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LAB NO 3

Operation on CNC lathe


Introduction:
This lab is about to discuss different codes which are used in the CNC operations. We will also
do some practical work on CNC lathe. In CNC lathe the part is placed in the chuck. After
gripping the part in chuck, tool come and give a shape to that raw part. The CNC machine has
only two axes X axes and Z-axes

Objective:
To do an operation on CNC lathe and define the codes which are used in that operation.

Codes used in CNC operations:


There are two kinds of codes which is used in CNC operation.
1. G-codes or preparatory codes
2. M-codes or miscellaneous codes
G-codes:
These codes are also called as preparatory codes because it prepares the CNC for operation. The
different types of codes which are used in CNC operation are as follow.
Code

Function

G00

Rapid Positioning

G01

Linear Interpolation

G02

Circular Interpolation clockwise (CW)

G03

Circular Interpolation Counter clockwise (CCW)

G20

Inch input (in.)

G21

Metric Input (mm)

G24

Radius Programming

G28

Return to Reference Point

G90

Absolute Programming

G91

Incremental Programming

M-Codes:

LAB NO 3

These are the miscellaneous codes which are used in program


M00
M02
M03
M04
M05
M06
M08
M09
M17
M18
M30
M98
M99

Program stop
End of program
Spindle start (forward CW)
Spindle start (reverse CCW)
Spindle stop
Tool change
Coolant on
Coolant off
Tool post rotation normal
Tool post rotation reverse
End of tape and rewind
Transfer to subprogram
End of subprogram

Procedure:
1. First of all type the program in computer attached with the CNC.
2. The program used for the part are which is:
N05 G28 U0. W0;
N10 M06 T01;
N15 M03 S1000;
N20 G00 X0 Z2.;
N25 G01 X0 Z0 F 0.2;
N30 G01 X20. Z0 F0.2;
N35 G02 X30. Z-5. R5. F0.2;
N40 G01 X30 Z-24. F0.2;
N45 G03 X42. Z-30. R6. F0.2.;
N50 G01 X54. Z-30. F0.2.;
N55 G01 X60. Z-33. F0.2;
N60 G01 X60. Z-50. F0.2;

LAB NO 3
N65 M05;
N70 G00 X65. Z50.;
N75 G28 U0. W0;
N80 M30;

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Set the tool in the tool pocket according to the program.


Place part in chuck.
Coincide the manufacturer and job origin.
Shut the safety window.
Execute the program.

Conclusion:
This is very helpful to analyze the operation of CNC lathe. We also concluded that it is more
precise than lathe machine.

Comments:
The CNC is more precise and very easy to use than conventional lathe. The CNC also
manufacture part with closed tolerances. The drawback in CNC is that it is very expensive and
highly skilled operator is required for its operation.