete &

## reinforcement, and a small amount of friction.

This is different in a deformed bar. Once adhesion is lost at high bar stress and some
slight movement between the reinforcement and the concrete occurs, bond is then
provided by friction and bearing on the deformations of the bar. At much higher bar
stress, bearing on the deformations of the bar will be the only component contributing to
bond strength.

## (b) Forces on concrete

Splitting cracks
The radial component of the bearing
force will cause circumferential
stress on the concrete that may
cause splitting that creates cracks.

Splitting cracks
Splitting of concrete may occur along the bars, either in vertical planes as in
figure (a) or in horizontal plane as in figure (b).

Splitting cracks
The load at which splitting failure develops is a function of :

The minimum distance from the bar to the surface of the concrete or to the
next bar. The smaller the distance, the smaller is the splitting load.

The tensile strength of the concrete. The higher the tensile strength, the
higher is the splitting resistance.

The average bond stress. The higher the average bond stress, the higher is the
splitting resistance.

If the concrete cover and bar spacing are large compared to the bar diameter,
a pullout failure can occur, where the bar and the ring of concrete between
successive deformations pullout along a cylindrical failure surface joining
the tips of the deformations.
8

Development Length

Development Length
The bars found to be needed at a section from design calculations have to be
embedded a certain distance into the concrete. This distance has to be equal or
larger than the development length (ld).

10

Development Length
The development length ld is that length of embedment necessary to develop the full
tensile strength of the bar (on both sides of sections where fy stress is required),
controlled by either pullout or splitting.

avg

f s2 f s1 d b

=
4l

f s2 f s1 f y

ld
11

f y db
4 avg,u

## The development length for deformed bars in tension is given by

ld

1.1 f c C K tr

db
fy

d b 300 mm,

C K tr
where
2.5
db
where,
ld = development length
db = nominal diameter of bar
fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement
C = spacing or cover dimension (see next slide)
Ktr = transverse reinforcement index (see slide 12)
12

ACI 12.2.3

## Development Length of Deformed Bars in Tension [contd.]

C is the smaller of

ACI 12.2.4

(a) the smallest distance measured from the center of the bar to the nearest concrete
surface
(b) one-half the center-to-center spacing of bars being developed.
is a bar location factor
(a) Horizontal reinforcement so placed that more than 30 cm of
fresh concrete is cast in the member below the development
length or splice.
(b) Other reinforcement..

1.3
1.0

## is a coating factor that reflects the adverse effects of epoxy coating

(a) Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less than 3db
or clear spacing less than 6db . 1.5
(b) All other epoxy-coated bars or wires............. 1.2
(c) Uncoated reinforcement 1.0
13

## Development Length of Deformed Bars in Tension [contd.]

ACI 12.2.4
is a reinforcement size factor that reflects better performance of the smaller diameter
reinforcement
(a) 20mm and smaller bars... 0.8
(b) 22mm and larger bars..... 1.0
is a lightweight aggregate concrete factor that reflects lower tensile strength of
lightweight concrete, & resulting reduction in splitting resistance.
(a) When lightweight aggregate concrete is used... 0.8
(b) When normal weight concrete is used... 1.0

14

## Development Length of Deformed Bars in Tension [contd.]

Ktr is a transverse reinforcement index that represents the contribution of confining
reinforcement

40 Atr
K tr
sn

## ACI Eq. 12-2

where:
Atr = total cross sectional area of all transverse reinforcement within the spacing s,
which crosses the potential plane of splitting along the reinforcement being developed
within the development length
s = maximum center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforcement within development
length ld
n = number of LONGITUDINAL bars being developed along the plane of splitting.
Note: It is permitted to use Ktr= 0.0 as
design simplification even if transverse
reinforcement is present.
15

Atr

Potential plane
of splitting

n=4

## Development Length of Deformed Bars in Tension [contd.]

ACI 12.2.5

Excessive Reinforcement

## Reduction in development length is allowed where As provided > As required. the

reduction is given by

Reduction factor

As required
As provided

## -Except as required for seismic design

-Good practice to ignore this factor, since the use of the structure may change over time.

## Simplified Expression for Development Length

See ACI 12.2.2. This will not be used in this class

16

Example 1

60 cm

Determine the development length in tension required for the uncoated bottom bars as
shown in the figure. If (a) Ktr is calculated (b) Ktr is assumed = 0.0
Use fc = 25 MPa normal weight concrete and fy = 420 MPa
(c) Check if space is available for bar development in the beam shown

10@20
420

40 cm
Cover is 4 cm on all sides

Section A-A

17

Example 1
Determine the development length in tension required for the uncoated bottom bars as
shown in the figure. If (a) Ktr is calculated (b) Ktr is assumed = 0.0
Use fc = 25 MPa normal weight concrete and fy = 420 MPa
(c) Check if space is available for bar development in the beam shown

10@20

420

## =1.0 for bars over concrete < 30 cm thick

=1.0 for uncoated bars
=1.0 <1.7 OK

40 cm
Cover is 4 cm on all sides

## =0.8 for 20mm,

=1.0 for normal weight concrete,
C the smallest of

40+10+(20/2)=60 mm
{[400-2(40)-2(10)-2(20/2)]/(3)}/(2)=46.7 mm

18

60 cm

Solution:

## i.e., C is taken as 46.7 mm

Example 1 [contd.]
K tr

7.9 mm
sn
(200)(4)

i.e., use
ld

C K tr
2.5
db

60 cm

C K tr 46.7 7.9

2.73 2.5
db
20
10@20
420

1.1 f c C K tr

db
fy

d b 300 mm
40 cm

## Cover is 4 cm on all sides

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)
ld
20 489 mm 300 mm OK

2
.5

1.1 25
b) Assuming K tr 0.0
C K tr 467 0

2.33 2.5
db
20
19

OK

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)
ld
20 524 mm 300 mm OK

2.33

1.1 25

Example 1 [contd.]

60 cm

## (c) Check if space is available for bar development

10@20
420

40 cm
Cover is 4 cm on all sides

Section A-A

> ld = 524 mm

OK
20

## Development Length of Deformed Bars in Compression

ACI 12.3

Shorter development lengths are required for compression than for tension since
flexural tension cracks are not present for bars in compression. In addition, there is
some bearing of the ends of the bars on concrete.
The development length ld for deformed bars in compression is computed as the product
of the basic development length ldc and applicable modification factors, but ld is not to
be less than 200 mm.

## ld = ldc x applicable modification factors 200 mm.

The basic development length ldb for deformed bars in compression is given as

0.24 f y d b

ldc max
;0.043 f y d b
fc '

21

ACI 12.3

## Applicable Modification Factors

1. Excessive reinforcement factor =As required / As provided
2. Spirals or Ties: the modification factor for reinforcement, enclosed with spiral
reinforcement 6mm in diameter and 10 cm pitch or within 12mm ties spaced at
10 cm on center is given as 0.75

ACI 12.4

## Development length of individual bars within a bundle, in tension or compression, is

taken as that for individual bar, increased 20% for three-bar bundle, and 33% for fourbar bundle.
For determining the appropriate modification factors, a unit of bundled bars is treated as
a single bar of a diameter derived from the equivalent total area of bars.
22

ldh

Critical
section

## Development of Standard Hooks in Tension

Hooks are used to provide additional anchorage
when there is insufficient length available
to develop a bar.
Development length ldh for deformed bars in tension terminating in a standard hook is
computed as the product of the basic development length lhb and applicable

modification factors, but ldh is not to be less than 8db, nor less than 150 mm.

## ldh = lhb x applicable modification factors 15 cm or 8db.

The basic development length lhb for hooked bars is given as

lhb

0.24 e f y
l fc '

## For lightweight aggregate concrete, l = 0.75.

For epoxy-coated reinforcement, e= 1.2.
23

ACI 12.5.1

db

ACI 12.5.2

ACI 12.5.3

## Applicable Modification Factors

1. Concrete cover: for db 36mm, side cover (normal to plane of hook) 65 mm, and
for 90 degree hook, cover on bar extension beyond hook 50 mm, the modification
factor is taken as 0.7.
not less than 50 mm
65 mm

65 mm

24

ACI 12.5.3

## Applicable Modification Factors

2. Excessive reinforcement factor =As required / As provided
3. Spirals or Ties: for db 36mm, hooks enclosed vertically or horizontally within ties
or stirrups spaced along the full development length ldh not greater than 3db , where db is
the diameter of the hooked bar, and the first tie or stirrup shall enclose the bent portion of
the hook, within 2db of the outside of the bend, the modification factor is taken as 0.8.

25

## Development of Standard Hooks in Tension [contd.]

Development length ldh is measured

ACI 7.1

90-degree hook

## from the critical section of the bar

to the out-side end or edge of the
hooks. Either a 90 or a 180-degree
hook, shown in the figure, may be used
ldh

## Development of reinforcement- General

* Hooks are not considered effective
in compression and may not be used
as anchorage.

Part (a)
180-degree hook

ACI 12.5.5
* The values of f c ' used in this
lecture shall not exceed 8.3 MPa.
26

ACI 12.1.2

4db 65mm

10 through 25
28 through 36
44 through 56

ldh

Part (b)

## Development of Standard Hooks in Tension [contd.]

ACI 12.5.4

Confinement of hooks
For bars being developed by a standard hook at discontinuous ends of members with both
side cover and top (or bottom) cover over hook less than 65 mm, the hooked bar shall be
enclosed within ties or stirrups perpendicular to the bar being developed, spaced not
greater than 3db along ldh. The first tie or stirrup shall enclose the bent portion of the
hook, within 2db of the outside of the bend, where db is the diameter of the hooked bar.

27

Example 2

50 cm

Determine the development length or anchorage required for the epoxy-coated top bars
of the beam shown in the figure. The beam frames into an exterior 80cm x 30cm
column (the bars extend parallel to the 80 cm side). Show the details if:
(a) If a 180-degree hook is used
(b) If a 90-degree hook is used
Use fc = 28 MPa and fy = 420 MPa
432
12@15

Solution:
=1.3 for bars over concrete > 30 cm thick
=1.5 for coated bars (take the larger of 1.2 and 1.5 conservatively)
=1.3x1.5 = 1.95 > 1.7 use 1.7
=1.0 for 32mm,
C the smallest of

## =1.0 for normal weight concrete

40+12+16=68 mm

{[400-2(40)-2(12)-32]/(3)}/(2)=44 mm
i.e., C is taken as 44 mm
28

40 cm

Example 2 [contd.]
40Atr
2( 113 )

15.1 mm
sn
( 150 )( 4 )

C K tr 44 15

1.85 2.5
db
32
ld

50 cm

K tr

OK

1.1 f c C K tr

db

432
12@15

fy

d b 300 mm

## 420 ( 1.7 )( 1.0 )( 1.0 )

ld
32 2127 mm 300 mm OK

1
.
85
1
.
1
28

40 cm

## Thus, a standard hook is required at column side

ldh = lhb x applicable modification factors 150 mm or 8db.
(use a factor 1.2 for epoxy-coated hooks. Modification factors are inapplicable)
l dh
29

0.24 e f y

l fc'

db

## 0.24 1.2 420

32 732 mm
1.0 28
150mm 8( 32 ) 256mm OK

Example 2 [contd.]
(b) If a 180-degree hook is used

ldh=732 mm

4db =128 mm
Critical section
5db =160 mm
180o hook

12db=384 mm

## (c) If a 90-degree hook is used

30

ldh=732 mm

Critical section

90o hook

Splicing

31

Splices of Reinforcement

ACI 12.14

Splicing of reinforcement bars is necessary, either because the available bars are not
long enough, or to ease construction, in order to guarantee continuity of the
reinforcement according to design requirements.
Types of Splices:
(a) Welding (b) Mechanical connectors
(c) Lap splices (simplest and most economical method)
In a lapped splice, the force in one bar is transferred to the concrete, which transfers it to
Splice length is the distance over which the two bars overlap.

## Forces on bar at splice

32

Splice length

Splices of Reinforcement
Important note:
Lap splices have a number of disadvantages, including congestion of reinforcement at
the lap splice and development of transverse cracks due to stress concentrations. It is
recommended to locate splices at sections where stresses are low.
Types of Lap Splices:

## 1. Direct Contact Splice

T

T
ls

Direct contact

2. Non-Contact Splice (spaced) the distance between two bars cannot be greater than
1/5 of the splice length nor 15 cm

ACI 12.14.2.3
T

T
ls

33

## Splices of Deformed Bars in Tension

ACI 12.15

ACI code divides tension lap splices into two classes, A and B. The class of splice used
is dependent on the level of stress in the reinforcing and on the percentage of steel that
is spliced at particular location.

ACI 12.15.1

Class A:
A splice must satisfy the following two conditions to be in this class:
(a) the area of reinforcement provided is at least twice that required by analysis over the
entire length of the splice; and
(b) one-half or less of the total reinforcement is spliced within the required lap length.
Class B:
If conditions above are not satisfied classify as Class B.
The splice lengths for each class of splice are as follows:
Class A splice: 1.0 ld 300 mm
Class B splice: 1.3 ld 300 mm
34

ACI 12.15.2

Example 3
To facilitate construction of a cantilever retaining wall, the vertical reinforcement
shown in the figure, is to be spliced with dowels extending from the foundation.
Determine the required splice length when all reinforcement bars are spliced at the same
location.
Use fc = 30 MPa and fy = 420 MPa
16 @ 250
Cover = 7.5 cm

Solution:
Class B splice is required where ls = 1.3 ld
=1.0, =1.0 =1.0 < 1.7 OK
ls

=1.0, =1.0
C the smallest of

75+8=83 mm
250/2=125 mm

i.e., C is taken as 83 mm
35

## Ktr =0.0, since no stirrups are used

16 @ 250
Cover = 7.5 cm

Example 3 [contd.]
C K tr 83 0
C K tr

## 5.19 2.5 i .e.,

2.5
db
16
db
420 ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 1.0 )
ld
16 446 mm

2
.
5

1.1 30
Required splice length ls 446( 1.3 ) 580 mm 300 OK
16 @ 25

ls=58 cm

16 @ 25

36

ACI 12.16

## Bond behavior of compression bars is not complicated by the problem of transverse

tension cracking and thus compression splices do not require provisions as strict as
those specified for tension
Compression lap splice length shall be:

ACI 12.16.1

0.071 fy db 300 mm

## The computed splice length should be increase by 33% if fc<21 MPa

When bars of different size are lap-spliced in compression, splice length shall be the
larger of either development length of the larger bar, or splice length of the smaller bar.

ACI 12.16.2
ACI 12.15.3
37

Example 4
Design a compression lap splice for a tied column whose cross section is shown in the
figure when:
(a) 16 mm bars are used on both sides of the splice.
(b) 16 mm bars are lap spliced with 18 mm bars.
Use fc = 30 MPa and fy = 420 MPa

Solution:
(a) For bars of same 16 mm diameter

## Splice length in compression and for fy =420 MPa

is equal to 0.071 fy db = 0.071 (420)(16)
= 477 mm >300 mm
taken as 480 mm

38

Example 4 [contd.]
(b) For bars of different diameters

## The development length of the larger bar

ldc = ldb x applicable modification factors

## 0.24f y d b 0.24 420 18

331mm

fc'
30
l dc max
333mm
0.043 f d 0.043 420 18=333mm
y
b

Splice length of smaller diameter bar was calculated in part (a) as 477 mm. Thus, the
splice length is taken as 480 mm.

39

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 12 PART II
Bar cutoff

Bar cutoff
It is economical to cut unnecessary bars as shown in the scenario below.

Example

Example

Example

Example

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Using moment diagrams drawn to scale:

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Using moment envelopes drawn to scale:

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: -1/11, +1/16, -1/11)

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: -1/16, +1/14, -1/10)

10

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: -1/24, +1/14, -1/10)

11

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: 0, +1/11, -1/10)

12

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements

ACI 12.10.3
Reinforcement shall extend
beyond the point at which it is no
longer required to resist flexure
for a distance equal to d or 12db,
whichever is greater, except at
supports of simple spans and at
free end of cantilevers.

ACI 12.10.4
Continuing reinforcement shall
have an embedment length not
less than ld beyond the point
where bent or terminated tension
reinforcement is no longer
required to resist flexure.
13

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements

ACI 12.10.5

The ACI Code does not permit flexural reinforcement to be cutoff in a tension zone
unless at least one of the special conditions, shown below, is satisfied:
a. Factored shear force at the cutoff point does not exceed two-thirds of the design shear
strength, Vn .
b. Stirrup area exceeding that required for shear and torsion is provided along each
cutoff bar over a distance from the termination point equal to three-fourths of the
effective depth of the member. Excess stirrup area Av is not to be less than 0.41bwS /fy .
Spacing S is not to exceed d/8b where b is the ratio of area of reinforcement cutoff to
total area of tension reinforcement at the section.
c. For 36 mm bars and smaller, continuing reinforcement provides double the area
required for flexure at the cutoff point and factored shear does not exceed three-fourths
of the design shear strength, Vn .

14

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Positive moment:

## At least one-third the positive moment reinforcement in simple members and

one-fourth the positive moment reinforcement in continuous members shall
extend along the same face of member into the support. In beams, such
reinforcement shall extend into the support at least 150 mm.
ACI 12.11.1

## At simple supports and at points of inflection, positive moment tension

reinforcement shall be limited to a diameter such that

ACI 12.11.3
Mn is calculated assuming all reinforcement at the section to be stressed to fy;
Vu is calculated at the section;
la at a support shall be the embedment length beyond the center of support; or:
la at a point of inflection shall be limited to d or 12db, whichever is greater.

15

## An increase of 30 percent in the value of Mn /Vu shall be permitted when the

ends of reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction.

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Positive moment:

ACI 12.11.3

16

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Positive moment:

17

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Positive moment:

18

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Positive moment:

19

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Negative moment:

## Negative moment reinforcement in a continuous, restrained cantilever member, or in

any member of rigid frame, is to be anchored in or through the supporting member
by development length, hooks, or mechanical anchorage.

ACI 12.12.1

At least one-third the total tension reinforcement provided for negative moment at a
support shall have an embedment length beyond the point of inflection not less than
d, 12db, or ln/16, whichever is greater

ACI 12.12.3

20

## Lecture 12 PART III

Detailing of reinforcement

ACI-318

## References for detailing

ACI-315
ACI Detailing Manual

## References for detailing

CRSI Design Handbook

## Bar cutoff: Theoretical points of cutoff or bent

Development length requirements
Positive moment:

## At least one-third the positive

moment reinforcement in simple
members and one-fourth the
positive moment reinforcement in
continuous members shall extend
along the same face of member into
the support. In beams, such
reinforcement shall extend into the
support at least 150 mm.
Negative moment:

## At least one-third the total tension

reinforcement provided for negative
moment at a support shall have an
embedment length beyond the point
of inflection not less than d, 12db, or
ln/16, whichever is greater
5

## Requirements for using standard detailing for beams and one

way slabs:
ACI 8.3.3
There are two or more spans.
Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans
not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.
Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths
(prismatic).

Straight bars

Straight bars

Straight bars

10

Bent-up bars

11

Straight bars

12

Straight bars

13

Straight bars

14

15

16

17

18

19

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 13
Design of isolated footings

Footing
Introduction
Footings are structural elements used to support columns and walls and transmit their
loads to the underlying soil without exceeding its safe bearing capacity below the
structure.

B
L

Column

Beam

P
M
Footing

Soil

Footing
Introduction
The design of footings calls for the combined efforts of geotechnical and structural
engineers.
The geotechnical engineer, on one hand, conducts the site investigation and on the light
of his findings, recommends the most suitable type of foundation and the allowable
bearing capacity of the soil at the suggested foundation level.
The structural engineer, on the other hand, determines the concrete dimensions and
reinforcement details of the approved foundation.

Types of Footing
Isolated Footings
Isolated or single footings are used to support single columns. This is one of the most
economical types of footings and is used when columns are spaced at relatively long
distances.

P kN

C2
C1
L
P

Types of Footing
Isolated Footings

## Shapes of isolated footings

5

Types of Footing
Isolated Footings

## Shapes of isolated footings

6

Types of Footing
Wall Footings
Wall footings are used to support structural walls that carry loads from other floors or to
support nonstructural walls.
W kN/m

Secondary reinft

Main reinft.

Types of Footing
Combined Footings
Combined footings are used when two columns are so close that single footings cannot
be used. Or, when one column is located at or near a property line. In such a case, the
load on the footing will be eccentric and hence this will result in an uneven distribution
of load to the supporting soil.
P1

P2

P2 kN

PP1 kN
1 kN

C2

C2
C1

C1
L1

L2

L2

Types of Footing
Combined Footings
The shape of a combined footing in plan shall be such that the centroid of the
foundation plan coincides with the centroid of the loads in the columns. Combined
footings are either rectangular or trapezoidal. Rectangular footings are favored due to
their simplicity in terms of design and construction. However, rectangular footings are
not always practicable because of the limitations that may be imposed on their
longitudinal projections beyond the two columns or the large difference that may exist
between the magnitudes of the two column loads. Under these conditions, the provision
of a trapezoidal footing is more economical.

Types of Footing
Continuous Footings
Continuous footings support a row of three or more columns.

P1

P2

P3

P4 kN

P4
P3 kN

P2 kN
L
P1 kN

10

Types of Footing
Strap (Cantilever) footings
Strap footings consists of two separate footings, one under each column, connected
together by a beam called strap beam. The purpose of the strap beam is to prevent
overturning of the eccentrically loaded footing. It is also used when the distance
between this column and the nearest internal column is long that a combined footing
will be too narrow.
P2 kN
P2

property line

P1

Strap Beam
P1 kN
L1

L2

C2

B1
C1

C2

B2

C1

11

Types of Footing
Mat (Raft) Footings
Mat footings consist of one footing usually placed under the entire building area. They
are used when soil bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy and differential
settlement for single footings are very large or must be reduced.

12

Types of Footing
Pile caps
Pile caps are thick slabs used to tie a group of piles together to support and transmit
P

13

Distribution of Soil Pressure
The distribution of soil pressure under a footing is a function of the type of soil, the
relative rigidity of the soil and the footing, and the depth of the foundation at the level
of contact between footing and soil.
P

P
Centroidal axis

Footing on sand

Footing on clay

## Equivalent uniform distribution

For design purposes, it is common to assume the soil pressure is uniformly distributed.
The pressure distribution will be uniform if the centroid of the footing coincides with
the resultant of the applied loads.
14

Pressure Distribution Below Footings
The maximum intensity of loading at the base of a foundation which causes failure of
soil is called ultimate bearing capacity of soil, denoted by qu.
The allowable bearing capacity of soil is obtained by dividing the ultimate bearing
capacity of soil by a factor of safety on the order of 2.50 to 3.0.
The allowable soil pressure for soil may be either gross or net pressure permitted on the

## soil directly under the base of the footing.

The gross pressure represents the total stress in the soil created by all the loads above
the base of the footing. For design, the net soil pressure is used instead of the gross
pressure value.
P

Df
hc

15

If the resultant of the loads acting at the base of the footing coincides with the centroid
of the footing area, the footing is concentrically loaded and a uniform distribution of
soil pressure is assumed in design.
P
Centroidal axis

L
P/A
L

16

Footings are often designed for both axial load and moment. Moment may be caused by
lateral forces due to wind or earthquake, and by lateral soil pressures.
A footing is eccentrically loaded if the supported column is not concentric with the
footing area or if the column transmits at its juncture with the footing not only a vertical
load but also a bending moment.
P

e
M
Centroidal axis

Centroidal axis

L
P/A

P/A

Pey/I

My/I

17

## Design of Isolated Footings

Deformation of isolated footings

18

## Design of Isolated Footings

Deformation of isolated footings

19

## Design of Isolated Footings

The design of isolated rectangular footings is detailed in the following steps:

## 1- Select a trial footing depth.

Depth of footing above reinforcement is not to be less than 15 cm.

ACI 15.7
Note that 7.5 cm of clear concrete cover is required if concrete is cast against
soil.

ACI 7.7.1

20

## Design of Isolated Footings

2- Evaluate the net allowable soil pressure:

P

Df
hc

where

qall(net)

## hc is the assumed footing depth,

df is the distance from ground surface to the contact surface between footing base and soil,

## c is the weight density of concrete, and

s is the weight density of soil on top of footing.
21

## Design of Isolated Footings

3- Establish the required base area of the footing
Base area of footing is determined from unfactored forces transmitted by footing to soil
and the allowable soil pressure evaluated through principles of soil mechanics.

Areq

PD PL
qall (net )

ACI 15.2.2

where PD and PL are column service dead and live loads, respectively.
Select appropriate L, and B values, if possible, use a square footing to achieve greatest
economy.

qu (net )

1.2PD 1.6PL
LB

ACI 15.2.1
22

## Design of Isolated Footings

5- Check footing thickness for punching shear.
When loads are applied over small areas of slabs and footings with no beams, punching
failure may occur. The sloping failure surface takes the shape of a truncated pyramid in
case of rectangular columns, and a truncated cone in case of circular columns.

The ACI Code assumes that failure takes place on vertical planes located at distance d/2
from the faces of the column.

ACI 11.11.1.2

23

## Design of Isolated Footings

5- Check footing thickness for punching shear [contd.]
The depth of the footing must be checked so that the shear capacity of the concrete
equals or exceeds the critical shear forces produced by factored loads

Vu Vc
The critical punching shear forceVu can be evaluated as follows

Vu qu (net )L B C1 d C2 d

C1

C2

C2 + d

C1 + d

ACI 11.11.1.2

Since there are two layers of reinforcement, an average value of d may be used:
d = h 7.5cm db , where db is the bar diameter.

24

## Design of Isolated Footings

5- Check footing thickness for punching shear [contd.]
Punching shear force resisted by concrete Vc is given as the smallest of

2
V C 0.17 1 f c 'bo d
c

s d

C2

V C 0.083 2

C1

C2 + d

V C 0.33 f c 'bo d

C1 + d

f c 'bo d

b
L

## c = long side/short side of column,

s = 40 for interior, 30 for side, and 20 for corner columns,
bo =length of critical perimeter around the column = 2[(C1+d)+(C2+d)]

Interior

ACI 11.11.2.1
Corner

Exterior

25

## Design of Isolated Footings

6- Check footing thickness for beam shear in each direction.
If Vu Vc, thickness will be adequate for resisting beam shear.
The critical section for beam shear is located at distance d from column faces.

## Critical section for beam shear

(short direction)

L C 1

Vu qu (net ) B x qu (net ) B

V c 0.17 f c ' B d

C2

## The factored beam shear capacity of the

concrete is given as

C1

d
B

ACI 11.2.1.1
26

## Design of Isolated Footings

6- Check footing thickness for beam shear in each direction [contd.]

## The factored beam shear capacity of the

concrete is given as

V c 0.17 f c ' L d

C2

C1

B C 2

Vu qu (net ) L y qu (net ) L

## Critical section for beam

Shear (long direction)

ACI 11.2.1.1

27

## Design of Isolated Footings

7-Compute the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction.
The footing is designed as rectangular-section beam in both directions. The critical
section for bending is located at the face of the column.

ACI 15.4.2

(L-C1)/2

2

0.85f c
2M u
1 1

fy
0.85 f c B d

As ,req B d

C1

C2

B L C1
M u qu (net )

2 2

ACI 15.4.1
ACI 10.5.4
ACI 7.12.2.1

28

## Design of Isolated Footings

0.85f c
2M u
1 1

fy
0.85

f
L
d
c

As ,req L d
As ,min 0.0018Lh As ,req

C1

C2

L B C2
M u qu (net )

2 2

(B-C2)/2

ACI 15.4.1

ACI 10.5.4
ACI 7.12.2.1
29

## Design of Isolated Footings

7-Compute the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction [contd.]
For square footings, the reinforcement is identical in both directions.
For rectangular footings, the reinforcement in the long direction is uniformly
distributed. However, a portion of the total reinforcement in the short direction, sAs is
distributed uniformly over a band width (centered on centerline of column) as shown in
the figure. Remainder of reinforcement required in the short direction, (1 s)As, shall
be distributed uniformly outside the center band width of the footing.
2
s
1

where

Band width

ACI 15.4.4

B
L

30

## Design of Isolated Footings

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete
All forces applied at the base of a column or wall must be transferred to the
footing by bearing on concrete and/or by reinforcement.

ACI 15.8.1

Bearing on concrete for column and footing must not exceed the concrete
bearing strength.

ACI 15.8.1.1

Pn Pu
Otherwise, the joint would fail by crushing of the concrete at the bottom of the
column where the column bars are no longer effective or by crushing the
concrete in the footing under the column.

Pn min Pn ,c ; Pn ,f
31

## Design of Isolated Footings

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

## For a supported column, the allowed bearing capacity Pn,c is

Pn ,c 0.85f cA1

ACI 10.14.1

For a supporting footing where the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the
loaded area, the allowed bearing capacity Pn,f is

Pn ,f

A2

min
0.85f cA1 ; 2 0.85f cA1

A1

## = strength reduction factor for bearing = 0.65

A1= column cross-sectional area
A2= area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered
wedge contained wholly within the footing and having for its upper base the loaded
area, and having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal (see next slide)

32

## Design of Isolated Footings

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

A2= area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered wedge
contained wholly within the footing and having for its upper base the loaded area, and
having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal

33

## Design of Isolated Footings

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

A2= area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered wedge
contained wholly within the footing and having for its upper base the loaded area, and
having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal

34

## Design of Isolated Footings

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

Dowel Reinforcement:
If

Pn Pu :

As ,req

Pu Pn

f y

ACI 15.8.1.2

## The dowel bars are usually extended into the

footing, bent at the ends, and tied to the main
footing reinforcement.

35

## Design of Isolated Footings

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

If

Pn Pu ::

As ,min 0.005A1

ACI 15.8.2.1

36

## Design of Isolated Footings

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement
> ls (compn.)

## 10-Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided

reinforcement.

37

Example
Design an isolated rectangular footing to support an interior column 4040cm in cross
section and carry a dead load of 800 kN and a live load of 600 kN. One of the
dimensions of the footing must not exceed 3.2 m.
PD= 800 kN
PL= 600 kN

## Use fc= 25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa,

qall (gross) = 200 kN/m2, soil =17 kN/m3, conc =25 kN/m3
Df=1.0

40
40

38

Example
Solution
1- Select a trial footing depth:
Assume that the footing is 55 cm thick.
2- Evaluate the net allowable soil pressure:
qall (net) = qall (gross) - s (Df - hc) - c hc

40
40

245

## 3- Establish the required base area of the footing :

P P
800 600
A req D L
7.839 m 2
q all (net)
178.6
7.84
Let L 3.20 m , B
2.45 m
3.20
Use 320x245x55 cm footing

320

Pu
1920
q u net

244.9 kN /m 2
LB 3.2 2.45

39

245

40+45.9

Example

40+45.9

## Average effective depth d avg 55-7.5-1.6 45.9cm

bo 2[ 40 45.9 40 45.9 ] 343.6 cm

320

## Vu 244.9 3.2 2.45 0.40 0.459 0.40 0.459 1740 kN

VC is the smallest of
0.33 f c ' b o d 0.75 0.33 25 3436 459 1952 kN

2
2

3436 459 3016 kN
0.4/0.4
c

s d
40 459

0.083 f c ' 2
b
d

0.75

0.083
25
2

## 3436 459 3605 kN

b
3436

VC 1952 kN Vu 1740 kN
OK
i.e. footing thickness is adequate for resisting punching shear.
40

Example
6- Check footing thickness for beam shear in each direction:
In short direction

245

45.9

3.2 0.4

Vu 244.9 2.45
0.459 565 kN
2

OK

320

45.9

2.45 0.4

Vu 244.9 3.2

0.459
444 kN

## Vc= 936 kN > Vu= 444 kN

245

In long direction

320

OK
41

Example
7- Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction:
a- Reinforcement in the long direction:
The critical section for bending is shown in the figure
2

2 588 106
1- 12
0.9
0.85

25

2450

459

0.85 25

420

1.4

245

B L C1
2.45 3.2 0.4
M u q u net

244.9

2 2
2
2

588 kN .m

320
24.49 x 2.45

## A s,min 0.0018 550 2450 2430 mm 2

A s,req 3500 mm 2 2314mm in long direction

42

Example
7- Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction:
b- Reinforcement in the short direction:
The critical section for bending is shown in the figure

L B C2
3.2 2.45 0.4
M u q u net

244.9

2 2
2
2

412 kN .m

245
24.49 x 2.8

## A s,min 0.0018 550 3200 3170 mm 2

320

1.025

2 412 106
1- 12
0.9 0.85 25 3200 459

## 0.0016 A s 0.0016 459 3200 2411mm 2

0.85 25

420

1.025

A s,req 317 0 mm 2

43

Example
7- Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction:
b- Reinforcement in the short direction:
The distribution of the reinforcement is as follows:

245

42.5

214 B

## Width band =245

1814 B

42.5

214 B

L 3.2

1.3
B 2.45
2
Central band reinft.
As
1
2
2

3170

2757
mm

1.3 1
Use 18 14 mm in the central band.

320

3170 2756
2
For each of the side bands, A s

207
mm

## Use 214 mm in each of the two side bands.

44

Example
8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete
For the column

For the footing

## In short direcion: 1025mm 1100mm Use 1025 mm

1400

2
1

h= 550

1025

245

1100

320

45

Example
8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete

## A 2 400 2 1025 400 2 1025 6002500 mm 2

Pn ,f

A 2

min
0.85f cA1 ; 2 0.85f cA1
A1

Pn ,f

6002500

min
2210 ; 2 2210 4420kN
160000

## Pn min Pn ,c ; Pn ,f min 2210; 4420 2210kN Pu 1920 kN

Use minimum dowel reinforcement

## 1025 + 400+ 1025

46

Example
8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete
Minimum dowel reinforcement

## As ,min 0.005A1 0.005 400 400 800mm 2

Use 416, As,sup = 804 mm2

47

Example
9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement
Bottom longitudinal reinforcement (14mm)
=1.0 for bottom bars,

## =1.0 for uncoated bars

1.4

=1.0 <1.7 OK
=0.8 for 14mm,

7.5+0.7=8.3 cm

245

C the smallest of

## =1.0 for normal weight concrete

[245-2(7.5)-1.4]/(22)/(2)=5.2 cm
i.e., C is taken as 5.2 cm

C K tr 5.2 0
C K tr

## 3.7 2.5 i.e.,use

2.5
db
1.4
db

320

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)
ld
1.4 34 cm

2.5

1.1 25
Available length in long direction =140-7.5=132.5 > 34 cm
48

Example
9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement
Bottom reinforcement in short direction (14mm)
=1.0 for bottom bars,

## =1.0 for uncoated bars

=1.0 <1.7 OK
7.5+0.7=8.3 cm
[320-2(7.5)-1.4]/(19)/(2)=8 cm

1.025

C the smallest of

245

320

C K tr 8 0
C K tr

## 5.7 2.5 i.e.,use

2.5
db
1.4
db
420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)
ld
1.4 34 cm

2.5

1.1 25
Available length in short direction =102.5-7.5=95 > 34 cm
49

Example
9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement
Dowel reinforcement (16mm):

## 0.24f y d b 0.24 420 16

323mm

fc'
25
l dc max
323mm 200mm
0.043 f d 0.043 420 16=289mm
y
b

## Available length = 550-75-14-14 = 447 mm > 323 mm OK

Column reinforcement splices:

## Considering that the column is reinforced with 16 bars

ls 0.071f y d b 0.071 420 16 478 mm 300 mm
taken as 48cm

> ls (compn.)

50

Example

55 cm

48cm

10- Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided
reinforcement

245 (1814)

42.5

2.45 m

214 B

214 B

1814 B

3.20 m

2314 B

42.5

51

## Reinforced Concrete Design I

Lecture 14
Staircase Design

Stair Types

Stair Types

Stair Types

Stair Types

Technical terms
Going: horizontal upper portion of a step.
Rise: vertical distance between two consecutive treads.
Flight: a series of steps provided between two landings.
Landing: a horizontal slab provided between two flights.
Waist: the least thickness of a stair slab.

Technical terms
Winder: radiating or angular tapering steps.
Soffit: the bottom surface of a stair slab.
Nosing: the intersection of the going and the riser.
Headroom: the vertical distance from a line connecting the nosings of
all treads and the soffit above.

## Simply supported stair

(transversely supported)

## Simply supported stair

(longitudinally supported)

Cantilever stair

## Design of transversely supported stairs

The dead load includes own weight of the step, own weight of the waist
slab, and surface finishes on the steps and on the soffit.

Live load is taken as building design live load plus 1.5 kN/m2, with a
maximum value of 5 kN/m2.

10

## Design of transversely supported stairs

Direction of bending
Main reinforcement
Shrinkage reinforcement

11

Direction of bending

## Design of transversely supported stairs

Design for Shear and Flexure:
Each step is designed for shear and
flexure as if it is a beam. Main
reinforcement runs in the transverse
direction at the bottom side of the
steps while shrinkage reinforcement
runs at the bottom side of the slab in
the longitudinal direction. Since the
step is not rectangular, the effective
depth d is found by an equivalent
rectangular section that can be used
with an average height equal to:

havg
12

## Design of transversely supported stairs

Example 1
Design a straight flight stair in a residential building
supported on reinforced concrete walls 1.5 m apart (center
to center), given:
L.L = 3 kN/m2; covering material = 0.5 kN/m; The risers
are 16 cm and goings are 30 cm; fc=25 MPa, fy= 420 MPa

13

l 1.5

0.075m
20 20
t

have

0.075

0.30
0.34

0.16

0.165m
2

## D.L(O.W) =0.340.075 25 + (1/2) 0.16 0.3 25=1.24 kN/m

D.L (covering material) = 0.5 kN/m
0.16

## D.L (total) = 1.74 kN/m

L.L =30.3 =0.9 kN/m

14

0.3

1.5 m

Shear diagram

Moment diagram
15

## Design for moment

M u 1kN .m
d 165 20 6 139mm
bw 300mm
0.85 f c '

fy

2M u
1

0.85 f c ' b d 2

0.85 25
2 1106
1 1
0.0005

420
0.9 0.85 25 300 139

## A s 0.0005 300 139 20.9mm 2

A s ,min 0.0018 300 165 89.1mm 2 A s
A s A s ,min 89.1mm 2
Use 112 for each step

16

## Design for shear

V C 0.75 0.17 25 139 300 /1000 26kN V u 2.65kN OK

17

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Direction of bending
Shrinkage reinforcement

Main reinforcement

18

19

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Deflection Requirement:
Since a flight of stairs is stiffer than a slab of thickness equal to the waist t,
minimum required slab depth is reduced by 15 %.

Effective Span:
The effective span is taken as the horizontal distance between centerlines of
supporting elements.
n = number of goings
X = Width of
supporting landing slab
at one end of the stairs
slab

Y = Width of

20

## supporting landing slab

at the other end of the
stairs slab.

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Deflection Requirement:
Since a flight of stairs is stiffer than a slab of thickness equal to the waist t,
minimum required slab depth is reduced by 15 %.

Effective Span:
The effective span is taken as the horizontal distance between centerlines of
supporting elements.
n = number of goings
X = Width of
supporting landing slab
at one end of the stairs
slab

Y = Width of

21

## supporting landing slab

at the other end of the
stairs slab.

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Own weight of the steps.
Own weight of the slab.
Surface finishes on the flight and on the landings.
Note: For flight load calculations, the part of load acting on slope is to be increased
by dividing it by cos. This is because analysis for moment and shear is conducted on
the horizontal span of the flight, but the load is that carried on the inclined span.

P
P= wo.w.Linc
.Linc

22

.L

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Live load is taken as the building design live load plus 1.5 kN/m2, with a
maximum value of 5 kN/m2. Live load is always given on the horizontal
projection.

23

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Joint detail:
The stairs slab is designed for maximum shear and flexure. Main
reinforcement runs in the longitudinal direction, while shrinkage
reinforcement runs in the transverse direction. Special attention has to be
paid to reinforcement detail at opening joints.

24

## Design of longitudinally supported stairs

Example 2
Design the U- stair in a residential building shown in the
figure, given:
L.L = 3 kN/m2; covering material = 2 kN/m2; The rises are 16
cm and goings are 30 cm, fc=25 MPa, fy= 420 MPa

25

l
525
t 0.85
22cm
20 20
cos() = 0.3/ 0.34 = 0.88
Take a unit strip along the span:
D.L (slab) = 0.221.025/0.88 =6kN/m
D.L (step) = (1/2) 0.161.0 25=2 kN/m
D.L (covering material) = 21.0=2 kN/m
D.L (flight) = 10 kN/m
D.L (landing) = 8 kN/m
L.L =3 1.0=3 kN/m

26

Wu (flight) = 1.2(10)+1.6(3)=16.8kN/m
Wu (landing) = 1.2(8)+1.6(3)=14.4kN/m

0.16

0.3
0.34

14.4kN/m

27

16.8kN/m

14.4kN/m

## Design for moment

M u 52.2kN .m
d 22 2 0.6 19.4cm 194mm
bw 1000mm

0.85 25
2 52.2 106
1 1
0.0037

420
0.85 0.9 25 1000 194

## A s 0.0037 1000 194 718mm 2

A s ,min 0.0018 1000 220 396mm 2 A s OK
Use 812

(22)=3.96 cm2/m

28

29

## Design of quarter-turn stairs

A landing may be shared on two different stair slabs. The load of the shared
landing can be assumed to be divided equally and each stair slab carries on
30

half.

Ls

P=wsLs/2

31

ws

P
w=P/(L/2)
L/2