5.0K tayangan

Diunggah oleh Mohamed Seghir Benzemrane

Reinforced Concrete Design I

- Advanced Reinforced Concrete Structures - Vargese
- Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete Design (2)
- Design of Reinforced Concrete 9th Edition Solutions
- Reinforced Concrete Design by Everard and Tanner
- COURSE Reinforced Concrete Design
- reinforced concrete
- Reinforced Concrete Design
- Reinforced Concrete Design, 3rd Ed,Leet
- Design of Concrete Structures
- Reinforced concrete mechanics and design
- Structural Concrete Theory and Design, Sixth Edition M. Nadim Hassoun South Dakota State University Akthem Al-Manaseer San Jose State University
- simplified design of reinforced concrete buildings.pdf
- Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon and Pincheira 7th Edtn.pdf
- Reinforced Concrete Design
- seismic and wind design of concrete structures.pdf
- SP-17-14_DA
- Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2
- Simplified Design Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and Height
- Reinforced Concrete Design - W.H. MOSLEY
- Reinforced Concrete (analysis and design)

Anda di halaman 1dari 515

g I

Lecture 0

Syllabus

I

Instructor

D N

Dr.

Nader

d Ok

Okasha.

h

nao204@lehigh.edu

Offi Hours

Office

H

A needed.

As

d d

Thi

l offered

ff d for

f 2010 students

d

who

h

have passed strength of materials.

If you d

dont

meet this

hi criteria

i i you will

ill not be

b

allowed to continue this course.

References:

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and

commentary (ACI 318M-08). American Concrete Institute,

2008.

2008

Design of Reinforced Concrete. 7th edition, McCormac, J.C.

and

nd N

Nelson,

l n JJ.K.,

K 2006.

2006

Reinforced Concrete Design. By Dr. Sameer Shihada.

reinforced concrete design):

Reinforced Concrete, A fundamental Approach. Edward Nawy.

Design of Concrete Structure. Nilson A. et al.

Reinforced Concrete Design.

Design Kenneth Leet.

Leet

Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design. James K. Wight,

and James G

G. MacGregor

MacGregor.

Design

g is an analysis

y of trial sections. The strength

g

of each trial section is compared with the expected

load effect.

The load effect on a section is determined using

g

structural analysis and mechanics of materials.

The strength of a reinforced concrete section is

g the concepts

p taught

g in this class.

determined using

Course outline

Week

2 3,4

2,

34

Topic

Introduction:

Syllabus and course policies.

policies

-Syllabus

-Introduction to reinforced concrete.

-Load types,

yp load p

paths and tributaryy areas.

-Design philosophies and design codes.

Analysis and design of beams for bending:

-Analysis of beams in bending at service loads.

-Strength analysis of beams according to ACI Code.

-Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams.

beams

-Design of T and L beams.

-Design of doubly reinforced beams.

Midterm

Midterm.

Course outline

Week

Topic

ribbed slabs.

columns

7,8

8,9

Staircase design.

10

Final

Grading

Course work:

20%

-Homework

4%

-Attendance

4%

-Project

12%

Mid-term

t

exam

20%

Final exam

60%

Exam Policy

Mid-term exam:

Only one A4 cheat-sheet is allowed.

Necessary figures and tables will be provided with the exam forms.

Final exam:

Open book.

Homework Policy

Show all your assumptions and work details. Prepare neat

sketches showing the reinforcement and dimensions.

Markingg will consider pprimarilyy neatness of presentation,

p

,

completeness and accuracy of results.

You may get the HW points if you copy the solution from

other students. However, you will have lost your chance in

practicing the concepts through doing the HW. This will lead

you to loosing points in the exams, which you could have

gained if you did your HWs on your own.

No late HWs will be accepted. Homework solutions will be

posted on upinar immediately after the submission deadline.

cell-phone

phone use

Zero tolerance will be practiced.

practiced

No talking with other students is allowed.

allowed

Raise your hand before answering or asking questions

questions.

Leaving during class is not allowed (especially for

answering the cell-phone) unless a previous permission is

g

granted.

ed.

Violation of discipline

p

rules mayy have you

y dismissed from

class and jeopardize your participation points.

Any collectively missed class MUST be made up.

up

p either on a

A collectivelyy missed class will be made up

Thursday or during the discussion lecture.

An absence from a lecture will loose you attendance points,

and the lecture will not be repeated for you. You are on your

own. You may use the

h llecture videos.

id

No late students will be allowed in class.

class

Anything mentioned in class is binding.

binding No excuse for not

being there or not paying attention.

In all equations,

equations the input and output units are as follows:

Distance (L,b,d,h

L b d h): mm

Area (Ac,Ag,As): mm2

Volume (V): mm3

Force (P,V,N): N

Moment (M): N.mm

N mm

Stress (fy, fc): N/mm2 = MPa = 106 N/m2

Pressure (qs): N/mm2

Distributed load per unit length (wu): N/mm

Distributed load per unit area (qu): N/mm2

Weight per unit volume (): N/mm3

However these quantities may be presented as

However,

Distance (L,b,d,h

L b d h): cm , m

Area (Ac,Ag,As): cm2, m2

Volume (V): cm3, m3

Force (P,V,N): kN

Moment (M): kN.m

kN m

Pressure (qs): kN/m2

Distributed load per unit length (wu): kN/m

Distributed load per unit area (qu): kN/m2

Weight per unit volume (): kN/m3

Unit conversions

1 m = 102 cm = 103 mm

1 m2 = 104 cm2 = 106 mm2

1 m3 = 106 cm3 = 109 mm3

1 kN = 103 N

1 kN.m

kN m = 106 N.mm

N mm

1 kN/m2 = 10-3 N/mm2

1 kN/m3 = 10-66 N/mm3

ACI Equations

The equations taken from the ACI code will be indicated throughout the

slides by their section or equation number in the code provided in

shading.

Examples:

Ec = 4700

4 00 f c

f r = 0.62 f c

ACI 8.5.1

851

ACI E

Eq. 9-10

9 10

Some of the original equations may have included the symbol = 1.0

for normal weight concrete and omitted in slides.

Keep up with the teacher and pay attention in class.

class

Study the lectures up to date.

date

Re-do

Re

do the lecture examples

examples.

Look at additional resources.

DO YOUR HOMEWORK!!!!!

Check your solution with the HW solution uploaded to upinar.

upinar

Lecture 1

Introduction to reinforced concrete

Contents

1.

2.

Concrete-producing materials

Mechanical properties of concrete

3.

Steel reinforcement

Part 1:

Concrete-Producing

Materials

as a structural material

1. It has considerable compressive strength.

2. It has great resistance to the actions of fire and water.

3. Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid.

4. It is a low maintenance material.

5. It has very long service life.

as a structural material

6. It is usually the only economical material for footings,

basement walls, etc.

7. It can be cast into many shapes.

8. It can be made from inexpensive local materials.

9. A lower grade of skilled labor is required for erecting.

Disadvantages of reinforced

concrete as a structural material

1. It has a very low tensile strength.

2. Forms are required to hold the concrete in place until it

hardens.

3. Concrete members are very large and heavy because of the

low strength per unit weight of concrete.

4. Properties of concrete vary due to variations in

proportioning and mixing.

1. Concrete is strong in compression, and steel is strong in

tension.

3. Concrete protects the steel from corrosive environments

and high temperatures in fire.

4. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the two

materials are quite close.

Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine and coarse

aggregates, and water. This mixture creates a formable

paste that hardens into a rocklike mass.

Portland Cement

Aggregates

Water

Admixtures

Portland Cement

The most common type of hydraulic cement used in the

manufacture of concrete is known as Portland cement, which is

available in various types.

most concrete for buildings is made from Type I ordinary

cement.

Concrete made with normal Portland cement require about two

weeks to achieve a sufficient strength to permit the removal of

forms and the application of moderate loads.

10

Types of Cement

Type I: General Purpose

Type II: Lower heat of hydration than

Type I

Type III: High Early Strength

Quicker strength

Higher heat of hydration

11

Types of Cement

Type IV: Low Heat of Hydration

Slowly dissipates heat less distortion (used for

large structures).

Type V: Sulfate Resisting

For footings, basements, sewers, etc. exposed to

soils with sulfates.

If the desired type of cement is not available, different

admixtures may be used to modify the properties of Type 1

cement and produce the desired effect.

12

Aggregates

Aggregates are particles that form about three-fourths of the

volume of finished concrete. According to their particle size,

aggregates are classified as fine or coarse.

Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregates consist of gravel or crushed rock particles

not less than 5 mm in size.

Fine Aggregates

Fine aggregates consist of sand or pulverized rock particles

usually less than 5 mm in size.

13

Water

Mixing water should be clean and free of organic materials that

react with the cement or the reinforcing bars.

The quantity of water relative to that of the cement, called

water-cement ratio, is the most important item in determining

concrete strength.

An increase in this ratio leads to a reduction in the compressive

strength of concrete.

It is important that concrete has adequate workability to assure

its consolidation in the forms without excessive voids.

14

Admixtures

Applications:

Improve workability (superplasticizers)

Accelerate or retard setting and hardening

Aid in curing

Improve durability

15

Concrete Mixing

In the design of concrete mixes, three principal

requirements for concrete are of importance:

Quality

Workability

Economy

16

Part 2:

Mechanical Properties of

Concrete

17

'

f

Compressive Strength, c

strength.

18

'

f

Compressive Strength, c

cm in diameter and 30 cm in height in uniaxial

compression at 28 days (ASTM C470).

uniaxial compression at 28 days (BS 1881).

19

'

f

Compressive Strength, c

strength as measured by a standard test cylinder.

f c Cylinder 0.8f c Cube

strengths from 20 MPa to 30 MPa are usually used.

20

Compressive-Strength Test

21

Modulus of Elasticity, Ec

'

f

Corresponds to the secant modulus at 0.45 c

For normal-weight concrete:

Ec 4700 f c

22

0.002

ACI 8.5.1

0.003

Tensile Strength

Tensile strength ~ 8% to 15% of f c'

Tensile strength of concrete is quite difficult to measure

with direct axial tension loads because of problems of

gripping the specimen and due to the secondary stresses

developing at the ends of the specimens.

Instead, two indirect tests are used to measure the tensile

strength of concrete. These are given in the next two slides.

23

Tensile Strength

Modulus of Rupture, fr

f r 0.62 f c

P

24

Mc 6M

fr

2

I bh

unreinforced

concrete beam

fr

Tensile Strength

Splitting Tensile Strength, fct

f ct 0.56 f c

ACI R8.6.1

Concrete Cylinder

Poissons

Effect

f ct

2P

Ld

25

Creep

Creep is defined as the long-term deformation caused

by the application of loads for long periods of time,

usually years.

Creep strain occurs due to sustaining the same load

over time.

26

Creep

The total deformation is divided into two parts; the first

is called elastic deformation occurring right after the

application of loads, and the second which is time

dependent, is called creep

27

Shrinkage

Shrinkage of concrete is defined as the reduction in

volume of concrete due to loss of moisture. As a

result, shrinkage cracks develop.

Shrinkage continues for many years, but under ordinary

conditions about 90% of it occurs during the first

year.

28

Part 3:

Steel Reinforcement

29

Steel Reinforcement

Tensile tests

30

Steel Reinforcement

Tensile tests

31

Steel Reinforcement

Stress-strain diagrams

fs = Es fy

Yield point

elastic

plastic

All steel grades have same modulus of elasticity Es= 2x105 MPa

= 200 GPa

32

Steel Reinforcement

Bar sizes, f, #

Bars are available in nominal diameters ranging from 5mm

to 50mm, and may be plain or deformed. When bars have

smooth surfaces, they are called plain, and when they have

projections on their surfaces, they are called deformed.

Steel grades, fy

ksi

MPa

40

276

60

414

80

552

33

Steel Reinforcement

Bars are deformed to increase bonding with concrete

34

Steel Reinforcement

Marks for ASTM Standard bars

35

Steel Reinforcement

Bar sizes according to ASTM Standards

U.S. customary units

36

Steel Reinforcement

Bar sizes according to ASTM Standards

SI Units

37

Steel Reinforcement

Bar sizes according to European Standard (EN 10080)

W

mm

N/m

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

25

26

28

30

32

2.2

3.9

6.2

8.9

12.1

15.8

19.9

24.7

29.8

35.5

38.5

41.7

45.4

55.4

63.1

28

50

79

113

154

201

254

314

380

452

491

531

616

707

804

57

101

157

226

308

402

509

628

760

905

982

1062

1232

1414

1608

85

151

236

339

462

603

763

942

1140

1357

1473

1593

1847

2121

2413

Number of bars

4

5

6

7

113

201

314

452

616

804

1018

1257

1521

1810

1963

2124

2463

2827

3217

141

251

393

565

770

1005

1272

1571

1901

2262

2454

2655

3079

3534

4021

170

302

471

679

924

1206

1527

1885

2281

2714

2945

3186

3695

4241

4825

198

352

550

792

1078

1407

1781

2199

2661

3167

3436

3717

4310

4948

5630

10

226

402

628

905

1232

1608

2036

2513

3041

3619

3927

4247

4926

5655

6434

254

452

707

1018

1385

1810

2290

2827

3421

4072

4418

4778

5542

6362

7238

283

503

785

1131

1539

2011

2545

3142

3801

4524

4909

5309

6158

7069

8042

Areas

are in

mm2

38

Lecture 2

Load types, load paths and tributary areas

Load paths

Structural systems transfer gravity loads from the floors

and roof to the ground through load paths that need to

be clearly identified in the design process.

the load carried by each structural member.

that each structural component is subjected to.

2

Supports Floor Loads Above

joist equals the length of

the joist times the sum of

half the distance to each

adjacent joist.

equals the length of the

girder times the sum of half

the distance to each adjacent

girder.

Load is distributed over the area of the floor. This distributed load

has units of (force/area), e.g. kN/m2.

w {kN/m}

q {kN/m2}

Beam

Loads

Beam

Slab

Column

Column

Beam

Beam

Beam

Footing

Slab

Beam

Beam

Soil

P {kN}

In order to design a beam, the tributary load from the floor carried

by the beam and distributed over its span is determined. This load

has units of (force/distance), e.g. kN/m.

Notes:

-In some cases, there may be concentrated loads carried by the beams as well.

-All spans of the beam must be considered together (as a continuous beam) for design.

w {kN/m}

This tributary load is determined by multiplying q by the tributary

width for the beam.

S1

S2

The tributary areas for a beam in a two way system are areas which

are bounded by 45-degree lines drawn from the corners of the

panels and the centerlines of the adjacent panels parallel to the long

sides.

A panel is part of the slab formed by column centerlines.

An edge beam is bounded

by panels from one side.

An interior beam is

bounded by panels from

two sides.

qD

D=S/2

qD

D=S

10

11

12

The tributary load for the column is concentrated. It has units of

(force) e.g., kN. It is determined by multiplying q by the tributary

area for the column.

13

Example

Determine the loads acting on beams B1 and B2 and columns C1

and C2. Distributed load over the slab is q = 10 kN/m2. This is a 5

story structure.

B1

4m

B2

5m

4.5 m

14

C2

C1

6m

5.5 m

Example

B1:

w = 10 (4)/2 = 20 kN/m

B1

4m

B2

5m

4.5 m

15

C2

C1

6m

5.5 m

Example

B2:

w = 10 (4+5)/2 = 45 kN/m

B1

4m

B2

5m

4.5 m

16

C2

C1

6m

5.5 m

Example

B1:

w = 20 kN/m

B2:

w = 45 kN/m

17

Example

C1:

B1

4m

B2

5m

4.5 m

18

C2

C1

6m

5.5 m

Example

C2:

B1

4m

B2

5m

4.5 m

19

C2

C1

6m

5.5 m

Load types

Classification by direction

1- Gravity loads

2- Lateral loads

20

Load types

Classification by source and activity

1- Dead loads

2- Live loads

3- Environmental loads

21

Loads on Structures

All structural elements must be designed for all loads anticipated to

act during the life span of such elements. These loads should not

cause the structural elements to fail or deflect excessively under

working conditions.

Weight of all permanent construction

Constant magnitude and fixed location

Examples: * Weight of the Structure

(Walls, Floors, Roofs, Ceilings, Stairways, Partitions)

* Fixed Service Equipment

22

Type of Use

Uniform Live Load

The live load is a moving or

movable type of load such

as occupants, furniture, etc.

Live loads used in designing

buildings are usually

specified by local building

codes. Live loads depend on

the intended use of the

structure and the number of

occupants at a particular

time.

23

1607.1 for more live loads.

http://publicecodes.citation.

com/icod/ibc/2009/index.ht

m?bu=IC-P-2009000001&bu2=IC-P-2009000019

kN/m2

Residential

Residential balconies

Computer use

Offices

Warehouses

3

5

2

Light storage

Heavy Storage

Schools

12

Classrooms

Libraries

Rooms

Stack rooms

Hospitals

Assembly Halls

6

2

Fixed seating

Movable seating

Garages (cars)

Stores

2.5

5

2.5

Retail

Wholesale

Exit facilities

Manufacturing

5

5

Light

Heavy

Environmental loads

Wind load (W.L)

The wind load is a lateral load produced by wind pressure and

gusts. It is a type of dynamic load that is considered static to

simplify analysis. The magnitude of this force depends on the

shape of the building, its height, the velocity of the wind and the

type of terrain in which the building exists.

Earthquake load (E.L) or seismic load

The earthquake load is a lateral load caused by ground motions

resulting from earthquakes. The magnitude of such a load depends

on the mass of the structure and the acceleration caused by the

earthquake.

24

Lecture 3

Design philosophies and design codes

Design involves the determination of the type of structural system to

be used, the cross sectional dimensions, and the required

reinforcement. The designed structure should be able to resist all

forces expected to act during the life span of the structure safely and

without excessive deformation or cracking.

Analysis involves the determination of the capacity of a section of

known dimensions, material properties and steel reinforcement, if

any to external forces and moments.

The design of a structure must satisfy three basic requirements:

1)Strength to resist safely the stresses induced by the loads in the

various structural members.

2)Serviceability to ensure satisfactory performance under service

load conditions, which implies providing adequate stiffness to

contain deflections, crack widths and vibrations within acceptable

limits.

3)Stability to prevent overturning, sliding or buckling of the

structure, or part of it under the action of loads.

There are two other considerations that a sensible designer should

keep in mind: Economy and aesthetics.

3

Standards and Specifications: Detailed statement of

procedures for design (i.e., AISC Structural Steel Spec;

ACI 318 Standards, ANSI/ASCE7-05). Not legally

binding. Think of as Recommended Practice.

Code: Systematically arranged and comprehensive

collection of laws and regulations

Model Codes: Consensus documents that can be adopted

by government agencies as legal documents.

3 Model Codes in the U.S.

1.

Conference of Building Officials (ICBO).

2.

Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA).

3.

Code Congress International (SBCCI).

3 Model Codes in the U.S.

International Building Code (IBC): published by International

Code Council (2000 ,1st edition). To replace the 3 model codes for

national and international use.

Building Code: covers all aspects related to structural safety loads, structural design using various kinds of materials (e.g., structural

steel, reinforced concrete, timber), architectural details, fire protection,

plumbing, HVAC. Is a legal document. Purpose of building codes: to

establish minimum acceptable requirements considered necessary for

preserving public health, safety, and welfare in the built environment.

Summary:

The standards that will be used extensively throughout

this course is Building Code Requirements for Reinforced

Concrete and commentary, known as the ACI 318M-08 code.

The building code that will be used for this course is

the IBC 2009, in conjunction with the ANSI/ASCE7-02.

Two methods of design have long prevalent.

Working Stress Method focuses on conditions at service

loads.

Strength Design Method focusing on conditions at loads

greater than the service loads when failure may be imminent.

The Strength Design Method is deemed conceptually more realistic

to establish structural safety.

This method is based on the condition that the stresses caused by

service loads without load factors are not to exceed the allowable

stresses which are taken as a fraction of the ultimate stresses of the

materials, fc for concrete and fy for steel.

At the present time, the ultimate-strength design method is the

method adopted by most prestigious design codes.

In this method, elements are designed so that the internal forces

produced by factored loads do not exceed the corresponding

reduced strength capacities.

reduced strength provided factored loads

(service loads) by factors usually greater than unity.

10

Safety is required to insure that the structure can sustain all expected

loads during its construction stage and its life span with an

appropriate factor of safety.

There are three main reasons why some sort of safety factor are

necessary in structural design

Variability in resistance. *Variability of fc and fy, *assumptions are made

during design and *differences between the as-built dimensions and those found in

structural drawings.

Variability in loading. Real loads may differ from assumed design loads,

or distributed differently.

debris and replacement of the structure and its contents and *cost to society.

11

The strength design method, involves a two-way safety measure. The

first of which involves using load factors, usually greater than unity

to increase the service loads. The second safety measure specified by

the ACI Code involves a strength reduction factor multiplied by the

nominal strength to obtain design strength. The magnitude of such a

reduction factor is usually smaller than unity

Design strength Factored loads

R i Li

i

ACI 9.3

ACI 9.2

12

Load factors

ACI 9.2.1

Dead only

U = 1.4D

Dead and Live Loads

U = 1.2D+1.6L

Dead, Live, and Wind Loads

U=1.2D+1.0L+1.6W

Dead and Wind Loads

U=1.2D+0.8W or U=0.9D+1.6W

Dead, Live and Earthquake Loads

U=1.2D+1.0L+1.0E

Dead and Earthquake Loads

U=0.9D+1.0E

13

Load factors

ACI 9.2

Symbols

14

ACI 9.3

According to ACI, strength reduction factors are given as follows:

a- For tension-controlled sections

= 0.90

b- For compression-controlled sections,

Members with spiral reinforcement

= 0.75

Other reinforced members

= 0.65

c- For shear and torsion

= 0.75

Tension-controlled section

compression-controlled section

15

Lecture 4

Analysis of beams in bending at service loads

Introduction

A beam is a structural member used to support the internal moments

and shears and in some cases torsion.

Plane sections remain plane after bending. This means that in an initially straight

beam, strain varies linearly over the depth of the section after bending.

Unloaded beam

Strain distribution

The strain in the reinforcement is equal to the strain in the concrete at the same

level, i.e. s = c at same level.

Concrete is assumed to fail in compression, when c = 0.003.

Tensile strength of concrete is neglected in flexural strength.

Perfect bond is assumed between concrete and steel.

w {kN/m}

If load w varies from zero to until the beam fails, the beam will

go through three stages of behavior:

2. Concrete cracked Elastic Stress stage

3. Beam failure Ultimate Strength stage

5

At small loads, when the tensile stresses are less than the

modulus of rupture, the beam behaves like a solid rectangular

beam made completely of concrete.

Once the tensile stresses reach the modulus of rupture, the

section cracks. The bending moment at which this

transformation takes place is called the cracking moment Mcr.

As the stresses in the concrete exceed the linear limit (0.45

fc), the concrete stress distribution over the depth of the beam

varies non-linearly.

0.002 0.003

w {kN/m}

1- Cracking moment.

2- Elastic stresses due to a given moment.

3- Moments at given (allowable) elastic stresses.

4- Ultimate strength moment (next lecture).

Note:

you need to always check the maximum tensile stress with the

modulus of rupture to determine if cracked or uncracked

section analysis is appropriate.

10

When the section is still uncracked, the contribution of the

steel to the strength is negligible because it is a very small

percentage of the gross area of the concrete.

Therefore, the cracking moment can be calculated using the

uncracked section properties.

11

Example 1:

Calculate the cracking moment

for the section shown

1 3

bh

12

1

I g (350)(750) 3 1.2305 1010 mm4

12

f r 0.62 f c 0.62 30 3.4MPa

750 mm

1500 mm2

Ig

M cr

fr I g

yt

f c 30MPa

(750 / 2)

12

After cracking, the steel bars carry the entire

tensile load below the neutral surface. The

upper part of the concrete beam carries the

compressive load.

In the transformed section, the cross sectional area

of the steel, As, is replaced by the equivalent area

nAs where

To determine the location of the neutral axis,

bx x n As d x 0

2

1 b x2

2

n As x n As d 0

fc

My

It

fs n

My

It

13

Example 2:

f c 30MPa

section shown, M= 180 kN.m

Note: M > Mcr = 111 kN.m from previous

example. Thus, section is cracked.

750 mm

1500 mm2

E s 2 105

n

7.77

E c 25743

x

( 350 ) x ( ) 1500( 7.77 )( 700 x )

2

x 185.16mm

14

Example 2:

1

I t bx 3 nA s ( d x ) 2

3

1

I t ( 350 )( 185.16 ) 3 7.77 1500( 700 185.16 ) 2

3

750 mm

I t 3.8295 109 mm 4

fc

8.7 MPa

9

It

3.8295 10

f c 8.7 MPa 0.45f c 0.45( 30 ) 13.5MPa

f c 30MPa

1500 mm2

OK

My

180 106 ( 700 185.16 )

fs n

7.77

188MPa

It

3.8295 109

15

Example 3:

f c 30MPa

section shown, f s(allowable)= 180 MPa,

f c(allowable)= 12 MPa

f s It

180 3.8295 109

Ms

ny

( 7.77 )( 700 185.16 )

750 mm

1500 mm2

f c I t 12 3.8295 109

Mc

y

185.16

M c 2.4819 108 N .mm 248.19kN .m

M allowable 172.34kN .m

16

Lecture 5

Strength analysis of beams according to ACI Code

Md Mu

M d Design moment strength (also known as moment resistance)

M u Internal ultimate moment

M u 1.2M D 1.6M L

Md Mn

2

Strain

Distribution

Actual

Stress Distribution

Approximate

Stress Distribution

The shape of the

stress block is not

important.

However, the

equivalent block must

provide the same

resultant (volume)

acting at the same

location (centroid).

The Whitney block

has average stress

0.85fc and depth

a=b1c.

ACI 10.2.7.1

4

is known as the b1 coefficient. It relates the actual NA depth to

the depth of the compression block by a=b1c.

b1 0.85

for f c ' 28 MPa

ACI 10.2.7.1

0.05( f c '28)

b1 0.85

0.65 for f c ' 28 MPa

7

Fx=0

C=T

Design aids can also be used:

Assume

Md = Mu = Mn

= Rn

fMn=fRnbd2

Design Aids

Design Aids

10

fy

Es

t y ?

Strain Distribution

11

Flexural failure may occur in three different ways

[1] Balanced Failure

(balanced reinforcement)

[2] Compression Failure

(over-reinforced beam)

[3] Tension Failure (under-reinforced beam)

12

[1] Balanced Failure

The concrete crushes and the steel yields simultaneously.

cu=0.003

cb

d

t = y

brittle, thus sudden, and is not allowed by the ACI Strength Design

Method.

13

[2] Compression Failure

The concrete will crush before the steel yields.

cu=0.003

cu=0.003

c>c

c>cb b

h

t <t y< y

brittle,

Design Method.

14

[3] Tension Failure

The reinforcement yields before the concrete crushes.

cu=0.003

cu=0.003

c<cb

c<cb

h

d

h

ductile,

collapse, and is required by the ACI Strength Design Method

15

ACI 10.3.4

[1] Tension-controlled section

The tensile strain in the tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005

when the concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of

0.003. This is a ductile section.

[2] Compression-controlled section

The tensile strain in the tension steel is equal to or less than y (y =

fy/Es=0.002 for fy =420 MPa) when the concrete in compression

reaches its crushing strain of 0.003. This is a brittle section.

[3] Transition section

The tensile strain in the tension steel is between 0.005 and y (y

=fy/Es=0.002 for fy =420 MPa) when the concrete in compression

reaches its crushing strain of 0.003.

16

ACI 10.3.5

17

cu=0.003

c

y

c

y

Es

at

b1

d c

ACI R9.3.2.2

18

Balanced steel

0.003

cb

d

0.003 f y E S

Es 2105 MPa

600

cb

d

600 f y

=b1c

0.85 b1 f c ' 600

b

600 f

fy

y

19

0.003

cmax

d

0.003 0.005

3

cmax d

8

=b1c b1cmax

max

3

db1

8

3 0.85 b1 f c '

8

fy

20

ACI 10.5.1

A s,min

0.25 f c

bw d

fy

max

1.4 b d

w

f

y

bw = width of section

d = effective depth of section

21

Design Aids

22

Summary:

To calculate the moment capacity of a section:

0.25 f c

bw d

fy

max

1.4 b d

w

f

y

1-) As,min

2-) a

3-)

As f y

0.85f c b

b1 0.85

b1 0.85

or a

df y

0.85f c

0.05( f c '28)

0.65 for f c ' 28 MPa

7

4-) c b

1

23

Summary:

d c

5-) t c 0.003

if t> 0.005: tension controlled f = 0.9

if 0.004 < t <0.005: in transition zone f =0.65+( t -0.002) (250/3)

if t < 0.004: compression controlled reject section

a

6-) M d M n As f y d

2

24

Example

A singly reinforced concrete beam has the cross-section shown in the figure

below. Calculate the design moment strength. Can the section carry an

Mu = 350 kN.m?

f y 414MPa

a) f c 20.7MPa, b) f c 34.5MPa, c) f c 62.1M Pa

25

Example

Solution

a) f c 20.7MPa

1 A s,min

0.25 f c

0.25 20.7

bw d

(254)(457)=319 mm 2

414

fy

max

1.4

1.4

bw d

(254)(457)=393 mm 2

fy

414

2580 414

2 a

239mm

0.85f c b 0.85 20.7 254

As f y

3 b1 0.85

26

Example

Solution

a) f c 20.7MPa

a

239

4 c

281mm

b1 0.85

d c

457 281

5 t

0.003

0.003 0.00186

c

281

t 0.004 Section is compression controlled

==> Does not satisfy ACI requirements

==> Reject section

27

Example

Solution

b) f c 34.5MPa

1 A s,min

0.25 f c

0.25 34.5

bw d

(254)(457)=412 mm 2

414

fy

max

1.4

1.4

bw d

(254)(457)=393 mm 2

fy

414

2580 414

2 a

143.4mm

0.85f c b 0.85 34.5 254

As f y

0.05( f c ' 28 )

0.65 for f c ' 34.5MPa 28 MPa

7

0.05( 34.5 28 )

b1 0.85

0.804 0.65

7

3 b1 0.85

28

Example

Solution

b) f c 34.5MPa

a

143.4

4 c

178.5mm

b1 0.804

d c

457 178.5

5 t

0.003

0.003 0.00468

c

178.5

0.004 t 0.005 Section is in transision zone

f =0.65+( t -0.002) (250/3) =0.65+(0.00468-0.002) (250/3)=0.874

29

Example

Solution

b) f c 34.5MPa

6 M d M n A s f y d

2

143.4

6

0.874 2850 414 457

360

10

N .mm

360 kN .m

7 M u 350kN .m M n 360kN .m

Section is adequate

30

Example

Solution

c) f c 62.1MPa

1 A s,min

0.25 f c

0.25 62.1

2

b

d

(254)(457)=552

mm

w

414

fy

max

1.4

1.4

bw d

(254)(457)=393 mm 2

fy

414

2580 414

2 a

80mm

0.85f c b 0.85 62.1 254

As f y

31

Example

Solution

c) f c 62.1MPa

0.05( f c ' 28 )

0.65 for f c ' 62.1MPa 28 MPa

7

0.05( 62.1 28 )

b1 0.85

0.61 0.65

7

b1 0.65

3 b1 0.85

80

4 c

123mm

b1 0.65

d c

457 123

5 t

0.003

0.003 0.0081

c

123

t 0.005 Section is tension controlled

==> Satisfes ACI requirements ==> f =0.9

32

Example

Solution

c) f c 62.1MPa

6 M d M n A s f y d

2

80

2

520kN .m

7 M u 350kN .m M n 520kN .m

Section is adequate

33

Lecture 6

Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams

The main two objectives of design is to satisfy the:

1) Strength and 2) Serviceability requirements

1) Strength

M d M n Mu

M d Design moment strength (also known as moment resistance)

Mn

M u 1.2M D 1.6M L

2

Derivation of design expressions

d

As

Assume

Mn = Mu

b

Beam cross section

Solve for r:

0.85 f c'

fy

2M u

1 1

2

0

.

85

f

'

b

d

c

As = rbd

3

Design aids can also be used:

0.85 f c'

fy

2M u

1 1

2

0

.

85

f

'

b

d

c

Calculate:

Then r is found from tables and figures of design aids.

Design Aids

2) Serviceability

The serviceability requirement ensures adequate performance

at service load without excessive deflection and cracking.

Two methods are given by the ACI for controlling deflections:

1) by calculating the deflection and comparing it with code

specified maximum values.

2) by using member thickness equal to the minimum values

provided in by the code as shown in the next slide.

ACI 9.5.2.2

hmin

l = span length measured center to center of support.

h hmin

d

As

b

Beam cross section

Detailing issues:

Concrete Cover

Concrete cover is necessary for protecting the reinforcement from

fire, corrosion, and other effects. Concrete cover is measured from

the concrete surface to the closest surface of steel reinforcement.

Side

cover

ACI 7.7.1

Bottom

cove

Detailing issues:

Spacing of Reinforcing Bars

The ACI Code specifies limits for bar spacing to permit concrete to

flow smoothly into spaces between bars without honeycombing.

According to the ACI code, S Smin must be satisfied, where:

S min

bar diameter, d b

ACI 7.6.1

max 25 mm

4/3 maximum size of coarse aggregate

ACI 3.3.2

When two or more layers are used, bars in

the upper layers are placed directly above

the bars in the bottom layer with clear distance

between layers not less than 25 mm.

ACI 7.6.2

Clear

distance

Clear spacing S

Beams are designed for maximum moments along the spans in both

negative and positive directions.

10

Positive moment

Negative moment

Tension at bottom

Needs bottom reinforcement

Tension at top

Needs top reinforcement

The magnitude of each moment is found from structural analysis of the

beam. To find the moments in a continuous (indeterminate) beam, one

can use: (1) indeterminate structural analysis (2) structural analysis

software (3) ACI approximate method for the analysis.

Simply Supported Beams

Continuous Beams

Determinate

Indeterminate

+

+

11

Moment Diagram

Moment Diagram

Simply Supported Beams

Continuous Beams

+

+

Moment Diagram

Section at midspan

12

Moment Diagram

Section over support

Approximate Structural Analysis

ACI 8.3.3

ACI Code permits the use of the following approximate moments for

design of continuous beams, provided that:

There are two or more spans.

Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans

not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.

Loads are uniformly distributed.

Unfactored live load does not exceed three times the unfactored dead

load.

Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths

(prismatic).

13

Approximate Structural Analysis

More than two spans

14

ACI 8.3.3

Approximate Structural Analysis

Two spans

l n = length of clear

span measured

face-to-face of

supports.

For calculating

negative moments,

l n is taken as the

average of the

adjacent clear span

lengths.

15

ACI 8.3.3

Design procedures

Method 1: When b and h are unknown

1- Determine h (h>hmin from deflection control) and assume b.

Estimate beam weight and include it with dead load.

2- Calculate the factored load wu and bending moment Mu.

3- Assume that =0.9 and calculate the reinforcement ( and As).

4- Check solution:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Check minimum steel requirement

Check = 0.9 (tension controlled assumption)

Check moment capacity (Md Mu ?)

16

Design procedures

Method 2: When b and h are known

1- Calculate the factored load wu and bending moment Mu.

2- Assume that =0.9 and calculate the reinforcement ( and As).

3- Check solution:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Check minimum steel requirement

Check = 0.9 (tension controlled assumption)

Check moment capacity (Md Mu ?)

17

Example 1

Design a rectangular reinforced concrete beam having a 6 m simple span. A

service dead load of 25 kN/m (not including the beam weight) and a

service live load of 10 kN/m are to be supported.

wd=25 kN/m & wl =10 kN/m

Use fc =25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

Solution:b & d are unknown

1- Estimate beam dimensions and weight

hmin = l /16 =6000/16 = 375 mm

Assume that h = 500mm and b = 300mm

Beam wt. = 0.5x0.3x25 = 3.75 kN/m

6m

wu=50.5 kN/m

6m

2- Calculate wu and Mu

wu = 1.2 D+1.6 L =1.2(25+3.75)+1.6(10)

=50.5 kN/m

Mu = wul2/8 = 50.5(6)2/8 =227.3 kN.m

227.3 kN.m

18

Example 1

3- Assume that =0.9 and calculate and As

d = 500 40 8 (20/2) = 442 mm

(assuming one layer of 20mm reinforcement and 8mm stirrups)

0.85f c '

fy

2 Mu

1 1

2

0.85f

'

b

d

c

0.85(25)

420

2 227.3 106

1 1

2

(0.9)

0.85(25)

300

(442)

0.0116

Use 5 20 mm (As,sup=1571 mm2)

19

Number of bars

mm

N/m

10

2.2

28

57

85

113

141

170

198

226

254

283

3.9

50

101

151

201

251

302

352

402

452

503

10

6.2

79

157

236

314

393

471

550

628

707

785

12

8.9

113

226

339

452

565

679

792

905

1018

1131

14

12.1

154

308

462

616

770

924

1078

1232

1385

1539

16

15.8

201

402

603

804

1005

1206

1407

1608

1810

2011

18

19.9

254

509

763

1018

1272

1527

1781

2036

2290

2545

20

24.7

314

628

942

1257

1571

1885

2199

2513

2827

3142

22

29.8

380

760

1140

1521

1901

2281

2661

3041

3421

3801

24

35.5

452

905

1357

1810

2262

2714

3167

3619

4072

4524

25

38.5

491

982

1473

1963

2454

2945

3436

3927

4418

4909

26

41.7

531

1062

1593

2124

2655

3186

3717

4247

4778

5309

28

45.4

616

1232

1847

2463

3079

3695

4310

4926

5542

6158

30

55.4

707

1414

2121

2827

3534

4241

4948

5655

6362

7069

32

63.1

804

1608

2413

3217

4021

4825

5630

6434

7238

8042

20

Example 1

4- Check solution

520

sc

300 2 40 2 8 5 20

26 mm d b 20 mm

5 1

25 mm

300

OK

A s,min

0.25 f c

0.25 25

b

d

(300)(442)=395 mm 2

w

420

fy

max

1.4

1.4

bw d

(300)(442)=442 mm 2

fy

420

21

Example 1

c) Check =0.9 (tension controlled assumption)

a

As f y

0.85f c ' b

1 0.85

1571 420

103.5 mm

0.85(25)300

a 103.5

121.7 mm

1 0.85

dc

442 121.7

t

0.003

c

121.7

for t 0.005 0.90, the assumption is true the section is tension controlled

a

M d As f y d

2

103.5

6

0.90 1571 420 442

231.7 10 N.mm = 231.7 kN.m

2

22

Example 1

5- Sketch the cross section and its reinforcement

44.2

50

520

30

Beam cross section

23

Example 2

The rectangular beam B1 shown in the figure has b = 800mm and h =

316mm. Design the section of the beam over an interior support. Columns

have a cross section of 800x300 mm. The factored distributed load over the

slab is qu =14.4 kN/m2.

Use fc =25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

L1 = L2 = L3 = 6 m

S1 = S2= S3 = 4 m

B1

Solution:

b & d are known

1- Calculate wu and Mu

wu=4(14.4) = 57.6 kN/m

ln = 6 0.3=5.7 m

wu

24

Example 2

Moment diagram using the approximate ACI method:

Mu = 187.5 kN.m

25

Example 2

2- Assume =0.9 and calculate and As

d = 316 40 (16/2) 8 = 260 mm

(assuming one layer of 16 mm reinforcement and 8mm stirrups)

0.85f c '

fy

2 Mu

1

0.85f

'

b

d

c

0.85(25)

420

2 187.5 106

1 1

2

(0.9)

0.85(25)800

(260)

0.0102

Use 11 16 mm (As,sup =11[(16)2/4]=2212 mm2)

26

Example 2

3- Check solution

sc

800 2 40 2 8 1116

52.8 mm

11 1

d b 16 mm

25 mm

OK

A s,min

0.25 f c

0.25 25

b

d

(800)(260)=620 mm 2

w

420

fy

max

1.4

1.4

bw d

(800)(260)=693 mm 2

fy

420

27

Example 2

c) Check =0.9

a

As f y

0.85f c ' b

1 0.85

2212 420

55 mm

0.85(25)800

a

55

64 mm

1 0.85

dc

260 64

t

0.003

0.003 0.0091 0.005

c

64

for t 0.005 0.90, the assumption is true the section is tension controlled

a

M d As f y d

2

55

2

28

Example 2

4- Sketch the cross section and its reinforcement

1116

316

260

800

29

Lecture 7

Design of T and L beams

T Beams

Reinforced concrete systems may consist of slabs and dropped

beams that are placed monolithically. As a result, the two parts act

together to resist loads. The beams have extra widths at their tops

called flanges, which are parts of the slabs they are supporting, and

the part below the slab is called the web or stem.

Flange

web

Flange Width b

Parts of the slab near the webs are more highly stressed than areas

away from the web.

effective flange

width be

effective flange

width be

hf

stirrup

bw

bw

L-beam

T-beam

d: effective depth.

hf : height of flange.

bw : width of web.

be : effective width.

b: distance from center to center of adjacent web spacings

be is the width that is stressed uniformly to give the same compression

force actually developed in the compression zone of width b.

ACI Code Provisions for Estimating be

ACI 8.12.2

According to the ACI code, the effective flange width of a T-beam,

be is not to exceed the smallest of:

1. One-fourth the span length of the beam, L/4.

2. Width of web plus 16 times slab thickness, bw +16 hf .

3. Center-to-center spacing of beams, b.

beff

L /4

min b w +16hf

b

ACI Code Provisions for Estimating be

ACI 8.12.3

According to the ACI code, the effective flange width of an L-beam,

be is not to exceed the smallest of:

1. bw + L/12.

2. bw + 6 hf .

3. bw + 0.5(clear distance to next web).

b w L /12

b 0.5b

c

w

Single Tee

Double Tee

Box

Flange

Flange

web

web

Same as

If the neutral axis falls within the slab depth: analyze the beam as a

rectangular beam, otherwise as a T-beam.

10

When T-beams are subjected to negative moments, the flange is

located in the tension zone. Since concrete strength in tension is

usually neglected in ultimate strength design, the sections are treated

as rectangular sections of width bw.

When sections are subjected to positive moments, the flange is

located in the compression zone and the section is treated as a Tsection.

Compression zone

+

11

Tension

zone

Moment Diagram

Section at midspan

Positive moment

Section at support

Negative moment

Analysis of T-beams

Case 1: when a hf

T C

Asf y

a

0.85 f c b e

12

M n A s f y d

2

Analysis of T-beams

Case 2: when a > hf

C f 0.85 f c be bw hf

C w 0.85 f c bw a

T As f y

T C f Cw

A s f y 0.85 f c be bw hf

a

0.85 f c bw

a

hf

M n C w d Cf d

2

2

13

ACI 10.5.2

hf

As

be

As

hf

bw

14

bw

-ve Moment

A s,min

0.25 f c

bw d

fy

max

1.4 b d

w

f

y

+ve Moment

be

To calculate the moment capacity of a T-section:

1- Calculate be

2- Check As,sup> As,min

3- Assume a hf and calculate a using:

Asf y

a

0.85 f c b e

If a hf a is correct

If a > hf

As f y 0.85 f c be bw hf

a

0.85 f c bw

5- Calculate Mn, and check M u M n

15

Example 1

Calculate Md for the T-Beam:

hf = 150 mm

d = 400 mm

As = 5000mm2

bw= 300mm

L = 5.5m

b=2.15m

Determine be according to ACI requirements

L 5500

4 4 1370mm

b 2150 mm

16

Example 1

Check min. steel

1.4

0.25 f c '

As,min max

bw d ;

bw d max

fy

fy

0.25 25

1.4

300 400 ;

300 400

420

420

As f y

5000 420 71.9mm h 150mm OK

a

f

0.85f c b e 0.85 25 1370

a

71.9

c

85 mm

b1 0.85

d c

17

400 85

0.003 0.011 0.005 Tension controled

85

es

0.003

c

Example 1

Calculate Md

a

M d A s f y d

2

71.8

18

Example 2

Determine the ACI design moment strength Md (Mn) of the T-beam

shown in the figure if fc =25 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

10

90

25

d 750-40-10-32- 655.5mm

832

2

0.25 f c '

1.4

A s,min max

bw d ;

bw d

fy

f y

0.25 25

1.4

A s,min max

300 655.5 ;

300 655.5

420

420

19

10

h= 75

Solution:-

OK

30

Example 2

2- Check if a < hf = 10cm

Asf y

6434 420

a

141.3mm

20

10

10

h= 75

a= 141.3> hf = 100 mm

i.e. assumption is wrong

90

832

30

Example 2

3- Calculate b1, c, and check t

A s f y - 0.85 f c be bw hf

a

0.85 f c bw

a

224mm

0.85 25 300

a

224

264 mm

1 0.85

dc

655.5 264

t

0.003

0.003

264

c

21

Example 2

4- Calculate Md

Cf 0.85f c ' (be b w ) h f 0.85 25 900 300 100 1275 103 N 1275 kN

Cw 0.85f c ' a b w 0.85 25 224 300 1427.4 103 N 1427.4 kN

M d C w

hf

224

100

3

0.855 1427.4 103 655.5

1275

10

655

.

5

2

2

C f

2

22

To analyze the section, the steel is divided in two portions: (1) Asf, which provides a

tension force in equilibrium with the compression force of the overhanging flanges, and

providing a section with capacity Muf and (2) Asw, the remaining of the steel, providing

a section with capacity Muw.

M u M uf M uw

23

Muf : Moment resisted by overhanging flange parts, requiring steel Asf.

Muw : Moment resisted by web, requiring steel Asw.

Step 1

24

24

Step 2

M u M uf M uw

M uw M u M uf

0.85 f c '

fy

25

2M uw

1

0

.

85

f

'

b

d

c

w

Step 3

Step 4

Asw bw d

Step 5

As Asf Asw

Step 6

be

be

Same as

bw

26

be

bw

Design as a rectangular

section with width bw

27

Flange Reinforcement

When flanges of T-beams are in tension, part of the flexural

reinforcement shall be distributed over effective flange width, or a

width equal to one-tenth of the span, whichever is smaller

-ve moment

Additional

Reinforcement

Additional

Reinforcement

Main Reinforcement

outer portions of flange.

Design Procedure:

1- Establish h based on serviceability requirements of the slab and calculate d

2- Choose bw

3- Determine be according to ACI requirements.

4- Calculate As assuming that a < hf with beam width = be & =0.90

b

2M

u

1 1

hf

2

0.85

f

'

b

d

c

e

As

As f y

As = be d

a

bw

0.85 f c ' b e

5- If a hf: the assumption is right continue as rectangular section

If a > hf: revise As using T-beam equations (steps 1-6).

6- Check the =0.90 assumption (t 0.005) and As,sup As,min

0.85 f c '

fy

29

Example 3

fy = 420 MPa.

Lm

concrete slab supported by continuous

T-beams with a span L. Given that

bw=30cm and d=55cm, fc =28 MPa and

Determine the steel required at

midspan of an interior beam to resist

a service dead load moment 320

kN.m and a service live load moment

250 kN.m in the following two cases:

(A) L = 8 m

Spandrel

(B) L = 2 m

beam

3.0 m

3.0 m

Slab

hf

bw

30

3.0 m

Solution (A) L = 8 m

Determine be according to ACI requirements

784 kN.m

200

L 8000

4 4 2000mm

b 3000 mm

14

55

As

30

Mu = 1.2(320)+1.6(250)=784 kN.m

0.85 f c '

fy

31

2M u

1- 12

0

.

85

f

'

b

d

c

e

Solution (A) L = 8 m

2 784 10

1 1

2

0

.

9

0.85

28

2000

550

784 kN.m

0.85 28

420

200

14

55

As

30

0.00354

As be d 0.00354 2000 550 3892 mm 2

Check a hf assumption

a

As f y

0.85f c 'be

3892 420

34.3mm h f 140mm

0.85 28 2000

sc

32

300 2 40 2 8 4 25

34.5 mm d b 25 mm

4 1

25 mm

OK

Solution (A) L = 8 m

Check the =0.90 assumption (t 0.005) and As,sup As,min

1.4

0.25 f c '

As ,min max

bw d ;

bw d max

fy

fy

1.4

0.25 28

300 550 ;

300 550

420

420

3927 420

a

34.7 mm

0.85f c 'be 0.85 28 2000

As f y

55

14

200

33

a 34.7

40.8 mm

1 0.85

dc

550 40.8

t

0.003

0.003

c

40.8

0.0374 0.005 0.9 OK

825

30

Solution (A) L = 8 m

Check moment capacity

a

M d As f y d

2

34.7

55

14

200

825

30

34

Solution (B) L = 2 m

784 kN.m

50

L 2000

4 4 500mm

b 3000 mm

14

55

As

30

Mu = 1.2(320)+1.6(250)=784 kN.m

0.85 f c '

fy

35

2M u

1

0

.

85

f

'

b

d

c

e

Solution (B) L = 2 m

2 784 10

1 1

2

0

.

9

0.85

28

500

550

784 kN.m

0.85 28

420

50

0.0159

As be d 0.0159 500 550 4389 mm 2

Check a h assumption

f

As f y

0.85 f c ' be

4389 420

155mm > h f 140mm

0.85 28 500

36

14

55

As

30

Solution (B) L = 2 m

14

50

55

Asf

0.85 f c '( b bw ) hf

fy

Asf

1586mm 2

420

30

hf

M uf As f y d

2

140

6

0.9 1586 420 550

288

10

N .m

37

Solution (B) L = 2 m

0.85 f c '

fy

2M u

1 1

2

0

.

85

f

'

b

d

c

w

0.85 ( 28 )

( 420 )

2( 496 ) 106

1 1

2

0

.

9

0

.

85

(

28

)

(

300

)

(

550

)

0.017

55

14

50

828

30

Check solution: (Do as in Example 2)

38

Lecture 8

Design of doubly reinforced beams

Beams having steel reinforcement on both the tension and

compression sides are called doubly reinforced sections. Doubly

reinforced sections are useful in the case of limited cross sectional

dimensions being unable to provide the required bending strength.

Increasing the area of reinforcement makes the section brittle.

1- Increased strength.

2- Increased ductility.

3- Reduced sustained load deflections due to shrinkage and creep.

Divide the section:

Mn

Mn2

Mn1

To analyze the section, the tension steel is divided in two portions: (1) As2, which is in

equilibrium with the compression steel, and providing a section with capacity Mn2 and

(2) As1, the remaining of the tension steel, providing a section with capacity Mn1.

4

Find As1 and As2:

T s 2 C s As 2f y Asf s

Asf s

As 2

fy

5

As As 1 As 2 A s 1 A s A s 2

Find fs:

c d

0.003

c

c d

f s sE s

0.003E s f y

c

E s 2 105 MPa

Find c:

T C c C s

As f y 0.85f cab Asf s

c d

As f y 0.85f c1cb As

0.003E s

c

7

Find Md:

M d M n

8

As 1f y

d - A s f s d - d '

2

Procedure:

1)

2)

c d

As f y 0.85f c1cb As

0.003E s

c

c d

f s

0.003E s f y

c

find c, a

3) As 2 Asf s

fy

4) As 1 As As 2

5)

6)

9

d c

Check if f = 0.9 s c 0.003 0.005?

M d M n As 1f y d - Asf s d - d '

2

Example 1

For the beam with double reinforcement shown in the figure,

calculate the design moment Md.

5.0

225

fc =35MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

60

632

Solution:0.05( f c ' 28 )

0.65 for f c ' 35MPa 28 MPa

7

0.05( 35 28 )

1 0.85

0.8 0.65

7

c d

As f y 0.85f c 1cb A s

0.003E s

c

1 0.85

10

c 50

5

4825(420) 0.85(35)(0.8)c (300) 982

0.003(2

10

)

30

Example 1

c 50

5

4825(420) 0.85(35)(0.8)c (300) 982

0.003(2

10

)

c

229.5c 2 1437300c 29460000 0

5.0

c 220mm

225

60

632

c d

fs

0.003E s f y

c

220 50

5

f s

0.003(2

10

) 463 f y 420MPa

220

f s f y 420

11

30

Example 1

Asf s 982(420)

As 2

982mm 2

fy

(420)

5.0

225

60

632

d c

s

0.003 0.005?

c

30

600 220

0.003 0.0052 0.005 Tension Controlled , f 0.9

220

M d M n A s 1f y d - A sf s d - d '

2

176

982

(

420

)

600

50

12

0.003

cmax

d

0.003 0.005

3

cmax d

8

=1c 1cmax

3 0.85 1 f c '

max

8

fy

3 0.85 1f c '

As ,max

bd

8

fy

3

d1

8

13

2) If t < 0.004 Comp. steel is needed (or enlarge section if possible)

3) Design As1 for maximum reinforcement (slide 13) and find Mn1, a, c

4) M n M u

f

5) Mn2 = Mn Mn1

c d

0.003E s f y

c

Asf s

M n2

7) As

As 2

fy

f s(d d )

6) f s sE s

As As 1 As 2

14

Example 2

Design the beam shown in the figure to resist Mu=1225 kN.m. If

compression steel is required, place it 70 mm from the compression

face.

fc =21 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

Solution:

Try first to design the section as a singly reinforced section:

0.85f c '

fy

2 Mu

1

0.85f

'

b

d

c

0.85(21)

420

2 1225 106

1 1

2

(0.9)

0.85(21)

350

(700)

0.0284

15

Example 2

Check the ductility of the singly reinforced section:

a

As f y

0.85f c ' b

7069 420

475 mm

0.85(21)350

475

559mm

0.85

dc

700 559

t

0.003

c

559

Section is brittle! can not be used.

Use compression reinforcement.

Mu

1225

Mn

1361kN .m

f

0.9

As 1 As ,max

16

3 0.85 1f c '

8

fy

As 1 3307mm 2

bd

( 350 )( 700 )

8

( 420 )

Example 2

As f y

3307( 420 )

a

222.3mm

0.85f cb 0.85( 21)( 350 )

a

222.3

c

261.55mm

1 0.85

222.3

a

M n 1 A s f y d - ( 3307 )( 420 )( 700

)

2

2

Mn2 = Mn Mn1 = 1361 818 = 543 kN.m

17

Example 2

c d

f s

0.003E s f y

c

261.55 70

5

fs

0.003(2

10

) 439MPa f y 420MPa

261.55

f s f y 420

M n2

543 106

As

2052mm 2

f s(d d ) 420(700 70)

Asf s (2052)(420)

As 2

2052mm 2

fy

(420)

Use 830 in two rows for tension steel (As,sup = 5655 mm 2 )

18

Lecture 9

Design of beams for shear

Beams are usually designed

for bending moment first.

Accordingly, cross sectional

dimensions are determined

along with the required

amounts

of

longitudinal

reinforcement.

Once this is done, sections are

checked for shear to determine

whether shear reinforcement

is required or not.

2

This by no means indicates that shear is less important than

bending. On the contrary, shear failure which is usually

initiated by diagonal tension, is far more dangerous than

flexural failure due to its brittle nature. It occurs without

warning. Therefore, beams are designed to rather fail in

bending. This is done by providing larger safety factor

against shear failure than those provided for bending.

In linearly elastic beams, two types of stresses occur:

Flexural stresses:

Shear stresses:

subjected to both stress types combined

4

The combined stress (called principal stresses) are calculated

as:

axis by the angle:

Two types of inclined cracking occur in beams:

Web shear cracking begins from an interior point in a member at the level of

the centroid of the uncracked section and moves on a diagonal path to the

tension face when the diagonal tensile stresses produced by shear exceed the

tensile strength of concrete.

2- Flexure-Shear Cracks

The most common type, develops from the tip of a flexural crack at the tension

side of the beam and propagates towards mid depth until it reaches the

compression side of the beam.

8

It is concluded that the shearing force acting on a vertical

section in a reinforced concrete beam does not cause direct

rupture of that section. Shear by itself or in combination with

flexure may cause failure indirectly by producing tensile

stresses on inclined planes. If these stresses exceed the

relatively low tensile strength of concrete, diagonal cracks

or what is known as diagonal tension failure will take place.

10

The code allows the use of three types of Shear Reinforcement

Vertical stirrups

Inclined stirrups

Bent up bars

Inclined Stirrups

Bent up bars

11

Vertical Stirrups

The strength requirement for shear that has to be satisfied is:

Vn Vu

Vn = nominal shear strength

= strength reduction factor for shear = 0.75

reinforcement:

Vn Vc Vs ACI Eq. 11-2

Vc = nominal shear force resisted by concrete

Vs = nominal shear force resisted by shear reinforcement

12

For members subject to shear Vu and bending Mu only, ACI Code

gives the following equation for calculating Vc

Simple formula

Vc 0.17 f c ' bw d

Detailed formula

Vc

13

Vu d

bw d 0.29 f c ' bw d

0.16 f c ' 17 w

Mu

As

where w

b wd

For members subject to axial compression Nu plus shear Vu, ACI

Code gives the following equation for calculating Vc

N

Vc 0.17 1 u

14 A

g

f c' bw d

For members subject to axial tension Nu plus shear Vu, ACI Code

gives the following equation for calculating Vc

14

0.29 N u

f c' bw d

Vc 0.17 1

A

g

To find the force required to be resisted by shear reinforcement:

Vu Vn

Vn Vc Vs

Vu

V s V c

15

Case 1:

For Vu Vc shear reinforcement is required

Case 2:

For Vu 0.50Vc minimum shear reinforcement is required

Case 3:

For Vu < 0.50Vc no shear reinforcement is required

16

Design of Stirrups

Shear reinforcement required when

Vu Vc

Vs

Vu

V c

ACI 11.4.7.1

The bar size of the stirrups is established and the spacing is calculated:

Vs

A vf yd

Av f y d

Vs

Av f y d sin cos

s

Vs

Av f y d sin cos

Vs

where Av = the area of shear reinforcement within spacing s (for a 2-legged stirrup in

a beam: Av = 2 times the area of the stirrup bar).

17

ACI 11.4.6.1

1

Minimum Shear Reinforcement (Av,min) required when Vu Vc

2

bw s

bw s

Av min 0.062 f c '

0.35

ACI Eq. 11-13

f ys

f ys

Av f ys

Av f ys

s=min

;

except in:

(a) Footings and solid slabs

(b) Concrete joist construction

(c) Beams with h not greater than 250 mm

(d) Beams integral with slabs with h not greater than 600 mm and

not greater than the larger of 2.5 times the thickness of flange, and

0.5 times width of web.

18

If V s 0.33 f c bw d s max

If V s 0.33 f c bw d s max

min ;600mm

2

min ;300mm

4

ACI 11.4.5

ACI Code requires that the maximum force resisted by shear

reinforcement Vs is as follows

V s 0.66 f c ' bw d

ACI 11.4.7.9

Section dimensions must be increased

19

ACI 11.1.3.1

Critical section for shear may be taken a distance d away from the

face of the support if:

(a) Support reaction, introduces compression into the end regions of member;

(b) Loads are applied at or near the top of the member;

(c) No concentrated load occurs between face of support and location of critical

section.

20

ACI 11.1.3.1

Critical section for shear may be taken a distance d away from the

face of the support as in cases (a) and (b), but must be taken at face

of the support as in cases (c) and (d).

21

ACI 8.3.3

ACI Code permits the use of the following approximate shears for design

of continuous beams, provided:

There are two or more spans.

Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans

not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.

Loads are uniformly distributed.

Unfactored live load does not exceed three times the unfactored dead

load.

Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths

(prismatic).

22

More than two spans

23

ACI 8.3.3

ACI 8.3.3

Two spans

l n = length of clear

span measured

face-to-face of

supports.

24

1- Draw the shearing force diagram and establish the critical section

for shear Vu.

2- Calculate the nominal capacity of concrete in shear Vs.

Vc 0.17 f c ' bw d

Vu

V s V c

Vu

V s V c 0.66 f c ' bw d

increased.

25

5- Classify the factored shearing forces acting on the beam according

to the following

* For Vu < 0.50Vc , no shear reinforcement is required.

* For Vu 0.50Vc , minimum shear reinforcement is required

Av f ys

Av f ys

s=min

;

A v f yd

Av f y d sin cos

For vertical

For inclined

s

s

stirrups

stirrups

Vs

Vs

6- Maximum spacing smax must be checked

26

2

4

Example

loaded with a uniform service dead load of 40 kN/m (including own

weight of beam) and a uniform service live load of 25 kN/m.

Design the necessary shear reinforcement given that fc =28 MPa and

fy=420 MPa. Width of support is equal to 30 cm.

wD=40 kNm & wL=25 kN/m

60

0.3m

0.3m

7.0 m

27

30

Example

Solution:

Assuming 8 mm stirrups and

20 mm flexural steel,

d=60-4-0.8-1.0=54.2 cm

wu=1.2(40)+1.6(25)=88 kN/m

0.3m

54.2

308 kN

at a distance of d = 54.2 cm from the face

of support.

28

7.0 m

247.1 kN

308 kN

Example

V c 0.17 f c ' bw d 0.17 28 300 542 146.3 103 N 146.3kN

V c 0.75 144.2kN 109.7kN

V c

54.85 kN

2

V

247.1

V s u V c

146.3 183.2kN

0.75

0.66 f c ' bw d 0.66 28 300 542 567. 9 103 N 567. 9kN

V s 183.2kN 0.66 f c ' bw d 567.9kN

29

OK

Example

Vu= 247.1 kN > Vc = 109.7 kN, shear reinforcement is required.

The beam can be designed to resist shear based on Vu= 247.1 kN over the

entire span. However, to reduce reinforcement cost, the beam will not be

designed for this shear over the entire span. The span will rather be divided

into zones of different shear demands as shown below

308 kN

247.1 kN

Vc=109.7 kN

Zone C

Zone B

0.5Vc=54.85 kN

Zone A

0.61 m

1.23 m

30

Example

area of shear reinforcement.

Try 8 mm vertical stirrups

Av f ys

Av f ys

s=min

;

0.062 f c ' bw 0.35 bw

2(50) 420

2(50) 420

s min

427mm ;

400 mm s 400mm

0.35 300

0.0062 28 300

600mm. So, use 8 mm vertical stirrups spaced at 250 mm.

31

Example

minimum shear reinforcement is required.

use 8 mm vertical stirrups spaced at 25 cm (Calculated from Zone A).

Zone (C): [Vu > Vc ]

V s 183.2kN

Trying two-legged 8 mm vertical stirrups,

s

32

A v f yd

Vs

2 50 420 542

125 mm

3

183.2 10

Example

0.33 f c ' bw d 0.33 28 300 542 284 kN V s 183.2kN

Maximum stirrup spacing is not to exceed the smaller of d/2 = 271 mm or 600mm.

Av f ys

Av f ys

s max =min

;

0.062 f c ' bw 0.35 bw

s max

2(50) 420

2(50) 420

min

427mm ;

400 mm 400mm

0.35 300

0.062 28 300

So, use

33

Example

308 kN

247.1 kN

Zone C

8@12

Zone B

8@25

60

8@25

Vc=109.7 kN

0.5Vc=54.85 kN

Zone A

8@25

0.61 m

30

Section in zones A&B

1.23 m

60

8@12

8@12

8@25

30

Section in zone C

34

Lecture 10

Design of slabs

Regula

(3

Introduction

Plate/Shell (2D)

x z

t<<(x,z)

x

A slab is a structural element whose thickness is small compared

to

its own length and width.

t L , S

h

t

zS

Lx

Slabs in buildings are usually used to transmit the loads on floors and

Loads

roofs to the supporting beams

Dimensional Hierarchy of Structural

Beam

Beam

Slab

Column

Beam

Beam

Footing

Slab

Beam

Column

Beam

Beam

Soil

Introduction

Slabs are flexural members. Their flexure strength requirement may

be expressed by

Mu M n

Types of Slabs

- One way solid slabs

- Two way solid slabs

Ribbed slabs :- which are divided into

- One way ribbed slabs

- Two way ribbed slabs

3

One-way slab

Two-way slab

Solid Slab

L

2

S

One-way slab

One-way slab

L

2

S

shrinkage Reinft.

Accordingly, slabs supported on two opposite sides only and slabs

supported on all four sides, but L/S 2 are classified as one-way

slabs.

Main Reinft.

longer direction is provided with shrinkage reinforcement to limit

cracking.

7

Main Reinft.

Accordingly slabs supported on all four sides, and L/S < 2 are

classified as two-way slabs.

S

Main Reinft.

Accordingly, main reinforcement is required in the two directions.

8

If the ribs are provided in one direction only, the slab is classified as

being one-way, regardless of the ratio of longer to shorter panel

dimensions. It is classified as two-way if the ribs are provided in two

directions .

Minimum Cover

10

ACI 7.7.1

for <16mm------40 mm and for >16mm----- 50 mm

b - Concrete not exposed to earth or weather

for <32mm------20 mm, otherwise ------ 40 mm

a- Flexural Reinforcement Bars

Flexural reinforcement is to be spaced not farther than three times the slab

thickness (hs), nor farther apart than 45 cm, center-to-center.

3 hs

Smax smaller of

ACI 10.5.4

45cm

b- Shrinkage Reinforcement Bars

Shrinkage reinforcement is to be spaced not farther than five times the slab

thickness, nor farther apart than 45 cm, center-to-center.

5 hs

Smax smaller of

ACI 7.12.2.2

45cm

11

wu=1.2 D.L + 1.6 L.L

1- Weight of slab covering materials

2-Equivalent partition weight

3- Own weight of slab

12

tiles

(2.5cm thick) =0.02523 = 0.575 kN/m2

cement mortar (2.5cm thick) =0.02521 = 0.525 kN/m2

sand

(5.0cm thick) =0.0518 = 0.9 kN/m2

plaster

(1.5cm thick) =0.01521 = 0.315 kN/m2

tiles

cement mortar

sand

2.5 cm

2.5 cm

5 cm

slab

plaster

13

1.5 cm

This load is usually taken as the weight of all walls (weight of 1m span

of wall total spans of all walls) carried by the slab divided by the floor

area and treated as a dead load rather than a live load.

To calculate the weight of 1m span of wall:

Each 1m2 surface of wall contains 12.5 blocks

A block with thickness 10cm weighs 10 kg

A block with thickness 20cm weighs 20 kg

Each face of 1m2 surface has 30kg plaster

Load / 1m2 surface for 10 cm block =

12.5 10 +230=185 kg/m2 = 1.85 kN/m2

Load / 1m2 surface for 20 cm block =

12.5 20 +230=310 kg/m2 = 3.1 kN/m2

14

20 cm

For 10 cm block wt. = 1.85 kN/m2 3 = 5.6 kN/m

For 20 cm block wt. = 3.1 kN/m2 3 = 9.3 kN/m

1- Solid slab:

Own weight of solid slab (per 1m2)=

gc h = 25 h

kN/m2

2- Ribbed slab:

Example

Find the total ultimate load per rib for the ribbed slab shown:

Assume depth of slab = 25 cm (20cm block +5cm toping slab)

Hollow blocks are 40 cm 25 cm 20 cm in dimension

Assume ribs have 10 cm width of web

Assume equivalent partition load = 0.75 kN/m2

Consider live load = 2 kN/m2.

15

Solution

Total dead load= 3.85 + 2.315 + 0.75 = 6.915 kN/m2

Ultimate load = 1.2(6.915) + 1.6(2) = 11.5 kN/m2

16

Type of Use

Uniform Live Load

kN/m2

which the floor is constructed.

Residential

Residential balconies

Computer use

Offices

Warehouses

3

5

2

Light storage

Heavy Storage

Schools

12

Classrooms

Libraries

rooms

Stack rooms

Hospitals

Assembly Halls

6

2

Fixed seating

Movable seating

Garages (cars)

Stores

17

2.5

5

2.5

Retail

wholesale

Exit facilities

Manufacturing

5

5

Light

Heavy

Beams are usually designed to carry the following loads:

- Their own weight

- Weights of partitions applied directly on them

- Floor loads

S1

18

S2

19

S1

S2

1m

wide strips which span in the short direction and are supported on

crossing beams. These strips are designed as rectangular beams.

0.85f c

2M u

1 1

2

fy

0.85 f c bd

S1

20

S2

shrinkage Reinft.

Main Reinft.

21

Method 1: Check et

0.003

cmax

d

0.003 0.005

3

cmax d

8

=b1c b1cmax

max

3 0.85 b1 f c '

8

fy

3

db1

8

22

According to ACI Code and for fy =420 MPa

ACI 7.12.2.1

where, b = width of strip, and h = slab thickness

ACI 10.5.4

Otherwise enlarge depth of slab

23

ACI 8.3.3

ACI Code permits the use of the following approximate moments and

shears for design of continuous beams and one-way slabs, provided:

There are two or more spans.

Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans

not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.

Loads are uniformly distributed.

Unfactored live load does not exceed three times the unfactored dead

load.

Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths

(prismatic).

24

Bending Moment

More than two spans

25

ACI 8.3.3

Bending Moment

Two spans

l n = length of clear

span measured

face-to-face of

supports.

For calculating

negative moments,

l n is taken as the

average of the

adjacent clear span

lengths.

26

ACI 8.3.3

Shear

More than two spans

27

ACI 8.3.3

Shear

Two spans

28

ACI 8.3.3

1- Select representative 1m wide design strip/strips to span in the

short direction.

2- Choose a slab thickness to satisfy deflection control requirements.

When several numbers of slab panels exist, select the largest

calculated thickness.

3- Calculate the factored load wu

4- Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for each of

the strips.

5- Check adequacy of slab thickness in terms of resisting shear by

satisfying the following equation: V u 0.17 f c ' b d

where b = 1000 mm

thickness to do so.

29

6- Design flexural and shrinkage reinforcement:

Flexural reinforcement ratio is calculated from the following

equation

0.85f c

2M u

1 1

2

fy

0.85 f c bd

where b = 1000 mm

reinforcement requirement and spacing of selected bars.

Compute the area of shrinkage reinforcement, where

Ashrinkage=0.0018bh, where b = 1000 mm.

30

the dimensions and the selected reinforcement.

Example 1

Using the ACI-Code approximate structural analysis, design for a

warehouse, a continuous one-way solid slab supported on beams 4.0 m

apart as shown in the figure. Assume that the beam webs are 30 cm wide.

The dead load is 3kN/m2 in addition to the own weight of the slab, and the

live load is 3kN/m2.

8.0 m

4.0 m

31

4.0 m

4.0 m

Solution:

1- Select a representative 1 m wide slab strip:

hmin = l/24 =4.0/24=0.167m

Slab thickness is taken as 17 cm

8.0 m

1.0 m

17cm

4.0 m

Wu

32

4.0 m

4.0 m

Solution:

3- Calculate the factored load wu per unit length of the selected strip:

wu= 1.20 (3+4.25) +1.60 (3)= 13.5 kN/m2

For a strip 1 m wide, wu=13.5 kN/m

4- Evaluate the maximum factored shear forces and bending moments

in the strip:

wu=13.5 kN/m

33

Solution:

18.5

7.7

16.8

16.8

16.8

34

18.5

7.7

16.8

Solution:

25

25

28.7

35

28.7

25

25

Solution:

5- Check slab thickness for beam shear:

Vu,max = 28.7 kN.

V c 0.17 f c ' bd 0.75 0.17 28 1000 144 95.8 kN

6- Design flexural and shrinkage reinforcement:

0.85f c

2M u

1 1

2

fy

0.85 f c bd

36

Solution:

For max. negative moment, Mu = 18.5 kN.m

0.85 28

2 18.5 106

1 1

0.00241

420

0.85 0.9 28 1000 144

max

0.01806 0.90

8

fy

420

8

As, ve 0.002411000 144 347 mm 2

As,min 0.0018 1000 170 306 mm 2 As, ve OK

79

347mm 2

10 S 227.5 mm

1000mmstrip

S

Smax min(450 or 3 170) 450mm

37

use 10@20cm

Solution:

For max. positive moment, Mu = 16.8 kN.m

0.85 28

2 16.8 106

1 1

0.00219

420

0.85 0.9 28 1000 144

max

0.01806 0.90

8

fy

8

420

As,min 0.0018 1000 170 306 mm 2 As, ve OK

7910

315mm 2

S 251mm

1000mmstrip

S

Smax min(450 or 3 170) 450 use 10@25cm

38

Solution:

Calculate the area of shrinkage reinforcement:

Area of shrinkage reinforcement = 0.0018 (100) (17) = 306 mm2

For shrinkage reinforcement use 10 mm @ 25 cm (from previous slides calculations)

Shrinkage reinft.

10@25 10@25

10@20

10@20

10@25

17cm

10@25

10@25

10@25

39

Solution:

8.0 m

10@25

10@25

4.0 m

40

10@20

10@20

10@25

4.0 m

10@25

10@25

4.0 m

41

Ribbed slabs consist of regularly spaced ribs monolithically built

with a toping slab. The voids between the ribs may be either light

material such as hollow blocks [figure 1] or it may be left unfilled

[figure 2].

Topping slab

Rib

Hollow block

Temporary form

Figure [2] Moulded floor

which is often required for architectural considerations and have

good sound and temperature insulation properties besides reducing

the dead load of the slab greatly.

42

ACI 8.13.6.1

Topping slab thickness (t) is not to be less than 1/12 the clear

distance (lc) between ribs, nor less than 50 mm

a. Topping slab:

lc

t 12

50 mm

t

lc

Slab thickness (t)

w u l c2

1240 f c

directions in a mesh form.

43

b. Regularly spaced ribs:

Minimum dimensions:

Ribs are not to be less than 100 mm in width, and a depth of not

more than 3.5 times the minimum web width and clear spacing

between ribs is not to exceed 750 mm.

ACI 8.13.2

ACI 8.13.3

l 750 mm

c

h 3.5 bw

bw 100

44

ACI 8.13.8

Shear strength provided by rib concrete Vc may be taken 10% greater

than those for beams.

Shear strength:

Flexural strength:

moment at the supports and as T-shaped beams in the regions of

positive moments between the supports.

Effective flange width be is taken as half the distance between ribs,

center-to-center.

b

e

45

Hollow blocks:

Hollow blocks are made of lightweight concrete or other lightweight

materials. The most common concrete hollow block sizes are 40 25

cm in plan and heights of 14, 17, 20, and 24 cm.

46

1. The direction of ribs is chosen.

2. Determine h, and select the hollow block size, bw and t

3. Provide shrinkage reinforcement for the topping slab in both

directions.

4. The factored load on each of the ribs is computed.

5. The shear force and bending moment diagrams are drawn.

6. The strength of the web in shear is checked.

7. Design the ribs as T-section shaped beams in the positive moment

regions and rectangular beams in the regions of negative moment.

8. Neat sketches showing arrangement of ribs and details of the

reinforcement are to be prepared.

47

Example

Design a one-way ribbed slab to cover a 3.8 m x 10 m panel, shown in the

figure below. The covering materials weigh 2.25 kN/m2, equivalent

partition load is equal to 0.75 kN/m2, and the live load is 2 kN/m2.

3.8 m

10 m

48

Solution

1. The direction of ribs is chosen:

3.8 m

5.0 m

5.0 m

Let width of web, bw =10 cm

Use hollow blocks of size 40 cm 25 cm 17 cm (weight=0.17 kN)

Topping slab thickness = 24 17 = 7cm > lc/12 =40/12= 3.3cm > 5cm OK

For a unit strip of topping slab:

wu=[1.2(0.07 25 + 0.75 + 2.25) + 1.6(2)] 1m = 8.9 kN/m = 8.9 N/mm

w u l c2

8.9( 400 ) 2

t

16mm OK

( 0.9 )1240 25

1240 f c

49

Solution

3. Provide shrinkage reinforcement for the topping slab in both directions:

Use 5 6 mm/m in both directions.

4. The factored load on each of the ribs is to be computed:

50

1.0 m

0.4 m

0.1 m

0.4 m

7 cm

0.25 m

1.0 m

0.05 m

0.24 m

= 1.0 1.0 0.24 = 0.24 m3

Volume of hollow blocks in 1m2

= 8 0.4 0.25 0.17 = 0.136 m3

Net concrete volume in 1m2

= 0.24- 0.136 = 0.104 m3

Weight of concrete in 1m2

= 0.104 25 = 2.6 kN/m2

Weight of hollow blocks in 1m2

= 8 0.17= 1.36 kN/m2

Total dead load /m2

= 2.25 + 0.75 + 2.6 + 1.36

= 7.0 kN/m2

Solution

wu=1.2(7)+1.6(2)=11.6 kN/m2

wu/m of rib =11.6x0.5= 5.8 kN/m of rib

5. Critical shear forces and bending moments are determined (simply supported beam):

Maximum factored bending moment = wul2/8 = 5.8 (3.8)2/8 = 10.5 kN.m

6. Check rib strength for beam shear:

bars and 6 mm stirrups.

1.1V c 1.1 0.75 0.17 25 100 208 14400 N = 14.4 kN Vu,max 11kN

run are to be used to carry the bottom flexural reinforcement.

51

Solution

7. Design flexural reinforcement for the ribs:

There is only positive moments over the simply supported beam, and the

section of maximum positive moment is to be designed as a T-section

Assume that a<70mm and =0.90Rectangular section with b = be =500mm

157 420

6.2 mm 70mm

0.85f c 'be 0.85 25 500

The assumption is right

52

As f y

50

105 kN.m

0.85 25

2 10.5 106

1 1

420

0.9 0.85 25 500 2082

0.0013

7

24

As

10

Solution

Check As,min

1.4

0.25 f c '

As,min max

bw d ;

bw d

fy

fy

OK

Check =0.9

a

6.2

7.3 mm

1 0.85

dc

208 7.3

t

0.003

0.003

c

7.3

t 0.083 0.005 0.9 OK

53

Solution

110 m

110 m

110 m

110 m

3.8 m

8. Neat sketches showing arrangement of ribs and details of the reinforcement are to be

prepared

5.0 m

5.0 m

6mm mesh

@20 cm

6mm stirrups

@25 cm

7cm

24cm

17cm

210mm

10

40 cm

10

210mm

Section A-A

54

Lecture 11

Design of short concentric columns

Columns

Columns are vertical compression members of a structural frame intended to support the

load-carrying beams. They transmit loads from the upper floors to the lower levels and then

to the soil through the foundations.

Loads

Beam

Column

Slab

Beam

Beam

Column

Beam

Beam

Slab

Footing

Beam

Beam

Soil

Columns

Usually columns carry bending moment as well, about one or both axes of the cross

section, and the bending action may produce tensile forces over a part of the cross

section.

The main reinforcement in a columns is longitudinal, parallel to the direction of the load

and consists of bars arranged in a square, rectangular, or circular shape.

3

Columns can be classified as

1- Short Columns, for which the strength is governed by the strength of the materials

and the dimensions of the cross section

2- Slender Columns, for which the strength may be significantly reduced by lateral

deflections.

Columns can be classified as

2-Eccentrically loaded columns, which are subjected to moment in addition to the

axial force.

4

Column Types:

1. Tied

2. Spiral

3. Composite

Axial load tests have proven that tied and spirally reinforced columns

having the same cross-sectional areas of concrete and steel reinforcement

behave in the same manner up to the ultimate load.

At that load, tied columns fail suddenly due to excessive cracking in

between ties within the failure region. For spirally reinforced columns, once the

ultimate load is reached, the concrete shell covering the spiral starts to spall off

but the core will continue to carry additional loads because the

spiral provides a confining force to the concrete core, thus enabling

the column to sustain large deformations before final collapse.

6

or

Ag = gross area = b*h

Ast = area of longitudinal steel

fc =concrete compressive strength

8

Pn rP0

Pn r Ag 0.85f c Ast (f y 0.85f c)

r = Reduction factor to account for accidental eccentricity

r = 0.80 ( tied )

r = 0.85 ( spiral )

9

ACI 10.3.6.3

Pn Pu

Pn r Ag 0.85f c Ast f y 0.85f c Pu

or

Pn r A g 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu

where g = Ast / Ag

ACI 9.3.2.2

10

ACI 10.3.6.3

r = 0.80 ( tied )

r = 0.85 ( spiral )

Pn Pu

Pn r Ag 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu

Both Ag and g are unknown in this equation. There are

two options to design the column:

1- Select Ag and calculate g. The Ag may be selected from initial

sizing (Ag = Pu / 0.5fc ).

11

starting point.

Pn Pu

Pn r Ag 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu

* when g is known or assumed:

Ag

Pu

r 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c

12

Pn Pu

Pn r Ag 0.85f c g f y 0.85f c Pu

* when Ag is known or assumed:

Pu

1

g

0.85f c

r A g

f y 0.85f c

13

Design of spirals

Spiral Reinforcement Ratio, s

s

Volume of Core

Dc s

Asp D c

from: s

2

[( / 4 ) D c ] s

D c core diameter: outside edge to outside edge of spiral

14

Design of spirals

Spiral Reinforcement Spacing, s

A g f c

s 0.45 1

ACI Eq. 10-5

Ac

fy

4Asp

s

from previous slide

D cs

s

4Asp

Ag

fc '

0.45Dc

1

Ac

f y

A c core area

15

D c2

A g gross area

D2

4

Design Considerations

Longitudinal Steel

ACI 10.9.1

or

0.01 g 0.08

16

Design Considerations

Longitudinal Steel

ACI 10.9.2

min. of 4 bars in rectangular or circular ties

min. of 3 bars in triangular ties

17

Design Considerations

Longitudinal Steel

- Clear Distance between Reinforcing Bars (Longitudinal Steel)

For tied or spirally reinforced columns, clear

distance between bars, shown in the figure, is not to

be less than the larger of 1.50 times bar diameter or

40 mm. This is done to ensure free flow of concrete

among reinforcing bars.

ACI 7.6.3

18

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.3

1.) At least every other longitudinal bar shall have lateral

support from the corner of a tie with an included angle

135o.

2.) No longitudinal bar shall be more than 150 mm clear

on either side from a laterally supported bar.

19

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.3

20

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.2

s

s

s

21

48 dstirrup (dstirrup = diameter for stirrups)

least lateral dimension of column

Design Considerations

Lateral Ties

ACI 7.10.5.1

size

22

12 bar if longitudinal bar 32 bar

12 bar if longitudinal bars are bundled

Design Considerations

Spirals

ACI 7.10.4.2

size 10 mm diameter

ACI 7.10.4.3

25mm

23

clear spacing

between spirals

75mm

Design Considerations

Concrete Protection Cover

ACI 7.7.1

The clear concrete cover is not to be taken less than 4 cm for columns not exposed to

weather or in contact with ground.

Minimum Cross Sectional Dimensions

The ACI Code does not specify minimum cross sectional dimensions for columns.

Column cross sections 20 25 cm are considered as the smallest practicable sections.

For practical considerations, column dimensions are taken as multiples of 5 cm.

Lateral Reinforcement

Ties are effective in restraining the longitudinal bars from buckling out through the

surface of the column, holding the reinforcement cage together during the construction

process, confining the concrete core and when columns are subjected to horizontal

forces, they serve as shear reinforcement.

24

1. Evaluate the factored axial load Pu acting on the column. This can be done by:

a- Tributary Area Method

2. Assume a starting reinforcement ratio g that satisfies ACI Code limits. Usually a

2 % ratio is chosen for economic considerations.

3. Determine the gross sectional area Ag of the concrete section.

4. Choose the dimensions of the cross section based on its shape.

5. Readjust the reinforcement ratio by substituting the actual cross sectional area in the

respective equation. This ratio has to fall within the specified code limits.

25

6.

Calculate the needed area of longitudinal reinforcement ratio based on the adjusted

reinforced ratio and the chosen concrete dimensions.

7.

From reinforcement tables, choose the number and diameters of needed reinforcing

bars. For rectangular sections, a minimum of four bars is needed, while a minimum

of six bars is used for circular columns.

8.

Design the lateral reinforcement according to the type of column, either ties or

spirals.

9.

Check whether the spacing between longitudinal reinforcing bars satisfies ACI

Code requirements.

10. Draw the designed section showing concrete dimensions and with required

longitudinal and lateral reinforcement.

26

Example 1

The cross section of a short axially loaded tied column is shown in the

figure. It is reinforced with 616mm bars. Calculate the design load

Ties 8@25cm

capacity of the cross section.

Use fc =28 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

25

Solution:

A

1206

g st

0.012 1.21%

A g 250 400

min 1 % g 1.21% max 8%

616

40

Figure [1]

OK

12.8cm

3 1

max 1.5 d b 2.4cm , 4cm <Sc 12.8cm

Sc=12.8 cm

25

616

Sc

27

40

Example 1

The spacing between ties

16 db =16(1.6) = 25.4 cm S = 25 cm

48 ds = 48(0.8) = 38.4 cm S = 25 cm

smaller of b or d = 25 cm S = 25 cm

Thus, ACI requirements regarding reinforcement ratio, clear distance

between bars and tie spacing are all satisfied.

Pn 0.52A g 0.85f c ' g f y 0.85f c '

Pn 0.65(0.8) 400 250 0.85 28 0.0121 420 0.85 28

Pn 1487 kN

28

Example 2

Design a short tied column to support a factored concentric load

of 1000 kN, with one side of the cross section equals to 25 cm.

f c 30MPa

f y 420MPa

Solution

Assume first that g 2%

Ag

Pu

1000 103

Ag

0.65 0.8 0.85 30 0.02 420 0.85 30

29

A g 57594mm 2

Example 2

A g 57594mm 2

b 250mm

h 230mm

use column 25cm 25cm

Determine adjusted steel ratio

Pu

1

g

0.85f c

r A g

f y 0.85f c

1000 103

1

g =

0.85(30)

=0.0134

0.65 0.8 250 250

420 0.85(30)

0.01<g <0.08 OK

A s g bh 0.0134(250)(250) 835mm 2

30

Example 2

Check spacing

s

(No. of bars/2) 1

250 (6 / 2) 14 2 40 2(8)

56mm

3 1

OK

Stirrup design

Use 8 mm (for longitudinal bars with 14 mm < 30 mm)

s max

31

smaller of b or d 250mm

Use 8 mm @ 200 mm

governs

6 14 mm

Example 2

8 mm @ 200 mm

250 mm

250 mm

32

Example 3

Design a short, spirally reinforced column to support a service

dead load of 800 kN and a service live load of 400 kN.

f c 28MPa

f y 420MPa

Use g 1%

Solution

Ag

Pu

1600 103

Ag

0.75 0.85 0.85 28 0.01 420 0.85 28

33

A g 90405mm 2

Example 3

360/N

A g 90405mm 2

for circular column D=

Ag

=339mm

0.5D

A s 0.01 (3502 ) 962mm 2

4

use 714 (A s,sup =1078 mm 2 )

Check spacing between longitudinal bars

D =350-2(40)-2(8)-14=240 mm,

N=7

360/N

51.43

S D'sin

240

sin

104.1mm

2

2

Sc 104.1 14 90.1mm 1.5(14)=21mm

34

40mm

OK

360/N

2

0.5D

Example 3

Design the needed spiral, try 8

Dc 350 2(40) 270 mm

S

4 A sp

4 50

/4 350 2 28

0.45 270

1

2

/4 270

420

S 36.3mm, taken as 35 mm (center to center)

Ag fc'

0.45Dc

1

Ac f y

Sc 35 8/2 8/2 27 mm,i.e within ACI code limit ( 25mm & 75mm)

Use 8mm spiral with a pitch of 35mm center to center.

35

Lecture 12 Part I

Bond, development length, and splicing

Bond

Bond stresses are existent whenever the tensile stress or force in a reinforcing bar

changes from point to point along the length of the bar in order to maintain equilibrium.

Without bond stresses, the reinforcement will pull out of the concrete.

Concrete

Reinforcing bar

PL/4

M+dM

dx

Moment diagram

avg

F 0.0

T2 T1 Fbond

If this equation is not true (bond force Fbond is not strong enough), the bar will pull out

A bar f s2 f s1 avg A surface

d

4

2

b

db

=Bond stress

avg

f - f d

= s2 s1 b

4l

T1=fs1Ab

T2=fs2Ab

fs2=fs1+fs

A smooth bar embedded in concrete develops bond by adhesion between concrete &

This is different in a deformed bar. Once adhesion is lost at high bar stress and some

slight movement between the reinforcement and the concrete occurs, bond is then

provided by friction and bearing on the deformations of the bar. At much higher bar

stress, bearing on the deformations of the bar will be the only component contributing to

bond strength.

Splitting cracks

The radial component of the bearing

force will cause circumferential

stress on the concrete that may

cause splitting that creates cracks.

Splitting cracks

Splitting of concrete may occur along the bars, either in vertical planes as in

figure (a) or in horizontal plane as in figure (b).

Splitting cracks

The load at which splitting failure develops is a function of :

The minimum distance from the bar to the surface of the concrete or to the

next bar. The smaller the distance, the smaller is the splitting load.

The tensile strength of the concrete. The higher the tensile strength, the

higher is the splitting resistance.

The average bond stress. The higher the average bond stress, the higher is the

splitting resistance.

If the concrete cover and bar spacing are large compared to the bar diameter,

a pullout failure can occur, where the bar and the ring of concrete between

successive deformations pullout along a cylindrical failure surface joining

the tips of the deformations.

8

Development Length

Development Length

The bars found to be needed at a section from design calculations have to be

embedded a certain distance into the concrete. This distance has to be equal or

larger than the development length (ld).

10

Development Length

The development length ld is that length of embedment necessary to develop the full

tensile strength of the bar (on both sides of sections where fy stress is required),

controlled by either pullout or splitting.

avg

f s2 f s1 d b

=

4l

f s2 f s1 f y

ld

11

f y db

4 avg,u

ld

1.1 f c C K tr

db

fy

d b 300 mm,

C K tr

where

2.5

db

where,

ld = development length

db = nominal diameter of bar

fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement

C = spacing or cover dimension (see next slide)

Ktr = transverse reinforcement index (see slide 12)

12

ACI 12.2.3

C is the smaller of

ACI 12.2.4

(a) the smallest distance measured from the center of the bar to the nearest concrete

surface

(b) one-half the center-to-center spacing of bars being developed.

is a bar location factor

(a) Horizontal reinforcement so placed that more than 30 cm of

fresh concrete is cast in the member below the development

length or splice.

(b) Other reinforcement..

1.3

1.0

(a) Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less than 3db

or clear spacing less than 6db . 1.5

(b) All other epoxy-coated bars or wires............. 1.2

(c) Uncoated reinforcement 1.0

13

ACI 12.2.4

is a reinforcement size factor that reflects better performance of the smaller diameter

reinforcement

(a) 20mm and smaller bars... 0.8

(b) 22mm and larger bars..... 1.0

is a lightweight aggregate concrete factor that reflects lower tensile strength of

lightweight concrete, & resulting reduction in splitting resistance.

(a) When lightweight aggregate concrete is used... 0.8

(b) When normal weight concrete is used... 1.0

14

Ktr is a transverse reinforcement index that represents the contribution of confining

reinforcement

40 Atr

K tr

sn

where:

Atr = total cross sectional area of all transverse reinforcement within the spacing s,

which crosses the potential plane of splitting along the reinforcement being developed

within the development length

s = maximum center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforcement within development

length ld

n = number of LONGITUDINAL bars being developed along the plane of splitting.

Note: It is permitted to use Ktr= 0.0 as

design simplification even if transverse

reinforcement is present.

15

Atr

Potential plane

of splitting

n=4

ACI 12.2.5

Excessive Reinforcement

reduction is given by

Reduction factor

As required

As provided

-Good practice to ignore this factor, since the use of the structure may change over time.

See ACI 12.2.2. This will not be used in this class

16

Example 1

60 cm

Determine the development length in tension required for the uncoated bottom bars as

shown in the figure. If (a) Ktr is calculated (b) Ktr is assumed = 0.0

Use fc = 25 MPa normal weight concrete and fy = 420 MPa

(c) Check if space is available for bar development in the beam shown

10@20

420

40 cm

Cover is 4 cm on all sides

Section A-A

17

Example 1

Determine the development length in tension required for the uncoated bottom bars as

shown in the figure. If (a) Ktr is calculated (b) Ktr is assumed = 0.0

Use fc = 25 MPa normal weight concrete and fy = 420 MPa

(c) Check if space is available for bar development in the beam shown

10@20

420

=1.0 for uncoated bars

=1.0 <1.7 OK

40 cm

Cover is 4 cm on all sides

=1.0 for normal weight concrete,

C the smallest of

40+10+(20/2)=60 mm

{[400-2(40)-2(10)-2(20/2)]/(3)}/(2)=46.7 mm

18

60 cm

Solution:

Example 1 [contd.]

K tr

7.9 mm

sn

(200)(4)

i.e., use

ld

C K tr

2.5

db

60 cm

C K tr 46.7 7.9

2.73 2.5

db

20

10@20

420

1.1 f c C K tr

db

fy

d b 300 mm

40 cm

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)

ld

20 489 mm 300 mm OK

2

.5

1.1 25

b) Assuming K tr 0.0

C K tr 467 0

2.33 2.5

db

20

19

OK

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)

ld

20 524 mm 300 mm OK

2.33

1.1 25

Example 1 [contd.]

60 cm

10@20

420

40 cm

Cover is 4 cm on all sides

Section A-A

> ld = 524 mm

OK

20

ACI 12.3

Shorter development lengths are required for compression than for tension since

flexural tension cracks are not present for bars in compression. In addition, there is

some bearing of the ends of the bars on concrete.

The development length ld for deformed bars in compression is computed as the product

of the basic development length ldc and applicable modification factors, but ld is not to

be less than 200 mm.

The basic development length ldb for deformed bars in compression is given as

0.24 f y d b

ldc max

;0.043 f y d b

fc '

21

ACI 12.3

1. Excessive reinforcement factor =As required / As provided

2. Spirals or Ties: the modification factor for reinforcement, enclosed with spiral

reinforcement 6mm in diameter and 10 cm pitch or within 12mm ties spaced at

10 cm on center is given as 0.75

ACI 12.4

taken as that for individual bar, increased 20% for three-bar bundle, and 33% for fourbar bundle.

For determining the appropriate modification factors, a unit of bundled bars is treated as

a single bar of a diameter derived from the equivalent total area of bars.

22

ldh

Critical

section

Hooks are used to provide additional anchorage

when there is insufficient length available

to develop a bar.

Development length ldh for deformed bars in tension terminating in a standard hook is

computed as the product of the basic development length lhb and applicable

modification factors, but ldh is not to be less than 8db, nor less than 150 mm.

The basic development length lhb for hooked bars is given as

lhb

0.24 e f y

l fc '

For epoxy-coated reinforcement, e= 1.2.

23

ACI 12.5.1

db

ACI 12.5.2

ACI 12.5.3

1. Concrete cover: for db 36mm, side cover (normal to plane of hook) 65 mm, and

for 90 degree hook, cover on bar extension beyond hook 50 mm, the modification

factor is taken as 0.7.

not less than 50 mm

65 mm

65 mm

24

ACI 12.5.3

2. Excessive reinforcement factor =As required / As provided

3. Spirals or Ties: for db 36mm, hooks enclosed vertically or horizontally within ties

or stirrups spaced along the full development length ldh not greater than 3db , where db is

the diameter of the hooked bar, and the first tie or stirrup shall enclose the bent portion of

the hook, within 2db of the outside of the bend, the modification factor is taken as 0.8.

25

Development length ldh is measured

ACI 7.1

90-degree hook

to the out-side end or edge of the

hooks. Either a 90 or a 180-degree

hook, shown in the figure, may be used

ldh

* Hooks are not considered effective

in compression and may not be used

as anchorage.

Part (a)

180-degree hook

ACI 12.5.5

* The values of f c ' used in this

lecture shall not exceed 8.3 MPa.

26

ACI 12.1.2

4db 65mm

10 through 25

28 through 36

44 through 56

ldh

Part (b)

ACI 12.5.4

Confinement of hooks

For bars being developed by a standard hook at discontinuous ends of members with both

side cover and top (or bottom) cover over hook less than 65 mm, the hooked bar shall be

enclosed within ties or stirrups perpendicular to the bar being developed, spaced not

greater than 3db along ldh. The first tie or stirrup shall enclose the bent portion of the

hook, within 2db of the outside of the bend, where db is the diameter of the hooked bar.

27

Example 2

50 cm

Determine the development length or anchorage required for the epoxy-coated top bars

of the beam shown in the figure. The beam frames into an exterior 80cm x 30cm

column (the bars extend parallel to the 80 cm side). Show the details if:

(a) If a 180-degree hook is used

(b) If a 90-degree hook is used

Use fc = 28 MPa and fy = 420 MPa

432

12@15

Solution:

=1.3 for bars over concrete > 30 cm thick

=1.5 for coated bars (take the larger of 1.2 and 1.5 conservatively)

=1.3x1.5 = 1.95 > 1.7 use 1.7

=1.0 for 32mm,

C the smallest of

40+12+16=68 mm

{[400-2(40)-2(12)-32]/(3)}/(2)=44 mm

i.e., C is taken as 44 mm

28

40 cm

Example 2 [contd.]

40Atr

2( 113 )

15.1 mm

sn

( 150 )( 4 )

C K tr 44 15

1.85 2.5

db

32

ld

50 cm

K tr

OK

1.1 f c C K tr

db

432

12@15

fy

d b 300 mm

ld

32 2127 mm 300 mm OK

1

.

85

1

.

1

28

40 cm

ldh = lhb x applicable modification factors 150 mm or 8db.

(use a factor 1.2 for epoxy-coated hooks. Modification factors are inapplicable)

l dh

29

0.24 e f y

l fc'

db

32 732 mm

1.0 28

150mm 8( 32 ) 256mm OK

Example 2 [contd.]

(b) If a 180-degree hook is used

ldh=732 mm

4db =128 mm

Critical section

5db =160 mm

180o hook

12db=384 mm

30

ldh=732 mm

Critical section

90o hook

Splicing

31

Splices of Reinforcement

ACI 12.14

Splicing of reinforcement bars is necessary, either because the available bars are not

long enough, or to ease construction, in order to guarantee continuity of the

reinforcement according to design requirements.

Types of Splices:

(a) Welding (b) Mechanical connectors

(c) Lap splices (simplest and most economical method)

In a lapped splice, the force in one bar is transferred to the concrete, which transfers it to

the adjacent bar.

Splice length is the distance over which the two bars overlap.

32

Splice length

Splices of Reinforcement

Important note:

Lap splices have a number of disadvantages, including congestion of reinforcement at

the lap splice and development of transverse cracks due to stress concentrations. It is

recommended to locate splices at sections where stresses are low.

Types of Lap Splices:

T

T

ls

Direct contact

2. Non-Contact Splice (spaced) the distance between two bars cannot be greater than

1/5 of the splice length nor 15 cm

ACI 12.14.2.3

T

T

ls

33

ACI 12.15

ACI code divides tension lap splices into two classes, A and B. The class of splice used

is dependent on the level of stress in the reinforcing and on the percentage of steel that

is spliced at particular location.

ACI 12.15.1

Class A:

A splice must satisfy the following two conditions to be in this class:

(a) the area of reinforcement provided is at least twice that required by analysis over the

entire length of the splice; and

(b) one-half or less of the total reinforcement is spliced within the required lap length.

Class B:

If conditions above are not satisfied classify as Class B.

The splice lengths for each class of splice are as follows:

Class A splice: 1.0 ld 300 mm

Class B splice: 1.3 ld 300 mm

34

ACI 12.15.2

Example 3

To facilitate construction of a cantilever retaining wall, the vertical reinforcement

shown in the figure, is to be spliced with dowels extending from the foundation.

Determine the required splice length when all reinforcement bars are spliced at the same

location.

Use fc = 30 MPa and fy = 420 MPa

16 @ 250

Cover = 7.5 cm

Solution:

Class B splice is required where ls = 1.3 ld

=1.0, =1.0 =1.0 < 1.7 OK

ls

=1.0, =1.0

C the smallest of

75+8=83 mm

250/2=125 mm

i.e., C is taken as 83 mm

35

16 @ 250

Cover = 7.5 cm

Example 3 [contd.]

C K tr 83 0

C K tr

2.5

db

16

db

420 ( 1.0 )( 1.0 )( 1.0 )

ld

16 446 mm

2

.

5

1.1 30

Required splice length ls 446( 1.3 ) 580 mm 300 OK

16 @ 25

ls=58 cm

16 @ 25

36

ACI 12.16

tension cracking and thus compression splices do not require provisions as strict as

those specified for tension

Compression lap splice length shall be:

ACI 12.16.1

0.071 fy db 300 mm

When bars of different size are lap-spliced in compression, splice length shall be the

larger of either development length of the larger bar, or splice length of the smaller bar.

ACI 12.16.2

ACI 12.15.3

37

Example 4

Design a compression lap splice for a tied column whose cross section is shown in the

figure when:

(a) 16 mm bars are used on both sides of the splice.

(b) 16 mm bars are lap spliced with 18 mm bars.

Use fc = 30 MPa and fy = 420 MPa

Solution:

(a) For bars of same 16 mm diameter

is equal to 0.071 fy db = 0.071 (420)(16)

= 477 mm >300 mm

taken as 480 mm

38

Example 4 [contd.]

(b) For bars of different diameters

ldc = ldb x applicable modification factors

331mm

fc'

30

l dc max

333mm

0.043 f d 0.043 420 18=333mm

y

b

Splice length of smaller diameter bar was calculated in part (a) as 477 mm. Thus, the

splice length is taken as 480 mm.

39

Lecture 12 PART II

Bar cutoff

Bar cutoff

It is economical to cut unnecessary bars as shown in the scenario below.

Example

Example

Example

Example

Using moment diagrams drawn to scale:

Using moment envelopes drawn to scale:

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: -1/11, +1/16, -1/11)

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: -1/16, +1/14, -1/10)

10

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: -1/24, +1/14, -1/10)

11

Bending moment envelope for typical span (moment coefficient: 0, +1/11, -1/10)

12

Development length requirements

ACI 12.10.3

Reinforcement shall extend

beyond the point at which it is no

longer required to resist flexure

for a distance equal to d or 12db,

whichever is greater, except at

supports of simple spans and at

free end of cantilevers.

ACI 12.10.4

Continuing reinforcement shall

have an embedment length not

less than ld beyond the point

where bent or terminated tension

reinforcement is no longer

required to resist flexure.

13

Development length requirements

ACI 12.10.5

The ACI Code does not permit flexural reinforcement to be cutoff in a tension zone

unless at least one of the special conditions, shown below, is satisfied:

a. Factored shear force at the cutoff point does not exceed two-thirds of the design shear

strength, Vn .

b. Stirrup area exceeding that required for shear and torsion is provided along each

cutoff bar over a distance from the termination point equal to three-fourths of the

effective depth of the member. Excess stirrup area Av is not to be less than 0.41bwS /fy .

Spacing S is not to exceed d/8b where b is the ratio of area of reinforcement cutoff to

total area of tension reinforcement at the section.

c. For 36 mm bars and smaller, continuing reinforcement provides double the area

required for flexure at the cutoff point and factored shear does not exceed three-fourths

of the design shear strength, Vn .

14

Development length requirements

Positive moment:

one-fourth the positive moment reinforcement in continuous members shall

extend along the same face of member into the support. In beams, such

reinforcement shall extend into the support at least 150 mm.

ACI 12.11.1

reinforcement shall be limited to a diameter such that

ACI 12.11.3

Mn is calculated assuming all reinforcement at the section to be stressed to fy;

Vu is calculated at the section;

la at a support shall be the embedment length beyond the center of support; or:

la at a point of inflection shall be limited to d or 12db, whichever is greater.

15

ends of reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction.

Development length requirements

Positive moment:

ACI 12.11.3

16

Development length requirements

Positive moment:

17

Development length requirements

Positive moment:

18

Development length requirements

Positive moment:

19

Development length requirements

Negative moment:

any member of rigid frame, is to be anchored in or through the supporting member

by development length, hooks, or mechanical anchorage.

ACI 12.12.1

At least one-third the total tension reinforcement provided for negative moment at a

support shall have an embedment length beyond the point of inflection not less than

d, 12db, or ln/16, whichever is greater

ACI 12.12.3

20

Detailing of reinforcement

ACI-318

ACI-315

ACI Detailing Manual

CRSI Design Handbook

Development length requirements

Positive moment:

moment reinforcement in simple

members and one-fourth the

positive moment reinforcement in

continuous members shall extend

along the same face of member into

the support. In beams, such

reinforcement shall extend into the

support at least 150 mm.

Negative moment:

reinforcement provided for negative

moment at a support shall have an

embedment length beyond the point

of inflection not less than d, 12db, or

ln/16, whichever is greater

5

way slabs:

ACI 8.3.3

There are two or more spans.

Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two adjacent spans

not greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.

Loads are uniformly distributed.

Unfactored live load does not exceed three times the unfactored dead

load.

Members are of similar section dimensions along their lengths

(prismatic).

Straight bars

Straight bars

Straight bars

10

Bent-up bars

11

Straight bars

12

Straight bars

13

Straight bars

14

15

16

17

18

19

Lecture 13

Design of isolated footings

Footing

Introduction

Footings are structural elements used to support columns and walls and transmit their

loads to the underlying soil without exceeding its safe bearing capacity below the

structure.

Loads

B

L

Column

Beam

P

M

Footing

Soil

Footing

Introduction

The design of footings calls for the combined efforts of geotechnical and structural

engineers.

The geotechnical engineer, on one hand, conducts the site investigation and on the light

of his findings, recommends the most suitable type of foundation and the allowable

bearing capacity of the soil at the suggested foundation level.

The structural engineer, on the other hand, determines the concrete dimensions and

reinforcement details of the approved foundation.

Types of Footing

Isolated Footings

Isolated or single footings are used to support single columns. This is one of the most

economical types of footings and is used when columns are spaced at relatively long

distances.

P kN

C2

C1

L

P

Types of Footing

Isolated Footings

5

Types of Footing

Isolated Footings

6

Types of Footing

Wall Footings

Wall footings are used to support structural walls that carry loads from other floors or to

support nonstructural walls.

W kN/m

Secondary reinft

Main reinft.

Types of Footing

Combined Footings

Combined footings are used when two columns are so close that single footings cannot

be used. Or, when one column is located at or near a property line. In such a case, the

load on the footing will be eccentric and hence this will result in an uneven distribution

of load to the supporting soil.

P1

P2

P2 kN

PP1 kN

1 kN

C2

C2

C1

C1

L1

L2

L2

Types of Footing

Combined Footings

The shape of a combined footing in plan shall be such that the centroid of the

foundation plan coincides with the centroid of the loads in the columns. Combined

footings are either rectangular or trapezoidal. Rectangular footings are favored due to

their simplicity in terms of design and construction. However, rectangular footings are

not always practicable because of the limitations that may be imposed on their

longitudinal projections beyond the two columns or the large difference that may exist

between the magnitudes of the two column loads. Under these conditions, the provision

of a trapezoidal footing is more economical.

Types of Footing

Continuous Footings

Continuous footings support a row of three or more columns.

P1

P2

P3

P4 kN

P4

P3 kN

P2 kN

L

P1 kN

10

Types of Footing

Strap (Cantilever) footings

Strap footings consists of two separate footings, one under each column, connected

together by a beam called strap beam. The purpose of the strap beam is to prevent

overturning of the eccentrically loaded footing. It is also used when the distance

between this column and the nearest internal column is long that a combined footing

will be too narrow.

P2 kN

P2

property line

P1

Strap Beam

P1 kN

L1

L2

C2

B1

C1

C2

B2

C1

11

Types of Footing

Mat (Raft) Footings

Mat footings consist of one footing usually placed under the entire building area. They

are used when soil bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy and differential

settlement for single footings are very large or must be reduced.

12

Types of Footing

Pile caps

Pile caps are thick slabs used to tie a group of piles together to support and transmit

column loads to the piles.

P

13

Footing Loading

Distribution of Soil Pressure

The distribution of soil pressure under a footing is a function of the type of soil, the

relative rigidity of the soil and the footing, and the depth of the foundation at the level

of contact between footing and soil.

P

P

Centroidal axis

Footing on sand

Footing on clay

For design purposes, it is common to assume the soil pressure is uniformly distributed.

The pressure distribution will be uniform if the centroid of the footing coincides with

the resultant of the applied loads.

14

Footing Loading

Pressure Distribution Below Footings

The maximum intensity of loading at the base of a foundation which causes failure of

soil is called ultimate bearing capacity of soil, denoted by qu.

The allowable bearing capacity of soil is obtained by dividing the ultimate bearing

capacity of soil by a factor of safety on the order of 2.50 to 3.0.

The allowable soil pressure for soil may be either gross or net pressure permitted on the

The gross pressure represents the total stress in the soil created by all the loads above

the base of the footing. For design, the net soil pressure is used instead of the gross

pressure value.

P

Df

hc

15

Footing Loading

Concentrically Loaded Footings

If the resultant of the loads acting at the base of the footing coincides with the centroid

of the footing area, the footing is concentrically loaded and a uniform distribution of

soil pressure is assumed in design.

P

Centroidal axis

L

P/A

L

16

Footing Loading

Eccentrically Loaded Footings

Footings are often designed for both axial load and moment. Moment may be caused by

lateral forces due to wind or earthquake, and by lateral soil pressures.

A footing is eccentrically loaded if the supported column is not concentric with the

footing area or if the column transmits at its juncture with the footing not only a vertical

load but also a bending moment.

P

e

M

Centroidal axis

Centroidal axis

L

P/A

P/A

Pey/I

My/I

17

Deformation of isolated footings

18

Deformation of isolated footings

19

The design of isolated rectangular footings is detailed in the following steps:

Depth of footing above reinforcement is not to be less than 15 cm.

ACI 15.7

Note that 7.5 cm of clear concrete cover is required if concrete is cast against

soil.

ACI 7.7.1

20

2- Evaluate the net allowable soil pressure:

P

Df

hc

where

qall(net)

df is the distance from ground surface to the contact surface between footing base and soil,

s is the weight density of soil on top of footing.

21

3- Establish the required base area of the footing

Base area of footing is determined from unfactored forces transmitted by footing to soil

and the allowable soil pressure evaluated through principles of soil mechanics.

Areq

PD PL

qall (net )

ACI 15.2.2

where PD and PL are column service dead and live loads, respectively.

Select appropriate L, and B values, if possible, use a square footing to achieve greatest

economy.

qu (net )

1.2PD 1.6PL

LB

ACI 15.2.1

22

5- Check footing thickness for punching shear.

When loads are applied over small areas of slabs and footings with no beams, punching

failure may occur. The sloping failure surface takes the shape of a truncated pyramid in

case of rectangular columns, and a truncated cone in case of circular columns.

The ACI Code assumes that failure takes place on vertical planes located at distance d/2

from the faces of the column.

ACI 11.11.1.2

23

5- Check footing thickness for punching shear [contd.]

The depth of the footing must be checked so that the shear capacity of the concrete

equals or exceeds the critical shear forces produced by factored loads

Vu Vc

The critical punching shear forceVu can be evaluated as follows

Vu qu (net )L B C1 d C2 d

C1

C2

C2 + d

C1 + d

ACI 11.11.1.2

Since there are two layers of reinforcement, an average value of d may be used:

d = h 7.5cm db , where db is the bar diameter.

24

5- Check footing thickness for punching shear [contd.]

Punching shear force resisted by concrete Vc is given as the smallest of

2

V C 0.17 1 f c 'bo d

c

s d

C2

V C 0.083 2

C1

C2 + d

V C 0.33 f c 'bo d

C1 + d

f c 'bo d

b

L

s = 40 for interior, 30 for side, and 20 for corner columns,

bo =length of critical perimeter around the column = 2[(C1+d)+(C2+d)]

Interior

ACI 11.11.2.1

Corner

Exterior

25

6- Check footing thickness for beam shear in each direction.

If Vu Vc, thickness will be adequate for resisting beam shear.

The critical section for beam shear is located at distance d from column faces.

(short direction)

L C 1

Vu qu (net ) B x qu (net ) B

V c 0.17 f c ' B d

C2

concrete is given as

C1

d

B

ACI 11.2.1.1

26

6- Check footing thickness for beam shear in each direction [contd.]

concrete is given as

V c 0.17 f c ' L d

C2

C1

B C 2

Vu qu (net ) L y qu (net ) L

Shear (long direction)

ACI 11.2.1.1

27

7-Compute the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction.

The footing is designed as rectangular-section beam in both directions. The critical

section for bending is located at the face of the column.

ACI 15.4.2

(L-C1)/2

2

0.85f c

2M u

1 1

fy

0.85 f c B d

As ,req B d

C1

C2

B L C1

M u qu (net )

2 2

ACI 15.4.1

ACI 10.5.4

ACI 7.12.2.1

28

0.85f c

2M u

1 1

fy

0.85

f

L

d

c

As ,req L d

As ,min 0.0018Lh As ,req

C1

C2

L B C2

M u qu (net )

2 2

(B-C2)/2

ACI 15.4.1

ACI 10.5.4

ACI 7.12.2.1

29

7-Compute the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction [contd.]

For square footings, the reinforcement is identical in both directions.

For rectangular footings, the reinforcement in the long direction is uniformly

distributed. However, a portion of the total reinforcement in the short direction, sAs is

distributed uniformly over a band width (centered on centerline of column) as shown in

the figure. Remainder of reinforcement required in the short direction, (1 s)As, shall

be distributed uniformly outside the center band width of the footing.

2

s

1

where

Band width

ACI 15.4.4

B

L

30

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete

All forces applied at the base of a column or wall must be transferred to the

footing by bearing on concrete and/or by reinforcement.

ACI 15.8.1

Bearing on concrete for column and footing must not exceed the concrete

bearing strength.

ACI 15.8.1.1

Pn Pu

Otherwise, the joint would fail by crushing of the concrete at the bottom of the

column where the column bars are no longer effective or by crushing the

concrete in the footing under the column.

Pn min Pn ,c ; Pn ,f

31

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

Pn ,c 0.85f cA1

ACI 10.14.1

For a supporting footing where the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the

loaded area, the allowed bearing capacity Pn,f is

Pn ,f

A2

min

0.85f cA1 ; 2 0.85f cA1

A1

A1= column cross-sectional area

A2= area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered

wedge contained wholly within the footing and having for its upper base the loaded

area, and having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal (see next slide)

32

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

A2= area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered wedge

contained wholly within the footing and having for its upper base the loaded area, and

having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal

33

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

A2= area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered wedge

contained wholly within the footing and having for its upper base the loaded area, and

having side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal

34

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

Dowel Reinforcement:

If

Pn Pu :

excess load.

As ,req

Pu Pn

f y

ACI 15.8.1.2

footing, bent at the ends, and tied to the main

footing reinforcement.

35

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete [contd.]

If

Pn Pu ::

As ,min 0.005A1

ACI 15.8.2.1

36

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement

> ls (compn.)

reinforcement.

37

Example

Design an isolated rectangular footing to support an interior column 4040cm in cross

section and carry a dead load of 800 kN and a live load of 600 kN. One of the

dimensions of the footing must not exceed 3.2 m.

PD= 800 kN

PL= 600 kN

qall (gross) = 200 kN/m2, soil =17 kN/m3, conc =25 kN/m3

Df=1.0

40

40

38

Example

Solution

1- Select a trial footing depth:

Assume that the footing is 55 cm thick.

2- Evaluate the net allowable soil pressure:

qall (net) = qall (gross) - s (Df - hc) - c hc

40

40

245

P P

800 600

A req D L

7.839 m 2

q all (net)

178.6

7.84

Let L 3.20 m , B

2.45 m

3.20

Use 320x245x55 cm footing

320

Pu

1920

q u net

244.9 kN /m 2

LB 3.2 2.45

39

245

40+45.9

Example

40+45.9

bo 2[ 40 45.9 40 45.9 ] 343.6 cm

320

VC is the smallest of

0.33 f c ' b o d 0.75 0.33 25 3436 459 1952 kN

2

2

3436 459 3016 kN

0.4/0.4

c

s d

40 459

0.083 f c ' 2

b

d

0.75

0.083

25

2

b

3436

VC 1952 kN Vu 1740 kN

OK

i.e. footing thickness is adequate for resisting punching shear.

40

Example

6- Check footing thickness for beam shear in each direction:

In short direction

245

45.9

3.2 0.4

Vu 244.9 2.45

0.459 565 kN

2

OK

320

45.9

2.45 0.4

Vu 244.9 3.2

0.459

444 kN

245

In long direction

320

OK

41

Example

7- Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction:

a- Reinforcement in the long direction:

The critical section for bending is shown in the figure

2

2 588 106

1- 12

0.9

0.85

25

2450

459

0.85 25

420

1.4

245

B L C1

2.45 3.2 0.4

M u q u net

244.9

2 2

2

2

588 kN .m

320

24.49 x 2.45

A s,req 3500 mm 2 2314mm in long direction

42

Example

7- Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction:

b- Reinforcement in the short direction:

The critical section for bending is shown in the figure

L B C2

3.2 2.45 0.4

M u q u net

244.9

2 2

2

2

412 kN .m

245

24.49 x 2.8

320

1.025

2 412 106

1- 12

0.9 0.85 25 3200 459

0.85 25

420

1.025

A s,req 317 0 mm 2

43

Example

7- Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement in each direction:

b- Reinforcement in the short direction:

The distribution of the reinforcement is as follows:

245

42.5

214 B

1814 B

42.5

214 B

L 3.2

1.3

B 2.45

2

Central band reinft.

As

1

2

2

3170

2757

mm

1.3 1

Use 18 14 mm in the central band.

320

3170 2756

2

For each of the side bands, A s

207

mm

44

Example

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete

For the column

For the footing

1400

2

1

h= 550

1025

245

1100

320

45

Example

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete

Pn ,f

A 2

min

0.85f cA1 ; 2 0.85f cA1

A1

Pn ,f

6002500

min

2210 ; 2 2210 4420kN

160000

Use minimum dowel reinforcement

46

Example

8- Check for bearing strength of column and footing concrete

Minimum dowel reinforcement

Use 416, As,sup = 804 mm2

47

Example

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement

Bottom longitudinal reinforcement (14mm)

=1.0 for bottom bars,

1.4

=1.0 <1.7 OK

=0.8 for 14mm,

7.5+0.7=8.3 cm

245

C the smallest of

[245-2(7.5)-1.4]/(22)/(2)=5.2 cm

i.e., C is taken as 5.2 cm

C K tr 5.2 0

C K tr

2.5

db

1.4

db

320

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)

ld

1.4 34 cm

2.5

1.1 25

Available length in long direction =140-7.5=132.5 > 34 cm

48

Example

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement

Bottom reinforcement in short direction (14mm)

=1.0 for bottom bars,

=1.0 <1.7 OK

7.5+0.7=8.3 cm

[320-2(7.5)-1.4]/(19)/(2)=8 cm

1.025

C the smallest of

245

320

C K tr 8 0

C K tr

2.5

db

1.4

db

420 (1.0)(1.0)(0.8)(1.0)

ld

1.4 34 cm

2.5

1.1 25

Available length in short direction =102.5-7.5=95 > 34 cm

49

Example

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement

Dowel reinforcement (16mm):

323mm

fc'

25

l dc max

323mm 200mm

0.043 f d 0.043 420 16=289mm

y

b

Column reinforcement splices:

ls 0.071f y d b 0.071 420 16 478 mm 300 mm

taken as 48cm

> ls (compn.)

50

Example

55 cm

48cm

10- Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided

reinforcement

245 (1814)

42.5

2.45 m

214 B

214 B

1814 B

3.20 m

2314 B

42.5

51

Lecture 14

Staircase Design

Stair Types

Stair Types

Stair Types

Stair Types

Technical terms

Going: horizontal upper portion of a step.

Rise: vertical distance between two consecutive treads.

Flight: a series of steps provided between two landings.

Landing: a horizontal slab provided between two flights.

Waist: the least thickness of a stair slab.

Technical terms

Winder: radiating or angular tapering steps.

Soffit: the bottom surface of a stair slab.

Nosing: the intersection of the going and the riser.

Headroom: the vertical distance from a line connecting the nosings of

all treads and the soffit above.

(transversely supported)

(longitudinally supported)

Cantilever stair

Loading:

a. Dead load:

The dead load includes own weight of the step, own weight of the waist

slab, and surface finishes on the steps and on the soffit.

b. Live Load:

Live load is taken as building design live load plus 1.5 kN/m2, with a

maximum value of 5 kN/m2.

10

Direction of bending

Main reinforcement

Shrinkage reinforcement

11

Direction of bending

Design for Shear and Flexure:

Each step is designed for shear and

flexure as if it is a beam. Main

reinforcement runs in the transverse

direction at the bottom side of the

steps while shrinkage reinforcement

runs at the bottom side of the slab in

the longitudinal direction. Since the

step is not rectangular, the effective

depth d is found by an equivalent

rectangular section that can be used

with an average height equal to:

havg

12

Example 1

Design a straight flight stair in a residential building

supported on reinforced concrete walls 1.5 m apart (center

to center), given:

L.L = 3 kN/m2; covering material = 0.5 kN/m; The risers

are 16 cm and goings are 30 cm; fc=25 MPa, fy= 420 MPa

13

l 1.5

0.075m

20 20

t

have

0.075

0.30

0.34

0.16

0.165m

2

D.L (covering material) = 0.5 kN/m

0.16

L.L =30.3 =0.9 kN/m

14

0.3

1.5 m

Shear diagram

Moment diagram

15

M u 1kN .m

d 165 20 6 139mm

bw 300mm

0.85 f c '

fy

2M u

1

0.85 f c ' b d 2

0.85 25

2 1106

1 1

0.0005

420

0.9 0.85 25 300 139

A s ,min 0.0018 300 165 89.1mm 2 A s

A s A s ,min 89.1mm 2

Use 112 for each step

16

V C 0.75 0.17 25 139 300 /1000 26kN V u 2.65kN OK

17

Direction of bending

Shrinkage reinforcement

Main reinforcement

18

19

Deflection Requirement:

Since a flight of stairs is stiffer than a slab of thickness equal to the waist t,

minimum required slab depth is reduced by 15 %.

Effective Span:

The effective span is taken as the horizontal distance between centerlines of

supporting elements.

n = number of goings

X = Width of

supporting landing slab

at one end of the stairs

slab

Y = Width of

20

at the other end of the

stairs slab.

Deflection Requirement:

Since a flight of stairs is stiffer than a slab of thickness equal to the waist t,

minimum required slab depth is reduced by 15 %.

Effective Span:

The effective span is taken as the horizontal distance between centerlines of

supporting elements.

n = number of goings

X = Width of

supporting landing slab

at one end of the stairs

slab

Y = Width of

21

at the other end of the

stairs slab.

Loading:

a. Dead Load:

The dead load, which can be calculated on horizontal plan, includes:

Own weight of the steps.

Own weight of the slab.

Surface finishes on the flight and on the landings.

Note: For flight load calculations, the part of load acting on slope is to be increased

by dividing it by cos. This is because analysis for moment and shear is conducted on

the horizontal span of the flight, but the load is that carried on the inclined span.

P

P= wo.w.Linc

.Linc

22

.L

Loading:

b. Live Load:

Live load is taken as the building design live load plus 1.5 kN/m2, with a

maximum value of 5 kN/m2. Live load is always given on the horizontal

projection.

23

Joint detail:

The stairs slab is designed for maximum shear and flexure. Main

reinforcement runs in the longitudinal direction, while shrinkage

reinforcement runs in the transverse direction. Special attention has to be

paid to reinforcement detail at opening joints.

24

Example 2

Design the U- stair in a residential building shown in the

figure, given:

L.L = 3 kN/m2; covering material = 2 kN/m2; The rises are 16

cm and goings are 30 cm, fc=25 MPa, fy= 420 MPa

25

l

525

t 0.85

22cm

20 20

cos() = 0.3/ 0.34 = 0.88

Take a unit strip along the span:

D.L (slab) = 0.221.025/0.88 =6kN/m

D.L (step) = (1/2) 0.161.0 25=2 kN/m

D.L (covering material) = 21.0=2 kN/m

D.L (flight) = 10 kN/m

D.L (landing) = 8 kN/m

L.L =3 1.0=3 kN/m

26

Wu (flight) = 1.2(10)+1.6(3)=16.8kN/m

Wu (landing) = 1.2(8)+1.6(3)=14.4kN/m

0.16

0.3

0.34

14.4kN/m

27

16.8kN/m

14.4kN/m

M u 52.2kN .m

d 22 2 0.6 19.4cm 194mm

bw 1000mm

0.85 25

2 52.2 106

1 1

0.0037

420

0.85 0.9 25 1000 194

A s ,min 0.0018 1000 220 396mm 2 A s OK

Use 812

(22)=3.96 cm2/m

28

29

A landing may be shared on two different stair slabs. The load of the shared

landing can be assumed to be divided equally and each stair slab carries on

30

half.

Ls

P=wsLs/2

31

ws

P

w=P/(L/2)

L/2

- Advanced Reinforced Concrete Structures - VargeseDiunggah olehimaduddin91
- Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete Design (2)Diunggah olehZamir Mear
- Design of Reinforced Concrete 9th Edition SolutionsDiunggah olehHenrique Simões Neto
- Reinforced Concrete Design by Everard and TannerDiunggah olehgugi
- COURSE Reinforced Concrete DesignDiunggah olehgugi
- reinforced concreteDiunggah olehRenukadevi Rpt
- Reinforced Concrete DesignDiunggah olehDidi Gi
- Reinforced Concrete Design, 3rd Ed,LeetDiunggah olehXiomara A Ordoñez
- Design of Concrete StructuresDiunggah olehsamir_ssh7151
- Reinforced concrete mechanics and designDiunggah olehAbdullah Yamani
- Structural Concrete Theory and Design, Sixth Edition M. Nadim Hassoun South Dakota State University Akthem Al-Manaseer San Jose State UniversityDiunggah olehahmed ali
- simplified design of reinforced concrete buildings.pdfDiunggah oleh1975JACC21
- Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon and Pincheira 7th Edtn.pdfDiunggah olehWelcomePopeFrancis
- Reinforced Concrete DesignDiunggah olehvijaystructural
- seismic and wind design of concrete structures.pdfDiunggah olehNazar Shafiq
- SP-17-14_DADiunggah olehmarting69
- Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2Diunggah olehMustafa Hyali
- Simplified Design Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and HeightDiunggah olehZack
- Reinforced Concrete Design - W.H. MOSLEYDiunggah olehwincris
- Reinforced Concrete (analysis and design)Diunggah olehHomero Silva
- Design of ReinConcrete FoundationDiunggah olehJan Gnat
- Solution Manual Reinforced Concrete McCormac 9th EditionDiunggah olehLarry
- ACI 421.3R-15 Guide to Design of Reinforced Two-Way Slab SystemsDiunggah olehfarhadam
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure Volume 1Diunggah olehJatinder Bhatia
- Reinforced Concrete Mechanics Design SolutionsDiunggah olehwmulvany
- reinforced concrete structuresDiunggah olehWr Ar
- Handbook of Concrete Engineering-Mark Fintel_ACIDiunggah olehseena107
- 118575262-Handbook-of-Reinforced-Concrete-Design.pdfDiunggah olehHung Leung Sang Eddy
- Structural Concrete Theory and DesignDiunggah olehgugi

- Objectif prépa chimieDiunggah olehyassino89
- dz-np-sika-monotop-sf-126.pdfDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- CINÉTIQUE ENZYMATIQUEDiunggah olehelfuego
- PDFDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- RSA Maillage 1Diunggah olehAhmed Ben Hmida
- r7.04.05Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- PC_Trucs_et_Astuces_N°29.pdfDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Système D HS_15 - 2016 11Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- PrsDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- ProgrammeDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Windows Pc Trucs Et Astuces 26Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- RDMDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- 12p_atalusDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Les Aliments contre le cancer, nouvelle edition revue et augment.pdfDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Déplacements Relatifs Des Appuis Sous Séisme_Maj071114Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Annexe Technique CTC SUD 2 008Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- MANUEL HP 3500 FR.PDFDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Système D HS_15 - 2016 11Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Encyclopédie de La Cuisine VEGETARIENNEDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- BestPractice Industrial FRDiunggah olehlahlou_d9216
- BestPractice Industrial FRDiunggah olehlahlou_d9216
- Micro Pratique N_242Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Comment Ça Marche N°77Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Automatic SketchUpDiunggah olehOliver Gonzalez
- memoire de magister.pdfDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- La PNL Les MiniGuides Ecolibris - Barbara Seidl - [EPub]Diunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Calculs des fondations superficiel.pdfDiunggah olehRedouane Tebboune
- 350158990-TALEB-R-CGS-JPOGC-08-Calcul-Des-Structures-Selon-Le-RPA-2003.pdfDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Fondations Sur RadierDiunggah olehMohamed Seghir Benzemrane
- Les Aliments Contre Le Cancer, Nouvelle Edition Revue Et AugmentDiunggah olehsayanze

- C++ FAQDiunggah olehamarbvp
- 7. Hydrology Drainage RWHDiunggah olehsumitha selamani
- assignment 1 information literacyDiunggah olehapi-281262976
- Toyota (Unfinished)Diunggah olehJaymss Miranda
- Using Adams/Chassis - MD Adams 2010Diunggah olehpkokatam
- Poultry FinalDiunggah olehAvish Bhinkah
- ETL Error and Audit Log Process Using ADiunggah olehprakharmodi
- Personal Health Systems for Mental Health- The European ProjectsDiunggah olehsupport6486
- Java GamesDiunggah olehDekho Dikhao Bhrastachar
- kle650-fgf-parts-list.pdfDiunggah olehOliver
- Module 4.pptDiunggah olehMaría Marquina
- Optimizing Drilling in Open Pit MineDiunggah olehFelipe Milhomem
- Sound MidiDiunggah olehRitesh Sethia
- MEng PPTDiunggah olehchat
- Cse231- Midterm 1- With Model Answers(1)Diunggah olehMohamed Turk
- UT Dallas Syllabus for entp6378.0g1.11s taught by Jackie Kimzey (jxk092000)Diunggah olehUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Its Inclusive CultureDiunggah olehpujithamuramalla
- samiCVacaDiunggah olehsamirehman
- CISCO - Corporate IdentityDiunggah olehmiodigital
- NEW APPLICATION LETTER BOBBY.docDiunggah olehrianiellyana
- .Diunggah olehMihaiela
- DocumentDiunggah olehNazera Salejee
- Supplier Guide DetailedDiunggah olehsuresh6265
- Bio Gas 6Diunggah olehLai Mei Ee
- Indigo Itinerary Details .pdfDiunggah olehYogesh
- Canon IRC 624 User GuideDiunggah olehpropaganda65
- Flak 88 mm - US příručkaDiunggah olehVáclav Fiala
- Teoria de SwitchgearDiunggah olehMarcos Goiano
- FTC RoboticsDiunggah olehMohammed Viquar Ahmed
- 2urackDiunggah olehKnjigescribd