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3G – Protocol

Architecture
Amal Chandran

1 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecom System
PS Domain
3G-SGSN 3G-MSC
3G-GGSN
CS Domain
Gs
Inter-PLMN
Backbone
Network

Iu-PS Iu-CS

RNC
Iur UTRAN
Node B
Uu
Iub

WCDMA

2 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


GSM/WCDMA Network Architecture

NAS

3G/WCDMA 2G/GSM

MSC – Mobile Services Switching Centre


SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node
GMSC – Gateway MSC
GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node
HLR – Home Location Register
BSC – Base Station Controller
RNC – Radio Network Controller
BTS – GSM Base Transceiver Station
Node B – WCDMA Base Station
GERAN –GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
UTRAN – UMTS Radio Access Network

3 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Network Components
• Node – B (BTS) : Physical Layer Device
• RNC: Radio Network Controller
• Controls the Node-B’s
• MSC/GMSC: Mobile Switching Centre, Gateway MSC
• Circuit Switched Services
• VLR: Visitor Location Register
• Database of Active Users in the area
• HLR: Home Location Register
• Subscriber Information
• SGSN/GGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node, Gateway GSN
• Packet Switched Services
4 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC
Protocol Stack – Review of Concepts
• Software Architecture for enabling Communication
• Each Layer has specific function

Layer 3 message

Layer 2 Header

L1 = Layer 1 Header

L1 L1 L1

Spreading, Scrambling, Modulation…

101010101000010101000010101010111010110101010......

5 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Layer 1: The Physical Layer
• Connects Node-B to UE 3G Network

• Cell Searching
• Spreading
• Scrambling
• Modulation
• Power Control
• Measurements
• Physical Channels of WCDMA

6 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Layer 2: MAC
• Medium Access Control
• Provides Access to Layer 1.

• Priority Handling between the data flows of the UE


• Multiplexing of Logical Data (Logical Channels)
• Traffic Volume Monitoring
• Identification of UE on common channels

• Ciphering of Voice Data

7 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Layer 2: RLC
• Radio Link Control

• Segmentation and Re-Assembly of data


• In-sequence delivery
• Error detection and recovery
• Flow control
• Ciphering of Control Data

• Three modes: Acknowledged, Unacknowledged, and Transparent

8 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Layer 3: RRC – The Brain
3G Network

• RRC : Radio Resource Control


• Management of Radio Resources
• Connection Management
• Setup, Maintenance, Release.
• Monitor the connection states
• Transfer of control messages
• Called “Signalling Messages”
• Control of 3G measurements

9 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Layer 3: Non Access Stratum
• Mobility Management
• Keeps track of Location Area

• Call Management
• Everything related to calls

• Session Management
• Data Connection management

• SMS Services

10 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


User Data
• PDCP
• Packet Data Convergence Protocol
• Header Compression

• BMC
• Broadcast and Multicast Control
• Broadcast of information – Like “Tsunami Warnings”,
“Traffic Alerts”

11 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Powering up a mobile, in 3G
• Search for cells
• Find out the parameters of the cell from the information broadcast
• Identify the Network ID (PLMN ID) of the network
• Check the quality of the cell
• Cell is good?
• Setup a connection
• Authenticate
• Update the network with UE’s location information
• Ready to go…

12 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Incoming Call?
• Paging message
• UE’s ID is registered with the network now.
• Send out paging request to UE

• Identify the UE ID, and respond to the paging.

• Exchange call information –


• Codec to use, Quality (Data Rate) of the call etc.
• Setup the call
• Establish a dedicated connection

13 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Change of Cells – Hand Over
• Current cell quality is low
• Move to another cell

• Simultaneous reception from two (or more) Node-Bs


• Soft Hand Over

• Softer Handover

14 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Soft/Softer handover
RNC 1 RNC 2
(SRNC Call transferred  (DRN
) C)
Via SRNS
relocation
BTS BTS BTS
1 2 3

Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6

Setup Add sector 6,


Add SectorAdd
2 : Sector 3Add remove
: Sector 4,Add Sector 5, Sector
call
Softer Soft Handover, Remove
remove sector
Sector 3
remove Sector
Handover same RNC 14, 2
15 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC
Triggers SRNS
relocation
Overall Architecture

TCP/IP Data – User Data

SM SMS MM CM
SNDCP

User Data
Non Access Stratum
L3
GSM/GPRS WCDMA
GPRS LLC
RRC
RR

GPRS RLC PDCP


L2 GSM L2
WCDMA RLC

GPRS MAC WCDMA MAC


L1
GSM L1 WCDMA L1

16 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


Interested in Reading Further?
• Web:
• http://www.3gpp.org/
• Look for Specification number 25.301
• http://www.etsi.org/

• Print Media
• WCDMA For UMTS : Antti Toskala, Harri Holma

17 © 2008 Nokia 3G Protocol Stack.ppt / 2009-08-26 / AC


THANK YOU

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