Anda di halaman 1dari 32

The Periodic Table

Picture Vocabulary

Chemistry

Alkali Metal

Any of the univalent elements belonging to


Group 1A of the Periodic Table.

Alkaline Earth Metal

Any of the bivalent metals belonging to


Group 2A of the Periodic Table.

Halogen

Any of the electronegative non-metallic


elements in Group 7A of the Periodic Table.

Inner Transition Elements

An element in the lanthanide and actinide series that is


characterized by the addition of electrons to f orbitals.

Noble Gas

Any of the elements found in Group 8A of the Periodic


Table; each have the s and p sublevels of their outermost
energy level filled.

Transition Elements

The B Group elements (3-12) found on the


Periodic Table, also known as transition metals.

Chemical Family

The vertical columns on the Periodic Table, also known


as Groups, where elements with similar properties are
placed.

Atomic Number

The number of protons found in the nucleus of


an element, represented by the letter Z.

Proton

A positively-charged subatomic particle of the


nucleus of an atom and contributes to the mass
of the atom.

Neutron

A subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom


that is without charge and contributes to the mass
of an atom.

Electron

A negatively-charged subatomic particle of the


electron cloud; involved in the formation of
chemical bonds.

Nucleus

The tiny, very dense, positively-charged region in


the center of an atom; made up of protons and
neutrons.

Valence Electrons

The electrons in the outermost energy level of an


atom that influence how an element will react with
other substances.

Groups

The columns on a Periodic Table that arrange the


elements by the number of electrons that are in the
outside shell.

Periods

The rows in a Periodic Table that classify the


elements by the number of atomic shells.

Metals

Most elements are metals, typically solid, shiny,


malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity.

Non-metals

Elements typically not shiny, usually a gas or brittle solid,


not malleable, and a poor conductor of heat and
electricity.

Metalloids

Elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals; sometimes referred to as semiconductors.

Chemical Symbol

A 1 to 2 letter representation of a specific


element, sometimes referred to as an atomic
symbol.

Periodic Trends

Picture Vocabulary

Chemistry

Atomic Radii

The distance between the nucleus of an atom to the


outermost electron orbital, usually measured in
nanometers.

Ionic Radii

The radius of either a positive or


a negative ion found in an ionic crystal.

Electronegativity

Within a molecule, it is the ability of an atom in


that molecule to attract electron pairs to itself.

Ionization Energy

The energy required to remove one electron from a


neutral atom of an element in the gaseous state.

Ion

Atoms (or groups of atoms) that have an electrical


charge due to a different number of protons and
electrons.

Neutral

Having no electrical charge.

Energy Level

Regions around the nucleus of an atom


where electrons may be found.

Shielding Effect

An effect that occurs as the inner electron shells of an


atom shield the valence electrons in the outer
electron shells from the positive pull of the nucleus.

Periodicity

The quality or state of being periodic,


or occurring at regular intervals.

Cation

Any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge.

Anion

Any atom or group of atoms with a negative


charge.