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CHAPTER - 20

Safety in Engineering Industry


THEME
1.
Need of Safety in Engineering
Industry.
2.
Statutory Provisions.
3.
Indian Standards.
4.
Introduction to Hot & Cold
Processes
4.1 Types
of
Hot
and
Cold
processes.
4.2 Types of Furnaces, Uses and
Safety measures.
4.3 Steel Manufacture, Hazards
and Safety
measures.
4.3.1
Manufacture of Steel
4.3.2
Hazards
&
Safety
measures
5. Hot Working of Metals :
5.1 Foundry Operations :
5.1.1 Flow Sheet
5.1.2
Health hazards and
Safety
measures.
5.1.3 Schedule 26, Rule 102,
GFR
5.1.4
Material handling in
Foundries.
5.1.5 Mechanised foundry
5.1.6 Non Destructive Testing
(NDT)
5.2 Forging Operations :
5.2.1
Hazards & Safety
measures in
Forging operations.
5.2.2 Preventive maintenance
of
Forging machines.
5.2.3 Safe work practices in
Forging
operations.
5.2.4 Safety in use, handling,
storage
and changing of dies.
5.3 Hot Rolling Mill Operations :
5.3.1 Rolling Mill Operations.
5.3.2 Hazards & Controls
6
Cold Working of Metals :
6.1 General
6.2 Presses, Shears and Other
machines
6.2.1
Hand
&
Foot
operated Presses
6.2.2
Power Presses
6.2.3
Hydraulic
&
Pneumatic Presses

6.2.4
Press Brakes
6.2.5
Metal Shears &
Slitters
6.2.6
Forming Rolls
6.2.7
Cutting machine
6.2.8
Bending machine
6.3 Cold rolling mills.
6.4 Wire drawing operations.
6.5 Machine Tools :
6.5.1
Definition
&
Classification of
Machine Tools
6.5.2
Safety
in
Use
of
Machine Tools
Turning, Boring, Drilling,
Milling, Planing, Shaping,
Broaching, Slotting,
Grinding and CNC
machines
6.6 Safe
Operations
&
Maintenance
of Machines
6.7 Selection and Care of cutting
tools.
7
Safety in other Operations :
7.1 Welding
and
Cutting
operations.
7.1.1
Welding & Fire
Safety
7.1.2
Gas Welding &
Cutting
7.1.3
Sch.24, Rule 102,
GFR
7.1.4
Arc
Welding
(Electric Welding)
7.1.5
Indoor
Exhaust
Ventilation
7.1.6
Personal
Protection
7.2 Brazing,
Soldering
and
Metalising
operations.
7.3 Finishing
operations
like
Cleaning,
Polishing
and
Buffing.
7.4 Selection,
Care
and
Maintenance of
Equipment
and Instruments.
8
Heat Treatment operations :

8.1 Meaning & Types of Heat


Treatment methods.
8.2 Hazards & Safety measures.

8.3 Hazards
&
Control
from
Treatment media
General Health Hazards & Control
Measures in Engineering Industry.

1 NEED OF SAFETY IN
ENGINEERING INDUSTRY
Man and Machine are two important
ingredients of Industrial Safety. Man needs
machines which many times bring hazards
and accidents. This has created the need
of industrial safety. It is most important to
eliminate or minimise the contact between
men and machines. Machines are the
product of engineering and therefore
engineering occupies the pioneering place
in industrial safety. Without engineering
industries, no machine, no guard and no
mass production is possible. The history of
machine is old and interesting. In Chapter7, Part-1, old engineering branches of India
are mentioned and another historical part
is given in Chapter-33. Weapons and
vehicles expected by Yajurveda and fixed
and movable machines in Kautilyas times
were not possible without engineering
industry. Modern engineering technology is
much advanced and many other industries
are dependent on it.
In 1981 out of 72,40,000 workers
employed in all factories in India, workers
employed in engineering factories (i.e. in
NIC group No. 32 to 37) were 24,41,000
i.e. 33.71% Thus about 30% labour force is
employed in engineering industry in our
country.
In USA, deaths due to machinery are
reported, by Accidents Facts, 1997, as
under :
Year
Out of
Deaths due
to
machinery
Percentage

under these sections by the Gujarat


Factories Rules provide safety measures
for engineering machinery, processes and
accidents. Their details
are readily
available from the statute book and
therefore they are not reproduced here. In
short, these provisions are for the safety
from dust, machinery in motion, power
cutting devices, self-acting machines,
casing of new machinery, hoists and lifts,
lifting machines, revolving machinery,
pressure plant, floors, stairs, means of
access, pits, sumps, floor openings,
excessive weights, protection of eyes and
hazardous processes in ferrous and nonferrous
metallurgical
industries
and
foundries, coal industries, grinding or
glazing of metals, electroplating of metals,
sand or shot blasting and stone or silica
processes. Provisions of Rules 54 and 102,
GFR are also important.
Under rule 54, schedule 5 for
centrifugal machines, schedule 6 for power
presses and schedule 7 for shears, slitters
and guillotine machines are important. See
Part 5.4 of Chapter-14 for details.
Under rule 102, Sch. 24, 25 and 26
provide detailed safety measures for
welding/cutting, pottery
and foundry
operations.
See Part 5.1.3 for Sch. 26, and Part
7.1.3 for Sch. 24 for gas welding and
cutting.

3 INDIAN STANDARDS

1992
86777
1037

1993
90523
999

1994
91437
970

There are numerous IS for various


metallurgical and foundry operations, hand
tools, portable power tools, machines,
machine tools etc. A few are mentioned
below :

1.19%

1.10%

1.06%

Abrasive wheels 10489


Agitator equipment 9522
Air compressor, 6430, selection 6206,
testing 5456
Air conditioning, Safety code 659,
terminology 3615
Alloy brazing 2927, steel casting grinding
media 6079
Aluminium forging 734, heat treatment
of 8860
Aluminising hot dip coating 6697,8508
Anodising 7088
Arc welding 8804

Table 5.8, chapter-5, causes 1 to 3


state that there were 28% and 23.64%
injuries in engineering industry in 1990
and 1991 respectively.
From Table 5.6, it can be concluded
that 31.65% fatal and 23.40% non fatal
injuries in India, in 1992, were in
engineering processes.
Table 5.22, last row Causation No. 101
to 112 and 122 give total 5008 accidents
out of 15683 i.e. 31.93% accidents due to
machinery, in 1994, in Gujarat.
Table 5.20 shows fatal accidents as
9.8% in 1996 and 20% in 1997 in
engineering industry in Gujarat.
Thus a share of accidents in
engineering industry is about 25 to 30%
which needs attention.

2 STATUTORY PROVISIONS
Sections 14, 21 to 26, 28 to 35, 87, 88
and Chapter IV-A ( Sections 41A to 41H )
of the Factories Act 1948 and rules made

Bag filling machines 9776


Ball mill 4642
Band saw for metal cutting 5030
Belt for pulleys 8531,V- belt 2494,10022,
drives 2122, 7923
Blast furnace 8953, 9959
Blasting drilling safety code 4081
C- hook 4164, 3813
Chain driving 1927
Chimney design 6533,1649,4998
Chipping hammer 4915, chisel 402

Coal cutting m/c 3869, cutting tools


5775, Pulverisers fire safety 2595
Cold forming 5986
Compressed air safety code 4138, air
receivers 7938 steel cylinders 8198
Coolant for machine tools 2161
Cooling forging 6272, towers 8581
Copper forging 6912
Corrosion of metals 3531, protection
8062,8629
Cutting tools 10412
Die castings 1655, die forging 9684, die
sets press working 10068, dies cutting
1859, rolling 8405, 5702
Drawing office layout and planning 5197,
engineering drawing practice 696
Drilling machines portable 5441, bench
type 2426, pillar type 2425, radial 6893
Drop forging 5518
Electroplating 3658, 2679,1986,7453
Engineering table hand book SP-6 and 8
Erection of steel work, safety 7205
Ergonomics 10224
Fabrication 7215, 6916
Fan, ventilating 2312, pedestal 1169
Feed for machine tools 2219
Ferrous castings 4843, 7001
Film safety 5431
Flour mills 9374, 10520
Foundry- chaplets 5904, sand 6788,
cleaner 6443, dextrin 4269, pin for
moulding boxes 4982, ladle 4475, 4476,
lancets 5824, lifter 6443, oven design
10298, pattern equipment 1513, lifting
pin hook and plate 6376, 6378
Furnace - blast 7189, 9959, cupola 5032,
forging 9977, induction 8992, open
Hearth 6727, 8506
Galvanised
coatings
4826,
6159,
2629,8917
Gas cylinder for welding and cutting
6901, hand trolley 8016, safety devices
5903, technology 7241
Gas industry 7062, marks 8523, safety
lamp 7577
Gauge glass for pressure vessels and
boilers 5428
Gearing worm 3734, cutter 5996,
gearbox selection 7403
Girder plate handbook SP-6
Grinding machines 2368, 10352, 2743,
grinding wheel 551, safety code 1991
Guard for power driver 8265.
Hammer - hand 841 mill 10444
Hand lamp 1415
Hardware glossary 7881
Helical gear box, selection 7403
Hydrology 4410
Lathe 2932
Machine driving and driven shaft height

2031,
foundation
2974,
noise
measurement 4758 metal forming 6652,
reamer 5918, working level height 7229
Machine tools - controls and operation
2987, speeds 2218, testing code 2063
Manhole 1726, 5455, 3133
Manual on quality assurance systems
10201
Mechanical testing 5069
Metal cutting - glossary 812, band saw
blade 5030, 5031, shears 6087, tools
10097
Metal forming machine and tool 6652
Milling cutter - carbide-tipped 9322,
concave 6322, convex 6323, cylindrical
6309, interlocked 2671, other 6325,
6255, 6256, 6326,5698, 6355, 6308,
9325, 2668, 6352 etc.
Milling machines - 6893, 7765
Nickel coating 4827, 4828,1068, 4942
Oil hydraulic system 10481
Oven - electric 8985, gas 4473, 7342
Pneumatic chippers 7446, 7605, drilling
m/c 5441, grinding m/c 7157, rivet cutter
7978, hammer 7979, wrencher 8067,
sander 9828
Press - 8064, 10068 test for power takeoff (PTO) drive shaft guard 8265
Reamer - chucking 5446, machine 5918,
5919, 6091
Refrigeration 660, 3615, 5111
Rubber belting 1370, 1891
Scrap classification 2549, 2066, scraper
8646, 6861
Screw conveyor 5563, machine 2255
Screw bolts and nuts 3139
Screw driver 844, 9707
Seam welding 1261
Sanitation 1172, 10446
Sieving 1607, 5421
Silver Electroplating 1067, 6267
Sliding door 281, 2681
Slotting machine 2308
Soldering 959, 999
Spanners - box 2030, hook 90632, open
jaw 2028, 4508, 5167, ring 2029, 4509,
square 6130, requirements 6131
Spittoons 3996
Spot welding machine 4804
Spur gears 3681, 7504, 4460
Stainless steel sheet arc welding 2811
Standard colours for building SP 1650
Steel drop, upset and press forging 3479
Steel forging alloy, tool and alloy for
pressure vessels 9683, hard chromium
plating 1337, hard drawn wire 432
Steel plates for boilers 2002, for pressure
vessels 2041, radiographic examination
of welded joints 1182, ultrasonic testing
4225, tensile test 1608, protection
against corrosion 3618, 4777, Rockwell
hardness test 1586
Steel tool and die for cold work 3749,

hot work 3748, tool high speed 7291


Steel tubes in building construction 806
Stone dressing 1129, facing 4101,
glossary 1805
Structure design for corrosion prevention
9172
Structures clay products glossary 2248
Structures
blast
resistant
4991,
earthquake resistant 1893, fire resistant
3809, subject to dynamic loading 1024
Submersible Pump sets 8034,9283
Tap for pipe threads 6172, 7796, wrench
4914, 4917
Test chart for - cutter grinder 2368,
drilling m/c 2367, 2199, gear hobbling
m/c 8407, gear shaping m/c 6679, milling
m/c 2200, 2201, planning m/c 2877,
power hacksaw m/c 3405, precision
lathes 6040, shaping m/c 2308, shearing
and guillotines 2515, universal tool 3080,
boring and turning mills 6197
Test probes 1401
Testing of metal, mechanical, glossary
5069
Thread milling cutter 2670
Tool - assembly nomenclature 6293, flat
faced 5770, parrot beak 5772, 5855,
radial 5775,5854, tungsten carbide
tipped 3820, non - sparking 4595,
planing 6075, 8842, pneumatic 5651,
portable motor operated 4665.
Toothed gearing 2458, 2467
Transmission belting, friction surface
1370
Turning - mandrel 7262, mill 6197 tools
2162, 2163, 3019.
Twist drill for jig boring machine 7766
Ultrasonic
testing
glossary
2417,
Industrial radiographic practice, safety
2598
Unfired pressure vessels 2825
Vibration machine 10080
Vice - 2586, 2588

alloy

die

castings

4 INTRODUCTION TO HOT
AND COLD PROCESSES :
4.1
Types of Hot and Cold
Processes :
Metallurgical processes are of two
types : Hot and Cold processes.
Hot processes are employed to melt
ore to make metal, to refine metal and to
mould metal in the required shape, section
or grade, to make alloy, to weld or cut
metal parts and to make tools, equipment,
building
materials,
machine
parts,
structural parts etc. Fuel-fired or electric
furnaces are used for these purposes.
Chemical energy of fuel (gas, furnace oil,
LDO, wood, coal, lignite, waste etc.) or
electric energy is converted into heat in
such furnaces. Hot processes include
melting, refining, smelting, moulding,
forging, hot rolling, welding and cutting,
brazing and soldering operations.
Cold processes are employed to
further reduce or change the shape, size
or section of the hot rolled, forged or
moulded metal parts, cut into pieces, drill,
bore or grind surfaces, press, punch slot,
shear, cut, bend or shape the metal parts.
A variety of machines and machine tools
are used for these purposes. Hand and
foot operated presses, power presses,
hydraulic or pneumatic presses, shearing
machines, press brakes, cold rolling mills,
forming rolls, wire drawing machines and
various machine tools like lathe, boring
m/c,
grinding
m/c
and
modern
computerised controlled machines are
used in engineering industry.

4.2
Types of Furnaces, Uses
and Safety measures :

Warehousing fire safety 3594.


Water - for industry, tests 1622, 3025,
3550, for boilers 10390, 1680, 1813
Weigh bridges for bulk handling 9777
Weighing machine - automatic 1437,
platform 1435, electronic 9281, totalizing
3960
Welding - electrical and gas cutting,
safety 818, resistance spot welding 819,
fire precaution 3016, procedure approval
7307, 7310, 7318, arc rectifier type
4559, electric 2641 and cutting 812,
6016 arc 6008, cables 9857, welding
equipment for eye and face protection
1179, oxyacetylene 1323, protective
filter 5983, welders handbook SP - 12
Wire - drawing 1137, 4913, 9888,
Worm gears - glossary 2567, selection
7403
Zinc

electroplating 1073

742,

They are classified as under-

(1)
Classification
structure :

based

on

Technologically metallurgical furnaces


are classified as melting or heating
furnaces.
Melting furnaces are employed to
make metals from ores and remelt metals
for obtaining the desired properties.
Materials processed in melting furnaces
change their state of aggregation.
Heating furnaces are employed to
heat materials for roasting (limestone,
magnesite, refractories, potteries etc.) or
drying (foundry moulds, ore, sand etc.)
and also for increasing the plasticity of
metals before plastic working. They are
also used for heat treatment of metals to

change the metal structure. Materials


processed in heating furnaces remain in
the same state of aggregation.
Furnaces may be regenerative or
recuperative according to the method the
heat of waste gases is utilised.

(2)Classification
Generation :

based

on

Heat

Furnaces are also classified according


to the principle of heat generation i.e.
either fuel-fired furnaces where heat is
generated from chemical energy of fuel or
electric furnaces where heat is generated
from electric energy.
In fuel-fired furnaces heat is
generated by burning fuel on the furnace
hearth. They are of two types : flame
furnaces and shaft furnaces. In flame
(reverberatory) furnaces, the material to
be burnt occupies only a small portion of
the reaction chamber volume, the rest
being occupied by flames and combustion
products. In shaft furnaces, all the space is
filled with loose charge materials which
include lumpy solid fuel.
In steelmaking furnaces (converters),
the chemical energy of molten metal is
also
converted
into
heat
through
combustion of impurities present in them.
The heat evolved is evenly distributed
over the whole mass of the molten metal.
Heat for refining the bath to produce
steel is derived from the oxidation of
carbon and other elements and no
external source of heat is required.
In
oxygen
process
steelmaking
furnace, initially oxygen is blown on to the
surface of a bath of molten pig iron and
steel scrap.
Types of electric furnaces are : (a)
Electric-arc and plasma furnaces, single,
two or three phase furnaces (b) Induction
furnaces (c) Dielectric heating plants (d)
Resistance furnaces and (e) Electron-beam
furnaces, i.e. micro-wave and infra-red.

(3) Classification
based
Operating
Mode :

on

Heat transfer from a heat carrier


(flame, electric arc) to the surface of
material is mainly through thermal
radiation and convection.
Heat transfer from the surface of
material into the depth of material occurs
predominantly by conduction. But with
heated liquids, convective heat transfer is
also possible.
Convective mode is typical of lowtemperature heat-treatment and drying
furnaces. This mode is also employed in
heating baths in which a hot liquid is the
heat carrier.
Layer wise mode is used in the
processing of lumpy materials mostly in
shaft furnaces. In such layer wise mode,

all three kinds of heat transfer - radiation,


convection and conduction - are interlinked
so closely that practically cannot be
separated from one another. There are
three types of layer - dense (filtering)
layer, fluidised bed layer and suspended
layer of the processed material.
Modern complex thermal plants are
usually composed of furnace proper
(reaction chamber, burners, electrodes or
resistors) and auxiliary equipment (waste
gas heater, ventilator, exhauster, stack,
valves, gates etc.).
Others :
So far we have discussed the types
and uses of furnaces. It is relevant to
consider kiln used for cement, lime,
ceramic (brick, tile, refractory) and drying
purposes and ovens for drying (moisture
removal), curing, baking, decorating and
solvent evaporation (paint drying).
Hazards and Safety Precautions :
Main hazards while working with
furnaces, kilns and ovens are as under :
1. Burns due to contact with hot surfaces.
2. Burns due to contact with hot product,
fuel or electricity.
3. Splashing or bubbling of molten metal.
4. Contact of cooling water with the
molten metal or slag (e.g. induction
furnace) and explosion due to sudden
steam generation.
5. Fire or explosion due to leakage of fuel.
6. Carbon monoxide from fuel gas or
products of combustion.
7. Explosion due to hydrogen.
Precautions to be followed are as
under :
1. Good
insulation
over
hot
metal
surfaces.
2. Protective clothing for head, face,
hands and feet.
3. Respirators, safety eye glass (plain or
tinted) for protection against dust,
fumes, toxic gases and glare.
4. Exhaust hoods and fans to draw dusts,
fumes, gases etc.
5. Good ventilation to vent off hazardous
waste generated from scrap charged,
alloys and fluxes.
6. Hot work permit before allowing any
worker to enter any hot chamber.
Ensurance
of
cooling,
fresh
air
ventilation and lighting necessary.
7. Interlocking to cut off fuel supply in
case of flame failure.
8. Precautions while lighting fuel or burner
to prevent flash back, fire or explosion.
9. Training and awareness programmes for
workers.

10. Provisions of drinking water and


shielding to avoid heat disorders.
11. Flameproof electric fitting with solvent
drying ovens. PPE against eye and skin
irritation or respiratory disorders.
12. Precautions
against
free
silica,
asbestos etc., while cleaning and
maintaining furnaces. Area monitoring
and medical surveillance of such
hazardous exposures.

4.3
Steel
Manufacture,
Hazards and
Safety
Measures :
Iron
occurs
very
abundantly
constituting about 4.7% of the earths
crust. It is the fourth in abundance (first
three are oxygen, silicon and aluminium)
amongst all the elements. Amongst
metals, its abundance is second only to
aluminium.
The most important iron ores are iron
oxides, carbonates and sulphides.
Three commercial varieties of iron are
cast iron, wrought iron and steel. They
differ in their carbon and phosphorous
content.
Cast iron is the least pure form of iron
containing 2.5 to 4.5% carbon with some
sulphur,
phosphorous,
silicon
and
manganese.
Wrought iron is the purest form of
iron containing less than 0.5% carbon and
other impurities.
Steel comes in between cast iron and
wrought iron. It contains 0.02 to 1.5%
carbon and some manganese. Hardness of
steel increases with increase in carbon
content. Sometimes other elements such
as chromium, silicon, nickel, tungsten,
vanadium and molybdenum are added to
make special steel. Main three grades of
steel are as under :
Low carbon (mild) steel - 0.02 to 0.3 %
carbon
Medium carbon steel
- 0.3 to 0.7 %
carbon
High carbon steel
- 0.7 to 1.5 %
carbon
There are many special purpose types
of steel in which one or more alloying
metals are used, with or without special
heat treatment. Some special alloy steels
are given in Table 20.1.
Table 20.1 Some Special Alloy Steels
Name
1. Chrome
steel

2. Tungsten

Compos
ition
2-4%
Chromiu
m

Properti
es
High
tensile
strength.

10-20%

Retains

Uses
Ball
bearing,
cutting
tools such
as files.
Cutting

steel

Tungsten

3. Stainless
steel

18%
Chromiu
m
&
Nickel
10-18%
Mangan
ese

4. Mangane
se steel
5. Nickel
steel

2.5-5%
Nickel

6. Molybde
num
steel

0.3-3%
Molybde
num

7. Invar

36%
Nickel

8. Silicon
steel

15%
Silicon

hardness
even
at
high
temperat
ures.
Resists
corrosion.

tools
for
high
speed
lathes.

Very hard
and
resistant
to wear.
Resists
corrosion,
hard and
elastic.

Grinding
machinery
, safes.

Retains
corrosion
even
at
high
temperat
ures.
Practically
no
coefficien
t of
expansion
.
Extremely
hard and
resistant
to acids.

Utensils,
ornament
al pieces.

Wire
cables,
gears,
drive
shafts.
Cutting
tools and
axles.

Meter
scales and
pendulum
rods.
Pumps
and pipes
for
carrying
acids.

Carbon steel is the most common,


cheapest and most versatile metal used in
industry.
It
has
excellent
ductility,
permitting many cold-forming operations.
It is also very weldable. Its normal tensile
strength 345 to 485 MPa (50000 to 70000
lbf/in2) permits good ductility. Higher
strength is achieved by cold work, alloying
and heat treatment.
The temperature at which steel begins
to undergo creep, is important. The
threshold temperatures at which creep
begins are :

Mild steel
Low alloy steel
Austenitic stainless steel

400 0C
500 0C
600

Steel production is an index of national


prosperity and the basis of mass
production in many other industries such
as construction, engineering, automobiles,
shipbuilding etc.
4.3.1 Manufacture of Steel :
Steelmaking started in 1855 with the
invention of melting process (Bessemer),
open hearth process (1864) and the
electric furnace (1900). Thereafter the LD
(Linz-Donowitz) process by oxygen lance,
made it possible to manufacture high
quality steel with low production cost.
For large scale production of steel
three methods are employed :

1
2
3

The Bessemer Process.


The Open Hearth Process.
The Electric Furnace Process.

These methods are based on removing


impurities from pig iron and then adding
calculated
amounts
of
carbon,
manganese,
chromium
and
other
elements.
Forth method, known as Cementation
Process is used to manufacture steel in
small quantities. It is based on the addition
of carbon to wrought iron.
(1) In Bessemer Process molten pig iron
taken directly from the blast furnace is run
into Bessemer converter which a pearshaped furnace is having holes to blow air
at bottom and mouth at top. It can be
tilted on horizontal axis.
As the air passes upward through the
molten metal, it oxidises the impurities
(manganese, silicon, carbon) present in
the pig iron.
2Mn
Si
2C

+ O2
+ O2

+ O2

2MnO
SiO2
2CO

MnO and SiO2 combine to give manganous


silicate slag
MnO + SiO2

MnSiO3 slag

CO burns with a blue flame at the


mouth of the converter. When the whole of
carbon is oxidised, the blue flame dies out.
The requisite amount of carbon is then
added to convert iron into steel. At the
end, the converter is tilted to pour out the
molten steel.
If cast iron, from which steel is to be
obtained, contains much phosphorous, the
converter is lined with lime (CaO) and
magnesia (MgO) instead of silica. Some
lime is also added to the charge. The P is
oxidised to P2O5 which then forms a slag of
calcium phosphate.
4P + 5O2 -> 2P2O5
3CaO + P2O5 -> Ca 3(PO4)2
The slag is ground and used as a fertiliser.
(2) In Open Hearth Process, a mixture
of cast iron, scrap iron, iron ore and lime is
melted in an Open Hearth furnace. The
hearth is lined with silica (SiO 2) or calcined
dolomite (CaO.MnO) depending on the
nature of the impurities (C, Si, S, P)
present in cast iron. Heating upto about
1500 0C is continued for 8 to 10 hours.
Impurities get oxidised and then react with
lime to form slag.
SiO2 + CaO -> CaSiO2 slag
P2O5 + 3CaO -> Ca 3(PO4)2 slag

Samples are taken from the hearth


from time to time and analysed. The
carbon content is adjusted and other
metals may be added if special steel is to
be made. The finished batch of molten
steel is removed by tilting the hearth.
Advantages of the Open Hearth
Process over the Bessemer Process are :
1. Steel obtained is of better quality.
2. Fuel economy by regenerative system
of heat economy.
3. Product composition and temperature
can be well controlled.
4. Scrap and iron ore can be directly
changed into steel.
5. No loss due to air blast through the
molten metal.
(3) The Electric Arc Furnace Process :
This process involves the setting up a
carbon arc. Electrodes are held vertically
and the charge of cast iron, scrap iron and
iron ore (haematite), mixed with fixed
quantity of lime is added in between.
The furnace is usually lined with
dolomite. Impurities (C, Si, S, P) are
oxidised. Phosphate and other slag (being
lighter remain at the top) are poured off by
tilting the furnace. After this a charge of
coke, lime and sand is added.
CaO + FeS -> FeO + CaS slag
FeO is reduced to metal by coke
(carbon).
As phosphorous and sulphur are
almost completely removed, the steel
obtained is of good quality. High grade
alloy steel can also be obtained by adding
requisite alloying metal.
(4) Cementation Process : Bars of
wrought iron surrounded by carbon, are
heated in fire brick boxes over 1000 0C for
about 10 days. The carbon from the iron
surfaces diffuses towards interior and
converts iron into steel. Blister steel
formed is melted in graphite crucibles till
removal of blisters. Other metals are
added to confer hardness, tenacity and
resistance to corrosion. The steel obtained
is known as Cementite Crucible Steel and
used to make high grade tools such as
razors, chisels etc.
4.3.2 Hazards and Safety Measures :
Main hazards in steel manufacture are
as under :
1. Burns due to molten metal, its splashes
while tapping, pouring, tilting, falling of
ladle and sparks or spatters.
2. Explosion in metal or slag due to water
insertion and spattering of hot material
over a wide area.

3. Explosion risk in storage, transport and


use of oxygen.
4. Accidents due to heavy transport of
locomotives, wagons, bogies and rail
mounted furnace chargers.
5. Breakage or failure of lifting machines,
tackles,
ladles,
ingots,
overhead
travelling cranes and unsafe access.
6. Obstructed floors, platforms and stairs
with materials and implements.
7. Accidents due to material handling.
8. Poisoning due to Carbon monoxide in
fuel gases (converter gas 68-70%, blast
furnace gas 20-30% and coke oven gas
5-10%) or its leakage from the furnace,
pipelines, water-seal valves, repair
work.
9. Excessive heat, heat-stroke and heat
cramps (lack of salt due to excessive
perspiration) to the workers.
10. Dust generation e.g. sintering near
furnaces and in ingot-making.
11. Dense fumes while using oxygen
lances or its use in open hearth
furnaces.
12. Risk of silicosis to men engaged in
lining, relining and repairing furnaces or
ladles with refractory bricks which may
contain 80% silica. Silicate content
causes pneumoconiosis.
13. Eye and ear damage due to glare, high
noise of blowers and electric furnaces.
To protect the workers from above
hazards, following safety measures are
necessary :
1. Engineering measures like guarding and
fencing of dangerous machine parts,
floors, stairs and platforms, lifting
machines, tackles, transport vehicles
and safe work practices.
2. Good
ventilation,
lighting
and
housekeeping.
3. Efficient exhaust ventilation for removal
of dusts, fumes, gases etc.
4. CO detectors should be used to ensure
safety. Self breathing or air line
respirators should be worn while doing
this manually. Fixed CO detectors with
alarm are desirable at crucial points.
5. Cold drinking water and salt to workers
working in very hot environment.
6. Rotation of workers after short duration
work in hot processes.
7. Ergonomic design of man-machineenvironment relationship.
8. Pre-employment medical examination
to select suitable persons for hard or
hot
work,
crane
work
etc.
TB
disqualifies from work with refractory
materials and heart diseases, obesity
and chronic gastro-enteritis disqualify
from work in hot environment.
9. Periodical medical examination of
workers exposed to heat stress, dust
and high noise.

10. First-aid centre with necessary medical


facilities.
11. Safety organisation including safety
committees, accident investigation and
discussion, safety programmes and
workers training is essential.
12. Use of personal protective equipment
by workers exposed to excessive heat,
noise, dust and hot materials.

5 HOT WORKING
METALS :

OF

Hot working of metal includes foundry


operations, forging operations and hot
rolling operations. They are discussed
below in brief.

5.1

Foundry Operations :

5.1.1 Flow Sheet :


Foundry process consists of melting
metal, sand preparation, core making,
pattern making, mould making and then
pouring molten metal into a moulding box
which is made to the outside shape of a
pattern of the article required and
contains, in some cases, a core which will
determine the dimensions of any internal
cavity. A schematic flow chart is given in
Fig. 20.2. (?)
PATTERN

CORE SHOP

SAND
PLANT

SHOP

Core making
Sand
Core stoving

Patternmaking
Core blowing
Preparation
Coreboxmakin
Core
g
shooting

FOUNDRY
Mould making
Casting
Sand
(Pouring)
Stripping
reclamation
Knock-out
De-coring

FURNACE
SECTION
Charging
FETTLING SHOP
Melting
Blasting
Slagging
Fettling

Refining
Dressing
Tapping
Grinding
Furnace
Maintenance

Fig. 20.2 : Foundry Operations


In course of time foundry process is
modernised and mechanised. Wooden
patterns are replaced by metal or plastic
ones. A wide range of alloys are used as
base metal castings. The traditional cast
metals, iron, steel, brass and bronze, now
contain aluminium, titanium, chromium,
nickel, magnesium, beryllium, cadmium,
and thorium. New techniques for mould

and core making are utilised. In die casting


a light alloy is forced into a metal mould
under pressure of 70-7000 kgf/cm2. In
investment casting, wax pattern with
refractory mould is used.
The metal or alloys are melted and
prepared in a furnace viz. Cupola, rotary,
reverberatory,
crucible,
electric
arc,
channel or cordless induction type. After
metallurgical or chemical analysis, the
molten metal is poured via a ladle or
directly, into the assembled mould. When
the metal has cooled, the mould and core
material, if present, are removed (stripping
or knockout) and the casting is cleaned
and dressed (despruing, shot blasting,
hydro - blasting and other abrasive
technique). Certain castings may require
more finishing, heat treatment, welding,
grinding or painting.
Generally an iron foundry comprises
six sections :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Moulding.
Core making.
Metal melting and pouring.
Knock - out.
Fettling, dressing, finishing and
Miscellaneous.

The hazards and safety measures in


these sections and others are explained
below.

5.1.2 Health Hazards and Safety


Measures :
Hazards
Safety Measures
(1) Moulding (Preparation of sand,
additives
and
moulding
boxes) :
1 Health hazard Good housekeeping,
due to sand, local exhaust system
freesilica, on
mechanised
silicones
and plant,
vacuum
zircon.
cleaning.
Silicosis. Silica
dust in sand
handling,
shake-out and
slinging
operation.
2 Irritation
or Washing with hot
dermatitis due water,
medical
to
Phenolic attention
on
resins
in ingestion.
thermosetting
Barrier creams.
process.
3 Asthmatic
Protective
goggles,
symptoms due local
exhaust
to Methylene ventilation
while
biphenyl
dealing
with
hot
isocyanate
sand resin mixture.
(MBI) used in Clean the storage
cold
self vessel for 24 h with
setting
5%
sodium

process.
carbonate solution.
4 Skin and eye Emergency shower,
irritation
due eye
wash
bottle,
to
sodium barrier
cream,
silicate in the precaution
against
gas ( CO2 ) CO2 cylinders.
hardened
moulding
process.
5 Fire risks due Fire
retardant
to
isopropyl protective clothing,
alcohol sprays hand
protection,
on
mould ventilated booth to
surface
for prevent
organic
better
finish, vapour exposure. No
Dermatitis due smoking.
to
such
solvent.
6 Strain due to Avoidance
of
lifting
and excessive
weight
shifting
of and
using
heavy
mechanical
lifting
moulding
device.
boxes.
7 Hazards
of Two hand controls,
moulding
dual safety squeeze
machines and controls and knee
jolt.
valve jolt control.
(2) Coremaking (Inserting core of
sand and binder into mould ) :
1 Harmful fumes Well maintained
from
core chimney.
baking oven.
2 Pneumoconiosi Dust mask and hand
s
due
to protection to avoid
dusting
in abrasion.
handling
finishing cores.
3 Toxic and fire / Ample
water
for
explosion
washing, FFE, hood
hazard where extractor to remove
amines
are fumes.
used.
4 Core
blowing Parting lines with
machines,
dike seal, two hand
sand
blows, controls
for
one
hand trapping operator and four
between core hand controls for two
box and ram
operators,
core
boxes with handles.
(3) Melting and Pouring ( Furnace
melted metal is poured into a
moulding box through ladle ) :
1 Work near
Breathing apparatus
Cupola
to be kept ready,
Furnace- toxic
emergency work
effect of
under supervision;
carbon
Natural and
monoxide
mechanical
ventilation.
2 Repair work in Safety
helmet,
furnace
safety
belt
while
working at height or
depth.
3 Tapping i.e.
Goggles and PPE,
transferring
refractory or sand
molten metal
floor, care in opening

to a ladle,
radiation

jammed doors,
spillage cleaning,
mechanical material
handling, dry sand to
chill hot run-outs.
4 Health hazards Local exhaust
due to
ventilation, air
acrolein,
dilution by general
Aluminium,
ventilation, FFE,
antimony,
respirators,
beryllium,
aluminium screens
chromium,
against radiant heat,
fluorides, iron
wetting agent,
oxide fumes
precautions against
and dust, lead, lead poisoning, dust
magnesium,
explosion and fire,
manganese,
good sanitary
phosphorus,
facilities, personal
SO2 resins,
hygiene, separate
coal, silica
lunchroom and
noncontaminated
drinking water.
(4) Knock- out operation (Removal
of rough casting, cores, runners
and risers from the moulding
box) :
1 High
noise Reduce the noise or
over 90 dB.
use ear plugs or
muffs.
2 Hot sand, dust Eye protection and
and
metal other PPE necessary.
being
separated.
3 Crushing
or Safety shoes, gloves,
breaking
of caps etc.
hands / feet
etc.
4 Dust
hazard Fine
water
spray
near knock - (mist)
over
the
out grill.
knock-out grill.
(5) Fettling, Dressing & Finishing
(Stripping
away
unwanted
metal by grinding, blasting,
chipping ) :
1 Noise of metal Replace
metal
hammer
for hammer by rubber
knocking.
covered hammer
2 Throwing
Eye
and
face
fragments
of protection.
hot metal.
3 Noise
of Noise enclosure to
rumbling
barrel
with
local
barrels.
exhaust ventilation
(this
is
prohibited)
4 Pneumoconiosi Sand blasting should
s due to sand be replaced by water
blasting.
or iron or steel shot
blasting in a fully
closed system with
dust extraction
system. Wear
Blasters helmet.
Warning notice,
blasting in separate
room. Airless shot
blasting is also used.

5 Hazards of
abrasive,
polishing and
buffing
equipment.
6 Dusting
from
dry
abrasive
wheels.
7 Flying objects
from cleaning
and chipping.

Safe operation of
machine tools, eye,
face, hand and foot
protection.

Local exhaust
ventilation at the
point of origin.
Screens to protect
other workers, wear
eye
and
face
protection, hood &
exhaust system.
(6) Miscellaneous (Pattern making,
painting etc.) :
1 Noise
in Reduce
noise
or
pattern making provide
ear
shop.
protection.
2 Hazards
of Guarding and safe
wood
cutting operation.
and
finishing
machines.
3 Wood
dust Local
exhaust
from sawing.
ventilation.
4 Electrical work. Electrical equipment
must be earthed and
operated safely. Use
PPE.
Training
for
respiratory
resuscitation.
5 Painting,
Fire Speedy
fume
hazard
from removal.
No
flammable
smoking. Use such
fumes.
paint
in
small
quantity
or
use
water base paint.
6 General
Vacuum
cleaning,
dusting.
local exhaust system
at the point of origin.
Water
and
compressed
air
cleaning ( not during
or before melting
and pouring but after
drying only ) No
misuse or playing of
compressed air hose.
Vacuum methods are
preferred
to
compressed
air
cleaning.

5.1.3 Schedule 26, Rule 102 of


the
Gujarat Factories
Rules:
1.

Applicability:
This
schedule is applicable to
production of iron, steel or non-ferrous
melting and casting by moulds of different
materials including the process of shall
moulding,
die-casting,
pressure
diecasting, centrifugal casting, continuous
casting and making ingots, billets, slabs
etc. and the stripping thereof.

It is not applicable to melting and


manufacture
of
lead,
electric
accumulators, printing press, smelting
process, steel ingots, soldering, melting
and casting of lead or lead-based alloy to
make ingots, billets, slabs etc.

2.

Definitions:
Dressing
or
fettling
operation
includes stripping and other removal of
adherent sand, cores, runners, risers, flash
and other surplus metal from a casting to
make the surface clean and smooth but
does not include machining or knock-out
operation.
Knock-out
operation
means
removing castings from moulds and also
stripping, coring-out and removal of
runners and risers.
Pouring aisle means an aisle leading
from a main gangway or directly from
furnace to where metal is poured into
moulds.
Foundry is a place where production of
iron, steel or non-ferrous casting (not the
production of pig iron or steel ingots) is
carried out by using moulds, including
process of shell moulding, centrifugal
casting, die casting, preparation and
mixing of materials, preparation of moulds
and cores, knock-out and dressing or
fettling operations.

3.

7.

Parting Materials :
Material containing more than 5%
silica and dust or matter deposited from
fettling or blasting process shall not be
used as a parting material.
But natural sand, zirconium, calcined
china clay, aluminuous fireclay, fused
alumina, sillimanite and clivine can be
used as parting material if free from silica.
4.

Store, Floor and Cleanliness :


Moulding boxes, ladles, patterns, plates
etc.
shall
be
placed
without
unnecessary risk.
Racks, bins and suitable receptacles to
be used to put heavy articles.
Floor of even and hard surface.
Wall height upto 4.2 mt or more should
be effectively cleaned once in 14
months.
Safe and adequate space for manual
work involving molten metal. It should
be free from obstruction.

Gangways and Pouring Aisles :


Gangways should be of even surface,
hard material and free from obstruction.
Their minimum width should be as under :

Pouring aisles should also be of even


surface, hard material and free from
obstruction. Their minimum width should
be as under Molten metal carried by 1 or 2 men per
ladle - 0.46 m.
If mould remains at 0.51 m height from
the floor - 0.6 m.
Molten metal carried by more than 2
men per ladle - 0.76 m.
Molten metal carried in crane trolley or
truck ladle - safe width.
If the workroom or floor is made of
sand, above width restriction is not
applicable.
6.

Work Near Cupolas & Furnaces :


Safety distances of 4 mts. from the
delivery spout or 2.4 mts. from ladle are
suggested to work near molten metal.
Dust and Fumes :
Open coal, coke, wood or stoves may
be used if their fumes have safe
discharge.
Knock-out and fettling or dressing
operations to be carried out in a separate
room or under effective local exhaust
ventilation.
Ventilation plant should be properly
maintained, examined weekly by a
responsible person and yearly by a
competent person with its report in Form
No. 26-A.
8.

Protective Equipment :
Hand gloves suitable for hot work or
rough work, approved respirators, suitable
footwear or gaiters for risk of burns and
screens for safety against flying material
shall be provided to the workers. Storage
accommodation shall also be provided.
9.

5.

If not used to carry molten metal - 0.92 m.


If used to carry molten metal -

Where truck ladles are used - 0.6 m


wider than the overall width of the
ladle.
Where hand shanks are carried by 1 or
2 men - 0.92 m.
Where hand shanks are carried by more
than 2 men - 1.2 m.
Travel in both directions by men
carrying hand shanks - 1.8 m.

Washing and Bathing Facilities :


Wash place under cover with 0.6 m
length for every 10 persons, or stand
pipes spaced at least 1.2 mts. apart.
At least 50% of wash places should be
in the form of bathrooms.
Sufficient supply of clean water, towels,
nail brushes and soap.

Above facilities should be in charge of


a responsible person and in clean and
orderly conditions.

10. Medical Examination :

Appointment of a qualified doctor


approved by the CIF, with medical
facilities given to him.
The Certifying Surgeon shall examine a
worker within 15 days of his first
employment. Allotment of work only
after fitness certificate in Form No. 27-A
by the Certifying Surgeon (CS). The first
test includes pulmonary function test
and chest X-ray.
Re-examination by the CS every year.
Record in Form No. 20.
Re-employment of unfit person if the CS
declares him fit.

11. Other Provisions :

Knocked out burnt sand and other


waste to be disposed off safely and
quickly.
Dross and skimming removed from the
furnace shall be placed forthwith in
suitable receptacles.
Material and equipment left out of
doors should not cause risk. Safe means
of access, road ways and path ways
should be properly maintained.

5.1.4 Material
Foundries :

Handling

in

Ladles should have sufficient strength


but not excess weight. Proper balance of
hand ladle is desirable. All crane, truck and
trolley pouring ladles should have dog or
gear mechanism and latch to prevent over
turning. Bottom pouring ladles should have
stopper
mechanism.
Preventive
maintenance of hoists, monorail, cranes
and conveyor to handle moulds eliminate
manual handling accidents.
Floors, Pits, Gangways and Aisles :
Foundry floors should be kept clean
and in good condition and level. Drainage
near melting unit is necessary. Water
should be avoided here to avoid explosion
hazard. To hold down dust, only required
water should be used. In molten metal
area passageways at least 0.5 m above
floor level is safe. Pit connected with oven
or furnace and floor opening should have a
cover or guard. Rail track should be
flushed with the floor. Gangways and
aisles should have sufficient width
depending upon use of ladles, crucibles,
moulds and persons to travel.

5.1.5 Mechanised Foundry:


Here moulding is done by machine and
casting cleaned by shot or hydro blasting.
Built-in dust control devices reduce dust

hazard. Airborne dust from sand transfer


by open belt conveyor poses hazard for
which exhaust hood over transfer point on
conveyor are necessary. Conveying by
pneumatic system provides dust-free
system. Die casting involves permanent
metal moulds and pattern making is
replaced by engineering method such as
die sinking wherein pattern making and
sand hazards are removed but use of
refractory material to coat the die or
mould provides some degree or risk.
Higher metal temperatures of steel
foundry requires coloured lenses for eye
protection, dust exhaust system and
respirators for dust and lungs protection
from silicon dioxide. Alloy founding may
give off toxic fume of different metals.
Furnace and flue cleaning may also
provide
toxic
exposure.
Magnesium
foundry poses fire hazard. Fumes of zinc
and copper may cause metal fume
fever. Pressure die casting machines
present hazard similar to power presses.
Mist of oils used as die lubricants and toxic
exposure of fire resistant fluid used in
presses are another hazards. All such
hazards of alloy founding should be
properly controlled.

5.1.6 Non-destructive
(NDT) :

Testing

Use of X-ray equipment for nondestructive tests of castings is an old


procedure. A permanent well-shielded
location for such tests is necessary. All
personnel should wear film badges against
X-ray exposure. Because of the different
absorption values of different materials,
radiographs can be made of objects
through the use of X-ray, radium and
cobalt-60. The activity of radioactive
materials is measured in curies. One
millicurie is defined as 3.7 X 107
disintegrations of radioactive atoms per
second. Radiation is measured by the
amount of ionisation it produces in air and
its unit is roentgen or milliroentgen.
Permissible dose limits should not be
exceeded. The pocket dosimeter shows
the dosage the person has received during
any work period. The film badges and
dosimeters both must be used for
protection
against
radioactive
tests.
Thorough washing with soap and water,
protective equipment and never using
contaminated clothing into clean areas are
desirable for safety.
Non-destructive testing is mainly used
for detecting cracks or determining the
thickness or the quality of weld or metal
parts. The methods used are radiography,
magnetic
particle,
dye
penetrant,
ultrasonic, eddy current and other types.
Detailed information on the theory and
practice
of
non-destructive
testing

methods is given in reference No. 5 at the


end of this chapter.
For details see Part 4.4 of Chapter-19.

5.2

Forging Operations :

5.2.1 Hazards
and
Measures
in
Operations :

Safety
Forging

Forging Process is used for the


plastic deformation of metals and alloys,
either hot or cold by applying the
compressive forces. Hammer or impact
forging exerts multiple forces while press
or roll forging excretes single force.
Hammer and drop forging are carried out
on hot metal only, while press forging is
also possible on cold metal. Forging may
be carried out manually or mechanically.
Accidents
in
forge
shops
are
generally due to hot and cold metal
coming out, falls of the tup, accidental
starting of the machine, crushing hazards,
radiant heat, burns, high noise etc. Forge
workers may suffer chronic rheumatism,
digestive
disorders
(
enteritis
),
inflammatory skin disease, respiratory
trouble and hearing loss due to high noise
and vibration.
General Safety Measures are
:
Good plant layout, uncongested machine
and process layout, good housekeeping
and ventilation, good draft to furnace and
efficient exhaust of gases, water curtains
and reflective or insulating screens for
protection against radiant heat and hot air,
local exhaust systems at the furnaces,
cold air showers at hot work places, noise
absorbent panels and deep and massive
foundations to suppress vibrations. Rest
rooms protected against radiant heat
should be provided and equipped with air
and water showers etc. Comfortable
conditions are 190 to 240C (not exceeding
270C) air temperature, 30 to 50 % relative
humidity and 0.5 m/s air velocity.
Protective heat-resistant armlets, gaiters,
aprons, safety footwear, eye and face
shield, ear muffs or plugs to workers and
their pre-employment
and periodical
medical examinations and safety training
are also necessary.
Specific safety measures in forging
operations are as follows :
Raw Materials :
In the sequence of forging operations
the fist stage is receiving, storing and
preparation of raw materials for actual
forging process.
Receiving : Raw material, in bars of
various lengths and shapes, is received by
railway wagon or automobile truck.
Unloading operations should be carried out
safely under the experienced supervision.

Mechanical lifting and carrying should be


preferred.
Storage : Adequate storage facilities
should be provided with overhead crane or
hoist arrangement for safe mechanical
handling. When piling is done in racks,
retaining posts separating the different
types of material should be used to retain
maximum load. The bundles should be
separated by tie timber of sufficient
strength to prevent being crushed or
broken. Spacers should be placed between
bundles to facilitate the hooking up of
slings.
Handling : The handling of bar stock
in storage areas creates specific hazards,
which must be prevented. Most storage
areas have overhead cranes and either the
electromagnet or the sling suspension
method to carry.
Electromagnet is permissible where
the storage area is isolated from general
manufacturing area or separated by walls
and fences which will control exposure to
plant-personnel not assigned to the
handling operation. The magnet should be
energised by a reliable constant power
circuit, which is separate from the crane
control circuit. Controls should be equipped
with a switch that can be locked in
position. The temperature of the magnet
should be closely watched as its capacity
drops as temperature rises. The magnet
must be lowered to rest and power to
magnet must be off at all times, when the
crane operator is not at the controls.
Shearing and Cutting : Most bar
stock is reduced to forging multiples as per
requirements of forging. Some multiples
are cut by metal saws. Saw tables for bar
stock must be substantial and should be
provided with rollers or slides to assist in
positioning for feed to the saw and for
transferring cut multiples from the
machine. Transmission parts should be
adequately guarded. The wheels and all
moving parts of band saws should be
metal encased. Sliding or adjustable
guards should cover the blade of circular
saw and band saw with the exception of
the point of operation.
Forging Furnaces :
Various types of furnaces are used to
preheat metals before forging. The
principal
furnaces used are the box,
pusher, rotary and slot type.
When lighting the oil fired furnaces, a
lighting torch should be provided and
placed on the furnace hearth near the
burner opening where the mixture of oil
and air will strike the torch flame. The
operator should stand clear of the furnace
openings so as not be exposed to possible
flash back. With gas fired furnace, the
charge and discharge doors should be

opened and the furnace purged to remove


any concentration of gas. Pilots should
then be lit after which the burner may be
turned on slowly, making sure that each
burner is operating before proceeding to
the next. Furnace doors should be left
open until the walls of the heating zone
becomes a cherry red. If the furnace is not
equipped with pilots, it should be ignited
by means of a gas torch inserted through
an opening in the furnace wall or burner
block near the burner opening. This should
be done before the burner valve is opened.
Those assigned to light-up operations on
either oil or gas fired furnaces should wear
clothing that is free from flammable
greases or oils to prevent setting it on fire.
He should wear proper eye and a face
protection (safety spectacle with side
shades and a face shield ) and a safety
hat.
Both gas and oil presents fire and
explosion hazards. Whenever the odour of
gas is detected, checks should be made to
locate the source. Only a gas detecting
instrument or a solution of soap and water
should be used. The use of any type of
ignition only adds to the hazard already
present by introducing the possibility of an
explosion. Should a leak become ignited,
do not attempt to extinguish it until the
fuel source has been shut off. This will
extinguish the flame as the fuel becomes
exhausted. In addition to any safety valves
which may be installed, all fuel lines
should be equipped with easily operated
manual valves installed at the floor level.
They must be readily accessible and
plainly identified. The floor area at the
valve should be kept clear of stock or
other material. Due to vibration set up by
the impact of forging equipment, leaks in
the fuel lines are a common occurrence in
the forgeshop and should be repaired as
soon as detected. Regular inspection
schedules should be set up by the
maintenance staff to locate and repair fuel
line leaks.
Forging furnace should be shielded as
much as possible to protect employees
from radiant heat. This can be done by
means of asbestos covered screens, metal
shield backed by refractory material and
stainless steel or aluminium sheets having
radiant heat reflective qualities. A water or
airline installed along the bottom of the
furnace opening, drilled with small holes in
it, will help curtain the heat. Movable
plates suspended from a rod across the
furnace opening will help control radiant
heat. These plates must be free to slide
along the supporting rod so that operator
as he needs, may move them back and
forth at the furnace opening.
Electrical hazards around forging
furnace exist due to the breakdown of
wiring insulation because of exposure to
heat and moisture. Prompt repair of

defective wiring will reduce the hazard.


Electrical
cables
should
never
be
permitted to lie on the floor where they
may be run by trucks, damaged by stock
containers, dies or hot forging.
Furnaces should be equipped with
safety disconnect switches that can be
locked out when repairs are made. Carbon
monoxide detectors with alarm and other
instruments which will reveal the presence
of harmful gases should be used to check
out a furnace before employees are
permitted to enter. The fuel lines should be
disconnected or sealed to prevent fuel
running into the repair areas inside the
furnace. Permit-to-work system should be
adopted. There should be main safety
switch in the primary power source ahead
of fuses that can be locked out.
Excess smoke from the oil fired
furnaces should be exhausted by means of
an exhaust-ventilation system and furnace
hood.
Cooling
fans
are
necessary
equipment in the forge plant but can be
the cause of many serious accidents. The
fan blades etc. should be adequately
guarded with sturdy wire mesh guards. Up
right conduit extension for electrical cable
should be provided which would keep the
cable off the floor. Fire extinguishers,
suitable for oil fires, should be available for
use in areas where oil is used. Rigid house
keeping standards should be set up and
followed. Oil absorbent compounds should
be used on floors to reduce fire and
slipping hazards.

5.2.2 Preventive Maintenance of


Forging Machines :
Forging Hammers :
In most of the forge shops, drop
hammers are used. These can be
classified into board drop and air or seam
drop hammers depending on the means or
method of power transmission.
Treadle Guard :
The
operating
treadle should be guarded to prevent
accidental depressing of the treadle. It is
important that the treadle guard be well
designed to provide complete coverage
and at the same time allow enough
clearance for operator comfort and control
of the treadle action.
Overhead Bolts : Because the steam
or air drop hammer is a heavy impact
machine , there are several internal and
external stresses occurring in the hammer
structure during the forging process.
Continued stress and vibration causes
metal fatigue of the critical parts of the
hammer. One cannot predict the life of
these parts, so it is important that
protective safety measures be taken to
guard against the falling object hazard.
Parts that frequently fail are head bolts,
cylinder bolts, guide bolts, cylinder bolt

springs, column bolts and gland bolts.


These parts should be retained and
prevented from falling by installing safety
cables or chains.
Power Transmission Parts : In the
case of board drop hammers, all exposed
power transmission parts be well guarded.
This includes the fly wheel, drive belts,
motor pulley and drive coupling etc.
Scale
Shields
:
Complete
confinement of scale is necessary if
serious burns and eye injuries are to be
prevented. Portable shields should also be
used when driving out die or some block
keys to prevent injuries by a die key flying
out into the working area.
Safety Head : All steam or air drop
hammers should be equipped with a
safety type cylinder head designed to
cushion the impact blow if the piston
breaks or pulls out of the ram.
Start up Precautions : In starting a
steam driven hammer, the exhaust valve
must always be opened first and then the
main steam valve. This must be done very
slowly to prevent damage to the cylinder
head. If it were opened rapidly, any water
(condensate) in the cylinder could not
escape as rapidly as the steam. Therefore,
driving the piston against this water would
put undue shock on the cylinder head. A
full stroke of the piston must not be made
until the water on both sides of the piston
has been blown away. This is accomplished
by taking short partial strokes.
Other Precautions : Air or steam
valve should be closed whenever the
hammer will not be used for considerable
length of time. The ram, piston rod and
dies are much more likely to be broken
when cold.
Maintenance and Inspection : For
complete dismantling and overhaul of a
hammer
as
well
as
day-to-day
maintenance, select tools and rigging
equipment carefully. Because hammer
parts are extremely heavy and bulky,
employees must be fully trained in heavy
rigging and repair work. A well planned
inspection and preventive maintenance
and accurate up-to-date records of
replacement parts are necessary. Hammer
equipment is usually hot and slippery thus
creating a hazardous condition if proper
facilities are not provided. Proper rigging
equipment,
hand
tools,
hoisting
equipment, ladder and platforms should be
available.
Permanent
platforms
at
overhead
for
hammer
repair
and
adjustment
areas
are
absolutely
necessary.
Forging Press :
Due to its basic design, the forging
press falls within the classification of
power
presses and hence hazards
involved are similar to those of power

presses. Therefore its maintenance is also


similar to that of a power press. See part
6.2.2.
Trim Press :
Some forging have a rim of excess
metal called flash. It must be removed by
trimming (shearing) the metal either while
it is still hot from forging operation or after
it has cooled. This work is done in Trim
Presses. Hazards and precautions involved
are similar to power presses. See part
6.2.2.
Horizontal Forging Machines :
Horizontal forging machines are also
called headers or up setters. These
machines are designed for forging bolt
heads etc.
Guarding : All parts of the machine
except the feeding area should be entirely
enclosed. Access doors may be cut into
the enclosure in order to serve or lubricate
moving parts. Movable section of guards
should be interlocked so that the machine
cannot be operated until every thing is in
proper place. To prevent accidental
tripping of the operating pedal, it should
be enclosed.
Die Setting and Repairs : When
dies are changed, repaired or adjusted, all
power should first be shut off and locked
out to prevent accidental starting. When
the flywheel is completely stopped, dies
open, and the header slide is completely
back, the dies should be removed. Dies for
new set up are usually lowered into the
machine with a pry bar. It is good practice
to make the set-up according to die layout.

5.2.3 Safe
Forging

Work Practices
Operations:

in

Stuck Forging :
In the event of stuck forging, the
proper knock out tools and techniques
should be applied. The tools should be
made so that they are easy to handle and
hook safely either around a die block or on
the back of the die to prevent kick-back.
They should be made from soft steel and
receive proper care, inspection and
maintenance. Die liners, flash, wrenches
or bars should never be used to remove
stuck forging. Cold steel should never be
placed between dies to dislodge stuck
forging.
Suspended Chains and Trolleys :
Because forging operations require a
great deal of stock movement (such as
from furnace to hammer to press to
conveyor
)
overhead
trolley
with
suspended chains or tongs and hoist for

heavy material are used to great


advantage. Equipment including hoists,
slings and chains should always be kept in
good working order by periodic inspection
and preventive maintenance schedules.
Props and Catches :
Props and catches used during
productions : Loose props should not be
used. To support the ram between forging
sequences on hammers, mechanical props
or catches attached permanently to the
hammers should be used. There are two
main types: counter balanced props and
fork catches. Fork catches have the merit
of giving maximum engagement when
supporting the ram, but they suffer from
certain mechanical disadvantages and
prone to failure, if not effectively
maintained. Ends of the prop should be
absolutely flat for better support.
Props used during die changing : With
all types of hammers the ram has to be
supported in a raised position during die
changing, and the usual method employed
is to use a prop. Every hammer should
have its own die changing prop, which
have an identifying mark on it and should
be secured to the hammer. Props should
be used during die changing in hammers
with automatic or pneumatic hold-up gear.
Accidents have occurred when the ram has
been kept in raised position by held up
gear ( in case of steam or pneumatic
hammer, by pressure ). Inadvertent
tripping of the hammer pedal has caused
the ram to fall and serious injury to the
person setting. An additional and much
safer precaution is to switch off power or
close securely all main supply valves on
air and steam hammers and support the
ram by a
properly
designed
and
maintained prop.
Tongs :
Tongs are the basic handling tool of
the forging trade and because of their
tremendous impact force, they can cause
serious accidents. How well the tongs are
handled by the operator and how well they
fit to the forgings are factors which control
this hazard. Light weight tongs, properly
fitted
to
stock
or
forging,
are
recommended.
Tongs should be of
sufficient length so that handles cannot
kick back and cause injury. They must be
handled and held properly to prevent
finger and hand injuries. To help prevent
forging or billets from being dropped
during handling, the tongs bits must be
properly fitted to the tong hold. When not
in use, tongs should be stored on specially
designed tong-stand. Replacement tongs
must be readily available to discourage
employees from using worn out tongs.

Personal Protective Equipment :


Personal protective equipment for
forge shop employees include safety
shoes, leather leg guards, safety helmets,
hand and arm protection, leather aprons,
etc. Goggles with coloured or clear lenses,
face shield or wire mesh face screen
should be worn to help prevent face and
eye injuries. Aluminised asbestos cloth
overalls should be provided to furnace
men to protect them from radiant heat.
Ear muffs or ear plugs should be provided
to forging crew to protect them from noise.

5.2.4 Safety in Use, Handling,


Storage
and Changing of Dies
:
Die Design : Proper die design
incorporates the safety needs of all
operations. The size of the blocks selected
for a die is dependent on the size of the
hammer and on the type and number of
impressions. Selection of too small a block
increases the hazard of breakage and
injury during forging. Danger of loosening
or breaking of dies increases, if the striking
surface is not held to a total area, which is
in direct proportion to the size and stroke
of the hammer in which it will be used.
Narrow areas of striking surface should be
avoided to reduce the possibility of cutting
the metal which might overflow the gutter.
Gutters should be adequate to completely
contain the access metal, or flash and
prevent it from being forced on to the
striking surface where it can be squirted
like bullets from the die.
Die Making and Die Sinking :
Probably the most important single
factor for safety in die making is the
establishment
of
definite
uniform
standards. These reduce operational
hazards and avoid unusual or makeshift
practices.
Die Making : Machine should be
adequately
guarded.
Turntables
are
recommended for each bench for easier
manually turning of the die blocks.
Die Handling :Hooks, eye or other
devices for handling should not be
attached to forging die as they break off
under constant forging impact. Holes in
opposite sides of a die block into which a
pin is inserted for lifting with a sling is the
desirable method. The pins should be of
uniform size and sufficient length to
provide slings with pins built into the sling
assembly to prevent use of make shift pins
in lifting blocks.
Die Storage : The storage of dies
should provide a smooth and level base
area with ample space between rows for
mechanical handling equipment and easy

access without undue die movement.


Compartments for die storage racks should
provide space for the largest and heaviest
dies to be stored on the lower tiers and
graduated with the smallest and lightest
dies on the upper tiers.
Removal and Set up of Dies :
Key Driving : Extreme care should be
taken when driving die key either in or out.
Severe injuries as well as strains and
bruises can result from improper or
careless handling. Correctly tapered key
made of medium carbon steel, properly
heat treated, should be used. Regular
inspection for mushroom ends or other
defects should be made both before
driving and promptly after removal. Die
key should be designed to protrude only a
safe distance to permit driving from both
front and back. When using a pneumatic
key driver or suspended key ram, one man
should direct operations. The immediate
area should always be clear of both
unused
equipment
and
unnecessary
personnel,
because
there
must
be
sufficient
clearance
for
necessary
equipment and personnel for safe and
efficient driving.
Dowels : Dowels should be properly
designed and maintained. Dowels should
be driven in tight-mushroom head.
Die Repair : Die repairmen are
subject to the hazards like burns from hot
dies, danger of flying sparks, lacerations
from die or tools, strains and bruises from
improper handling of dies. To ensure safe
operations,
adequate
space
and
equipment should be provided. Safety
glasses and safety shoes must be worn at
all times. Proper handling facilities should
be installed. Repairing dies under a
hammer should be discouraged.

5.3
Hot
Operations:

Rolling

Mill

5.3.1 Rolling Mill Operations :


Hot or cold rolling mills cover a variety
of operations with ferrous as well as nonferrous metals such as copper and
aluminium.
In the rolling mill, the ingots from the
soaking pits are first treated in the
blooming or slabbing mill to produce
blooms, billets or slabs. Then sheet and
strip steels are rolled from slab, structural
steel from blooms or billets and bars and
rods from blooms or billets. In general, hot
rolling is used for heavy sections and cold
rolling to give desired surface condition
with only slight reduction of section. After
rolling and cooling if necessary, the
product is cut to standard lengths and

bundled for
department.

dispatch

in

the

finishing

5.3.2 Hazards and Contracts :


Harmful Gases from lead alloy rolling
or cutting, gas cutters, or butt welding
(ozone effect), pit furnace and reheating
furnace
need
effective
exhaust.
Lubricating oil mist, cooling emulsions,
degreasing agents for finishing operations,
acids in pickling shops and ionising
radiation in gauging and examining (nondestructive testing) of metals pose many
health hazards. Medical precautions are
desired.
In Hot Rolling, looping and lashing
may cause burns and severing of lower
limbs for which protective posts or other
safety devices are necessary. Bridges
under roller conveyors are required at
crossing points. All hand tools and tongs to
hold hot material should be well designed,
frequently inspected and well maintained.
Ring spanners and impact wrenches
should be given to roll changing crews.
Splash guards reduce the ejection of scale
and hot water. Radiant heat levels may go
upto 1000 Kcal/m2 in hot rolling mills. The
infrared radiation may damage upper
respiratory tracts. Fans and blowers at hot
working places should be so positioned as
not to cause chills. Too chilled (less than
100C) drinks are also not good.

6 COLD WORKING
METALS
6.1

OF

General :

There are thousands of metal working


machines, machine tools and methods for
variety of machine operations for general
and special jobs which require individual
guard design, treatment and different
principles. The safety aspect of all such
machines cannot be covered in one
chapter.
Therefore
some
common
principles and methods of guarding are
discussed below. An efficient engineering
design and application are most essential.
The five functional methods of cold
working of metals are pressing or
punching, shearing or cutting, rolling,
bending and hammering.
1. Pressing or punching consists of
forming, shaping, cutting or assembling
metal by means of tools or dies
attached to plungers or other moving
parts. Various types of power presses,
hydraulic
presses
and
pneumatic
presses are included here.
2. Shearing consists of cutting metal by
the shearing action of movable knives.
They may have straight or bevel edged
blade. Shearing action may be of a

guillotine knife, the sliding action of


scissors or the rolling action of rotating
disks. Squaring shears, plate shears,
guillotine shears, alligator shears,
rotary shears, circular shears, disc
shears and rotary slitters are included
here.
3. Rolling consists of forming or shaping,
drawing or reducing the thickness of
metal by bringing it in contact with
revolving power driven rolls. Bending
rolls, straightening rolls, corrugating
rolls, beading rolls, flanging rolls, wire
drawing and hot or cold rolling mills are
included here.
4. Bending (braking) consists of bending
or forming sheet metal by means of a
tool or die usually actuated by a ram.
Some brakes operate like press and
some like a guillotine shear. Brakes are
known as press brakes or apron brakes
and are also identified by their
operation
e.g.
folders,
flanger,
corrugators or crimpers.
5. Hammering
consists
of
forming,
shaping or breaking metal by means of
gravity or power-operated plungers
which may or may not be fitted with a
die, the metal to be formed resting on
an anvil or a die. The plunger may be
raised by mechanical, steam, hydraulic
or pneumatic power.
The most dangerous part or zone is
the point of operation and the purpose of
point of operation guarding is to prevent
injury to the operator at the part of the
machine
where
above
mentioned
operations
are
carried
out.
Seven
principles of such guarding are :
1. Design and construct tools so that the
guards may not be needed.
2. Provide
enclosures,
covers
and
barricades.
3. Provide mechanical feeding device.
4. Provide device
that
prevents
or
interrupts the movement of tools when
the operator is in the danger zone.
5. Provide
remote
control
operating
mechanism.
6. Provide device (guard) that removes
the body part safely from the danger
zone
7. Combination of these devices to
achieve full protection.
For types and selection of guards see
Part 5 of Chapter-14 on machine guarding.
They indicate the principles of safe
machine design. Individual motor drive,
elimination of manual operation in
hazardous zone, safe location, safe
arrangement and position of machines and
their dangerous parts, guarding of prime
mover and transmission mechanism,
ergonomic design and follow-up of
statutory provisions and Indian standards

are all useful to prevent machine


accidents.
We saw that the point of operation is
the dangerous zone which requires
effective guarding. The best course is to
provide fully automatic feeding
and
ejecting device at such point so that the
man-machine contact is avoided. A
hopper, magazine, feed roll or similar
device should be designed and applied. If
this is not possible, provide semiautomatic
feeding device viz., a chute, slide, sliding
die, dial or similar device which feeds to
the point of operation. If this is also not
possible, a manual feeding may be
permitted with appropriate guarding and
precaution.
Automatic
feeding
and
automatic ejection of the material will
allow the danger zone to be fully enclosed
(as the operator does not need to place his
hands there) and full concentration on
production (as no fear of injury), thus
increasing safety and productivity both.

6.2
Presses,
Shears
other Machines:

and

6.2.1
Hand and Foot Operated
Presses :
Non-power presses are generally hand
or foot (kick) operated and are used for
blanking, forming, punching etc., mostly
on metal, but also on leather, card board
plastics and pastry. An accident may take
place if the operators attention is
distracted, the work is jammed in the die,
the ram descends due to slackness in
guides
and
insufficient
frictional
resistance, mistake of one operator if two
operators work on the same press. Their
safety devices include :
1. Closed tools, fixed guards and restricted
stroke.
2. Interlock guards.
3. Pendulum and sweep away device.
4. Automatic device which arrests the
ram.
5. Two hand control.
6. Firm foundation and mounting of the
press.
7. Sufficient spacing or screens to prevent
other workers coming into contact with
moving parts.
8. The ram should not descend due to
gravity.
9. Regular inspection and maintenance
and
10. Good training and supervision.

6.2.2 Power Presses :


For Schedule 6 u/r 54 of the GFR on
Power Presses see Part 5.4 of Chapter-14.
Power presses are used in metal
pressing, stamping, piercing, drawing,

forming,
moulding,
riveting,
coining,
assembling, staking, burnishing, trimming,
sizing, flattening, bumping, embossing,
horning,
forcing,
flanging,
bending,
straightening,
swaging,
planishing,
punching, extrusion etc. The power may
be mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic.
Types of Guards recommended for
Power Presses are as under :
1. Starting and stopping mechanism to
prevent over running of the press or
descent of the ram during tool setting
etc. A brake to stop ram in upper
position and an arrestor brake to arrest
the movement of crank shaft and
flywheel are also necessary.
2. Protection of tool and die by means of a
fixed guard with a slip plate to enclose
the front and sides of the tool, fixed
guard surrounding the die with back
tunnel for falling the pressed article to
the rear, a feeding device through
chute or otherwise at the bottom of the
die guard, an efficient automatic or
interlock guard in place of a fixed guard
if the fixed guard is not possible.
3. Fixed die-enclosure guard.
4. Fixed barrier guard to allow ready
access to the die. The pivoting or
sliding section must be interlocked with
the press control to prevent operation
of the machine when the section is
open.
5. Adjustable barrier device attached to
the frame of the press and which can
be adjusted for dies of almost any size.
6. Gate or movable barrier device to
enclose the point of operation before
the clutch can be engaged.
7. Auxiliary point of operation device.
8. Two hand tripping device requiring
constant pressure till the slide has
reached the bottom of the downstroke.
9. Sweep device to push hands out of the
point of operation zone. Such device is
activated by the slide through linkage
and may have a single or double arms.
10. Pull-back, pull-out or pull-away device
to pull back hands as the slide
descends. Such device should be
adjusted to each job because of
variation.
11. Electric or electronic device to prevent
the pressure from cycling. Such device
can be used only on presses having
friction clutches with brakes to stop the
press at any point of slide travel. It is
not effective on punch presses with
positive clutches because no device can
prevent completion of the cycle once it
starts.
12. Photo cell device operating on
interruption of light beam near the
dangerous zone.
13. Pedal guard over the foot pedal or
switch button. A spring closed door

requiring positive pressure in such


guard provides further safety.
14. Instead of foot pedal, if the hand lever
is used, a spring latch to prevent
accidental or premature tripping, should
be provided. If there are more than one
operator, the hand lever should be
interlocked.
15. A press with a positive clutch should
have a single stroke attachment which
disconnects the pedal or operating
lever after each stroke.
16. When the press is used on continuous
operation by making the single stroke
or non repeat device inoperative, the
die should be completely enclosed
regardless of the method of feeding and
ejecting device to avoid use of hands
between die and punch. The six
semiautomatic feeds are chute (gravity
and follow), plunger, slide or push,
sliding dies, dial and revolving dies. The
best method of ejection is usually pickup fingers or compressed air.
17. Hand feeding tools such as vacuum
cup, tong, magnetic rod etc. to put and
take small parts to and from a punch
press.

6.2.3 Hydraulic
Presses:

and

Pneumatic

The hazards are similar to those of the


power presses. Some particular hazards
are: sudden dropping of the slide due to
power failure or breaking of a pressure
line, defective dual controls, leaking
valves, air pressure built up between dual
controls in wiring etc.
Control measures are :
1. Limiting slide travel by means of a
cylinder designed for short travel, by
die or jig and fixture design or by
auxiliary stops.
2. Fixed barrier guards.
3. Movable barrier guards.
4. Electrically controlled and air operated
solenoid valve holds the slide in an up
position in case of power failure.
5. Interlock
guard
to
stop
closing
movement of the tools.
6. In case of Die-Casting Presses, to avoid
trapping and splashes by molten metal,
a sliding cover is interlocked with
hydraulic or pneumatic power. A
mechanical scotching device to restrain
the platens from closing when the
interlock sliding shield is open and
guard operated electrical switches
linked to the solenoid of the main
platen cylinder control valve are also
necessary.
7. Plastic Moulding Presses are of two
types-injection and compression. In
case of injection moulding press, a
sliding cover on vertical parting (dies)

surfaces and in case of compression


type an interlocked scotch (a heavy
struck or a hook type) are necessary to
avoid trapping between dies.
8. Rubber Moulding Press is compression
moulding type and an interlocked guard
is necessary to prevent trapping.
9. Bailing press needs a hinged guard
interlocked with the driving power.
10. Pie and Tart press used for moulding
and filling pastry for pies and tarts, a
hinged guard for protection against
operating
ram,
electro-mechanical
brakes on motor and blanking of gaps
near tops of the moulds are necessary.
11. Brick and Tile presses need interlock
guards or photoelectric safety device. In
case of mechanically fed presses, a
tunnel guard near delivery opening is
necessary.

6.2.4 Press Brakes :


A Press brake is a type of power press
used to cold-form angles, channels and
curved shapes in plate, strip or sheet
metal stock. It is also used for punching,
embossing, corrugating, notching and
other operation. Typical hazards are :
1. Crushing between the punch and the
die or between the work being bent
and the ram.
2. Cuts from contact with stock being
processed.
3. Injuries from handling punches and
dies.
Control devices are :
1. A front horizontal work rest cum
distance guard (this may be a fixed,
automatic
or
interlocked
guard)
adjusted to coincide with height of die
and supporting brackets anti fall back
device on rear side to stop the material
being fallen.
2. Photo electric device in addition to
fixed, interlock or automatic guards.
3. Worn punches and dies should be
retooled or discarded as they give
excessive strain on the press.
4. Instruction and training of operators.
5. Periodic
inspection
and
well
maintenance of parts in good working
condition.
6. Starting devices such as two-hand
switches or levers, treadle bars, foot
switches. Foot controls should be
covered by stirrup guards to prevent
accidental tripping.
7. Reverse control with the start switch to
use when tools become frozen.
8. Soft metal pliers, rather than fingers,
should be used to feed small parts to
the press. Fingers should not be brought
within 10 cm of the point of operation.

9. Positive over-run stop device, single


stroke device and elimination of
treadles by a shrouded pedal to prevent
inadvertent operation.
10. Operators should be instructed to test
operate the machine before start of
each shift. They should be well trained
and well informed of the work.

6.2.5 Metal Shears and Slitters:


For Shears, Slitters and Guillotine
Machines under Schedule 6, rule 54,
GFR, see Part 5.4 of Chapter-14.
Squaring shears should have fixed
barrier guard placed at least 12 mm away
from the shear (knife) and not more than
10 mm above the table or it may be a self
adjusting barrier which will automatically
adjust itself to the thickness to be cut with
a limit of 8 mm above the table. The guard
should extend across the full width of the
table and it may be slotted, perforated or
set at an angle to permit good visibility of
the cutting line. The hold-down can be
guarded separately or as a part of the
knife guard. The back of the knife should
also be guarded and chutes or slides
should be attached to catch the work
without reaching close to the knife. The
entire length of the treadles should be
provided with fixed guard allowing only a
gap for the operators foot. To avoid
accidental tripping of the shear, an extra
foot latch may be attached to the treadle.
Alligator shears are used in forging
operations. For cutting rods and bar stock
to length, the alligator shear operates
continuously and the operator must be
trained to time his movement with the
opening and closing of the cutter. An
adjustable guard should be set close to
prevent the fingers from entering the
danger zone.

6.2.6 Forming Rolls:


The nip point (full length) between the
rolls should be guarded utilising a feed
table. A special purpose feeding device
(channel type) can be easily installed to
feed short pieces. Reverse electric
switches or emergency tripping bars are
also useful. Brakes are necessary if the
rolls continue to revolve after power has
been cut off.

6.3

Cold Rolling Mills :

In Cold Rolling nip guards on rolls are


necessary to avoid trapping. Dangerous
parts of shearing, cropping, trimming and
guillotine machines should be securely
guarded. Oil spillage on floors should be
cleaned. Gratings, absorbent materials
and non-slip boots are necessary. Fire
protection in plants containing hydraulic
equipment is necessary. Accidents due to

material handling should be avoided by


methods stated in Chapter-15. Good
housekeeping and good illumination are
also essential. Hard hats, safety shoes,
gaiters, gloves, goggles etc. should be
worn.
Noise is at many places such as
gearbox
of
rolls
and
straightening
machines, pressure water pumps, shears
and saws, throwing of metal products.
Planning at design stage to segregate such
noise zone is essential. Sound proof and
heat radiation proof cabins for operators
and crane drivers increase safety as well
as efficiency. If technical control of noise is
impossible or insufficient, ear protectors
should be given to workers.
Vibration due to percussion tools and
recoiling and rebounding effect of the
material introduced into the gap between
the rolls may cause health hazards for
which engineering control is the only best
remedy. Other measures are less effective.

lead baths which are not covered or have


no fume extraction.
Preventive
Measures
include
guarding of dangerous moving parts, drive,
nips, wire pulley nips and feed points by
screens and barriers (adequate to contain
a broken wire), enclosure of dangerous
chemical processes, removal of fumes and
dust by exhaust ventilation, use of
personal protective equipment (safety
helmets, goggles, face masks, gloves,
aprons, footwear), safe material handling,
training, barrier creams and medical
examination of workers.

6.4
Wire
Operations :

A machine tool is a machine for


making articles of a given shape, size and
accuracy (according to the blueprints) by
removing metal from work pieces. Machine
tools are factory equipment for producing
machines, instruments and tools of all
kinds.
Machine tools are classified as (1)
Lathes (2) Drilling and boring machines (3)
Grinding, Polishing or Finishing machines
(4) Combination machine tools (5) Gear
and Thread cutting machines (6) Milling
machines (7) Planning, Shaping, Slotting
and Broaching machines (8) Cutting off
machines and (9) Miscellaneous machines.
CNC (Computer Numerical Control)
machine tools are used for doing multi
operations. CAD (computer aided design)
and CAM (computer aided manufacturing)
technique gives fully automatic machine
tools operations.
Machine tools may cause less serious
accidents
than
do
metal-forming
machines, but, because of their greater
use, their accidents may exceed in
number.

Drawing

The usual meaning of wire is a coiled


metallic stock up to 3/8 inch cross
sectional width. Wire drawing is cold
working in which semi-finished metal rod
stock is transformed into wire of smaller
diameter and perfectly round cross-section
by pulling it through a die or dies. The
operational diagram is shown below.
Metal
Rod

Stock
Wire
Drawing

Galvanising

Tinning

Mechanica
l
descaling
or
patenting

Chemica
l
descalin
g

Coating

Annea
ling

Patent
-ing

Water
wash

Harddrawn
wire

Annealed or patented wire can further


be subjected to acid clean, water wash,
coating and redrawing. At the end the
wires kept into wire stock or used for
products. Drawn wire may be galvanised
or tinned before delivery. During wire
drawing operation either the wire is
passed through dry lubricants (soap or
sodium, calcium or aluminium stearates )
or wet lubricants (soap solution, paraffin
etc. ) in which the dies are fully immersed
for maximum lubrication and cooling which
also gives a bright clean finish.
Hazards are acid splashes, burns,
cuts, bruises, falling forging bodies in to
eye, skin diseases due to acid, dusts, scale
and lubricants and lead poisoning due to

6.5

Machine Tools :

Classification, uses and safety aspects


of machine tools are important.

6.5.1 Definition
and
Classification of Machine
Tools:

6.5.2 Safety in Use of Machine Tools :


Machine-wise hazards and guards
are explained below.
Turning Machine :
Turning consists in shaping a rotating
piece by revolving it against a cutting tool,
thus producing a cylindrical surface.
Machine tools coming under this category
include all forms of metal-turning lathes
including automatic screw machines.
Some hazards and suitable guards are as
follows :
Hazards

Guards /
Controls

Contact with
projections of
face plates and
chucks.
Contact with
projections of
the dogs and
projecting set
screws.
Flying metal
chips, long burrs
and turnings.

Hand braking of
machines.

Filling and
emerying
without a
holding device.
Gauging the job
while machine is
in motion.
Cleaning chips
in motion.
Projection of the
work or stock
beyond
machine.
Flying off the
job.
Inserting blanks
and removing
the processed
part without
stopping.
Splashing of
coolant resulting
in slipping
hazards and
dermatitis.

6
7
8

9
10

11

12

Head-stock
guard.
Chuck guard.
Counter sunk
screws.

Enclosure guard,
portable perspex
screen guard,
use of chip
breaker tool.
Foot pedal brake
with trip switch,
pneumatic
chuck and
feeding tools for
small jobs.
Automatic
emerying.
Emery holder.
Dial indicators.
Tight fitting
clothing.
Safety hook /
brush.
Tube guard. Bar
stock guard.
Full enclosure
guard.
Spindle jaws,
mechanical
feeding device
and safety
fixture.
Splash guard,
pan and
enclosure guard
mounted on
rollers. Floor
mats.
Chip guard.
Goggles or face
shield.

Flying chips of
cast iron, brass
and other non
ferrous metals.
13
Pulleys, belts,
Fixed guards.
gears,
Hinged guard.
setscrews.
Turrets & Capstan Lathes :
14
Counter weight
Tube guard.
falling and bar
Blank off hole.
flying through
turret head.
Multispindle Lathe :
15
Collecting
Wire mesh.
component
Spoon collectors.
while just
parting off.
16
Parted
Sharpening tools
component
properly.
comes in
between tool

and the first


spindle.
Boring or Drilling Machines :
Boring or drilling consists of cutting a
round hole by means of a rotating cutting
tool. Machines in this class are vertical or
horizontal, fixed or portable drills, reamers,
honers. Some hazards and guards are as
follows :
Hazards
1
2

Spindle contact.
Tool and chuck.

Unclamped job
and breakage of
tool or struck by
the job.
Hair and loose
clothing
in
contact
with
revolving
spindle and bit.

5
6
7
8

Sweeping chips
by hand.
Belts,
pulley,
gears, setscrew.
Flying particles.
Rotating
horizontal table.

Guards /
Controls
Sleeve guard.
Telescopic
drill
guard, combined
drill
&
chuck
guard.
Clamp the job.
Use iron plate (L
section) for a big
job.
Cage
type
guard.
Cap.
Tight
fitting
clothing. Gloves,
neckties
long
sleeves
not
permissible.
Brush.
Fixed guards.
Barrier
guard.
Goggles.
Surrounding
machine guard.

Milling Machines :
Milling consists of machining a piece of
metal by bringing it into contact with a
rotating cutter with multiple cutting edges.
Machines in this class are vertical or
horizontal milling machines, planer-type
milling machines, gear hobbers and
special machines using one or more milling
cutters with other tools. According to one
survey @ 66% of all milling machine
accidents occur when operators load,
unload or make adjustments while
machine in motion. Some hazards and
guards are as follows :
Hazards
1

Revolving
cutter.

Guards /
Controls
Jaw type
interlocked or
adjustable
guard, or a self
closing guard
which
automatically
close when the
job table moves
backward and

Removing chips
and swarf
cleaning by
hand and using
rag to clean oil
while it is
running.
Failure to clamp
the work
properly.
Failure to draw
the job back to a
safe distance
while loading or
unloading.
Tightening or
loosening arbor
nut and other
parts.
Power drive
pulley, belts,
gears etc.

opens when it
moves forward
for operation.
The guard may
be transparent if
visibility is
required.
Brush, magnetic
sweep, cleaning
after stopping
the machine.
Long sleeves to
be avoided.

Shapers :
1
Speed changing
and
other
drives.
2
Flying
and
removing chips.
3
Flying jobs.
4

Moving ram and


tool.

Permanent
magnetic plate
fitted on the
bed.
Fixed guard.

5
6

Reversing dogs.
Other
as
for
planners.

Broaching Machines:
Slotting Machine:
Grinding Machines :
Use proper
spanners.
Education and
training.
Closed housing
or fixed guards
and start / stop
switch within
reach.

Planning & Shaping Machines :


Planing consists of machining a
surface by moving the work (job on bed)
back and forth under a stationary cutting
tool. In shaping the work is held
stationary under a reciprocating tool.
Machines in this class include planers,
shapers, broachers, slotters and key
seaters. Some hazards and guards are as
follows :
Hazards
Planners :
1
Bed
travelling
within
short
distance
from
fixed object.

Falling material
from the table
or bed.

Pulley, belts,
drives and
reversing dogs.
Flying particles.

Aprons, goggles,
brush.
Clamping
device.
Transparent
shield for tool. A
retriever to the
limit
of
the
stroke of ram
channel.
Fixed guard.
As for planners
and
stated
above.
(Add)

Grinding consists of shaping metal by


bringing it into contact with a rotating
abrasive wheel. Grinding may be internal
or external, flat, cylindrical or centerless.
Polishing, Buffing, honing and lapping are
also considered as parts of the grinding
process.
Main causes of accidents are wheel
breakage due to hidden or undetected
cracks, mechanical shock, over or loose
tightening, unchecked traverse of the work
on to the side of the wheel, over speeding,
incorrect selection of wheel, excessive
heating, excessive work pressure and eye
or face injury due to flying particles. Some
hazards and guards are as follows :
Hazards
1

Flying particles,
Coolant
and
lubricants.

Dust generation.

Bursting of the
wheel.

Accidental
contact with the
running wheel.

Guards /
Controls
Fixed guard or
fencing
to
prevent
entrapping
within 45 cm
(section 25, F.A )
All gaps to be
guarded.
Fixed
or
self
adjusting table
guards on sides.
Job
clamping
device.
Fixed guards,
starting and
stopping device.
Aprons, goggles
side runway for
large planers.

Fixed or hinged
guard.

Guards /
Controls
Goggles or face
shields.
Eye
shield attached
with
the
machine frame.
Local
exhaust
ventilation.
Protection hood
(wheel guard )
and
protection
of
flanges.
Chucks
or
bands. No over
speeding. Avoid
grinding on the
side
of
the
wheel.
Compliance
of
sec.
30,
Factories Act.
Tool or work rest
and its proper
adjustment
to
avoid
contact
and trapping.

Portable
grinders.

Belt drive and


other dangerous
parts.

Wheel
guard.
Electrically
earthed
and
fully
safe.
Shock-proof
gloves.
Fixed guard.

Main precautionary measures are as


under:
1. Selection of a right wheel for right
speed and right diameter. With the
same rpm, peripheral speed increases
as wheel diameter increases and
centrifugal force increases as peripheral
speed increases. Due to excessive
centrifugal force, the wheel may break.
Therefore peripheral speed (m/s or f/m)
is most important and a grinding wheel
should be selected based on its
peripheral speed.
2. Ring test is carried out by a qualified
person to check any crack in the wheel.
3. Speed test before installing wheel. Test
speed should be 1.5 x service speed.
Testing should be on special stands.
4. The wheel should never be rotated at a
higher speed than that stamped on it.
5. Wheel guard (hood) should be fastened
securely to the grinding head to protect
against flying fragments or coolant if
any. An adjustable tongue or a movable
wheel guard is necessary to restrict
wheel exposure to 6 mm.
6. Abrasive dust and slurry removal
equipment should be in good repair.
Dust generating equipment should be in
a separate room.
7. Electrical earthing, bonding and on-off
switch in easy reach.
8. Proper storing in dry area . Use special
racks, shelves or boxes according to the
shape & size.
9. Proper dressing of the wheel.
10. Use wheel washer and flanges of
correct size and equal diameter (at
least 1/3 dia of the wheel).
11. Avoid
overtightening
or
loose
tightening. Use proper tool. Proper
mounting to avoid internal stresses. Use
mounting blotters supplied with wheels.
12. Check spindle threads so that the nut
is not loosened on revolution.
13. Use spindle of correct diameter.
14. Balance the wheel to avoid vibration.
Balance before installation.
15. Apply the work slowly and gently. Do
regular lubrication.
16. Avoid side grinding, over speed and
cleaning, adjusting or gauging while the
machine is in motion.
17. Wheel exceeding dia 15 cm or speed
50 m/s should have a strength-test
mark.
18. Adjust tool rest properly.

Maximum exposure angles of wheel


guards for various grinding operations are
shown in Fig. and mentioned in Table 20.2.
But this grinding opening should be kept as
small as possible with an adjustable nose
piece.

Table 20.2 : Angles of Guards for


Grinders:
Grinding
Maximum Exposure
type
Angle o
Abov
Below
Total
e
centre
centr
line of
e line
spindl
of
e
spind
le
1 Bench and
65
25
90
floor stand
grinders.
2 Bench and
65
60
125
floor stand
grinders
with contact
below
centreline
of spindle.
3 Top grinder.
60
60
4 Swing
180
180
frame
grinder.
5 Cylindrical
65
115
180
grinder.
6 Surface
150
150
grinders
and cuttingoff
machines.
A checklist of the following type should
be used by a grinder or maintenance man.
Checklist for a Grinding Machine
Name of the m/c :
Identification No.
Location & Department :
Type & Use :
Size ______ RPM ______ Peripheral Speed
_____
Item
Wheel guard :
Securely fastened
Properly aligned
Tongue
adjusted
(to
minimise guard clearance)
Tool rest :
Within 3 mm of the wheel
Properly tightened
Speed :
Legal notice displayed
Wheel selection correct
Drive guard :
Pulley-belt guarded
On-off switch :

Tick if OK

Properly working
Within easy reach
Flanges :
Equal size
Correct dia ( wheel dia)
Wheel Face :
Dressed evenly
Well lighted
Frame & Foundation :
Securely mounted
No vibration
Goggles/Face Shield :
Clean
In place
Unscored
Date of inspection
_______________
By whom
_______________
Signature
_______________

The decimal system or binary system


of noting numbers is used to represent
machine
part
movement.
The
displacements are specified in pulse
systems with the number of pulses coded.
The information can be recorded, for
instance, in the form of holes on a
punched tape. In computer system,
electronic media is used to give number,
code, symbol and graphic to store and
translate
information
for
automatic
machine movement.
The basic components of CNC system
are :
1
.

CNC Machine :
Numerical Control of a machine tool
means automatic control of its operation
under a programme expressed in numbers
or symbols which determine values and
kinds of displacement of operative
members of the machine. Such machine
tools are known as NC machine tools.
When their control is computerised, they
are known as Computerised Numerical
Control (CNC) machine tools.
The change-over from job to job in NC
machine takes less time than other type of
automatic machine where this is done by
changing cams or templates, displacing
stops, limit switches etc. Such automatic
machines are also programme-controlled,
but their setting up is complicated. They
are advantageous only in mass and batch
production.
The main feature and advantage of NC
machine tool is the simplicity of changing
over, which makes it possible to develop
economically
effective
systems
of
automation for small-batch and single
piece production.
Programme can be fed directly in the
machine for limited volume, or it can be
prepared
outside
the
machine
for
unlimited volume. In the second method,
information is stored in the storage
medium like punched tapes, magnetic
tapes, wire discs, or drums, paper tapes,
punched cards, films, and in the
movement of storage medium, this
information is successively read out and is
employed to control the movements of the
machine operative members.
The storage medium is usually
prepared outside the machine by applying
computing technology (computers) and
special
devices
for
recording
the
programme. CNC system can be employed
for lathes, milling machines, drilling, boring
and other machines with automatic tool
changers which make it possible to
increase output, reduce rejects and
inspection operations.

2
.

3
.

CNC (computer numeric control)


It
contains

a.

CPU
(central
processing unit)
b. PLC (programmable
logic control)
c.
Inputs/outputs
d. Memory
Axis and spindle control
It
contains

a.

It
contains

a.

Position sensors

b.
c.

Processing of sensors
Display unit

Servomotor for axis

b.

Power
motor
for
spindle
c.
feedback for drives
Positioning display system

The function of the CNC system is to


take the commands in the form of a
program or by manual data entry and to
give command to the motors to achieve
the required position movement. It also
stores the programs, controls the logic
functions of the machine and checks all
inputs/outputs. To take care of the
functions it has following components :
Memory :
Different kinds of memory available for
storing the programs are :
1.

ROM - read only memory

This memory is used to store machine


parameters. It is a non volatile memory,
the data in this memory is not lost in
absence of power. Types of ROM memory
are :
a. EROM
b. EPROM
ROM
c. EEROM
d. EAROM
2.

: Eraseable ROM
:
Eraseable programmable
: Electrically EPROM
: Electrically alterable ROM

RAM - random access memory

Temporary programs are stored in this


type of memory. This is the fastest
memory for communication with CPU and
data from other types of memory are
stored to RAM and then processed. Two
types of RAM memory are :
a.

Static RAM
This is a non volatile memory, where
data
are stored in voltage levels.
b. Dynamic RAM
This is a volatile memory and data are
stored in form of charge levels.
Safety & Maintenance :
Many tools are fitted in an auto tool
changer which operates suddenly as per
the programme. Therefore all moving
mechanism of a CNC machine should be
totally enclosed in a plastic cover to afford
safety and visibility. Such covers should be
so interlocked that inner parts will not start
till the cover is closed and will not open till
the inner parts are stopped. Limited
openings for the job insertion, machined
part ejection and scrap removal are
permitted. Any manual control, if required,
should be remote. Machine should not
start inadvertently. Necessary trips and
locks are provided for built-in safety.
Electrical
double earthing,
start-stop
switches in easy reach, sound foundation
to
eliminate
vibration,
automatic
lubrication system, mono-rail and chain
pulley block to handle heavy machine part
or the job, numerical display system,
sufficient surrounding space for work and
maintenance and protection of computer
system are basic safety requirements. Tool
magazine operating at a height as in case
of steel plant, are considered safe by
position. Machine operators should be
qualified and well trained for the operation
of machine and the job.
Other safety and handling precautions
are :
1.

Power input to the system

The input power to the system must


be clean and should not contain any spikes
and the voltage fluctuation should be
within the stipulated limits.
If the voltage fluctuations are not
within the limits then it is recommended to
use a high response voltage stabiliser at
the input. To filter the input voltage spikes,
it is recommended to use ultra isolation
transformer which has got very low
coupling capacitance between primary and
secondary. This should be placed nearer to
the system and the output of the
transformer should be connected to the
CNC system through a shielded power
cable.

2.

Grounding of the system

Failure to ground the machine and


control as described in this section can
result in damage to the machine or to the
control.
A positive earth grounding system for
the machine and control is required for
proper and safe operation. A correct
grounding
system
minimises
the
introduction of random electrical noise into
low voltage, quick reacting electronic
circuits. This noise could cause erratic
operation.
The recommendation of this section
are intended to conform to the grounding
requirements of the Indian Standards. All
parts of the system, machine and control
are tied to a single ground terminal of the
main circuit breaker which is located in
the electrical cabinet.
The grounding conductors should be
sized to conform the standard. If grounding
electrodes are used the maximum
resistance to true earth should be less
than 3 ohms or less.
Suppression network is required on all
relay coils, solenoids, motors, starters and
all other inductive loads. This network is
connected across the individual loads.
3.

Handling of Circuit Boards

Handle all circuit boards or modules


carefully, especially boards containing
MOS and CMOS logic devices, to avoid
damage by the discharge of static
electricity.
The following handling procedures
must be exercised to avoid damage.
1. Do not touch board tracks or
components at any time without
wearing a grounded wrist strap.
2. Never stack circuit boards.
3. Do not lay a PCB on a surface that
is not protected by a static control
device, such as a grounded static
controlled mat.
4. Store and transport PCBs in
separate electro-statically shielded
bags.
4.

Handling of Program Saver

Care should be taken while handling


program saver unit provided to store the
part programs. Please do not leave the
cassette in the program saver when it is
not in operation. This may result in loss of
stored information in the cassette.
5. Handling
Cables

of

the

Interconnect

Care should be taken while removing


the connectors inside the system. The

cables must be put back into place intact


and ensure no loose connections.
All the interconnections are marked
clearly and by any reason it should not be
interchanged.

6.6
Safe
Operations
and
Maintenance of Machines:
See Chapter-14 for general principles of
machine guarding. They are equally
applicable to cold working of metals
including machine tools. Some check
points for safe operation and maintenance
are as under :
1. Operators should be well trained for
machine operation.
2. Trained supervision should be provided.
3. Safe work procedures should be
followed to avoid short-cuts and chance
taking.
4. Dangerous parts must be properly
guarded.
5. New machine, equipment or tool should
be inspected before use.
6. Running machine should not be left
unattended. It should be shut down in a
safe mode. Off switch should have
locking device. Machine under repair
should have tagging and warning
notice.
7. Operators should not wear loose-fitting
clothing, loose sleeves, neckties and
metal jewellery. They should not lean
over rotating parts.
8. Operators should wear eye and head
protection. They
should run the
machine at proper speed.
9. Gagging,
callipering
and
manual
adjustment should not be carried out
while machine in motion.
10. Open hands should not be used to
clean scraps and chips. Brushes,
vacuum cleaner or special equipment
should be used for that purpose.
11. Proper hand tool should be used and
job should be properly fitted in the
machine. Constant watch for proper
machining is necessary.
12. Compressed air should not be used to
blow chips from machine or clothing. If
it is to be used, nozzle air pressure
should be less than 20 psig.
13. Planned maintenance system (PMS)
includes post inspection repairs, routine
servicing and overhauling, periodical
inspections and scheduled repairs. A
widely
used
PMS
cycle
is
GIRIRIMIRIRIMIRIRIG where G, I, R & M
indicate general overhaul, inspection,
routine repairs and medium repairs.

6.7
Selection
Cutting
Tools:

and

Care

of

Cutting tools are fitted to machine


tools for required operations on the job.
Selection of a right machine and right
cutting tool for the job is essential. From a
variety of lathes - single or multi
operation, turret, spinning, screwing etc. a particular one is to be selected
depending on the type of operation to be
carried out.
Similarly selection of a drill for small
holes, boring machine for big holes,
planning machine for a big sized and
heavy job, slotting or shaping machine for
small jobs, metal saw (circular) or gear
cutter milling machine for specific work,
internal, external or centreless grinding
machine and selection of buffing or
polishing machine need special knowledge
and experience.
Cutting tools should be stored and
used carefully. Their sharp edge is to be
protected to avoid injuries and sharpened
for easy cutting. A tool rack should be
provided for classification, easy placement
and preservation. Tools store area should
be dry and protected from raining, fumes,
gases and other chemical effects. It should
be well ventilated and lighted. Proper
stools or ladders should be provided to
prevent fall of tools while putting or taking
from the racks. Passageways should be
more than a meter wide.
While fitting the cutting tool to a
machine,
necessary
hand
tool
or
equipment should be used. Chucks and
fixtures should be properly positioned and
tightened. Alignment of tool centre is
important. Tool guard is necessary to
prevent injury in case of its breakage.
Cutting tools should be regularly inspected
for defects, dressed for proper cutting
angle and sharpness of the edge. Broken
and unsafe tools should not be used. Tool
and tip metal should be properly selected.

Total
Productive
(TPM):
Add

7 SAFETY
IN
OPERATIONS
7.1
Welding and
Operations :

Maintenance

OTHER
Cutting

Welding and cutting operations are


frequently
used
in
construction,
demolition, repair and maintenance works.
The equipment may be permanently
installed
or
portable.
Hazards
of
permanent installation can be minimised
by safe design and therefore a fixed
welding shop is more desirable than
portable moving welding work. Where the
work pieces are very heavy or not
movable or at height or depth etc.

portable equipment is the only convenient


device.
Welding is a process to unite pieces
of metal at joint faces by heat or pressure
or both and sometimes use a filler
material. Cutting is a process to remove
the metal by the chemical reaction of the
metal at high temperature. In both these
operations, the common factor is high heat
energy and high temperature for melting
or fusing of metals.
The three common sources of heat are
:
1. Flame produced by combustion of flue
gas with air or oxygen (Gas Welding )
2. Electric arc, struck
between an
electrode and a work piece or between
two electrodes (Electric or Arc Welding )
3. Electrical resistance offered to passage
of current between two or more work
pieces (Resistance welding including
spot, steam, projection and butt
welding).
Other
processes
are
atomic
hydrogen welding, electron beam welding,
electro slag welding, flash welding, friction
welding, laser welding and drilling, metal
spraying, plasma arc welding, plasma arc
spraying, tungsten arc cutting, spark
erosion machining, stud welding and
thermit welding.

7.1.1 Welding and Fire Safety :


Nearly six percent of all industrial fires
are started because of unsupervised
welding repair jobs without a permit-towork system.
Common Causes of Fires in Welding
and Cutting
Fire originates from a heat source and
feeds of combustible materials. Welding
operations produce sparks which can
travel long distances, particularly if the
welding torch is not adjusted properly. The
hot slag of burning metals may drop down
as globules which retain their heat for a
very long period and can start a fire long
after the welding job is completed.
Similarly, application of heat during
welding to a closed vessel, pipe or tank
can result in an explosion if the vessel
contains flammable liquids or gases. An
empty vessel that had contained a
flammable material is more dangerous
than one fully filled with flammable
material, because it may be full of invisible
vapours.
Electric arc welding involves passage
of very large quantities of current, often
running into hundreds of amperes. The
passage of electric current itself creates
heat and therefore cables, junctions,

switches and other electrical appliances


must
be
of
adequate
current
carrying/breaking capacity.

Precautions
for
Welding Fires:

Preventing

(A) Before Welding1. Work Permit: Make a thorough


inspection of the workplace. Ensure that it
is safe for welding operations. Issue a
written permit as shown below for
commencement
of
welding
work,
especially when contract workers are
involved.
Permit for Cutting and Welding with
Portable Gas or ARC Equipment
Date________________________________________
Building_____________________________________
Department__________________
Floor___________
Place
or
Location
______________________________
Work
to
be
done______________________________
Special
Precautions___________________________
Is
fire
watch
_________________________

required?

The location where this work is to be done


has been examined, necessary precautions
taken, and permission is granted for this
work.
Permit
expires________________________________
Signed______________
(Individual
responsible
for
authorising welding and cutting)
Time started___________ Completed__________

2. Check if the area contains flammable


liquid/gases. Ensure that there are no
floor openings, open windows nearby
or any such ready access through
which sparks can pass and fall on
combustible materials. (In one such
case, flammable vapours on the
ground floor 7 mt below, were ignited
due to a welding spark fallen from that
height and the welder died due to burn
injury).
3. Examine whether the job can be welded
outside the premises and brought back.
4. If not, remove all combustible materials
to a safe distance of at least 20 feet.
5. Sweep the floor and the area nearby
and remove all waste materials.
6. If any of the combustible materials
cannot be removed, cover it with non-

combustible coverings like metal sheets


or asbestos curtains.
7. If the floor itself is combustible, cover it
likewise and wet it before starting
welding work.
8. In case welding or cutting has to be
done on a vessel, pipe or other
container which contains or had earlier
contained flammable liquids, ensure
that
a
detailed
permit-to-work
procedure involving isolation, blanking,
purging, inerting methods is followed.
Consult the Indian Standard 3016 for
additional details.
(B) During Welding1. Use portable screens, booths or
partitions to minimise the spread of
sparks.
2. Keep an observer ready with a portable
extinguisher (dry powder), water
buckets etc.
3. Ensure that gas cylinders, hose pipes,
torches and other appliances are
properly selected, installed and used.
4. In case of electric welding, check the
connections, cables and earthing in
particular.
5. Ensure
that
the
welder
uses
appropriate
personal
protective
equipment like goggles, gloves, boots,
spats and if necessary an approved
respirator.
6. Do not leave electric circuits on, or
blow-torches burning when the welder
has to take a tea break or has to be
away for any reason.
(C) After Welding1. Inspect the area for sparks or
smouldering materials. If you find any,
remove and extinguish them.
2. If any portable extinguisher has been
used, replenish it.
3. Gas cylinders, blow-torches etc. should
be returned to the stores or kept at the
authorised place.

7.1.2 Gas Welding and Cutting :


In gas welding, oxygen or air and a
fuel gas (acetylene, hydrogen, LPG or
propane, butane, coal gas, natural gas or
their combination) are fed to a blow pipe
(torch), usually hand held in which they
are mixed prior to combustion at the
nozzle. The heat melts the metal faces of
the parts to be joined causing them to flow
together. A filler metal or alloy is
frequently added at a lower melting point
than the parts to be joined and in that
case (below fusion temperature of the
parts to be joined ) the process is also
known as brazing or soldering. Chemical
fluxes may be used to prevent oxidation
and facilitate joining.

In gas cutting, the metal is heated by


a flame and a jet of pure oxygen is
directed on the point of cutting and moved
along the line to be cut.
In gas pressure (high or low ) welding,
the parts are heated by gas jets under
pressure, and become forged together.
Safety in handling Cylinders :
1. Do not tamper with the numbers or
marks stamped on the cylinders.
2. Do not drop cylinders or let them strike
violently.
3. Do not lift cylinders with an electromagnet. In case cylinders are to be
lifted by lifting device, they are to be
slung in suitable cradles or platforms.
Do not use slings.
4. Do not tamper with the safety device in
the valves or cylinders.
5. Do not use oil or grease as lubricants
on valves or attachments.
6. In case the regulator or cylinder valves
have frozen, wash with hot water,
never by a flame.
7. Never transport cylinders with regulator
and hose attached unless a proper
trolley or carrier is used. While
transporting, the cylinder valves should
be shut.
8. Do not drag cylinders. They may be
rolled on the bottom edge.
9. When the cylinder is not in use, keep
the metal cap in place to protect the
valve.
10. Before returning empty cylinders,
mark them EMPTY.
11. Always consider cylinders full, if not
definitely known.
12. When in doubt about the proper
handling, consult supplier.
Safety in Storage of Cylinders :
1. Ensure that the cylinders are stored
properly. Store rooms should be dry,
well ventilated and away from oil, or
other flammable substances.
2. Store
empty
and
full
cylinders
separately.
3. Store room should be fire proof and the
lighting or electrical switches should of
flame- proof type.
4. Oxygen cylinders should be stored
away from the cylinders containing
combustible
gases,
preferably
in
separate rooms. If stored in the same
room, they should be kept far apart
(6m) or have a non-combustible barrier
in between of at last 2 mt height.
5. Acetylene cylinders should always be
stored upright.
6. Cylinders
are
not
designed
for
temperatures in excess of 55 0 C (130 0
F).
Accordingly, they should not be
stored near the sources of heat, such as
radiators, furnaces, etc.

7. Cylinders stored in the open should be


protected from the effects of sun and
rain to prevent corrosion.
8. Cylinders should be stored away from
elevators, stairs, or other such places
where they can be knocked down or
damaged by passing or falling object.

The Gas Cylinder Rules and following


IS should be followed.

7.1.3 Schedule-24,
Rule
102,
Gujarat Factories Rules :

IS:818

IS:1179
IS:3016
UK HMSO
Booklet

Code of practice for


safety
and
health
requirement in electric
and gas welding and
cutting operations.
Equipment for eye and
face protection during
welding.
Fire
precautions
in
welding.
Welding
and
Flamecutting
using
compressed gases.

Safety
in
Regulators
connections:

and

Hose

Regulators or reducing valves are used


on both oxygen and fuel gas cylinders to
maintain gas supply to the torches at
correct pressure. Care has to be taken to
see that the regulator chosen is the
correct one for the gas contained in the
cylinder. In order to prevent attachment of
oxygen regulators to the fuel gas cylinders
or vice-versa, the connection for oxygen
cylinders are made with right hand threads
and those for acetylene cylinder with left
hand threads. A regulator is a delicate
instrument and has to be handled carefully
and not dropped. Leaky regulators should
be withdrawn from service immediately.
Oxygen and fuel gas hoses should be
of different colour or otherwise identified
and distinguished from each other for
proper connection on the torches. Red is
generally recognised for fuel gas and
green or black hose is used for oxygen.
One type of gas regulator should not be
used for another type of gas.
Safety in using torches :
1. Set the regulators to the recommended
working pressure.
2. Keep the blow pipe nozzle away from
any source of ignition until the fuel gas
is flowing freely from the nozzles.
3. A spark lighter is recommended for
lighting purposes.
4. Clean the torch at regular intervals.
Sometimes a protective system is
provided in the fuel gas piping to prevent

Back flow of oxygen into the fuel gas


supply system

Passage of a flash back into the fuel gas


supply system
Excessive back pressure of oxygen in
the fuel
gas supply system.
Such
system (back pressure valve, non
return valve) must be checked for its
effective working.

Welding/Cutting Operation with the use of


LPG/Acetylene/Argon :
Safety measures prescribed in this
Schedule are :
1. Gas cylinders, filled or empty, shall not
be stored in a room where welding or
cutting work is to be carried out.
2. Cylinder in use shall be kept in vertical
position and tied to prevent its fall.
3. Source of ignition including smoking is
prohibited near flammable gas cylinder
except which is in use.
4. Cylinders shall be stored at more than
10 m from source of ignition or
excessive heat.
5. Standard pressure regular and second
non-return valve to prevent back flow
shall be used.
6. Standard torch with non-return valve
shall be used.
7. Suitable fire extinguishers shall be kept
ready near welding/cutting place and
gas cylinder storage.
8. Pipe lines shall be colour painted for
identification of each gas.
9. Welding/cutting
is
prohibited
in
explosive atmosphere.
10. Welding/cutting
zone
shall
be
cordoned by screens of 7 ft (2.15 m)
height where persons other than
welders and their helpers are working
or passing.
11. All welding/cutting equipment shall be
examined by a competent person in a
period of 15 days.
12. Welding/cutting work shall be carried
out by specially trained workers.
13. A log book of examination of
equipment and a register of trained
workers shall be maintained in the
forms directed by the Inspectors.

7.1.4
Arc
Welding) :

Welding

(Electric

In this process, an arc is struck


between an electrode and the work pieces,
which are connected to an AC or DC
supply. In this usual process, the welder
strikes an arc by touching his electrode to
the work piece and causes a short-circuit
stripping electrons from gases in the
surrounding air, ionising it and producing
the arc. A temperature of about 4000 0C is

obtained and the work pieces fuse


together. In this type of welding, new
metal is fused, either by melting the
electrode or by melting a filler rod which
does not carry any current. Sometimes
some inert gas or a solid flux is also used
to shield the weld from oxidation. The
operations also include chipping of slag,
etc. from the weld.
The current used for electric arc
welding may be direct or alternating but
the voltage has to be low and consistent.
The voltage of 100 between electrode and
work should not exceed for hand welding.
The supply of current for electric welding
would require a generator or transformer
of suitable voltage. The commercial main
supply (230V) is not suitable on account
of the voltage and also it may not be
permissible to earth the circuit at points
other than approved by the supply
authority. Any transformer used for giving
supply of current for welding should be
double wound to ensure complete isolation
of welding circuit from the main supply.
The current used, with small diameter
electrode on thin sheets for manual arc
welding varies between 10-50 Amps. With
larger diameter electrodes, the current
used is more. For manual welding, the
welder should be able to withstand the
heat and as such the current value should
not exceed 500-600 Amps.
Hazards : The operations of welding
and cutting are carried out at high
temperatures which are source of Fire or
Explosion. The liberation of the heat and
energy into the work place can cause
chemical and physical reactions which do
not normally
take place
at
room
temperature. The reactions include the
various types of radiation and release of
various toxic gases, vapours, fumes, etc.,
which may affect the health of the workers
engaged in the process and near by. Some
hazards are :
1. Flying metallic sparks and molten
metal. Some of these sparks consist of
tiny shreds of extremely hot metal,
sometimes molten, which may be
hotter than 10000 F and may cause
painful burns on exposed skin. These
sparks are also source of fire or
explosion hazard, in case flammable
materials are near by.
2. Hot surfaces of the work pieces after
welding or cutting may cause harms to
unsuspecting persons.
3. Flying materials while chipping the
weld.
4. Enrichment of Oxygen (due to leakage
from
Oxygen
cylinder)
radically
changes flammability.
5. Glare which comes when the arc is
struck or the torch is lit. It affects the
optic nerve at the back of the eye.
Special eye glass (screen) is required.

6. Thermal heat radiation from welding


can cause headache, fatigue and eye
damage.
7. Infra red radiation. Some of the IR is
stopped by the upper layer of the skin
but part of the radiation penetrates the
exposed skin and may cause serious
skin burns or pigmentation. Since eye
has no absorbing layer, it can be
severely damaged by this and may
cause heat cataract.
8. Ultra-violet radiation may cause skin
burns and prolonged exposure may lead
to skin tumours. Inert gas shielding is a
strong source of UV radiation.
9. Workers on the shop floors may be
exposed to noise due to welding,
cutting or chipping operations.
10. Fall of materials and equipments
during operation.
Electrodes and Holders : Electrode
holders are used to connect the electrode
to the welding cable supplying secondary
current. In order to prevent accidental
striking of an arc they should be fully
insulated. Holders should be capable of
handling the maximum current required by
the electrode. Electrode holders are liable
to become hot during welding operations if
they are not designed for the purpose, i.e.
holders for light jobs are used for heavy
work or if there is a loose connection. In
case the correct size of holder is not
available an additional holder should be
provided so that one can cool while the
other is in use. Dipping of hot electrode
holders in water should be prohibited as it
may expose the worker to electric shock..
Electric Shock : The work set up is
such that the work is grounded and if the
worker is not careful, he can receive
electric shock. A welder may be exposed
to the open circuit voltage while changing
electrodes, setting up work, or changing
working position. Danger is more in humid
environment or if the welder is sweaty.
The risk of shock can be reduced by
providing an insulating barrier between the
worker and the ground of nearby metal
objects, while changing electrodes. Dry
leather gloves act as good insulator. It is
also advisable to use shoes with rubber
soles.
The electrode holder should be
sufficiently insulated between the handle
and the bare part that grips the electrode.
The welding cables should be of good
quality to resist hard wear and inspected
for insulation defects.
Joints between
cables should be by insulated connectors
of equivalent capacity.
The welding
equipment must be safely earthed. There
should be two distinct and different
earthing circuits so that, in case if one
fails, the other will afford protection.

7.1.5 Indoor Exhaust Ventilation :

Local exhaust or positive ventilation is


not required in the spaces of 1400 m 3 or
over, provided : (a) Welding bays have
unrestricted cross ventilation (b) Work is
not carried out inside restricted spaces
such as tanks and boilers (c) Every welder
has about 280m3 space.(d) Ceiling heights
are more than 5m. (e) Process does not
require the use of inert gas.
In case the above conditions are not
met, mechanical ventilation at the
minimum rate of 56m3/min of air per
welder is to be provided with a velocity in
the direction of hood of 30m/min at the
point of welding. The duct diameter and
air flow volumes that would produce the
control velocity using a 7 cm wide flanged
section is given in the following table:Distance
from arc
or torch,
cm.
10 to 15
15 to 20
20 to 25
25 to 30

Minimum
air flow,
m3/min

Duct
Diameter
cm.

4.5
8.0
12.0
17.0

7
9
11
13

For hoods without flanges, minimum


air flow shall be increased by 60 m 3/min. 1
cm duct dia is based on relatively 1200
mt/min velocity in pipe.

7.1.6 Personal Protection :


For the safety and health of the
workers, precautions have to be taken to
safeguard against the various physical and
chemical hazards.
Maintenance of the
equipment and proper care in the use,
adequate ventilation etc. may reduce
some of the hazards, but it may not be
possible to eliminate all the hazards and
hence the workers have to be supplied
with
suitable
personal
protective
equipment.
Since a helper is always
posted near the place of work, he too has
to be provided adequate protection.
Ordinary clothing may be sufficient to
protect against UV and IR radiation, but
some exposed areas such as face, wrist,
neck, hands etc.
would be affected.
Asbestos/leather gloves may be useful to
protect hands from electric shocks, heat
and sparks.
Eye protection is the most irritical
problem. Hence the measures have to be
taken to stop flying particles, glare and the
radiation. Since the welding temperature
for various materials may be different,
different types of shades may be needed
for different jobs, and at the same time
clear glass may be needed while chipping
the weld.
If possible the welding operation in a
shop floor be isolated and screened so that
other workers engaged nearby are not
affected. However, measures should be

taken to protect the crane drivers and


others from the hazardous fumes, rays
etc., of welding operation.
To protect the workers from the toxic
fumes, suitable respiratory protection
should be provided.
Cotton apron if used by the workers
may be treated with fire retarding
chemicals.
When there is a risk of materials
falling on the workers, suitable hard hats
may be provided. While doing electric arc
welding, instead of holding the shield in
one hand, it is advisable to wear a
welders helmet which protects the
workers in many ways.
Refer Part-9 for further health &
welfare measures.

7.2
Brazing, Soldering and
Metalising Operations :
Such operations involve metal fumes
because of heating. Inhalation of fumes
(toxic or irritating) should be removed by
local exhaust ventilation. Lead oxides and
chlorides are released when soldering with
lead-tin solder and zinc chloride flux. Lead
oxides and formaldehyde are released
when soldering with rosin core solder.
Hazards of different types of solder should
be known before starting work.. Hazardous
contaminants should be measured by air
sampling.
Lead solder particles should not be
allowed to accumulate on the floor or work
tables. For protection against spattering of
solder or flux, workers should wear
faceshield or do the work under a
transparent shield.
Respirators are required to protect
against metal dust or fume while
metalising or burning of metal. Hand
gloves
can
protect
against
burns.
Insulated, non-combustible holders can
protect against fire and burns. Table cover
should be heat resistant.

7.3
Finishing Operations like
Cleaning,
Polishing
and
Buffing :
Polishing wheels are made of
leather faced wood or stitched canvas
disks or similar material coated with
abrasive glue on the periphery of the
wheels.
Buffing wheels are made of disks of
canvas, linen or felt with a coat of mild
abrasive, tripoli or rouge.
Brush or scratch wheels are made
of protruding wires and used to remove
burrs, scale, sand and other materials.
While finishing rough or ground jobs by
air, sand or shot (metal) blast cleaning or
polishing and buffing by rotating wheels,
main hazard is dust (abrasive or metal)

generation during such operations. It


should be removed from the point of origin
by an efficient exhaust system. Room dust
(flying) should be collected by wall
exhaust fans. Dust collectors should be
cleaned regularly.
Workers should wear eye protection
and dust filters rather full face protection.
By pre cleaning of casting or machined
part by keeping it in a rotating barrel, mill
or abrasive chamber in close condition,
subsequent dusting can be minimised.
The space around dust generating or
cleaning process should be kept dry, clean
and free from obstructions.
Solvent cleaning of metal parts pose
fire and toxic hazard. Non-toxic or nonflammable solvents or cleaning agents like
alkaline solutions are safe in this regard.
Oil and grease should not be allowed to
mix with cleaning compounds. Carbon
tetrachloride and petrol are banned for
cleaning purpose. Ventilation is needed to
remove vapours.
Polishing
require :

and

buffing

wheels

1. Substantial stands and rigid mounting


of wheels.
2. Guards to avoid contact with protruding
nuts and the ends of the spindles.
3. Exhaust hoods to drive away the dust
and flying particles.
More than one
branch
pipe
may
be
provided
depending upon the shape and size of
the pieces being worked.
4. Speed within the limit (15 to 35 m/s)
when variable speed motors are used.
5. Avoidance of hand gloves.
6. A jig to handle the work against the
wheel.
7. Not more than 3 mm clearance
between the work rest and the wire
brush wheel and use of leather or
heavy canvas aprons, gloves and face
shield while working on wire brush
wheels.
8. Monitor procedures same as for
grinding wheel.
9. No smoking while buffing or polishing as
a spark pulled into the exhaust system
might cause a fire.
10. No common exhaust systems for
polishing,
buffing
and
grinding
operations because of the fire hazard.

7.4
Selection,
Care
and
Maintenance
of Equipment
and Instruments :
Equipment
and
instruments
for
welding and cutting, brazing, soldering,
metalising and finishing operations like
cleaning, polishing and buffing require
careful selection, use and maintenance for
avoidance of hazards and accidents.

For protection against hot sparks, arc


radiation and glare, fumes and gases,
compressed gases, chipping slag, metal
and abrasive dust and electric shock,
goggles, helmets and shields should be
worn by operators, welders and their
helpers. These equipment should conform
to IS. Welders handbook SP-12, welding
equipment for eye and face protection
1179, protective filter 5983 and IS guides
for selecting the correct filter lens for
welding and cutting operations, dust
filters,
gas
respirators,
breathing
apparatus, protective clothing and other
personal protective equipment must be
referred. See Chapter-25 for such PPE and
Chapter-26 for the First-Aid.
Sampling, identification and safe
removal of gases, fumes and dusts by
proper
instruments
and
exhaust
ventilating equipment are required first.
Such instruments should be of good
quality, well calibrated and properly
maintained. They should be handled by
trained personnel. Selection is dependent
on job to be carried out, toxicity and
concentration of gas or dust and working
environment.
Welding equipment (e.g. torch) should
not be used in a confined space. Welders
safe breathing zone requires at least 280
m3 space per welder and ceiling height
more than 5 m. If natural cross ventilation
is not sufficient, mechanical ventilation
(local exhaust, local forced, roof or wall
exhaust fans etc.) is necessary. They
should be maintained efficient and with
sufficient
capture
velocity.
Welding
partitions may be used to protect eyes of
surrounding people.
As
oxygen
alone
cannot
burn,
acetylene, hydrogen or other fuel gases
are used with torches. For example,
propane, propylene and their mixtures are
used in gas cutting. Such gases are filled
with pressure in metal cylinders. Therefore
they should be safely handled. Foregoing
Part 7.1.2 contains safety precautions for
handling and storing of gas cylinders. See
Part 16.12 of Chapter-18 also.
Manifolds are used to centralise gas
supply at a rate higher than that of a
single cylinder. Regulators, headers and
distribution pipes are used therewith. They
should be properly designed, erected and
colour-coded. Oxygen manifolds should be
located away from the source of ignition or
flammable material. Leak detectors with
alarm are desirable in manifold room.
Hoses and hose connections should be
fully safe. Colour coding (e.g. red for fuel
gas, green for oxygen and black for inert
gas, see IS booklet) should be followed to
avoid wrong connection. Special torch
connectors with built-in-shut-off valves are
available. Connections should be of ferrule
or clamp type. Special tools for special
threads should be readily available.

External metallic covering on hose pipe is


not desirable. Flashback devices (NRV)
between torch and hose can prevent
flashback into hoses and regulators.
Burned hose section should be replaced by
new one.
Gas torches should be of approved
type. Cutting torches differ from welding
torches in jet and valve design. Select
proper welding head for mixture, tip or
cutting nozzle according to the charts and
screw it firmly into the torch. Do not use
matches to light torch. Use a lighter. Safe
operating procedure should be followed for
welding or cutting.
In resistance or spot welding, point of
operation should be guarded by enclosure,
gate, two-hand control or similar safety
guard. Back doors of machine and panels
should be locked or interlocked. Control
circuit should operate at low voltage (24 to
36 volts). A flash welding machine should
have a shield or hood to control flash and
fumes and a ventilating system to carry off
the metal dust and oil fumes. Air or
electrical foot switches should be guarded
to prevent accidental operation.
In electric arc welding machine (AC or
DC) current values should be kept
minimum to avoid heating. Electric cables
should be well insulated and automatic
voltage controller should be used.
Electrode holders should be fully
insulated to avoid shock or arc burn.
Proper holder should be selected (heat
resistant) depending on light or heavy
work. Connections between cable and
holder should not be loose. Hot holder
should not be dipped in water for cooling.
Bare electrode or holder should not touch
the skin or wet clothing.
Holders for brazing and soldering
operations
should
be
made
of
noncombustible material and insulated to
avoid fire and burn hazards. The best
holder completely encloses the hot surface
and so inclined that the weight of the iron
prevents it from falling out.
Exhaust hood, duct, dust collector, fan
etc. should be regularly inspected for
choking, velocity, leakage etc. and kept
clean for good working.
Gloves should not be worn by polishers
and buffers to avoid dragging of hand. If
the motors that drive polishing/buffing
wheels, have adjustable speed controls,
the controls should be kept in a locked box
and the speed shall be changed only by an
authorised person.
While working on wire brush wheels,
leather gloves, leather or canvas aprons
and face shield should be worn.
Equipment and instruments should
always be used in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

8 HEAT
TREATMENT
OPERATIONS:
After hot or cold working of metal,
stress and strain are produced in the
metal. Therefore heat treatment methods
are required to remove these stresses.

8.1
Meaning and Types of
Heat Treatment
Methods:
Heat treatment can be defined as an
operation of heating and cooling of metals
in the solid state to induce certain desired
properties into them.
It is generally
employed
to
improve
grain
size,
machinability, mechanical properties e.g.
tensile
strength,
hardness,
ductility,
resistance to wear heat and corrosion,
magnetic and electrical properties or to
relieve stresses in the metal produced
because of cold or hot working.
The
common heat-treatment operations are
annealing,
normalising,
hardening,
tempering, carburising (case-hardening),
cyaniding, nitriding, induction hardening
and flame-hardening.
Heat treatment of rolled products
are divided into two groups :
1. Processes involving holding for a long
time at a specified temperature and
slow
cooling
i.e.
annealing
and
tempering.
2. Processes where metal is only heated in
a furnace to a specified temperature
and then cooled in air (normalising) or
in liquid quenchers (hardening).
Some heat treatment processes are
carried
out
with
some
chemical
compounds as under :
Case hardening : Wrought iron is
heated
in
contact
with
potassium
ferrocyanide
where
the
ferrocyanide
decomposes into carbon which hardens
the surface of wrought iron to make steel.
Nitriding process : Steel containing
1% aluminium is heated in atmosphere of
0
ammonia
at
550-600
C.
Nitrogen
dissociated from ammonia reacts with iron
and aluminium to form on the surface, iron
and aluminium nitrides which produce
compact and hard surface.
Sintering and Heat hardening :
Sintering refers to a process wherein fuel
is mixed with the ore and burned on a
grate. The product is a porous cake. Heat
hardening or induration is done by
combustion of gases passed through the
bed to harden the pellets without fusing
them together, as is done in the sintering
process.
In
addition
to
agglomeration,
carbonates
and
sulphates
may
be
decomposed
or
sulphur
may
be

eliminated. Non-ferrous sinter is produced


from oxides and sulphides of manganese,
zinc, lead and nickel. Heat hardening of
green iron ore pellets is accomplished in a
vertical shaft furnace, a travelling grate
machine or a grate-plus-kiln combination.

8.2
Hazards
Measures:

and

Safety

Hazards in heat-treatment are :


1. Burns due to high temperature heating
(between 700 to 11000 C).
2. Hazards of chemicals like N2, NH3,
NaCN, Na2CO3 NaCl.
3. Contact of quenching media like brine,
water, oils, air and solution of NaOH or
H2SO4 in water etc.
4. Hazards of various types of furnaces
and
temperature
measuring
instruments and electrical apparatus.
5. Handling of machine parts viz. steel
castings, forging (shafts, axles etc.)
springs, gears, wires, drills, screw taps,
hammer dies, die moulds, high speed
cutting tools and speed etc. for heat
treatment purposes.
6. Lifting and travelling mechanism and
their unguarded agency parts.
7. Dust exposure.
8. Hot surfaces and high air temperatures.
9. High humidity and air velocities.
10. High voltages and electromagnetic
radiation.
11. High noise levels.
12. Infra-red radiation.
13. Excessive brightness of illuminated
surfaces etc.
Control Measures are as under:
1. Exhaust ventilation to remove chemical
vapours, fumes, gases, flammable or
explosive dusts, vapours etc.
An
enclosing hood projecting over the
entire tank and enclosed on two to
three sides is preferable. A lateral
exhaust (slots in top edge of the tank
walls for horizontal air movement),
convenient canopy hood, general room
ventilation and a push-pull system
(where out door air is blown across the
tank into the exhaust hood) can also be
employed.
Exhaust hoods or slots
should be so located that harmful
fumes or dusts should not enter the
breathing zone.
2. Flameproof or non-sparking fans and
motors should be utilised in flammable
area.
3. Monitoring of HCN or NaCN is
necessary.
4. Excessive heat should be removed
away.
5. Air supply to the furnaces should be
uninterrupted and well controlled.

6. Adequate methods of storage, handling


and disposal are desired.
7. Furnaces, ovens, dryers etc. should be
gas fired or heated electrically. The use
of solid or liquid fuel may be allowed in
exceptional and justified cases.
8. Hardening
tanks,
quenching
and
pickling baths, shaft furnaces etc.
should be projected about 1 m above
the working level. If this is not possible,
they should be fenced.

8.3
Hazards and Control from
Treatment Media:
Part 4.3.1 explains that iron ore
contains iron oxides, carbonates and
sulphides, cast iron contains carbon with
some sulphur, phosphorous, silicon and
manganese, wrought iron contains carbon
and other impurities, steel contains carbon
and
manganese.
Table
20.1
gives
percentage of chromium, tungsten, nickel
molybdenum and silicon. In steelmaking
processes it is also mentioned (in Part
4.3.1) that impurities of Mn, Si and C burn
to give MnO2, SiO2, CO and MnSiO3,
furnace lining of SiO2 and CaO.MnO give
slag and in electric arc furnace phosphate
and other slag is poured out.
Part 8.1 explains heat treatment with
chemical
compounds
like
potassium
ferrocyanide, iron and aluminium nitrides,
carbonates and sulphates and non-ferrous
sintering with oxides and sulphides of
manganese, zinc, lead and nickel. Hazards
of chemicals like N 2, NH3, NaCN, Na 2CO3,
NaCl, NaOH, H2SO4 are also indicated.
Above chemicals behave as treatment
media in the form of impurity, alloying
material, furnace lining and chemical for
direct reaction. NaCN may evolve HCN a
poisonous gas. CO and NH 3 are also toxic.
All metal waste and carbon, lime,
phosphate, sulphate, chromium, nickel and
cyanide waste are hazardous. It cannot be
disposed off here and there. Cyanide being
very toxic needs incineration i.e. controlled
burning.
Gaseous waste like CO and
HCN should be passed through incinerator
or flare and burnt. CO2 is vented off
through chimney.
Solid toxic waste should be treated to
make less hazardous and then buried in
permitted land with proper lining to
prevent its penetration to spoil soil. From
top it should be covered safely. Non-toxic
slag/waste may be used for non-fertile
land filling. CaO waste, because of its
alkalinity, is useful to grow some plants
(not all). Steel slag is used to make tough
roads.
Liquid waste/effluent should be treated
by appropriate chemical or biological
methods and discharged with safe limits
prescribed.

Special disposal methods should be


employed depending on type of chemical,
its concentration and biological effect.
Thus heat treatment operations should
end in safe disposal of final waste for the
safety
of
people,
bio-culture
and
environment.

Health Precautions:
They include1. Eliminate and prevent long time
exposure to the hazardous fumes due
to heat treatment.
2. Medical health check up of workers.
3. Provision and maintenance of effective
controls for fumes and chemicals.
4. Use of personal protective equipment.
5. Training
to
workers
and
prompt
supervision.

9.GENERAL
HEALTH
HAZARDS AND CONTROL
MEASURES
IN
ENGINEERING INDUSTRY
Effects of dusts, fumes, heat, noise
and vibration due to hot and cold working
of metals and crush and other injuries due
to machine tools are discussed earlier.
Foundry
operations
like
sand
handling,
sand
sieving,
sand
mill
operation, mould making, core making,
knockout operation, repair and relining of
furnaces and ladles, and metal finishing
processes like casting cleaning, fettling,
chipping, brushing, air blast cleaning, dry
grinding, polishing, buffing and shot/sand
blasting generate dust which contains
silica. This may cause silicosis, a serious
form of pneumoconiosis resulting in
permanent lung damage. It is a notifiable
disease under the Factories Act, Mines Act
and the Workmen Compensation Act.
Iron dust is exposed to iron foundry
workers, electric arc welders and workers
doing dry grinding, buffing, polishing and
shot blasting. Siderosis is caused due to
inhalation of such iron dust (Iron oxide).
Coal dust is generated at furnace,
boiler and coal handling work and may
cause anthracosis i.e. coal workers
pneumoconiosis. This lung disease may
result in more serious progressive massive
fibrosis (PMF) leading to a premature
death.
Engineering
controls
include
exhaust hood, substitution of wet grinding
for dry grinding, hydro blasting for
sand/shot blasting etc. and built-in dust
collecting devices with dust generating
machines. In addition, workers should wear
safety goggles and dust masks or proper
respirators.
Medical controls include pre and
post employment medical examinations

including X-ray, sputum test, lung function


test etc. Epidemiological analysis of dust
exposure can provide a measure of
efficacy of a dust control device.
High noise in pneumatic chipping,
resistance welding and other engineering
operations can cause auditory effects of
hearing
loss
and
occupational
deafness (a notifiable disease) and nonauditory effects of change in heart rate,
blood pressure and sweat rate, annoyance
and disturbance in work and psychological
and psychomotor effects.
Engineering controls for noise
include substitution of quieter machinery,
quieter process, enclosure to noisy
equipment (e.g. silencer, noise insulators
etc.) or/and enclosure to operators
(soundproof cabin). Workers should wear
ear plugs/muffs where necessary.
Medical controls include pre and
post medical examinations of workers,
audiometric tests for hearing capacity and
change of work area if necessary.
Painting and spraying on castings
or finished parts evolve fumes which may
be toxic and/or flammable. Proper spray
painting booths with air suction and water
curtain are necessary. Safety goggles,
fume mask, hand gloves and apron should
be worn. Dipping is preferred to spraying.
Workers working near excessive heat
(e.g. furnaces, molten metal, glass blowing
etc.) should be given cold drinks or water
and heat protective clothing to reduce
heat effect. Heat source should be
shielded by insulation and reflectant or
absorbent shields. Natural ventilation to
allow cool fresh air, induced cool
dehumidified air into hot workplaces and
local blowers to give individual relief are
useful for comfort.
For protection against skin effect due
to cutting or lubricating oil, coolant etc.,
proper gloves, barrier creams and medical
advice are necessary.
Health measures including general
cleanliness, disposal of wastes and
effluents, good lighting and ventilation,
temperature control, dust, fume and gas
removal, humidity control, drinking water,
latrines,
urinals
and
spittoons
and
avoidance of overcrowding, as expected
under the Factories Act and Rules are the
statutory requirements.
Welfare facilities should include
washing and bathing facility, drenching
showers, emergency shower, eye washer,
sitting arrangement, cloak or change
room, lockers, rest room, lunch room,
canteen, crche, towels, soaps, first-aid
centre and medical help etc.

Exercise
1. Explain,
State,
Mention
or
Discuss:
1. The
need
of
Safety
in
Engineering industry.
2. Statutory
provisions
for
Engineering factory.
3. Hazards and safety precautions
while working on furnaces.
4. The manufacturing process of
steel.
5. Safety measures for steel
manufacturing.
6. Flow
sheet
for
foundry
operations. Explain by chart.
7. Section
wise
foundry
operations, their hazards and
safety measures.
8. Provisions of Sch. 26, Rule 102,
GFR.
9. Types of accident in a forge
shop
and
general
safety
measures required.
10. Specific
safety
measures
necessary in forging operations
OR in forging furnaces.
11. Machine guarding of Forging
hammers.
12. Safe work practices in forging
operations.
13. Safety in design and handling
of forging dies.
14. What do you mean by cold
working of metals?
15. Types of guards recommended
for power presses.
16. Control measures for hydraulic
and pneumatic presses.
17. Sequential operations of wire
drawing process, their hazards
and safety measures.
18. Hazards and controls of any
three of the following machine
tools(A) Lathe (B) Drill (C) Milling
m/c (D) Grinding m/c
19. Safety measures while working
on a grinding machine.
20. What do you mean by a CNC
machine? Explain its safety and
handling precautions.
21. Precautionary
measures
for
preventing welding fires.

22. Safety aspects of Gas welding


and cutting.
23. Provisions of Sch. 24, Rule 102,
GFR for welding and cutting
operations.
24. Safety in handling and storing of
gas cylinders OR safety in
Regulators
and
hose
connections.
25. Precautions
against
electric
shock due to Arc welding.
26. Precautions while working on
polishing and buffing wheels.
27. Hazards and safety measures of
heat treatment operations.
28. Different types of media used in
heat treatment methods, their
hazards and controls.
29. General health hazards and
control measures in engineering
industry.
30. What PPE you will suggest for
following operations.
(a) Fettling work (b) Hot forging
work (c) Polishing and buffing
(d) chromium plating (e) Acid
cleaning (f) Solvent washing (g)
Electric welding (h) Noise due to
hammer.
2.

Write short notes on:1. Type and purpose of furnaces.


2. Special alloy steels.
3. Bessemer OR Open Hearth
process to Manufacture Steel.
4. Electric Arc Furnace.
5. Main
hazards
in
steel
manufacture.
6. CO hazards in steel furnaces.
7. Hazards and safety measures
for
moulding
process
OR
melting and pouring process.
8. Floor condition in foundry OR
Mechanised foundry.
9. Types of NDT.
10. Forging furnace, hazards and
controls.
11. Stuck forging.
12. Tongs for forging operations.
13. Safety aspects of hot rolling
operations.

14. Hazards and controls of Hot


Rolling Mill.
15. Seven principles of guarding for
cold working machines.
16. Safety devices for hand and
foot operated presses.
17. Hazards and control devices of
Press brakes.
18. Cold rolling millHazards and
control measures.
19. Classification of machine tools.
20. Causes of accidents and control
measures for Grinding wheels.
21. Angles of guards for different
types of Grinders.
22. Selection and care of Cutting
tools.
23. Safe
operation
and
maintenance of machines.
24. Common causes of fires in
welding and cutting.
25. Electrode holder.
26. Hazards
of
Electric
(Arc)
welding.
27. Fumes in Arc welding and
precautionary measures.
28. Welding in a confined space.
29. Buffing operation.
30. Ring test of a grinding wheel.
3.

Explain the Difference between1. Hot


processes
and
Cold
processes.
2. Melting furnaces and Heating
furnaces.
3. Fuel fired furnaces and Electric
furnaces.
4. Cast iron, Wrought iron and
Steel.
5. Kiln and Oven.
6. Flame furnaces and Shaft
furnaces.
7. Knock
out
operation
and
Fettling operation.
8. Sand
blasting
and
Shot
Blasting.
9. Forge press and Trim press.
10. Hot rolling and Cold rolling.
11. Shearing and Hammering.
12. Power press, Press brake and
Bending m/c.
13. Shear and Slitter.
14. Machine tool and Hand fool.
15. Planing m/c and Shaping m/c
16. Broaching m/c and Slotting m/c

17. Machine tool and Cutting tool.


18. Two-hand control device and
Photo cell device.
19. Die enclosure guard and Push
(sweep) away device
20. Welding and Cutting.
21. Gas welding, Arc welding and
Resistance welding
22. Polishing Wheel, Buffing Wheel
and Scratch wheel.
23. Case hardening and Nitriding.
24. Sintering and Heat hardening.
25. Siderosis and Anthracosis.
4. Comment
on
following
explaining whether it is true or
false ?
1. In melting furnace, materials
being processed remain in the
same state of aggregation while
in heating furnace they change
their state of aggregation.
2. Forging is a hot process only.
3. Rolling operation may be hot or
cold.
4. Electric arc welding is possible
by AC or DC both.
5.

Explain the following terms :


1. Cementile crucible steel
2. Reverberatory furnace.
3. Cementation process.
4. Core making.
5. Cupola furnace.
6. Pouring aisle.
7. Parting materials
8. Die sinking
9. Trim press.
10. Alligator shear.
11. Forming rolls.
12. Machine tool.
13. CNC machine
14. PLC, ROM and RAM.
15. Hand feeding tools.
16. Total productive maintenance
(TPM).
17. Brazing or soldering.
18. Gas torch.
19. Heat treatment
20. NDT.
21. Siderosis
22. Safe peripheral speed.
23. Self acting machine.
24. Pickling process of metal.
25. Point of operation guard.

26. Treadle guard OR Scale guard


(shield) of a forge hammer.
27. Work or tool rest.
28. Flash back OR backfire.

Reference and Recommended


Reading :
1. Accident
Prevention
Manual
for
Industrial Operations, NSC, Chicago,
Illinois.
2. Industrial Safety, R.P. Blake, PrenticeHall, NJ.
3. Industrial
Hazard
and
Safety
Handbook,
King
and
Magid,
Butterworth.
4. Industrial Accident Prevention, H. W.
Heinrich, McGraw-Hill BC.
5. Non-Destructive Testing Handbook,
McMaster R, Ronald Press, New York.
6. Forging Safety Manual NSC, USA.
7. Safety at Drop Forging Hammers,
Safety and Health at Work Booklet No.
12, HMSO, UK
8. The Course Material, CLI, Sion,
Bombay-22.
9. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health
and Safety, ILO Geneva.
10. ISI Handbook 1985.
11. Production Technology, R. K. Jain & S.
C. Gupta, Khanna Publishers, Delhi-6.
12. Design
Data
Handbook
for
Mechanical Engineers, K. Mahadevan
and
K.
Balaveera
Reddy,
CBS
Publishers and Distributors, Delhi -32.
13. Human Factors in Engineering and
Design, J. M. McCormick.
14. Kents
Mechanical
Engineers
Handbook
(Two
Volumes)
Colin
Carmichael, John Wiley and Sons.
15. Industrial
Engineering
Handbook,
Maynard, McGraw-Hill. BC.
16. Maintenance Engineering Handbook,
Morrow, McGraw-Hill BC.
17. Mechanical Design and Systems
Handbook, Rothbart, McGraw-Hill BC.

18. Engineering Manufacturing Processes


in Machine and Assembly Shops, D.
Maslov, Mir Publishers, Moscow.
19. Metals Engineering - Design, Process,
Properties, ASME, McGraw-Hill BC.
20. Gear Handbook, Dudley McGraw-Hill
BC.
21. Handbook of Non-ferrous Metallurgy,
Liddell, McGraw-Hill BC.
22. Foundry Engineering T. R. Banga and
Agarwal, Khanna Publishers, Delhi-6.
23. Welding Engineering, R. L. Agarwal
and
Tahil
Manghnani,
Khanna
Publishers, Delhi-6.
24. Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, K.
C. Jain and L. N. Agarwal, Khanna
Publishers, Delhi-6.
25. Workshop Technology, G.B.S. Narang,
Khanna Publishers, Delhi - 6
26. Theory of Machines, P. L. Ballaney,
Khanna Publishers, Delhi -6.
27. Engineering Precision Metrology, R.C.
Gupta, Khanna Publishers, Delhi-6.
28. Numerical Control and Machine Tools,
Yorem and Joseph, Khanna Publishers,
Delhi-6.
29. Advance Machine Design, Dr. Adbul
Mubeen, Khanna Publishers, Delhi-6.
30. Health and Safety at work booklet 3,
Safety devices for hand and foot
operated presses, HMSO, London.
31. Metallurgical Furnaces, V. Krivandin,
B. Markov, Mir Publishers, Moscow.
32. Machine Tools, N. Chernov, Mir
Publishers, Moscow.