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THE

BALKANS
LABORATORY

HISTORY

OF

BY

WILLIAM
Member

of

the

Author

American

The

Academy;

French

War

History; French

NEW

YORK:

CINCINNATI:

SLOANE

M.

and

Professor
the

Revolution

of

Revolution
and

History in
j

Columbia

University

Napoleon Bonaparte :

ReligiousReform,

EATON

"

MAINS

JENNINGS

"

GRAHAM

etc.

by
Copyright,

1914,

SLOANE

M.
WILLIAM

1\

CONTENTS

CHAPTER
TURKEY
What

is

broadly

checked,

and

Turkish

Efforts

of

The

Turk

European
with

treaties

of

and

The

the

rise

All

Misconceptions
studies,
of

Turk

as

mind,

Abdul
a

of

Turkey,

nationality,

kind,

30.

general

of

conviction
Slavic

Albania.

uprising,

Lines

42.

politics,

of

44.

Contradictions
46.
conflagration,
49.
in

the

noted

in

to

States,

(i)

Historical

Illyrians,
II,

58.

influence,

survey.

56.
Coming
59.

Political

instincts

Thracians

after

Early
of

of

the

of

of

game

the

Shiite

rule,

finance

39.

donia,
Mace-

in

pean
Euro-

Persians,
Balkan

48.
and

tration
adminis-

III

BALKAN

PEOPLES

Romans.

Developments
Trajan's

Turkish

true

The
Thracians,
The
immigration.
the

The
of

37.

51.

CHAPTER
THE

Turkey

43.

conceptions

rayahs,
Greek,

Modern

41.

lations
popu-

struggle

constructive

Greek

38.

28.

The

subject
The

of

The

travel

Oriental

subtle

The

Aversion

45.

of

29.

The

results

36.

Greece,

regard

25;

needed.

Macedonia,

in

18.

Official,

b.

Mohammed,

terms.

Macedonia,

Primitive

Balkan

current

to

Hamid,

16.

Egypt,

of

value

31.

produces

division

Abdul

15.

compelled

seizure

statement

40.

13.

intrigue,
jealousies,

nations

of

situation,

relative

petty

Personal,

successor

to

the

n.

HAMID

incident,

Agitation

34.

by

a.

"

Definite

33.

Mysteries

35.

the

as

of

Comparative

23.

customs

Misconceptions

32.

for

financier,

be

soldiery,

reign

ABDUL

sketches

to

decay

II

Turkey,

Turkish
Hamid

and

Napoleon's

UNDER

concerning
Some

24.

Claim

RULE

of

season

and

administration,

Western

CHAPTER
TURKISH

8.

Apogee
Turkish

neutralized

politics.
Porte,
17.

line,

Turkish

12.

stripped
Islam,
7.

victorious

10.

the

of

14.

his

seum,
mu-

advance

Patriciate

by

riot,

Janissaries,

1453,
Christendom

in

in

make

the

before

unity

at

fame

and

violence

Characteristics

power.

States

offered

racial

Turkish

4.
rule.

and

invasion

power

of

organization

Balkan

to

of

peninsula.

empire,

Alternatives

6.

Outburst

9.

Turkish

power,

founder

Ottoman,
chaos,

The

of

Balkan

the

as

Byzantine

the

Extent

5.

dignity

of

of

POLITICS

EUROPEAN

designated

Fall

3.

of

AND

The

55.
of

era

Interweaving
Greece

in

Greeks,
death,

Rome

60.

63.
iii

after
in

Scythians.

chieftains,
of
the

North

Differentiation

Greek

The

Philip

57.

Roman

and

battle

of

Europe,
of

Actium.
61.

the

The
Goths

CONTENTS

iv

the

on

north

shore

emperor
66.

Bulgars,

Racial

of

NATIONS
and

Environment

chapter.
Pretext

(2)

of

overthrow

for

garian,
Bul-

IV

BALKAN

I. THE

politics,84.

The
Slavs.

Stephen

Czar

CHAPTER

Purpose

The

Avar

The

invasion, 65.
The
Turks.
Dushan,
67.
Turk, 68; Slav, Servian, 69; Montenegrin,
characteristics:
and
Jew, 79.
75; Gypsy
73; Albanian,
70; Wallach,

Byzantine
The

Visigoth migration, 64.

The

of the Euxine.
Anastasius.

civilization, 83.
a

rude

The

play

of

despotism,
corrupt
so-called
Turkey.
new

and

The
the
86.
at
helm,
Turkey
Optimistic Europe, 88.
clan, or racial antagonism,
87.
and
Latest
facts
of
figures, 89.
Physical
Montenegro.
Nicholas
aim
and
of
Montenegrin
tion.
aspirastate-science,
determinations
90.
of Stephen,
warfare
Guerilla
Intimacy
existing between
91.
of
Czar
Peter
the
and
Thirty
Great, 92.
Petrowich
Danilo
years
Bitter
and
The
Montenegrin
people,
country
97.
erty
pov95.
peace,
Grecian
aims
98.
not
keenly felt by people of Montenegro,
successive
Ten
and
influences,
peoples settling portions of
99.
ordination
Subwho
in Asia
fanatical
101.
Greeks
Moslems,
are
Hellas, 100.
of
Phanariote
The
Servian
climax
of the
Church,
102.
the
blood
of the
The
Greek
rule, 103.
uprisings, 104.
martyrs
Grecian
of
the
Grecian
106.
seed
independence,
church,
105.
Social
Alfred
the choice of the people, 109.
Prince
consolidation, 108.
perity
Prosof the public morals,
life in the
Features
in.
no.
Balkans,
of
within
borders
of
Influence
the
Germany
112.
Greece,
Motto
of King
in Greece,
George, 114.
113.

Young

85.

call of the

The

CHAPTER
II.

THE

BALKAN

NATIONS

Russian

The

of Turkey
idea, 117.
Disintegration and
decay
during
Birth
of Rumania,
edged
acknowlCousa
Napoleonic
epoch, 118.
119.
Alexander
of Rumania,
as
John I, Sovereign Prince
Nature
120.
Rumanian
to his plan of reform,
an
120.
origins, 122.
proves
enemy
Rumania
in
Social
and
economic
of Rumania,
organization
war,
123.
Bulgarian
Religious
beginnings, 126.
secession, 127.
125.
Accession
and
Accession
and
reign of Alexander,
128.
reign of
Ferdinand,
Court
and
The
rise
Sophia,
people,
130.
131.
132.
of Servia,
Servian
of
vicissitudes,
Milosh,
Reign
136.
133.
135.
Revolt
led by him,
Michael
Militant
Alexander.
and
Second
137.
and
reigns of Milosh
The
Servia"
"Great
Michael,
idea, 139.
138.
Milan
Alexander
IV, 140.
General
istics
characterI, 141.
King Peter.
of Servia, 142.
Religion as yet largely superstition, 143.
The
passion for control
a
species of imperial insanity, 144.
the

VI

CHAPTER
THE
Turkish

REVOLUTION

apathy
Powers,
148.
(3) Bulgaria;

and
Balkan

OF

1908

corruption,
conditions:

(4) Greece,

150.

AND

ITS

CONSEQUENCES

Feebleness
and
futility of the
(i) Servia; (2) Montenegro,
149;
finance.
Population and
Plight of

147.

CONTENTS

and
Germany
the Powers,
The
Austria-Hungary,
151.
Young
152.
Turk
Party, 153. Bulgaria technically a vassal state, 154. Sparks before
with
Crete
votes
to unite
the
Greece, 156.
fire, 155.
Fanning the
Turks
of the
of their conpossessed
Young
victions,
courage
What
fuel, 159.
Italy adds
Italy had
feared, 160.
161.
The
The
Balkans
situation
at
Constantinople,
ablaze, 162.
The
sacrifices
of
the
of Greece,
Progress
163.
war,
164. Success
166.
Efforts for peace,
of the Allies, 165.
Progress of negotiations,
of herself, 168.
Rumania's
valuation
167.
Proposition submitted
ambassadors,
by London
tions
Indicastage of the war,
169. Second
170.
of exhaustion,
Partial and
Discord
temporary
171.
peace,
172.
the Allies, 173.
The
of Bulair, 174.
armistice
The
question
among
surrendered
of apportioning
territories, 175.
of Germany
Expenditures
and
Russia
for military
The
the
equipment,
176.
panic on
The
final
of
Berlin
terms
The
settlement,
Exchange,
177.
178.
The
Albania, 1 79.
new
treaty of Constantinople.

flame,

157.

158.

CHAPTER
THE

FORMATION

OF

VII
THE

BALKAN

ALLIANCE

Futile
efforts toward
The
alliance, 184.
principle of nationality, 183.
visit of Tricoupis
of diplomacy,
to Belgrade,
The
Twenty
185.
years
Balkan
the way,
186.
The
188.
jealousy and strife. Turkey
prepares
The
military in character, 189.
political pheYoung Turk movement
nomenon
of 1910.
A common
of the Young
ing
sufferTurks, 190.
Dismay
of the Young
unites
the
with
Turks
Balkans, 192.
Arrangement
Greece
and
Rumanian
Rumania,
policy, 194.
Bulgaria in concert,
193.
of full alliance, 106.
Suggestions
Greco-Bulgarian
treaty,
195.
197.
Russian
dustry
influence, 199.
treaty,
Bulgaria-Servian
198.
Principal inof Serbo-Bulgarian
of Servia, 200.
Content
The
treaty, 201.
conventions.
Formation
of the
military
joins, 202.
Montenegro
Balkan
alliance, 204.

CHAPTER
NATIONAL
Racial

CHARACTERISTICS

VIII
IN

THE

LATEST

WAR

trated,
illusand
The
influence, 207.
folly of Pan-Slavism
Macedonian
The
characteristics, 210.
completed
tion
partiof
and
in
The
Turkey
211.
Europe,
plight of Albania
Conditions
in
Lawlessness
in
Macedonia,
212.
Macedonia,
214.
Bosnia
and
the
Naivet6
Balkan
claim
of
the
of
Herzegovina, 215.
216.
Atrocities
of the war,
Facts
"Christian,"
to
proclaimed
217.
the
Facsimile
Intellectual
and
moral
world, 218.
corruption, 219.
letters of Greek
of
Indications
soldiers
published at Sophia, 221.
the
national
called
The
secret
conspiracy,
a
treaty
temper.
224.
A
declaration
Sir Edward
Grey's
disheartening conclusion,
225.
before
The
The
226.
Parliament,
right to be judged justly, 227.
Powers
the
of peace,
and
228.
by the
Questions evaded
treaty
omy
AutonLondon.
assembled
statesmen
at
Bulgaria's mistake, 229.
for Macedonia,
Greece
for all
Why
autonomy
opposed
230.

strength
208.

Macedonia,
233.

The

Servia

Greek

The
Rumania,
duty of a statesman,
232.
Difficulty of being just to Greece, 235.
komitadjis, 237.
Summary,
238.
231.
and

Enter

Greece,

234.

PREFACE

Vlll

certain

original design requires, however,

the

is asked

reader

the

which

to

tions
repeti-

for

excuse

the

sake

of clearness.

of

author

lays
before

time.

It

and

in

strives,moreover,

face

In

to

not

making

in

historical

without

previous

elements

the

in

entering
define.

all

six,
a

the

of

fate

Europe
of

hostile

Slavic

closer

invasion

indefinitelyto
dynastic

Princeton,

the

Europe,

Africa

become

Pan-Slavism
limbo

of

15,

1914.

bility,
sta-

Straits

upon

ern
west-

protection

civilization

posed
com-

Oriental

its system

the

have

the

will

Mohammedan

the
will

subjects
be

phantasms
W.

purposes.

March

other

be

will

for

and
and

to

some

Catholicism, and

stock, Greek

and

forced

union

Incidentally, Islam
Asia

and

inferior

of

of

history

be

the

measure

outcome

federation

European

lutely
abso-

are

ing
States, includ-

Balkan

of

bipartiteChristendom.
for

the

will

disappear entirely from


in

however,
young

ments
experi-

trial, and

or

beyond

There
kind

some

government.

peoples

some

States

the

laboratory

Constantinople

of

in its hands.

against

for

Balkan

difficult

temporary

epoch

The

will be

contains

because

indication

are

of

even

new

begun.

cision
de-

social,
political,

the

as

indulge

Should,

federation

second

ultimate

book

the

of the hour

it does

and

this

state

gation
investi-

and

the

the

them.

prophecy

test

However

Balkans,

the

religiousproblems

must

observation

sense

that

all,that will be generally known

if not

most,

his

public.

the
turn

may

of

results

the

full

incompleteness,

and

imperfection

their

with

but

apology,

without

It is therefore

of

relegated
evoked
M.

S.

TURKEY

AND

EUROPEAN

POLITICS

THE

BOUNDARIES

SHOWING
EXISTING

STATES

BALKAN

THE

BEFORE
SCALE

OF

WAR

MILES

21

from

26

Greenwich

28

TURKEY

THE
which

whole

of

dwell

Hungarians,

Servians,

for

longer

of

those

the

peoples

which,

styled,

very

recently

its

eastward

until

Adrianople,

in

Turks

many

and

Turkish

in

The

in

the

stocks
very

of

Asia

recently
among

Minor

within

those

which

who

to

the
of
been

have
few

Islam

Asiatic
who

are

allegiance.
Europe

with

the

trained

few

of

walls

very

to

crossed
3

tics
characteris-

remain

display

receding

states

what

and

As

boundaries

the

of

kan
Bal-

were

and

under

religious

of

the

domains

the

converts

portion

museum,

in

useful.

very

been

there

and

southeastern

ethnological

new

European

for

designation,

surviving

are

Balkans

sympathy

or

despotism

steadily

they

the

territories

great

While

sway.

now

the

these

certain

have

yet

established

historically

extent

Europe

the
Balkans

the

Asiatic

an

disastrous

in

is

other,
an-

under

therefore

has

comprehensive

history

under

their

throughout

Turkey

in

been

or

brief
the

is

thus

an

neighboring
observer
hours

Galata

was

to

Racial

Museum

politically, Turkey

in

and

loose,

though
is measured

able

broad

time

one

considered,

comprised

Montenegrins,

at

and

in

Dalmatians,

periods,

been

are

time

ethnic

or

Turks,

peninsula,

of

shorter

Geographically

Europe.

has

Ottoman

periods

these

Croatians,

Turks,

lands

the

Europe,

Bulgarians,

European

and

POLITICS

southeastern

Rumanians,

Greeks,

sway

EUROPEAN

AND

tinguish
dis-

bridge

in

BALKANS

THE

of thirty-eight
ferent
difConstantinople representatives
nationalities.

so-called

loose

belonging to

unions

tribes,which differ from


habits, garb, and

and

greater

or

less

due

to

conquest,

States
with

as

or

an

whole

All

these

extent

found

are

in

stantinople
of Con-

the inhabitants
variations

of

mean,

of

intermixture

Greeks.

and

distribution

Fall of

chapter.
Opinions

differ

Byzantine

cijne and

will

widely

But

another.

about

Balkan
Slavs

South

Bulgarians, Wal-

An
be

the

the

by

Magyars,

dence
resi-

temporary

mere

inhabited

origin and

of

account

in

given
every

their

following

detail of the de-

Byzantine, empire.
not
at all certain,except in a very
are
general way,
tion,
to the races,
at least in their proportionate distribuinhabited
its European
which
territories,and

while
pure

its

considerable

even
or

are

lachs, Albanians,

as

stitutio
origin,in-

in

of

strata

reason

some

other

Such

missionary enterprise,or
for

sons
perclans

population and settlement


immigration, or merchandising, or

successive

course,

to

means

blood-related

each

its suburbs.

and

word

of

language.
proportion amid

in both

religionand

We

This

fan of the East

Roman,

justly characterize

we

or

its administration

as

with accuracy
despotism, we know
nothing about
spond
workings except that, in general, the details correto

and

of Roman

those

Constantine

administration

the Great.

But

under
we

do

tian
Diocle-

know

that

which
change, a devolution
weakened
activityof the state, deprived it of
every
of reits powers
all offensive
sistance
strength, and rendered
inefficient.
Its disintegrationbegan as early
the eleventh
the Seljuke Turks,
a
as
century, when

there

was

Mongolian
in Asia

continuous

horde

Minor,

from

Central

established

Asia, gained a foothold

themselves

at

Iconium

as

TURKEY

AND

EUROPEAN

POLITICS

their

and began the forcible conversion


capital,
surrounding populationsto Mohammedanism.
1461, four centuries later, when
David, the
called "Roman"
ruler,yielded Trapezunt to the
Turks.

Thereafter

then

with

synonymous
alone survived
the
blood

the

mixed

of

of

trace

last

was
so-

Osman

"Roman/'

in Asia

; the

name

the

Christian

numerous

destined

Slavs

who

become

to

union, the cult of the Greek

Church

had

as

and

tled
set-

and

more

preserving,however,

race,

It

Greek-speaking population,
people already commingled in

them, and

among

not

was

Greek, power

in that

Romaike,

with

more

there

of the

bond

of

use

of

the

the Greek

language.
Justinian (527-565) the
from
Persia
to Portugal on

Under
tended

Mediterranean
the

of

mouth

the

by

and

the Euxine.

from

Dutch,
its
existence

of

and

and

and

more

less

their first

met

Western

foe

under

the

less

and

limited

on

the

Advance
Checked

the

Danube

the

in Asia

(Venetians,

from

the Turkish

bards,
Lom-

westward

dered
ren-

considerable, its
It is therefore

advance

was

an

cupation
oc-

One

thing is sure, that when


reallyvigorous and well-organized
dred
John Sobieski, less than two hun-

conquest.

Latins

Turkish

though

1000,

invaders

precarious.

more

questionablewhether
they

the

ex-

commanded

by

Turkish

French)

strength

or

the north

on

Thereafter

eastward

the

Franks

by the year
Naples, it was

Adriatic, and

the

the

power
all shores
of

Rhone;

retainingItalysouth
west

where

except

Roman

and

fiftyyears

cast

off their

yoke with

internecine

civil wars,

was
checked;
ago, their advance
the tide of their victories at once
gary
began to ebb. Hun-

almost
the

example

within

century

the memory

of

little difficulty,
in spiteof
in

1699;

later; Greece
our

fathers,and

Servia

and

in

followed

Montenegro
our
own
day

BALKANS

THE

Albania

; to

promised

been

has

real

independence
high degree of

secured

have

Bulgaria

and

Rumania

autonomy.
Extent

such

Yet

of

Turkish
Invasion
and

bald

of

Turkish

The

East

would

summary

pression
false im-

nation.
illumirequires some
regarded himself as

history and
Roman

leave

emperor

Rule

in the line of succession


Greek

spoke

but

he

the

Greek

church, but

over

and

He

rite.

all the Roman

from
was

asserted

the

of

supremacy

anointed

and

crowned

was

emperors,
Christian
of

fanatical

state

the

by

Oriental
set apart as
an
despot,
patriarch,was
ceremonial
in
and
shut
was
etiquette,
by a pompous
in
attire.
exhibited
and
as
a
was
demigod
gorgeous
He
at all times
was
guard
bodyprotected by a mercenary
and
surrounded
and
by sycophants
ingenious
exercised
who
such
flatterers,
politicaland military
his
will survived, to their own
as
by
advantage
power
and
that of influential court
favorites.
All vestiges
of West
Roman
such
and
the Consulate
institutions,
as
the patriciate
Senate, were
early swept away ; even
was
prived
deand the cities were
stripped of dignityand power,
Greek

of

all their

every

the

to
steadily increased
of whom
single one

emperor,

of

matter

as

fact

"

he
a

this

service

the

at

were

on

"

courtier

some

carried

divided

the

holders
officeoutset

these,
Through
directlydependent on

feeble, ineffectual,and
was

of

end.

was

believed

administration
of

number

The

proportionatelyenormous

was

and

liberties.

into

The

on.

several

as

finallyoppressive
members
ranks

and

dignities,each with separate privileges,income, style,


garb, and title. Every province had a governor,
or
statholder, with
was

taxes

associated
were

whom

an

in the management

farmed,

these

or

assessor,

two

legal official,

of the courts.
chief

officials

The

being

AND

TURKEY

bound

to

the

EUROPEAN

POLITICS

of

regular payment

enormous

Besides, there
levied

local

were

without

no

tence
pre-

personal.

of

taxes

grinding severity,
perpetual rebellions

with

What

pity.

to

sums

whose
alike, with
treasury was
emperor,
of distinction, imperial, fiscal, and

the

with
the terrific expense
of
what
foreign wars,
with
fleets and
armies, what
maintaining mercenary
the lavish provision of games
and feasts to propitiate
the populace of the capitalcityor cities,there was
no
chance
for Justinian'sgreat law
system to protect
some
was
anybody or anything. There
patriotism,
ish
instances of unselfmuch
there were
personal courage;
and

devotion, and
of

high personal

the

But

awful

an

was

the sodden
The

to

its

the

inertia

from

conquered

farther

neither
of the

the outset
foes

cared

to

economic
there

bridge,such

to

system.
devout

Moslems.

offered

three

believe, pay
in

relief

the ruled

the ruler and

were

rolled

conquerors

and

Turks

incoming
Islam

which

men

many

to

between

gulf

was

found

were

give a certain
and
social,political,

character

level of

dull, sorry

debauchery.

intervals

at

rious,
Victo-

alternatives

tribute,or

resistless flood

die.

As

farther

ever

more,

they killed many ; many


the great majority of the working classes,preserved
their Christian
faith,found life sweet, and paid.

Their

tribute

merciless

toward

was

the

of

the

they
Europe

as

were

had

certain

treatment

Greek
a

confession

courageous

the

never

old.

very

with

The

faith
the

Turks

much
of
new

who

the

ligion
re-

querors
con-

tyranny
entered

relatively;they
and after confighters,

numerous

explorers and

proportion
erto
classes, hith-

without

ritual,accepted the

with

were

upper

but

identified themselves

more

no

considerable

great proprietors and

except
and

larger,their

no

before.

than

of

the west,

THE

BALKANS

quest they substituted


administrators

had

professing Christian

the
chattel

ruler

the

now,

for
the

perpetuated

and

Only

system.

themselves

of

vilest

the

him

beneath

population

which

faith

as

dog,

garded
re-

hog,

Christian

immense

thenceforth

were

Byzantine
oppressive

same
a

The

type.

the

for

ries
centu-

ment
designated as the herd, the rayahs. Their treatrulers was
ever
more
leveling,
by the Turkish
and the fiber of their Christian
ever
more
brutalizing;
character, never
laxed
morally very tough, was
steadilyre-

until the weapons

of the

hood,
false-

weak, deceit and

practiced almost without


interruption,generation
after generation, left no
place in the spiritual
arsenal for manly or Christian
virtues, except those of
certain
traditional
a
fidelity,
dogged industry and
under
the
largely exercised
compulsion of selfpreservation.
The
had
confined their
earliest,or Seljuke, Turks
warlike

activities to
their

climax

of

or

families

their

and

four

in

power

lines

many

Asia

of

different

the

They
end

century, controllingvirtuallyall of
those

parts of Persia
tradition.

three

migrations

Still another
and

where

There
of

them

Turkish

capable, came

they
to

seem

from

stock, small

to

of
Asia

at

were

as

the

eleventh

the

Minor

first appear
have
been
their

idate
consol-

under

centers

leaders.

about

power

content

were

and
in historical

at

least

original seats.

in number

but

fierce

into

ing
prominence during the followcentury, the Oghusians. These steadilyencroached
the rule of the Sel jukes, and finally
on
Ertoa certain
grul, son of Soleiman
Khan, planted himself and his
his son
people firmly in northern
Phrygia. It was

Osman,
and

the

Othman,
fame

of

or

Ottoman,
his

who

line; and

founded
the

son

the power
of

Othman,

BALKANS

THE

io

and
military to his son, the great Mahomet
political
the
crushed
who
II, styledthe Conqueror. He it was
East Roman
empire, captured Constantinoplein 1453
it the Turkish
and made
metropolis,thus establishing
and opening a new
epoch
Turkey as a European power
Servia
in European history. Six years later he turned
paigns
into a Turkish
province (1459), and in further camTurkish
reduced
to
possession the island of
Lesbos
(1462), the most of Bosnia (1463), all of the
Peloponnesus (1479) and Trapezunt (1461). Five
later

years

(1466)

after

and

five years

His

for

the

died

Moslem

violence

and

Selim

almost

Italy,captured

in

army

1481.

on

the

his

the

conquest
successors

two

years

It

was

put his

the

Paul

sequel,too,
from

home

who

nals,
an-

murdered

was

was

were

Byzantine

little more

throne

Selim

enacted

in

of

outburst

an

scenes

when

drawn

was

was

familiar

those

The

ago.

attention

Caliphate.

1519,

The

Petersburg

foreign conquest.
in the

throne.

with

It

palace precinctswhich

I ascended

years

across

Christian.

riot in the

Alexander

public

the

an

Still another

his

or

in Saint

hundred

to

in

and

identical
or

and

landed

the

reduced

sated for a time


people were
Bajazet II reigned in outward
conquest.
peace
a
generation,although the palace cabals, the jealousies
of princes,and the rivalryof factions exhibited
inherent
Oriental
of every
weakness
despotism,

dynasty

whether

son

breathing space
subjection (1475).

to

later he

Otranto, and

Caramanians

stubborn

the

another

of Crimea

Tatars

with

subdued

he

than

parallel
; the
disgrace to

hurled

the

sians
Per-

Tigris, abased the proud Mamelukes


of Syria and
Egypt, and transmitted
of
the title and spiritualsupremacy
Soleiman

II

later reduced

ascended
the

the

Hungarian

throne

in

frontier

AND

TURKEY

fortress

EUROPEAN

POLITICS

Belgrade, annihilated

of

the

Hungarian army
and after another
lished
eastern
at Mohacs,
campaign estabhis power
at Of en, the Hungarian
capital,in
sal
1529, declaringthe kingdom of Hungary to be a vasHere
his fortunes
ing
Dreamstate.
began to wane.
of an
advance
into Germany, he besieged Vienna,
but
which

restored

in 1541

war

had

island

the

Austria

Turkish

from

wrested

of

revolted

renewed, the Turk

became

Soleiman

peace

Hungary to semi-independence
tribute.
But
paying a moderate

of

was

Hungary

concluded

he

1533

of

her

Ferdinand

King

In

most

of

condition

on

off.

driven

was

the

Persia

price and

victorious

was

and

Meantime

province.
Knights of

the

from

Rhodes;

at

Saint

John

Tabris, Van,

and

Mosool, togetherwith the feudal suzerainty of Georgia.


His

fleets

all the

feared

African

in

the

Spain

reduced

States

Barbary

possessions in
were

and

conquered

tian
of the Venemany
Turkish
corsairs
The
unknown

not

were

of the Atlantic

jection
terrified sub-

and

uJEgean.
and

to

on

the

penetrated to
they even
the Indian
Ocean.
Soleiman
died in 1566 on an expedition
left
the
and
rebellious
a
against
Hungarian city
Turkish
to begin its decay under
at its apogee,
power
Selim II,
his son
the reign of a weakling successor,
and

shores

century thereafter
process

No
the

accelerate

to

Turkish

ever

in tactics and
battlefield;

different.
Turkish

famous

almost

But
arms

corps

to

very
in action was
of

broken
un-

its fall.

forces, men
history the Turkish
the highest rank, have been brave
the

the

questioned the physicalcourage


soldiery. Since their first appearance

has

one

of

the

and

officers up

and

resourceful

strategy

the

high degree, the


from

the outset

a
Janissaries,
body

Characteris-

in

tics of the

to
on

is far

case

of

success

due
of

of

to

the

soldiery

BALKANS

THE

12

recruitingand organizationthat
amazing militaryengine, Napoleon's Guard, appears
founded.
The
been in a measure
to have
Janissaries
their
from
of men
a corps
separated in childhood
were
relatives, trained to habits of disciplineand unquestioning
obedience, inured to hardship, pampered only
in their vanity and pride of place. They had no family
whose

upon

ties and

of

system

of

attachments

no

other; their commanding


of money
gratifications
ranks
was
permitted
their bodies

weaken

or

rich

and

the

Greeks

or

Greek

to

did

which

all
not

their minds.
of

sons

Christian

Turks

not

were

The

Slavs.

with

uniforms;

effeminate

exclusivelythey were
captives; in other words, they

each

to

humored

license

every
render

Almost

but

except

sort
any
officers were

was

corps

at
at

all,

times,

to constituted

scious
authority,being conof its strength and
importance, but generally
throughout its history it proved a trustworthy prop
hand
it was
whose
to the authorityof the despot from
fed.
Through various vicissitudes it lasted to 1826.
In a broad generalizationit may
be said that the Turks
owed
their success
to the offspringof
as
conquerors
those who
were
conquered. The idea of such a corps
was
not, however, original;the Varangian guard of
the Byzantine emperors,
though widely different in
constitution
and organization,
nevertheless
was
a body
of struck
and
selected men,
proud in its efficiency,
devoted
to its officers ; and
being stationed so far from

of course,

the Western

menace

lands

allegianceexcept
the
of

whence

whole

to

which
army.

it was

was

recruited, it knew

its commanders

to

What
emperor.
the Janissarieswas

uses

it

original in

was

put

and

the
as

source
a

model

their

no

chief,

the

of
and

organization
supply and the
stimulus

to

the

AND

TURKEY

EUROPEAN

administration

The

in

was

over,

the

Ottoman

the

main

intrusted

nor

even

Moslems.

Turks

neither

of

POLITICS

of

Constantinople was
wealthy, refined, and adroit

quarter
the

13

empire, more-

to

who

men

The

where
of the

capital.

these shrewd
and
wily Phanariotes
among
selected their viceroysand administrators
Sultans
of the difficult posts.

outset)

the

Turks

administration
their
the

only

nations

; these

invaders

busy

horde

natives.

of

it

Rabbi

Grand

his

and

much

was

few

To

the

for
at the

of

keep

to

easier

leaders

each

the

units

encouraged

were

deal with

to

(and

conquerors
nations
as

organization,because

own

the vast
or

knew

As

tion

dwelt

From

most

Administra-

were

aristocratic

Phanar,
Greeks

Turkish

than

for
with

Patriarch, Vicar,

advisers, suitable

place

and

and the source


of
assigned in the capital,
thus easilyaccessible.
Beneath
the farauthoritywas
reaching results of the sparse Turkish
immigration
still lay fallow
the fact and
the idea of Byzantium:
station

there

were

the Greek

was

its ecclesiastical
aside

from
bond

remains

the

administrative
and

to

the

the devout

with

system

operated because

of the masses,
divisions

was

the

Moslem,

of

religion,

able
the strongest conceiv-

interest,was

nationality,
as, indeed,
case

ramifications

in all the

order; and

material
of

Church

was

then

and

Catholic.

Greek

still
This

crude

court

novelty,invented
that
not
religionwas

and, further, because


these : three
among
of the Armenian
two

there

were

rian
secta-

of the Greek

dox
Ortho-

Gregorian Church,
each of the Roman
Catholics
and
one
Jews. When,
into being Reformed
later, there came
tions
Congregathese
-American, German,
English, and Greek
were
nominally regulated according to the same
tem.
sysChurch,

"

"

In
in the

one

widest

Turkish

sense

extent

"

from

Islam

has

been

necessity. Without

tolerant
some

THE

14

degree of

contentment

would

there

BALKANS

been

have

religioustolerance
Mohammedans

subjects
along with

But

revenues.

no

is among
social intolerance of the
there

The

sort.

its Christian

among

and

was

of

contempt

orthodox

Moslem

the

fensive
of-

most

for the

ever,
inexpressible.Occidental influences,howligion
rea
began early to modify Mohammedanism,
which itself originatedwith the intestine schism

Christian

of

is

Shiites

such

Sunnites;

and

sectarian

tendencies

established.
it was
speedilydeveloped wherever
tions
The
Eastern
Roman
empire had intimate friendlyrelawith the Western
Caliphate,and vice versa ; but
action
interwith
the fall of Constantinople an
enormous
with Occidental
Christendom
was
inaugurated
For this the Phanathe political
and social side.
on
and
riotes furnished
and
measures
not
merely men
also
but
channels
communication
of
favoring
were

influences.
Balkan
Before

States
1453

The

story of the Balkan

States of

to-day antecedent
scientific sense
reallyhistorical.
1453
Their
institutions,
laws, organization,
leaders, all have
is not

to

human

interest,but they did


central

great
the

Simeon's
to

spur

Stephen
is the

of

of the

the

arouse

So

first stirred

patriotism, so

Bulgarians

historic

action.

"

Byzantium

Dushan's

in the

traditions

ninth

empire

Servia.
of

the

the

that

in the nineteenth

Servian
new

affect in any

the

way

history which explains


except in one
regard: as

Bulgarian empire
the

not

that

to-day

revival

pride

through

of
of

memory
Greeks
to

of

current

conditions

the

in the

in

modern
of

Czar

century
; and

the

was

that of

fourteenth

These

far-distant
vague,
Balkans
echo
down

centuries, profoundly stir patrioticemotions,


national

aspirationsand

are

far, the story of the Balkans

incentives

before

to

the

EUROPEAN

AND

TURKEY

POLITICS

15

be called

but that
historic,
the date
be correctlyemployed only from
Ottoman
a
European power.
empire became

fifteenth
can

the

century may

is

There

cessive

no

renascence

of

sense

the

periods of

was
political.Feudalism
system, the city commonwealths
; the so-called kingdoms

Western

called

of

and

town

connection;

Europe

the

be

can

economic

unrelated

units

sue-

mercantile

were
were

when

the

social and

country

Christianityin

in which

word

term

with

cerns
con-

tions
aggrega-

organic

no

fifteenth century

had

relapsed into paganism, and paganism of a rather


the
degraded sort at that. The fall of Constantinople,
of Islam
dom,
againstChristensteady conquering advance
the catastrophe of Rome,
profoundly affected
Western
Europe and recalled the days of Charles Martel. There
was
burning indignation,and fierce debate
and bitter lamentation.
But there was
no
manly resolve
resistance.
resolute
followed
and
by virile armament
On

contrary, the Ottoman

the

hypnotized

the

the weapons
Porte
such
was

were

Christian
of the

Craft

powers.

of

and

guile

and

Sublime

The

cringingweak.
climax

the

"

dazzled

successes

Oriental

swollen

the resort
and the jousting ring
phraseology became
of diplomacy: the kings of Europe, its Popes and
there represented by their
were
doges and emperors,
"

adroit

most

Western

world
of

of

with

"

from
the

alreadydrawn

fortunes

of the

palaceplots,and
in securingthe nod

Moslem

of

in parts of

The

the

the

on

some

establishment

power
course,

hung

sobriquet of
Conqueror. Our word

or

The

habile ministers.

reigningfavorites

favor

lords

and

Padishah

"

Splendid, or

or

cesses
suc-

wink

lord

of

cent,
Magnifi-

is not

theirs.

Venetian, French, and

ish
Span-

the

the

"Sultan"

Byzantine empire had, of


Balkan
peninsulasomewhat

The

Rise

and

Reign

into the

sphere of

further

The

hands.

advance

of

ice,
rivalries;Ven-

Europeans

accentuated

conquerors
Spain, and

ple
Constantino-

when
politics

Western

fell into Turkish


the

BALKANS

THE

16

Empire and the Pope


Holy Roman
and
into the Holy League of 1495
to check
entered
tide. In vain ; Venice
back the oncoming Moslem
turn
had no strong and settled
a despoticoligarchyand
was
and
the
Peloponnesus, it
policy. Losing Rhodes
Maximilian
I, distracted by
cringed to the Sultan.
troubles

internal
in

Cambrai
but

the

the

and

1517

empire

external, laid before

plan

the
pay them, and
with the Sultan, while
open

Francis
the

and

I, "the

support

the treaty of

of

for

the

further

partitionof Turkey,
soldiers
nobles

Hungarian
Austria

both

and

funds

nor

made

terms

Bavaria

lay

unprotected against foreign invasion.


most

Christian

all who

1535

the "most

the

raise neither

could

to

wide

for

the allies at

with

feared
the

favored," and

King" of France, with


the empire, concluded

Porte
Venice

which

made

his

tion
na-

paid contributions

strengtheningof the Sultan's forces.


Poland, under
Sigismund II, and Russia, risinginto
and powerful nationality
under
Ivan
the
a
congruous
the only doughty foes of the Turks, who
Terrible, were
had not only France
but England as allies;both
now
irreconcilable enemies
of the Hapsburgs in Spain
were
and Austria.
Such
petty jealousiesneutralized
every
effort at unity in Christendom,
and the Popes, weakened
in their spiritual
by their unimportant
supremacy
secular power
and their moral
laxityas Italian princelets, were
helpless to arouse
Europe for organized
action.
Both
cessful
Gregory X and Sixtus V exerted unsucefforts; already the Reformation
movement
in full swing and ecclesiasticism was
was
daily more
powerless.

18

THE

divide

to

laid before

was

Between
surmount

two

"

Magyar
claiming to be
Britain's

Napoleon's

her

two

powers
archives.

filed away
in dusty
goal lies an obstacle difficult to

hostile

nations:

drous
Hungary, the wonRumania,
a
state, and
rising power
Latin.
By sea she is checked through
vigilantguard of her Oriental trade

seizure

saviour

of

of

Egypt

could

Russia, nor

to

chosen

the

the Mediterranean.

through
course,

between

Europe

it was

her

and

her

Great

in

Turkey

BALKANS

the

Sultan

Turkish

waning

abhorrent,

was

accept him
he

power;

as

of
the

seemed

greatlyto resemble a wolf in sheep's clothing. Thus


together, while the latter
England and Russia drew
and support both Servia and Montenegro
began to encourage
in
Balkans.

She

made

common

arena

as

of
and

lent

even

late,Austria
a

she

hand

France

under

the

little control

into

the

in her

In vain

policyand

until circumstances
Bosnia

her

gave

the

sion
compul-

oppressed.

the mistake

saw

in the

England

stepped

were

with

helplessobserver,
had

Greece, and

to

All three

abettor.

influence

some

while

popular sympathy

long

which

maintain

to

cause;

an

too

was

order

over

and

the

Mespectaclewhen
the
Ali of Egypt, assertinga sovereignty on
hemet
Nile and in Syria, threatened
the existence
of Turkey,
and
the speedy supplanting of a weak
by a strong
Moslem
forced
at Constantinople. Russia
was
power

Herzegovina.

to

support

sided

England
interests.

help
the

an

her

The

It

was

foe, while

sedulous
with
Czar

the

rebel

obtained

obligationfrom
against Russian

protectorate of

France

strange

had

that

of

Greek
the

the

to

in

both

their

secure

foes; thereupon
Christians

for his

close the

to

he

and

Egyptian

compensation

Sultan

Latins

France

danelles
Dar-

assumed

in Palestine,

since

the

as

treaty of

AND

TURKEY

Francis

I, and

became

certain

French

empire
for

intervention

swift

the

by

the

Great

and

Mediterranean.

1878;
and
events

made

only

antiquated

be

remitted

public

violated,
into

it
charters.

to

followed
Stefano
would

sessions.
pos-

tolerate

such
then

statesman

Indian

fleet

it

rummage

has

through
to

troops

Berlin

desuetude,
the

and

European

sent

of

for

aid

which

not

Disraeli,

mitted
re-

ground

San

at

theatrical

Treaty

fallen

gradually
have

to

were

treaty

transported

The

never

Rumanian

success

would

powers

second

rayahs,

with

to

ency
ascend-

the

more

Turkey's

Britain,

Dardanelles

As

Constantinople,

the

the

scheming,

of
of

procedure;
of

premier

great

gained

Ignatieff

of

bondage

downtrodden

dismembered

completely

high-handed

the

dictation

The

the

of

sight

her

once

element

within

almost

The

Russia's

of

campaigns

attempted

Balkans.

the

again.

secured

behalf

determinative

as

have

instant,
in

in
from

once

waned,

an

ical
polit-

influence

Constantinople

at

Russian

Turkey

French

extent;

19

influence

paramount

released

War

POLITICS

religious

by

so

influence

Crimean

EUROPEAN

followed

in

steadily

since
and

the

the

chamber

latest
of

II

TURKISH

RULE

UNDER

ABDUL

21

HAMID

II

TURKISH

WHAT

of

governed

was

years

ago

Austria,

Marmora,

At

spread

black

which

in its

to

to

each

be

of

these

English

not

Turkey

that

for

and

rendered

perusal

the

within

Turks

who

; and

mob

by

it

of

the

such

delightful books

better

survived

empire

that
in

impassable

there

refinement
chasm.

for

deepand

travel

from

'

ruling

were

likewise
a

had
the

gentlemen;
and

in

impression

general

otherwise
and

this

Even

and

was

by

why

on,

of

there

fairly refined

so

Kinglake

fashionable.

no

home

at

educated

and

Byron

of

had

England

was

few

Mohammedans
was

is

represented

from

Ottoman

separated
an

were

Starting

there

lines

homogeneity

and

were

the

familiar

If

the

as

there

It

and

Orient

the

unflinching

French

them,

aristocracy

for

Turks

attractive
of

which

dren
chil-

passing generation

lines.

France

the

maps

territories

the

geography
School

that

!Ler?ng

and

imperfect.

but

by

Ionian,

of

upon

of

Sea

boundaries.

they

within

dividing

and

study

Misconceptions

the

Bosporus,

the

in

Europe

bounded

was

^Egean,

and

the

which

Turkey

in

the

national

intelligentread

Turkey

that

color

conviction,

seated
more

vivid

with

found

the

and

little conception

youth

nationality

was

rest

time

them

say

It

Sea, the

that

called

Turkey

governed.

Black

marked

exaggeration

the

as

before

of

splashes

were

HAMID

fathers

Dardanelles,

Seas.

had

the

and

strangely embryonic

was

of

the

the

ABDUL

much

still

was

Russia,

Adriatic

UNDER

grandfathers

our

Europe
ten

RULE

huge

culture

from

that
hammedan
Mo-

ian
plebethe

Con-

this

For

and

THE

BALKANS

other

reasons,

of the situation

there
those

among

the overwhelming
ago constituted
nations
throughout the Western
and

migrations of peoples in

the

either of the vaguest

matters

was

who

in

twenty years

majority of Western
world; Byzantium
Eastern

Europe

knowledge

ignorance. They were


Europe, entire,and Turkey

of total

Turkey

noranc
ig-

crass

or,
not

more

were
monly,
com-

that

aware

in Asia, in part,

they might
populated by peoples who, whatever
Turks
at all,having no
not
slightestrelation
be, were
in blood, religion,
with
their masters
institutions,or
in the
aspirations.It is a humiliatingfact that, even
the
somehow
the man
on
civilization,
highestWestern
babbles
about
who
anything and
street, the person
publicopinion
everything,reallyforms that self-styled
It is
with which
intelligenceis in perpetualwarfare.
but a very short time since that kind of publicopinion
thought the question of Turkey to be no question at
were

all.

business

certainly
; what
a

There

Comparative
Value
Travel

of

in his

man

highly

study.

to

seems

is it of others

be

Turkey

with

to meddle

that travel

general agreement

commendable

In this

have

home

own

should

the Turks

of course,

Why,

form

impression

both

there

is

of

and

recreation

some

is

truth, but

in

Studies

realitythere

are

travelers
readers.
and

make
of

only

kinds

two

which

have

of
real

observation
value

by

for

telligen
in-

gent
intelli-

Foreigners who live long in any land


careful study of its conditions, of its people,

its institutions

politics,
probably produce
the literature of travel which
has the highest intrinsic
value.
Nevertheless, long residence among
any people,
Orientals, blunts original national
particularly
among
of
character
and
the keenness
conviction, diminishes
observation, and

and

results

in

subtle form

of

assimila-

THE

26

able and

by

native

faith not

"

his womankind
With
person.
notions ; with his faith in
Western

lovable

even

uncontaminated
Islam

BALKANS

but

inherited

acquired and

"

by Arabic mysticism or Occidental


and garb fully
casuistry
; with his pride of official rank
gratifiedor with scope for his unquestioned and oftexhibits many
fine
as
a soldier,the Turk
ability
proven
official
that his salary as an
not
qualities.It matters
is never
or
paid; there is the land of "baksheesh"
that the shelter
It matters
not
bribery always open.
which
is bare, ricketyor in disrepair;
call his house
we
It
tents?
is he not naturallya dweller
in booths
or
some,
that his towns
matters
not
are
filthyand unwholeundisturbed

either

that

disease

will strike
It matters

only when
such

to-morrow;

rains, we

are

Allah

To

order
a

almost

reverse

to understand

fourth

He

domestic, hospitablewithin

interests;he
which
sound
most

are

at

his

and

has

he
first,

can

be, for

of all human

license in

other

territorial

have; in

we

we

But

need
he

is

possibilities,
able,
companion-

in such

life

repose,

touches

as

reasons

beings.

his

pleasant way

all, strange

it may
of expediency, the

There

faiths, sects, denominations,

more

apathy

on

justiceto the Turk


is our
antipodes.

dignity,a
delightful. Above

tolerant
more

in you

verges

concept

every

do

and

dimension.

interested

let

conduct.

resignationthat

shines

sun

it

raging let us fighttoo, so


man
through the long range of hu-

on

and

apprehend

must

we

so

all,but if the

If

life.

of

is

battle

wills,and
conditions

is

anyway.
and
want

plenty to-day

vicissitudes

the

that

enjoy it; when

us

is

there

are

wet,

ordains, as it would

fate

that

not

abroad; his hour

stalk

death

and

as

and

professionand behavior,
of equal size.
expanse

key
in Tur-

are

religions,

than
If

in any
only the

HAMIDIAN

RULE

often

cults pay,

of these various

adherents

27

enough,

and

only they do not in act, word, or precept


existing rule and order, nothing else matters
if

and

Islam

democratic

is the most

all natural

of

subvert
at

all.

religions
;

priestlyintermediation, no
The
no
naturally
hierarchy of any sort.
governors,
is thus confirmed
by
independent temper of the Turk
is the caliph,the Padishah, the emThere
his faith.
bodiment

there

are

no

orders,

of

theocratic

the rest, exalted

preserved

no

then

and

power;

humbled, enriched

or

destroyed, kept alive

or

or

there

are

impoverished,

killed,regulated

or

and conditions
in every relation of life by a power
such
affect all alike ; birth,inheritance, fealty,
no
accident

of way
gentlesoul.
sort

democratic

and
"

that
mere

in life at all.

counts

Tolerant

all

the Turk
His

"

both, in

is also in

women-folk

are

contemptuous

ordinary life a kindly,


under
no
compulsion

his
the very
he is generous
to
utmost;
discipline,
of their bondage, so easy is
slaves are
scarcelyaware
and
his whim
the yoke. With
divorce dependent upon
unfettered
will, provided he
accomplished by his own
of domestic
can
repay the wife's dowry, the rearrangement
or

relations

is

so

social

easy that
disordered

conditions

are

A
mind
makes
its unhappy
scarcelydisturbed.
a
owner
public charge; beggars are humored,
the halt,
tolerated, and supported by alms, especially
the

maimed,

the

dogs

of

and

inertia.
to

make

and

the

blind; before

ladies

Constantinopledrove
made

Easy

vehicles

indifference

Turkish

life

by

swerve

and

their banishment,

from

walks
the side-

their

sluggish

liberal soul

thing apart;

sort

combine
of

genial

cano
it is the volinefficiency
permeates it all. Yet beneath
of indiscipline.
Guile and the oiled feather first ;
Smooth
recklessness.
then, if thwarted, fury and

THE

28

BALKANS

der
promises with perpetualdelay; then performance unwith
Parthian
atrocious
the
of
arrows
compulsion

bloodshed.
Some

b. Official

characterization, however

such

essential
rule.

to

any

In the

as

were,

the

of the

grasp

of its extent

apogee

immigrated

who

and

conquering Teutons

and

greatness, those

themselves

seated

explained, in

was

imperfect,is
first principles
of Turkish

minority, much

in

the

as

were

provinces of
the Roman
empire. In the exercise of a fanaticism,
both physical and spiritual,
they simply took what they
found.
The
reduced
to a dead
people on the soil were
level of peasant boorishness; the ruling class stripped
land and people of all they dared
stroying
deto take without
the
wellspring of supply. The
arbitrary
childishness of Turkish
behavior
is
probably
to-day
fair
of
what
it
After
been.
has
a
sample
always
years
of

with

contact

but

it has

rascality. My
not

ways

of

served

tells the

dragoman

tumble

to

the

of

contents

inspectordiscreetlyturns
trunk

is

comes

trottingto

with

him

This

of

whole

empire

has army,

and

all the

and

external.
is

and

the

an

his

navy,

empty

naif

inspector
trunk; the police
the
way;
the official

another

moments

"gift,"which

roguery,

divides

he

in

the

feint of

edge,
pretense of knowl-

fact.

of

The

Ottoman

administration, internal

beginning to
form,

palace cliqueor

police,treasury, foreign office,

paraphernalia
From

plicity,
du-

customs

in miniature

system

ignorance

crassest

eye

sure,

eye.

honesty, the practice of


the

my

few

receive

the blind

is the

his

in

closed, and

western

they have, to be
European shiftiness and
to strengthen their own

Western

acquired something

the

mighty
as

end

mill that

camarilla

or

the

whole

grinds no

kitchen

chinery
ma-

grist;

cabinet,or

HAMIDIAN

"committee"

so-called

was

or

claimed

is

constitutional

wish

ridiculous.

and

in the

monarch

When

an

American

in the

Golden

peace;

the

seemed,

harem

the

of

course

their

United

shipyard; it
where

published price

somehow,

is all the

as

States

indemnity

an

constitution

paper

is notorious
inefficiency

property,

Horn,

of another

in name,

"

the

for

demand

of American
from

or

the semblance

again

once

Warships float,but

rest.

determines

establish

to

legislature. There
and

malcontents,

Abdul
under
once
parliament met
adjourned, and for the ensuing thirty
lished
met
again until the latest revolution estab-

never

years

29

affairs.

Hamid,

of

the Sultan's

or
intrigue,

all

RULE

for

due

cruiser

arrived

was

and

it ended

its

contented

the

less
rest-

grew

the

structio
de-

ordered
anchored

in
efficiency
Turks

and

the

indemnity to us.
As is well known, Abdul
Hamid, probably the last
real Moslem
Sultan, caliph, or Padishah, as he was
styled,rarely left the inclosure of his royal borough,
known
Kiosk.
the Yildiz
its carefully
Within
as
guarded, spacious inclosures,in its palaces and gardens
he abode.
Thence
he reigned and ruled ; and, claiming
to be the successor
of Mohammed,
he performed public
of the selamlik in a pompous
worship at the ceremony
from
recession
and
the near-by
procession and
to
which
he built for the purpose.
Impressive
mosque
also impressive as a
as
a
spectacle,the selamlik was
historic act, for in it Abdul
Hamid
appealed to the
millions and
millions
of Islam
as
perpetuating its
and its system.
He
had not
a
power
single attribute
which
entitled him
to arrogate the headship of Islam
to

himself, and

fealty. But
lordship and

to

cover

millions

of

millions
many
admitted
the

the

faithful

refused

their

passivelyaccepted his
sanctityof decrees issued

more

BALKANS

THE

30

by

his

the
religious
vice-regent,
therefore
awful
an
thing when
way
the

into

the

very

heart

of

sheik-ul-Islam.
a

found

miscreant

Yildiz

Kiosk

It

was

his

and, during

of
dastardly weapon
tous
anarchy. But the thing did happen, and the momento how
as
dynamite had been smugquestionarose
gled
into the empire. What
sounds
actuallyoccurred
like a joke ; but with a few other examples it may
serve,
of men
then
being a fact, to illustrate what manner
ruled at Constantinople.
For
British merchant
had
been
a
importing
years
and sellingfireproof safes.
A new
consignment was
in a ship just arriving. He was
summoned
to the customs
stores
to "open" them, for a wily official had
guessed and suggested that the dreadful explosive had
in these safes, and that more
been concealed
might be
found
in the newer
The
ones.
owner
appeared, glad
The matter
wide the doors.
to comply, and threw
open
not
was
so
simple; "opening" meant
displaying the
with
the steel walls; and
so
sledge
packing between
and chisel the whole
consignment was
destroyed,and

selamlik, flung a bomb,

there
lender

was

no

redress.

and
gives fifty,

The

the

familiar

the poor,

eager

finance

where

borrower

the

writes

long employed by the great


loan.
of the West
when
usurers
a
Turkey wanted
Neither
seen
principalnor interest being paid,a result foreby the originalparties,the various countries of
Europe intervened in Turkish finance to "readjust" the
debt for the creditors,a class of unsuspectinginvestors
whom
the obligations
had been unloaded
by the
upon
negotiators. So there exists in Constantinople a board
from
the West,
of highly paid gentlemen, all but one
into their
who
take a certain proportion of the customs
hands
for paying interest and refundingprincipal.
own
a

hundred

in the bond

was

HAMIDIAN

with

Compared
the

those

in

in

dues

customs

RULE

our

elsewhere, it seemed

by raisingthe
There

was

mighty

of the
since
of the

many,

of

the

Western

triumphs

the

desirable

in all the state

last the

the

of

the

also

protection

fillthe official purses


of three per cent more.

average
deliberation

would

of

the

to

an

coffers

To

cent.

per

At

measure

ments
departwas

in

commission

mitted,
per-

charge

profitthereby.

first be signed in the


must
papers
many
earth before
the law promulgated by the

could

Sultan

eleven

Utopia,
were)

rather

(or

are

Occident.

publicdebt

But
ends

tariff

American

own

Turkey

trifling,
averaging about
at
Porte, looking abroad

31

be

powers

operative. The ambassadors


deliberated
day by day on the
Meantime

measures.

the

Sultan

of

the

trative
adminis-

received

an

glassware purchased in France, and to be


No
used at Yildiz.
to be paid on
was
duty, of course,
chief of the secret police,was
that.
A high official,
it. His mission
cessfully
to enter
promptly and sucsent
was
sion;
discharged,but not merely his originalmisthe great man,
findingat the receiptof custom
the collector had
which
ceived
reof money
a
large amount
in the regularway
for dues, carried off not only
his masthe imported service of glassware,which
ter's,
was
for

invoice

but

the
his

needed
The
reached
British
of
the

the
news

manual

too, which

money,

master's

and

was

also, as
moreover,

was,

he

sidered,
con-

greatly

at Yildiz.

of

news

this

characteristic

meeting-placeof
representative,who

the

new

tariff,hastened
true, at

which

gave

seized the

once

Great

behavior

the ambassadors
was

to

the

withdrew
Britain's

swiftly
; and

the

the latest

signatory
wharf
and, finding
the precious signconsent.

high officers of his Ottoman

nation
Conster-

majesty;

THE

32

BALKANS

superciliousbehavior, such
But they yielded,and
details?

needless

such

why
about

at

was

vital tiation
negoadministrative
rangements
ar-

last concluded, with

to

proceedings by

the

preclude
Turks

the

in

fuss

the

repetitionof
Turkey. Why

naif

such

multiply

professorenteringTurkey from Greece


has his Persian
powder confiscated as an explosive;a
for eggs is suddenly
trading firm sending into Asia Minor
instances?

with

confronted
for eggs
of the cases, is

is correct,

permit

And

not.

It is vital that the


school

of medicine
No

but

the

trouble
members

rank, and

as

place. Every

by

such

at

on.

so

degrees granted by
Beirut

whatever
of

and

on

so

the

might

year it was
the American

should
to

the American
official

have

tion.
sanc-

get the imperial decree;

commission
not

the material

for wood,

that

the

because, while

loss

total

easilypass
of

matter

Turks

were

ambassador

from

of

place to

gotiation
complicated ne-

to

for

secure

rightto proceed on the business for


which
they have been duly and legallydesignated by
their august and all-powerfulmaster.
It is very hard
that the machinery of Oriental
to believe
government
is as simple on
the surface
intricate in its workings
as
or
it appears,
of incapacity.The
as
merely by reason
subtle Oriental
mind
some
secures
advantage in its
schemes
efforts,or apparent efforts,to apply worn-out
these

to

officials the

conditions.

new

At

any

rate,

rule

Turkish

has

expectation by half a century, and it is its


less perfidious
or
very absurdity,with the aid of a more
of the West,
which
the great powers
rivalry among
nople
at Constantiseems
likelyto perpetuate it indefinitely
survived

and

in Asia

Comprehension

peoples is

further

Minor.
of

the Oriental

impeded by

question by
their

total

western

failure

to

sought, as elsewhere
professing Islam.
the

under
in

few

are

some

lot
or

Mohammedans,

by

still
and

who
have not a drop of Turkish
many,
blood in their veins, being pure Aryans,

there

are

Javanes,

Japhetites,or

describes

told,to mitigatetheir hard


In all the provinces once

there

Sultan

Arabian

or
or

BALKANS

THE

34

them.

In

or

whatever

adjective best

Herzegovina

the

Bosnia

and

gether
to-

about half a million. Though most


they number
that
carefully and consideratelytreated, they demand
nople,
Constantitheir religious
head shall be appointed from

refusing incorporation in

thus
The

system.

Arabs,

or

their

mostly

have

fathers

of
returned

Asiatic
to

Austrian

stock, Turks
land

the

whence

The

question of superioritycan
be answered
only by comparing those who
independent self- rulers,
rayahs, but are now
stillrule in unemancipated lands, rulers
who

therefore
were

Mohammedans

the

once

came.

with

those

Definite

with

rulers.

Statement

Rumania

Needed

Herzegovina are under Austria's iron hand; Servia,


though longer practiced in liberty,inherited peculiar
conditions
and horrified the world
burst
by the savage outof her unbridled
wrath
against a faithless king.
The
subject to Turkey are
European peoples once
either by profestherefore
of necessity Christian
not
sion
differ
in
however
or
practice,
widely they
many
Turks.
from
the
Moreover,
they designate
respects
of
in a sense
word
themselves
that
as
nations, using
their

Of

there

own

"

in central

Struggle

cannot

sense

Europe

would
The

the result in the

be

It is sometimes

for Nationality ica is

true,

New

in

there

question.

similar

to

during

the

better

and

is

of

Bulgaria and

Bosnia

that in which
middle

ages.

expression.
cleverlysaid

rather

In whatever

Europe.
one

be

case

an

it

and

used

was

alities"
"Nation-

that

Amer-

respects that may

antipodal contrast.

the

We

be
are

HAMIDIAN

of many

RULE

35

widely different elements, a


Europe,
great nation, unilingual and homogeneous.
having passed that way in the unification of France,
returningon its footsteps,
Germany, and Italy,is now
and the passion for little nationalities is exhibited on
all familiar with the Irish question ;
are
every side. We
with wondering interest the revived study of
note
we
the Celtic tongue in Great Britain and the emphasis on
institutions of another
In Belgium the Flemish
age.
before.
In
stock strugglesfor its language as never
the revival of Provencal
Provence
literature,so long
followed
cherished, is now
by a blind struggleagainst
of
for a measure
total assimilation
and by a demand
local independence in the interest of local industry.
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy
Throughout
every
of the eighteen or more
serting
one
petty nationalities is asits right to live for and rule itself. The
tion
quesmuch
of Sicilygives the house
of Savoy at Rome
to consider, and
separatism in the German
empire
furnishes
themes
for its journalists.Everywhere on
the continent
of Europe it is the same
story, while
simultaneouslythere is a growing nationalist agitation
both in Egypt and India.
This is the movement
which
brought Rumania, Bulgaria,and Servia into a more
or
less independent life; it is the movement
which
was
ated
long surging throughout Turkey in Europe and crethe burning question in Macedonia, whence
came,
of old, the bitter cry, "Come
and
as
over
help us."
This in a high degree was
the cause
of the war.
There
is no
in describingthe whole
stir and
use
strugglefor nationalityas senseless,a common
nation
desigwhich perfectlydescribes it to many
minds.
It
is not senseless ; the agitationis real,has produced vital
results of a constructive
kind, and in our
day underbusy making,

out

THE

36
lay outbreaks

BALKANS

crueltyin lands
that are
fair,among
people who are innocent, capable,
and urged onward
by noble instincts. The dispersion
of peoples,each with its own
language, is represented
laid on
for
in the scripturalaccount
as
a
curse
men
against Almighty God.
Europe is doing
high treason
its utmost

heavy

of bloodshed

to

its votaries

other

would

of

the

maxim

of

it have

the

sprung

anything

land-grabberseager
is

what

that

veins

the

The

"

they
table.

the

no

of

use

the

ions
subdivis-

from

useful

guidance.
all of

and

one

unselfish

an

No

of

Out

all-

dynastic
romantic

and
knows

man

Celt,

Teuton,

this

at

or

guage
languages and landared
standing has ever
the

of

man

of

language

the

proves

blood

in

user.

of

peoples, the origin of races, the


from
type to type or the persistence of
these are
if
behave
as
mysteries. But men
and usable as the multiplication
concrete
as

movements

all
were

In Western

developed
common

but

of its

transitions

type

use

know
philologists

The

each

all-Slav, all-German,

Greco-Roman,

groups,
assert

moral

for their selfish ends.

sentiment

Slav.

to

trines,
doc-

Among

of the various

devices

"

by self-appointed
succeed

to

distorted

baneful

movements

done

reconstruction

and
been

academic

the

conduct.

human

has

same,

hypothesis into

hour

of

of the Turanians

Aryans,

be

made

theoretical

the

affect

and

ill-considered,unproven

rules

accepted

others

many

harm

iteration, are

of

dint

as

theories

But

teachers.

by

did

modest,

science

Were

men.

it lie

make

and

curse

of innocent

solely,small

world

the

perpetuate

millions

on

horrid

and

that

error.

at

Europe

there

least there
But

into less educated

when

was

the

were

types

some

excuse

doctrine

societies,it began

so

strongly
for the

spread

ward
east-

work

and

to

HAMIDIAN

is

such

among

use

that

the

Rumanians

and

the

Servians

that

Macedonians

sow

as

of

gains

civilization.

To

which

phrases

women

the

whirlwind.

Slavs

are
are

of

this

or

that

or

the

tain
con-

contends,

read

we

Bulgarians
nationality;

different

of

Bulgarians

Greece

When

Latins; that

are

opinion

Greek,

are

and

men

etc., is to

the

the

37

tory,"
"nation," "people,""patriotism,""his-

the words

to

with

havoc

working

RULE

ing
Servians, accord-

writer,

that

or

get the

we

they

common

diplomatic exchange; but it is spurious and


counterfeit
if passed as historical truth.
coin

of

There

little interest

was

the

rayahs while Turkish


of
nearly all Christians
Europe at least,and were

rule

the

to

as

nationalities of

They

strong.

was

were

the

Byzantine type, those in


hence
regarded as one people
for
Oriental
conceive
of nationality
theocracy cannot
;
knew
the
religion. They themselves
apart from
differences
in their origins and
traditions
in such
as
Slavs, some
they had: some
were
Vlachs, and some
Albanians
had the blood of Trajan's legionaries
; some
in their veins, whatever
that was.
But they felt more
mon
deeply than they thought ; the hardships of their comlot and the common
worship of their church gave
them
of unity than of disunity; they
a
stronger sense
all non-Moslems,
all
all rayahs, and
in a sense
were
Greeks.
Moreover, as explained in another
tion,
connecwere

the most
among
the old Greek

Constantinople in
nariotes

the

useful

Byzantine

families

resourceful, guileful,smooth,
and

for their

They
to

and

preciousservices they
were

the Greeks

fro within

who

the

par

and

to

at

Pha-

mats;
diplo-

elegant, refined;
received

excellence

empire,

lived

These

administrators

as

Sultans

the

quarter of Phanar.

invaluable

were

of

servants

and

wards.
great rening
; and, run-

fro without,

The

Greek

BALKANS

THE

38
they impressed
destined

race

all that

upon

the

restore

to

if there

the

general

one

day

of

Greek

the memory
conviction
that

hold

all

Greek

would

and

first to be

kingdom

of

Greek

Greece,

and

Albanian,
the

but
Greece

millions

has

in

itself for the task


before

year

asserted
but

her

time, and

What

and

ancient

differ

widely
zation;
civili-

in Western

the

the

to

itself.
it

So

coming

enormous

recentlyas
made

had

that Greece

had

who

Europe

in all likelihood

and
are

in

the

been

have

might

government

Turkey

and
men

the

in their

flows

truly
nothing

gathered no

regeneration. But she


the Christian
agitationsamong

large measure,
of Greek

of

bided

national

her

still left
in

set

(1912)

that the Greek

from

vated
reno-

population of about three


unifying, elevating,and purifying

tactical mistakes, and

fruit

now

forgotten

realizes

quarter,

in

portion

the Orient, and

with

it has

last

it is

speak

travelers

Greece

in the

the present

ideals

the

the

little

the

made

enlist

of that

purpose
that
blood

the West,

that

which

on

on

Byzantium

set

familiar

from

progress

live

of modern

one

of

inhabitants

other

or

from

advance

the

emancipated, namely,

with

Slavic,

Coming

about

to

have

and
to

"great idea"

Romaic,

or

light

This, though

Greece, whose

would

boundaries

Turkish

was

that the

in Attica

northward

form.

is still the

Greece

and

restoration

the

regenerate

Turkey

veins.

within

wit,

to

stoutly denied,
of

shoot

Church

"great idea,"
new

Europe,

civilization,rekindled

Peloponnesus,
whole

in

Turkey

stilllivingit

men

greater

Rome,

spoke their tongue,

who

of

Hence, within

second

Grecian

of

empire

those
they, their co-religionists,
the coming people.
were

were

lations
popu-

attributed

were

to
correctly,

plies
sup-

money.

these modern

Greeks

The

ques-

HAMIDIAN

tion will be answered


the

For

present

RULE

greater lengthin another

at

paragraph

admit
skepticalinvestigators
some

blood

there

is

transmitted

proportion

equal to

that of

the

the modern

or

rest

Vlach.

Greeks

other

of

coasts

they
Egypt.
;

are

That

character

estimate
best

is

their numbers

other

are

found

are

Crete

and

Turkish

on

the

eignty,
sover-

in

important

bers
num-

Minor, in Syria, and


and

twelve

at

Slav

or

there

national

undoubted,

that

For

empire;

is

in America.

latelyunder

have

them

about

They

in Asia

they

of

Greeks

most

in Greece

in Greece

inhabitants

numerous

The

either Albanian

Ottoman

other

no

descent

them.

islands, until very


have

in

are

place. Modern

Greece, and

descent

the Greeks

the

in most

ancient

of Greek

far outnumber

who

all the

from

Greeks

suffice.

must

that

Anglo-Saxon

Besides

39

type and

they

millions.

tional
na-

themselves
This

is at

approximation and, as will be explained later,


something of an exaggeration. For the most
part
an

these

Greeks
Church.

While

passionatein

of the Greek

of

devotion

have

them

they

to

elsewhere, they remain


the Greece
they style Hellas,

into Greece
To

it,the East

was

finance,

and

fortunes, from

particularly,
public buildingsand endowments.

barbarians

empire,
known

lenes;
Hel-

into Athens

sums

the outer

called

are

enormous

generally,for

Roman

character,

gained

great

pour

olic
Cath-

domiciled

kingdom whose
people
of
and, being masters
commerce

many
which

and

adherents

modern

the

but

faithful

are

as

Greek
Rome

who
it

as
or

later
was

Rom

deluged

in
or

speech
Rum.

ceased
to be
language spoken there has never
or
spoken. After eighteenhundred
years of devolution
evolution, according to the point of view, it is still
justgiven,
spoken by these millions,and, for the reason
it is by them
it from
the
called Romaic, to distinguish
The

THE

40

Hellenic, which

either

means

old Greek,

pure

of educated

written

language
language really renovated

modern

and

Greeks

in

or

the

Greece,

cultivated

ment
by enrichfrom
classical Greek.
In this remodeling, modern
Greek
resembles
modern
The
Norwegian.
passion for
northwest
nationality,equally strong in the extreme
of Europe, has in both had recourse
to
and southeast
for securingapartness and distinction.
the same
means
At first sight it seems
very curious that the national
Greece
of modern
costume
was
adopted or adapted
a

Albania

BALKANS

from

that

most

remarkable

of

stock

of

Greek

not

the

all, a little folk the

at

continent, namely,

European

know, absolutely
with
without
close, or at least calculable,affinity
any
of race,
other, whether
speech, or institutions;
any
still using the oldest known
taining,
European language; rehabitat
without
of
or
manners,
religion,
unity
which
sets
and character
a unity of nature,
appearance,
them
tions,
absolutelyapart from the surrounding populawith
whom
they mingle freely but do not
coalesce.
The
they
explanation is that in a high sense
the

Albanians,

are

the makers

of modern

But

Slavic

Uprising

it

seems

if modern
as

people, as

Greece

if her

far

we

Greece.
much

owes

ambition

as

were

the

to

quenched, her destiny

thwarted, by the rejuvenescence of another


which

is not

historic

the

times

immigrant

folk-stock

approximately indigenous,but

even

Slavic because

Albanians,

has

it uses
nomads

come

from

Slavic

tongue,

afar.
a

in
with-

It is called

language

which

brought with them and gradually


forced upon
which
had
known
Roman
populations
culture.
These populations were
in a measure
Aryan,
that is,related in speech and structure
peans,
Euroto other
but with
them
was
intermingled generously a
middle
Asiatic
elements
called
race
Bulgars. These

BALKANS

THE

42

in what
firmlyanchored
they call their nationalities : a
culty
Bulgar of the exarchate, for example, who finds diffito-day in understanding the neighboring Serb
of the

Serb

be

the

change
Sublime

reform

in the

there

There
would
even

the

is sometimes
Porte

peace.

be the

if there

were

Slavs, Servian

or

Epirus,

some

in

at

may

change of conditions,
kaleidoscopic.
and
of
It

as

again promised
Macedonia

as

such

would

promised anything the


they demanded.
Why

intention

no

was

not

often

as

Albanians, there is
in

again

situation

administration

demanded

powers
not?

The

by

reversed

and
stability

secure

adequate consideration

an

to-morrow.

be

The

Turkey in
Macedonia

Greek

or

moment

any
and

for

patriarchate,may

performance, and
of performslightestpossibility
ance,
of

possiblewill.
Bulgarian, the Greeks
the best

Besides

great contingent of Vlachs,

Thessaly,

These

in

-the

and

some

Macedonia.

many
to be Rumanians

mysterious people claim


; they
Rumanian
ever,
dialect,stronglyimpregnated, howspeak a
and constructions
taken from
with words
uous
contigpeoples. They are industrious and thrifty,but
picion
they are scheming, and are regarded with anxious susthe questions which
by their neighbors. On
around
so
them, their attitude is
agitate the world
enigmatical;but, like all the rest, they are far from
rule in any degree.
resigned and obedient to Turkish
In the main, they, like the Albanians, lean toward
the
nority
Greeks, although,again as in Albania, there is a midisposed. Although widely
party otherwise
different
in habits, some
of them
living in villages
while
nomadic
herdsmen, there is no quesare
tion
many
as

This

to their essential

unity.
distracted
country, therefore,is almost
only, the specimens are
museum;

an

thropologica
an-

shown

HAMIDIAN

in

chaotic

RULE

mechanical

mixture,

43
in

not

rangement.
orderly ar-

Encouraged by the example of the three


Danubian
kingdoms, and especially
by the experience
of that
anomalous
as
portion of Bulgaria known
fell off from
Rumelia, which
Turkey with no battles
long
except those of words, the natives of Macedonia
for deliverance, for entrance
into the promised land
of self-administration.

Over

the

borders

former

there

beckoning, all
wealth, and population.
lustingfor increase of territory,
Of
in Abdul
Hamid's
the three, Bulgaria had
its
It began to woo
time the advantage.
soonest;
donia;
language has certain suffixes like those used in Maceit has a church
using Slavic in its services and
capital;
taking no minutest direction from the Turkish
and, above
to

lieved
beall,it had, in the year 1910, an army
be of high morale, thoroughly equipped and
for

drilled,quite ready

who
the

like that

coup

which

made

Bulgarian.

Rumelia
On

all

Greece:

Servia, Bulgaria,and

were

the other

hand, Greece

agitationis

due

to

half bandit, set

on

Servia

movement

kept her

home

affairs

Three

years

that

foot

were

the money,

best have

Macedonia

know

had

asserted

and

that

those

most

of

unscrupulous bands that are


cash.
and supported by Greek
of agitationgoing, but her

serious

detriment

the ablest Servian


ago
in Macedonia
there are

to

her

ambitions.

writer
lines of

was

tending
con-

division,

and
that the rivals
linguistic,
should
end their rivalryby a tripartite
division, each
Meantime
taking its own.
Turkey, under the wily
Abdul
Hamid, the one most
accomplished opportunist
in politics,
had
reallynothing to do except to foment

racial,territorial

race

hatred
as

of

division

and

yore

and

to

collect

between

heavy

ing
Christians, continu-

taxes

where

resistance

THE

44

either

was

internal

BALKANS

thwarted

spasmodic,unorganized,or
of

dissension
bloodshed

cruelty and

the

There

communes.

and

by

was

nominal

the

anarchy;

the

ministra
ad-

probably abetted it all,certainlydid not


the agitators,
were
stop it; but the prime movers
said before, Turkey
either native or imported. As was
if she would,
could not keep a singlepromise of reform
The
Divide
if she could.
et impera.
not
and would
bands
Servian bands, the Bulgarian bands, the Greek
entered

Macedonia

and

on

each

and

possibly all the more


recurrent
anarchy.

and

and

other;

worked

the

their will

on

the natives

still collected

Turk

easilybecause

his taxes,

of the unrest

fairlywell the
appeared to understand
of European politics.Such
extraordinaryperformances
game
take place within
the Austro-Hungarian
as
German
against
empire could not escape his notice.
Slav and
Magyar, Magyar against Slav and German
Abdul

Hamid

dire

Rumanian,

and

dissensions, even

themselves, all in the sacred


or
mess
an

Yet

of

name

the

among

church,

or

Slavs

nation,

be
such a
it may
language, or race, or whatever
of centrifugalforces apparently does not make
Austria-Hungary very strong for external affairs.
the destinyof the "eastern
realm," which is what
"

Oesterreich
and

within

idle in the
far the

valley
Slavic
which
Russian

means,

use

it,down

of Pan-Slavism

largest number

of

and by
for her purposes,
inhabitants
in the Danube

probably still is a
membership, of
society,claiming an immense
the president is a Roman
(not Greek) Catholic
tions
general, continuously wooing these populaare

Slavs.

in Russia's
years

out
both withof many
is never
Russia
the Danube.

is,in the minds

in books

and

There

interest.
papers

was

and

Its agents

againstthe

fulminated

sorrowful

for

effects

HAMIDIAN

of the "sauerkraut

RULE

45

sausage" civilization forced by


Austria
the
on
long-sufferingHerzegovinians and
Bosnians.
Then
there were
the three quasi-independent
another,
kingdoms, which
heartilydetested one
but finallydid federate againstTurkey and might even
do so once
more
against either Austro-Hungarian or
Russian
predominance in the Danube
valleyand their
peninsulagenerally.
These

but he

with
further

nearer

prided

himself

in

it was

of how

his

he

absolutism

true

than

the

powers

that the very

ence
exist-

also convinced

was

that,

Turk

being everywhere a name


is less of a hypocrite in

the

head

government

form, the

He

But

ance
acquaint-

due to ms
1877, was
of
was
keenly aware
could accomplish,and

the West

formed.

constitutional
and

since

nice discrimination.

publicopinion in

what

jealousiesof

Europe,

Abdul

Sultan

his intimate

on

being firmly convinced

Turkey

and

of

cares

international

the

west,

of
tact

the

were

Hamid,

and

of

any

monarchical

democracy.
Abdul

Hamid

inconsistent

mind, and
the

and

mind.

to be

which
those

was

contradiction, utterly Abdul

incomprehensible

likewise, as

Oriental

himself

On

far

as

the

our
one

mainly European,

to

the

Western

information

goes, to
hand, his interest appeared
and

he

made

on

sion
occa-

culture
of the very slender Western
great show
for
all his charm
he possessed. He
mustered
who

represented the West, made


the most
graceful manner,

desired

sions
conces-

appointed the
friends of his friends to pleasantand lucrative positions
in the Ottoman
service,emphasized the position
of his empire as a European state, and carefullyattended
After having been,
to the questionof alliances.
his father, almost
under the tutelageof Great
as
was
with

Hamid

THE

46

her remarkable

Britain and

then

Redclyffe,he

de

BALKANS

that power
concluded
that

ambassador

turned

and

when

Egypt

Germany

and

upon

years,

what

over

the German

emperor
at least for

Yet, for perfect play in such


which
did

occupied: finallyhe

was

his sway,
left of European

was

not

true

real life

His

attempt.

left undone

side of his character.

Privatelyhe

the Moslem

and

to

polygamy;

and

his tarboosh,

the

not

traditions
seat

in the

administrative

of

Turkish

divan

of

few

is needed

much

in the

was

were

Turkey.

game,

or
willfully
ignorantlyhe

either

Stratford

his bitterness

vented

likelyto perpetuate

most

Lord

to

other
most

was

the

power

and
and
tentive
at-

practiceof
was

his ministers

under
nor

in

palaces
form
feature of the
the palace and
a
almost to the exclusion
of the anxious
patriotproud of
Turkey's past, eager for her well-beingand desirous to
reform
rotten
administration, there appeared from
a
time to time the willful,impatient,crafty,timid tyrant
tradition.
of Oriental
Mewed
up for all the days of
the year, except perhaps half a dozen, behind
the inclosures of Yildiz, he made
all his public appearances
in connection
with
the faith and
practice of Islam.
cident,
Though his ultimate fate seemed to depend on the Ochis prestige,
the
he well knew, depended on
as
Orient.
He
had not a singleclaim to be caliph,
being
neither Arab
from
the Prophet
descended
nor
lineally
chosen
nor
world; yet by dint
by the Mohammedan
of assumption and agitationhe was
so
recognized by
a majority of the orthodox.
the

great

The

Shiite

departments,
capitalcity. In

Persians, of

course,

whose

loathe

the

Sunnite

the Sultan be caliphor no, because


orthodox, whether
they prevented the just succession of Ali, the Prophet's
son,

in the

Caliphate;but

the agents of the

usurping

HAMIDIAN

Turk

found

were

world
with

47

everywhere else throughout the

working
Sultan

the

RULE

in the

interest

of

lem
Mos-

Pan-Islamism,

caliph and

In
recognized head.
India, Central Asia, and China, in Java and in Africa,
in southern
the faithful to eneven
thusiasm
Russia,they moved
for
This
him

as

the

Sultan

as

his anchor

was

strong mooring.

that both

Great

and

of

successor

windward,

to

It

Britain

the

it gave
forgottenby him

not

was

med.
Moham-

France

and

have

innumerable

who
would
in violence,
subjects,fanatic Mohammedans,
see
in a slightto the Sultan, a sacrilegious
or
even
act against their cherished
faith. It was
for this reason
that the

weekly prayer which


modest, personal mosque

own

of

and
Islam.

Abdul
of

Hamid
Yildiz

made
the

was

in his
sion
occa-

alike

ceremony,

performed

to

In this half hour's

devised
military and religious,
of
world
impress the whole
performance he was not the

exquisiteEuropean who had traveled, who knows men


and lands,who
identifies himself
with the general welfare
of Europe and
the West; he was
the theocratic
ruler

over

of
and
which

the
the

world's

fortunes

can

lik,surrounded
in
former

observe

that

be the inscrutable

constitutional

number,
role.

no

As

livingwall

Abdul
his

alone
of

Hamid

fine

have

man

lions
mil-

life,light,
to

come

that is.
be

can

despot and

upon

world

world

Asiatic

ruler of the West

by

of millions

elect,who

immortality,who
are
sure
dwarfs
to vanishing the

It is trite to
man

fate and

double,
the

no

genial

yet during the selam-

of choice
made

equipage

sands
troops thou-

his effort at the


dashed

past the

to the invisitingtourist who had secured admission


closure by the kindness
of the ambassador, there was
sittingon the front seat, facing his Sultan, the
seen,
highestofficialof the empire. In the place of honor

THE

48
was

of purest Turkish

man

BALKANS

type, with

curtained

and

mystical eye, prominent nose, and a full mouth, with


moustaches
hair and
dyed a blue-black, with square
shoulders
that felt the weight of care, suspicion,and
who
claimed
from
craft, but bore it doggedly a man
dience
the nations, peoples,and tribes of the empire the obe"

due

to

absolute

an

found

wherever
of

glimpse, of
In

the

but

from

his

The
a

to

onlooker

ment.
impressivemo-

most

approach to
impassive while

splendidsteeds

the sentative
repregot but a

the
the

; when

of

throne

he

imperial
emerged

of prayer he took the reins in his own


while
his well-trained horses
whirled

the house

and

due

reverence

was

all Mohammedans

of

sat

the

urged

imperial hands,
him

it

devotion

the

Allah, the Padishah


coachmen

the

Prophet.

course,

from

master,

back

attendants

two

to

palace and

the

the

harem.
This

the last of

was

to

Turkish

true

light of homely
such

system

realized
and

that

the

gard
re-

the
of

maintenance

When

utterlypreposterous.

Christians, of

in

logicallyin

Viewed

sense,

noted

both

churches

it is

orthodox

that the
oppressed by unbelievers,
Christian
ground are in the keeping of

schismatic, are

that
infidels,

hideous

from

that

European
women

of their

barbarism
cruelties

were

fostered

and

practiced throughout

empire, that day and night the cries of the


outraged and brutally murdered, ascended

this

heaven

and

savagery

perpetuated, and

and

rule.

common

was

holiest spots of

and

the contradictions

lands

all this

otherwise

going

was

guarantees

"

and

under

Christendom

cried

long?" This, however,

on

wonder

no

throughout
rulers

beautiful

in

and
and

that

is the obverse

to

prosperous,

by

virtue

earnest

assailed

despair,"How

nocent,
in-

the

of

men
ears

long, how

of the shield ; the

BALKANS

THE

50
both.

Europe

dilemma.
Hither

foremost

The
East

jeopardizedby

over

Turkish

either

Roman

regime

And
in the

reform

and

new

door,

Hamidian

open

under

the basis of

erence
pref-

selfish inducement

every

rather

great

England, America,

another.

perpetuate

missions,

standing and protection.


state been organized

opened only on
or

rule

existed.

include
the

Both

in the face of all the

Germany, therefore, had

and

in the

certain

closed
be

West

which

not

the commercial

form

some

misrule

Under

has

than

tradingnations, to

to

had

control, was
in

the

do
nationality

sooner

no

Balkans

Turkish

than

missions

these

the

of the

and

Protestant.

or

of

horn

missionary.
of any other
possibility

the

lands

ideas of

Slavic

interests

commercial

were

were

The

risk neither

willingto

was

than

to

revolutionize

existingsystem, not only of Turkey in Asia but of


should
to the
come
Turkey in Europe. If the worst
worst, as was
proposed, trial might
thought and even
the

be

made

Lebanon

in

Macedonia,

and

Syria,of
through

the powers
Of course

to

as

it had

been

Turkish

governor
their ambassadors

this would

been

in the

made

responsible
at

nople.
Constanti-

assumption
but it
by the powers of almost complete responsibility,
seemed
to that of opening the
a preferablealternative
the Balkan
sluicewaysof international rivalryamong
have

the

States.
These
and

states

Montenegro

Rumania,

"

were,

"

as

Bulgaria, Servia, Greece,


has been

political
specimens,well
as

instances
out

in the twentieth

some

worth

teresti
in-

most

careful

study

of the past in the present, of

identical

almost
West

remarked,

two
nor

or

in

century and
with

three

those

ing
peoples workthe Orient problems

which

centuries

ago.

did they
collectively

seem

occupied
Neither

ripe to

the

dividua
inas-

HAMIDIAN

sume

which

obligations

further

any

already

RULE

finance

of

and

They

all

of

indeed,

be

ready,

not

the

world

the

destiny

problem
of

be,

to

the
and

Their

failure

rudimentary,
only

by

the

patient

the

as

of

their

has

event

But
the

had

was

development,
consideration

one

experience.

proved,

they

determine

believed
to

their

to

as

of

can

their

solve

to

and

presumption
due

could

by

Constantinople

Levant.

tary
rudimen-

is

only

selves
themmake

imperfect,
be

of

all

"

matured

and

ceptions
con-

above

nation

ones

primitive

even

and

state

enlarged

were

effort.

what

weighty

Their

"

notions

the

administration,

and

relations

international

than

them.

oppressed

51

understood

evolution.

the
most
al-

Ill

THE

BALKAN

PEOPLES

53

Ill

THE

OF

prehistoric man

known

ravages

history

of

perhaps
the

the

eastward

of

is

as

whom

were

of

the

buildings, his
that

The

the

the

dawn

of

Thra-

the

Danube,

primitive peoples

portraits

and

the

in

relief

type.

either

Thracians,
in

carved
Their

elaborate

were

round-

were

type, the

North-European

and
trousers
body garments,
design, the legs being clad

in wide,

stone,

headdress,
in fold

and

flowing pantaloons

else
or
carefully arranged creases,
in tight-fitting
in creasing
equally elaborate
garments,
and
to us
as
giving the effect of the leggings familiar
of the
The
and
some
garb of the Rumanian
puttees.
of
Servian
to-day is but a slight modification
peasants
tunic.
the Thracian
with
the Roman
clothing combined
The
ancient
and
modern
footgear are identical, a sort
of laced
moccasin,
styled, in -the Slavic tongue, opankas.
The
elaborate
Thracian
vives.
hair-dressing also surthe Trojans,
stocks
the Thracian
were
Among
that

Dacians,

Lydians.

hung

They

penetrating
whence

they

in

Getians,

and

the
were

were

Balkans

Su^ay

ments,
orna-

withstood

Adriatic,

the

Mediterranean

have

his

us

(i) Historical

river.

that

the

make

graves,

have

of

south

held, the

we

which

excavations,

Illyrianson

of

of

and

peninsula, little is

thirty-fivecenturies.

reveals

north

few

Balkan

utensils

some

Scythians
headed

rude

and

to

If,

his

with

PEOPLES

in the

from

except

familiar

cians

BALKAN

Phrygians,

the
a

and

numerous

far

as

expelled by
55

as

the

Moesians,

mighty

Boeotia

lonians.

and

and

people,
Attica,

The

Thracians

THE

56
The

Scythians

The

BALKANS

"Scythians" is frequentlyused to desigthose


nate
northern
Mongolians who
overran
India,
but the great and powerful people here under
eration
considlike the Thracians, a North-European
were,
stock who
according to the latest indications,
came,
from
the Baltic.
a fair-skinned,blue-eyed,
They were
blonde-haired
from
its seats by the
race, which, driven
into the heart
southward
advancing Germans, moved
of Europe and thence southeastward, coming into contact
with the Thracians
ing
at many
points. Their clothword

consisted
like those

steed

as

but

be

can

seen

and

rider

armor.

been

monuments.

lance, were
sometimes
stems

in

the

or

important
They

daring horsemen,
in rough

incased

Parthians

the

were

their customs

remains

found

clearlya

northern

to

have

resembled

in their
folk.
those

to

seem

not
important. They were
Turks.
As they are portrayed

from

they

graves,

many

the

somewhat

the most

either Finns
and

being

their

shoes

different

widely
from

bow, sword, and


Of

have

tunic, trousers, and

described

respects,
carried

of

akin
in

to

ture,
sculp-

excavated

Experts

clare
de-

of ancient

Germans,
and
the
the

includingthe blood-covenant, the deification


worship of the war-god in the form of a sword,
sacrifice of horses, the drinking from
skulls,and
of twigs and beef-collops
in augury.
use
Similar,

also, was
The

niyrians

Of

their savagery

in battle.

possiblymost important immigrant


less is known.
much
stock, the Illyrians,
They were
from
the north, and they
Indo-European, they came
completely occupied what to-day is Servia, Croatia,
contend
that
Dalmatia, and northern
Italy. Many
they partiallysettled the entire Balkan peninsula,but
of about a dozen Illyrian
there is no proof. The names
tribes occur
in classical literature,the Venetians, lapythe third and

58

BALKANS

THE

in B. C.

overthrown

blood, known
suffered

383 by a
Kotys. At

as

there

government

same

Athenians

dynasty

was

semblance

what

of

was.

appeared on the
predecessors and

kingship,but further
dynasty of Macedon,
This

another

scene

in Macedonia,

eminent

so

Philip

was

in
II.

who,

conqueror,

founded

contemporaries, had
south

established.

of the

the

of his

day

tribal rivalries overthrew

short, and

like his

his hands

The

repeated defeats.

Then

clan chieftain

where

been

history,had
will

His

the

was

so

that troops of the


so
severe
discipline
scendant
Thracian-Illyrianstock proved invaluable to his deAlexander
the Great, the world-conqueror of
the epoch. This strange youth, possessing alike all the
primitivevirtues and all the primitivevices of his race,
their zeal,their faith,and their energy
the one
hand,
on
their self-indulgence,
their fury, and their recklessness
lectual
the other, this commanding
on
genius was by the intelGreek
with
training of Aristotle so imbued
lenic
culture that his militarytriumphs carried a high Helhis

strong and

civilization
his way.
When

the

themselves

as

into all the

lands

died

his

master

kings

and

in various

which

came

generals

under

established

parts of his empire, the

peoples threw off all restraint,reverted


weakened
selves
themto their originalclan system, and
so
that when, a century later,
and their resources
Bosnia
and the
the Celts appeared in what
are
now
Aryan
Herzegovina, no effectual resistance to the new
invaders
could be made.
Many of the earlier settlers
upper

Balkan

fled before

them

government

of

almost
But

to

the

and
some

founded

south

stability
; the

of

rest

the
were

Narenta

oppressed

annihilation.

lordship of

the

Celts

was

brief, for, after

THE

Punic

the second
The

scene.

it

was

proved

that

six years

some

Crassus

and

after

and

weary.

The

of

The

era.

resistance

the

Roman

of these

of

the

of

Pan-

entirelycrushed until
Simultaneously,Lucullus
stock

eastern

the

Black

the

resistance

foe ;

Danube,
at

conquerors

bined
com-

Balkan

the

into the

Sea

and

of

province

both

extremities

the

easy
famous

peninsula, keenly alive to the importance of


transportation, kept persistentlybuilding their

militaryand
the

taught
their

The
B. C.

of Roman

Greeks

146 Mummius

alike

Their
for

masked
and

of Greece

how

to

it

enjoy

became

Orient,

Corinth.

rise of

the

base

struggles of
as

well

throes

Their

the

by

the

when

in

as

for

of

that

operations
in

Rome
the

civil

the

wars

wealth
common-

empire.

The

fluence
in-

great throughout the period


of the republic; in politics,
literature,and all the arts
refined

had

been

livingshe gained

and

retained

Interweaving

politi-of
by

of the Roman

Roman

from

culture.

in the least diminished

not

the death
the

wealth

wrest

independence
political

tremendous

the

to

conquered

country

the
of

conquest
which

were

wise
like-

highways; they

and

manners

lost their

cal activities
fact.

commercial

peoples how
mines, and

fields and

adoption

of

Coming

*"* Romans

not

was

our

stubborn

more

that the

between

and

even

Scipio, the propraetor


incorporated into the Roman

overrun

lands

Mountains,
Moesia.
of

hard

was

the

on

L.

name.

had

the

lands

Dalmatians

and

an

187
by

their

of

province

be

to

overcome

Illyria,and
nonians

of conquest

until B. C.

not

tribes

legionsappeared

C.

and

was

59

167 King Genthios, who ruled south of


defeated
and captured. A loose conwas
federacy
of the clans, dwelling north of that river and
Dalmatians, had been formed
to repel the

as

Romans

PEOPLES

Roman

War,

process

Finally in B.
the Narenta,
known

BALKAN

the mastery.

Greek

and

BALKANS

THE

60

in administration

and
in

the

theory,

politicallife
of

all the

had

made

After
into

art,

and

severe

supreme.
the battle of Actium,

Greece

few

land

remained

who

It

peasantry.

rude

an

had

the

on

itself

boors

and

in

impoverished
tenant

hands

whose

spent

under

the

great

little time

towns

exactions
and

applied arts
exporting exquisiteproducts into
used

masters

by

numbers

became

accumulated

The
coast
managers.
inland
cities cultivated
the

their Roman

tury;
cen-

every

ling
hire-

of
of

some

at

into

countryfolk steadilydegenerated

the

drudges

of

soil

elegant,luxurious living;
the industries
contributing

existence; those

estates

Her

of

age

throve

an

and

home,

the

on

was

townsfolk

country

incorporated

was

in immense
while

such

menace

her

empire as the province of Achaia.


been ravaged by the perpetual warfare
her
to
population, unable
support

the

and

which
qualities

primitiveRoman

flocked to the towns


agriculture,
and find employment,
to seek

to

the

to

the

had

dence,
jurispru-

social

both

Hellenized,

was

in

that to the last. But

and

"

practiceof

and

Rome

in war,

prominent

however,

pupilwas,

Her

the

tures,
in manufacall lands ; and

effort to promote

such

commerce.

It

in the cities that the

was

Greeks

still found

above

indicated

thought
Roman

from
power.

the

instincts of the
political
for activity,
and by the means
room
their
leadership in
they retained

Atlantic
The

to

the eastern

universityat

Athens

frontiers

of

surpassed

seilles,
brilliancythose of Rome, Alexandria, and Marattractingstudents from all parts of the empire.
The
at first disposed to
severityof
were
conquerors
of
rule and
ruthlesslyexploited the Greek sources

in

wealth

for

themselves.

In

time, however,

the

closer

BALKAN

THE

interchange of

relations

PEOPLES

created

61

better

understanding
milder
induced
administration.
and
a
Society grew
more
influences, family life
dignifiedunder Roman
and
in a poChristianityestablished woman
purer;
sition
of responsibility
where
she could exert her grace
charm

and

without

of

licentiousness.
Greek

the

By

passion

third

for

beauty and
for science had spread far and near
into the primitive
lands of the east.
Caracalla
Roman
citizenship
gave
of the empire, thus diminishing its
to all the freemen
value, to be sure, but nevertheless
creating a certain
when, with the
unity of culture thereby. And
finally,
inroads
of barbarous
peoples, Italyceased to be paramount
in influence,Rome
in
the
absorbed
being
gle
strugcentury

for
an

eastern

our

the

era,

self-preservation,the rise of Byzantium


almost
complete ascendancy for Greece in

the

portions of

the

civilized

the

world.

What

cured
se-

in Rome,
Pius,
Hadrian, Antonius
emperors
furtherMarcus
Aurelius, had begun, namely, the ance

eminent
and

of literature and

the fine

by imperialsupport,
continued
was
by those who ruled at Constantinopleas
of course,
a matter
a part of their official prerogative
as
and duty. This action was
so
progressiveand efficient
that at last Athens
forced to yield her palm of
was
leadershipin culture to the cityon the Bosporus.
While
the southern
portions of Eastern
Europe Rome
less completely Hellenized
thus more
were
or
by the North
intellectual

of

power

was

far different

seen

in another

of

opinion

known
those

they speak

the

to

as

as

bear
is

in the

and

ethnic

Rumanians.
it

Byzantium,

northern

connection, there

to-day
who

Athens

arts

Roman

As

ones.

is

wide

character
The

name

descent, as

unquestionably of

Roman

of

the
has

case

been

divergence
people

the

indicates
the

to

language
origin in its

in

Europe

BALKANS

THE

62

of Latin birth,
quality. To the contention
neither
history nor anthropology gives decisive support;
dence
quite the contrary. The so-called historic eviclaim
is altogetherindirect, and
to
amounts
a
and sixty years, sparse
that in a period of a hundred
ified
Roman
settlers,whose
very existence is doubtful,modthe native population so far as to create
a
new
davia
race.
Anthropology is as helplessas history. In Molthe majority are short-headed, in Wallachia, the
clear-cut features,
in both the majority have
reverse;
while quite as many
have
Roman-nosed,
are
yet many
have
and lipsof the Mongolian type. The
mass
noses

essential

hair, but

brown

blonde,

are

are

with

gray,

afford
the

to

there

third

Roman
from
power

case
a

of

blue

our

admits

were

east

of

But

that, antecedent

Roman

influence
The

question.

no

thoroughly

as

the eyes are


Such
indications

quarter

ones.

era,

Hellenized.

were

cent

Romanized

Dacia

as

west

those

cultivated

had

was

to

the

styleto the exclusion of all other influences;


Trajan's legionarieswho annihilated the
among
nists
coloof King Decibalus, and
his later Roman
there may
have survived
powerful leaders. In any
there

was

combination

people,using

new

this

form;
blended

tongue,

with

Turkish, and
The

there

century

paramount

Thracians
the

and

here

the other

solution.
satisfactory

no

per

The
of all
brows
per cent red-haired.
their eye-cavities
large; three quarters

two

broad, and
dark-eyed. Among

are

black ; three

quarter of them

Rumanians
from

Russians.

The

of all the

into

elements

into Roman
language molded
still spoken, is, however,
now
a

Persian

forms, words,

have

even

borrowed

Magyars,

the

use

of

tongue

and

words

no

Slavic,

expressions.

Albanians,

the

such

of

intermixture

substantial

more

and

pressions
ex-

and

the

proves

THE

Latin

the

the

by

BALKAN

descent

various

of

PEOPLES

the

than

users

elements

of

63

the

that

of

United

English

States

cates
indi-

Anglo-Saxon descent of them all.


After
ThraTrajan's death these semi-Romanized
cians could no longer be held in subjection; during his
short reign of three years, Maximin,
himself
Thraa
cian who
had risen from the ranks to the purple,maintained
of order among
his kinsfolk,but to
a semblance
the natural restlessness of the people was
added
a
now
the

of

cause

new

the

northern

disturbance.

The

shore

Euxine,

of

the

Goths

boldly entered the province, and


further beyond was
pouring out

had

the

from

settled

Vandals

on

had

the great

plains
flood of humanity
a
which
both
from
pressed hard upon
behind, breaking
through in places and emptying itself into the valleyof
the Danube.
Hadrian
forced
draw
was
(270-275) to withhis troops to the right bank
of that great river
left
The
and
the province Ripuarian Dacia.
rename
shore
the north
to
thus lost to the empire, but
was
of the Romans

some

continued

kept

the

450
the

permeated
mixture

of

order

whose

very

which

they

free

the

name,
were

Slave,
long held.
of
and

indicates

was

mechanical

in which
the
of

the

way
the

doubts.

too, still survive


How

the
pared
pre-

Slavs,

contempt

Thracians, Scythians,and

Romans
one

About

century later the Avars,

inundation, that

latest

peninsula no
is, of

living tongue.

peoples, and tongues


utterlydisintegratedand

descendants

from

and

lation
popu-

the traders

and

races,

rians, of Greeks
Balkan

Latin

Huns,

These

there.

there
land, until finally

was

for

That

dwell

prevalent low

the

the year

old

to

of the Romanized

much

and

numerous,

in

Illyin the
how

miscegenation with later immigrant peoples


a
question still to be answered,
course,

THE

64
if at all,by

thorough

studies
anthropologicaland linguistic

than

is the

there

hitherto

any

widest

as

moths

BALKANS

difference

Greeks

in

candle.

believed

that

homes, but had

been

driven

For

and

ductions
deas

example, the
people whom
them

preceded
back

present

unsubstantial

fabulous

they styled Pelasgians had

At

hypotheses

and
fleeting,

numerous,

flittingaround

ancient

undertaken.

more

in

their

into the northwestern

mountains.

Accordingly, there is some


fine writing to-day about survivingdirect descendants
of the Pelasgians. There
is no
credulitylike that of
the inchoate, undeveloped,self-styled
ture
historical literaproduced within thirtyyears by writers from or in
snow-capped

the Balkan
The

the great horde

Slowly

Visigoth

Migration

States.

of the Euxine

the north

on

differentiated itself into two

had

different

somewhat

of Goths

in character

shore

stocks,

widely different
in their historical career
; the west, or
Visigoths,and
the east, or Ostrogoths. The next
importantmigration
into the Balkan
that of the Visigoths
peninsula was
under
Alaric, who actuallysettled in the central portion
of
it in 382, in 395
threatened
nople
Constantiand
is

to

the

pressed
ruthless

into

on

and

Epirus

occupation of

that the islands

of Hellas

Hellas.

and

the mainland
owe

to this

by
day

almost
the

Germanic

more

in

or

less

Epirus

Constantinople.
temperament,
be

barians
bartheir

homogeneous Greek population,descendants


Greeks
who
nearly fourteen centuries ago fled
this

were

It

further
across

invasion.

In

Hellenized

and

as

vassals

Restless

and

of

time

the

uncertain

emperors
as

fore
be-

invaders

established
the

of

was

selves
themat

their

began to fear lest they should


into Byzantium, and at last withabsorbed
drew
in Italy.
the Adriatic
to their kindred
they

soon

BALKANS

THE

66

times
empire and found their advantage somein
sometimes
the
in
supporting
emperor,
strengtheningthe Slavic invasion. They, too, succeeded
in establishingsettlements at various placesin Greece,
was
but, in the main, the result of all this confusion
ment.
the greater and greater preponderance of the Slav eleAt
the beginning of the sixth century there

Roman

east

Avars

more

were

to

the first century

of

Pliny,in
of

the

Slavs, and

Inasmuch

as

kindness

and

which

fourth

Europe
have

over

been

some

him

and

the

on

the

of

contact

Slavic

tribes.

been
but

Their
of the

enemies, their
to

the

found

the

clear

Germans

of

end

Slav
prehistorical

of

have

Hanover,
banks

bitterest

continued

Traces

the Elbe.
the

mention

nothing but
expresses
Roman
for
the
powers,

have

may

as

makes

era,

been

their

settlements
far

our

have

admiration

century.

as

back

grations
mi-

across

forced

primitiveseat appears
Dnieper River in what
Russia.
A
prevailing

to-day as southern
of, or close kin to,
hypothesismakes them descendants
stocks
the Scythians,but so commingled with the race
that they appear
to be a composite race.
justmentioned
been
had
the lower
The
seats
on
Bulgars, whose
From
the
in kin to the Turks.
nearest
Volga, were
time of their earliest appearance
they, too, assimilated
about
themselves, and very closely,with the nomads
founded
the
them, and it was
Bulgarized Slavs who
empire which included the lands of the Danube, Waiis known

TheBulgars

than

folklore

Slavic

relations

and

to

south

legendary lore the emperor


important a position that many

afterwards

were

kindly

them

the

than

in their

Trajan occupies so
have thought there must
between
peaceful nature

the

Danube

side.

other
Slavs

more

the

of

north

Slavs

beyond it, and


The

the

to

THE

lachia, with

territory

BALKAN

part of Hungary,

peoples of unknown
Ugrian-Turcoman folk
stocks, the

heart

of the vast

drove

themselves
and

and

Slavic
like

created

under

and

Portuguese, much
any other two
south
Slavs who

or

Roman

they

lived

different

less than

in

different

of Moesia,

"

fact

variations.

the

they
from

Spanish
and

peoples.

In

vironments
en-

institutions

first discernible

were

of the

first received

into the very

was

Italians

of the Romance

settle westward

province

as

the

century.

the

entered

"

conditions

in basic

even

sixth

during

It

differentiated

much

the

as

Cumanians

the

Turkish

two

perpetuated substantial

perhaps

to

own

Hungarians,

Asia, and

groups

type, language, and

began

their

as

territorythat the Hungarians


wedge ; and for generations the

southern

are

the

from

the

"

of the Danube.

and

the

descent

Patzinakians

the districts north

In

well

as

mighty empire which lasted for over three


(702-1014). During their ascendancy three

centuries

which

67

"

northern

PEOPLES

the

ish
SpanIt

in the
seventh

was

kans
Bal-

they

Bulgarians,occupying
and

the contemptuous

it
name

was

there
which

that

they

still bear, that of

In the eighth cenServians, Slaves.


tury
and
to
thence, down
they accepted Christianity,
the eleventh
at best a protectorate,
century they were
and more
often a dependency of Byzantium.
upon,
Therefully
separate stocks began successivelyand successto
assert
independence,and in 1165 they were
united under
a
was
recognized
dynasty which in 1222
nople.
of Constantiby both the Pope and by the emperor
They developed a civilization which was quite
the
Czar
under
remarkable; and
Stephen Dushan
(1330-1335) the empire embraced, in addition to its

originaldomains, Macedonia,
and

northern

Greece.

garia,
Albania, Thessaly, BulThis

great Servian

con-

68

reached

queror
a

BALKANS

THE

surrender, but

to

summons

gates of Constantinoplewith

the very

there

he

his

died; and

only by his imperious will, fell apart, a


It was
in 1453 that Mahomet
warring ambitions.

lands, united
to

prey

II, the

connection, after

another

onward

with

all the

Balkans

marched

brought

tyranny
The

With

Turks

given, the long

roll-call of

those
the

elements

of these

is

true

all survive, and


look

forward
and

to

of their

languages

all hold

fast

Church,

The

the Roman
Both

(2) Racial
Characteristics

Turk

"

least among
confession

churches

are

the

and

overlaid

is

completed.
entirelypure.

Of

alien strains,and

and

institutions ; yet
all

ion
domin-

"

adherents

with

Not

complicated by the
Christianity alas! a

with

utter

elements

race

is

the masses,
as

peninsulaof the
has already been

of their ancient

situation

Christianity

ing
grind-

their traditions,and

the restoration

glory.

at

to

soon

sway,

admitted

have

strife of confession; Islam


divided

national

remained

has

considered, four

same

career

portion of Europe

in that distracted

and

centuries.

in the Balkan
whose

horde

Turkish

under

of

in

capturing Constantinople,

that lasted nearly four

outline

an

mentioned

Turk,

invincible

his

the appearance

Turks,

one

Osman

great

of

the

Greek

regarding those

outcasts,

and

vice

of

versa.

and with
superstitions,
ritualistic corruptions;

intolerance,with dogmatic and


centuries
is that after so many
but the only wonder
folk
of oppression,
abuse, and degradationthe common
than
not
worse
are
they are.
Brieflyto characterize these variegated stocks is diffkult, but a few indications may be given, The Turk
is of middle
stature, stronglyAsiatic in type, and disposed to obesity. In character he is serious,courteous,
hospitable,and brave, but fanatical to the verge of
brutality. His ethnic composition is fairlydisplayed

THE

BALKAN

in the

ingredientsof
vocabulary of which

his

PEOPLES

69

speech, the originalforms


overlaid

are

with

mixture

and
of

Slavic, Greek, Romanic,

Spanish, Persian,and Arabic


These
elements.
last two
predominate, especiallyin
the scanty literature of the language.
The
Slavs of the peninsula are
generallydesignated Slav
as

Serbo-Croats.

They

are

heads

so

of the

of

and

domelike
casual

most

Catholics
are

They number
powerful race, tall
short

observer.

and

to

as

least nine

at

yet sturdy, with

attract

the attention

Servians

The

millions.

Greek

are

the

Cyrillicalphabet. The Croats


Almost
all
almost
Catholics.
exclusivelyRoman
of Bosnia
and the Herzegovina
the so-called Turks

are

and

use

Slavs.

Mohammedan

The

districts of the Austro-

as
Croatia, Carniola,
monarchy known
Bosnia, the Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Slavonia, and
Istria are
peopled almost exclusivelyby Serbo-Croats,
of them
in Hungary, as well as
and there are
many

Hungarian

Servia

Fiume.

in both

Trieste

almost

exclusivelytheirs, as

and

there

are

and

likewise

in Macedonia,

Rumania,

and

is,of

course,

is little Montenegro,

too

in

many

proper

Bulgaria and

in Albania.

even

While

in

they

and to a certain
religion,in costume,
in habits, they speak the same
extent
language and are
Their
language is
indisputablyhomogeneous in race.
blood.
than their originalmixed
relatively
pure, purer
Ages of oppression did not leave the Servian characwho
Those
ter unharmed.
professed Islam, in terror,
vary

widely

became
These

in

in time
were

thorough

the

great

Moslems

land-owners

and
who

so

remained.
constituted

styledthe aristocratic class.


They retain,as they firmly believe,the native virtues
these
of their stock, and
they have engrafted
upon
those which
morality. The great
spring from Moslem
what

may

be, with

reserve,

Servian

BALKANS

THE

70
of the

mass

the taxation

oppressedby

faith,but

its Christian

to

true

peasantry,

which

ary
the bound-

approached

confiscation,slowly became

finally
tricky,lazy, and untrustworthy. Their religioncould
the degradation of their slavery,and
counteract
not
the comparatively short period of their emancipation
of

has

yet sufficed

not

of

rank

life of

secretive

into

put them

to

manliness, except

stalwart

middle

the

even

The

soldiers.

as

respects sadly debased, the

is in many

Belgrade

and

ignorant peasantry with no


class, and, like all others
an
leadership from
upper
in their condition, more
receptiveto the vices than to
Servians

the virtues
The

Montenegrin

being

proper

civilization.

of Western

have

Montenegrins

with

modern

an

yet

as

tact
con-

shine, therefore,

and

movements

little in

come

in

primitivevirtues. The Croatians have


greatly improved under the Austro-Hungarian rule, in which they share; and the Dalmatians,
still primitive in many
respects, have profitedmuch
by their close contact with the refined citylife in that
possession of

the

many

of beautiful

row

of Venetia

and

do

than

successful.

Such

and

forest

wealth

yet

inconsiderable

foreigners,who
Bulgarian

not

The

over

the

in

elsewhere

to

appears

in their

ethnic

be

concessions

mass

as

tillage

are

devoted

few

seem

the

great

there
in

with

to

fairly
mineral

is

the

his

"

it is

hands

as

of

and
difficulty

possession.

Bulgarians, like others

great confused

these

in their country

obtain

secure

but

of

work

Few

exploitation of

"

Slav,

fields,though

the

world.

commerce,

ment
the refine-

measure

burdensome

the

ornament

part, the south

the most
of

the

once

high

man

of

more

trade, industry,or

are

For

Serbo-Croat, is

women

were

still retain in

of Italian life.
the

which

towns

among

the strata

accumulated

by

the

of the
proc-

THE

BALKAN

just described, were

esses

Catholic

Greek

known

in Bosnia

and

also many

times

nationalityto

be

for
an

once

under

often

too

Turkish

the

Turkish

than

Pomaks

repeated
has

have

there

makes

creed

sion,
impres-

that

in important

determined

It does

were

unit.
political

rule, held

are

still

so

faith-

of administration.

Christians

Greek

vive
sur-

but

mind, the "millet/' or


unit

are

smaller

of all else.

Turkish

ecclesiastical and

both

Iteration

the exclusion

ages

and

emigrate

may

circumstances

unit, being likewise


Thus

fall of Constantinople

communion;

who

converted.1

and

in the disdainful

the

fold of the

Mohammedans

Greek

the

real Turks

it cannot

and

into the

proportionwas
Herzegovina. These
to

be

likelyto

not

71

but the

the

yet returned

After

became

them

Pomaks,

as

brought

Church.

of

many

not

PEOPLES

considered
The

in abomination

Slavs,
such

intermediary through
which the antipodalnotion has prevailed
: language has
been
associated
with creed as the test of nationality.
Bulgaria is strugglingto emphasize slightdifferences
differences
which
outsiders,
to curious
seem
negligible
such, for example, as the place of the article,or rather
particle,prefixed or suffixed,or the use of Old Slavic
in the service book
of the church, or the designation
concept;

they

have

been

the

"

of

an

ecclesiastical

overseer

as

Exarch

of

instead

only struggling,but almost exhausting


itself in the struggle to make
these serve
as
a sanction
for a nationality
ambitious
to control the Balkan
sula.
peninIn this,the un-Aryan, central Asiatic origin of
the people reveals itself ; the tribal concept is the stirp
the surface, sends
hardy
which, running under
up
shoots at unexpected intervals. The notion of a nationPatriarch;

Some

450,000.

blooded

not

Bulgaria
population of the new
place the Moslem
who
of the Pomaks,
patriots hope for the re-conversion
dispassionate observers are very doubtful.
Bulgarians; more
estimates
The

as

high
are

as

full-

BALKANS

THE

72
based
ality,

of every
blood
and

recognizes the

Church

church, but the Servian

national

creed, Bulgaria has


other ; Servia, on the

social institutions
emphasizes
for determining nationality.It also has a

hand,

the basis

as

and

language

to the exclusion

observed
other

both

on

its

exarch

own

do, but
descendants

considerable
;

by

but, as

often

so

Bosnians,

settled

districts then

occupy,

extent

peninsulaas
the

by

horde,

into the districts which

Turks

Servians, Albanians, and


their

back

rians,
Vulga-

Altaic

the Balkan

driven

were

stops with

These

originallyan

large portions of

overran

nomads

superior.

no

Bulgarians,were

or

who

knows

and

archical
hier-

its own

patriarchat Constantinople as superiorto


head, while the Bulgarian Church

south

Slavs.

occurs

when

gated
they subju-

These
lower

to

overcomes

gion,
adopted the relihigher civilization,the conquerors
and
speech of the conquered. They
manners,
with the earlier people and so
to merge
began at once

inaugurated
to-day

assert

can

process

which

made

the

Bulgarian

Catholic, which

only in his history,in


separate nationality

slightphysicaltraces of Altaic originand in


embodied
now
vocabulary of Altaic words
speech
The

of the

Bulgarians number

have

about

of medium
neither
own,

bones.

kinsfolk

many

Albania, and

and

in

nor

they

formed

In the northern

their

of

to

in Rumania.

powerful

oval

millions.

in Macedonia,

long, but
have

four

Rumelia, which

thousands

some

height and

short

slender

the

country.

Bulgaria and Eastern


occupy
until the outbreak
of the war
they

of

gave him a pure Slavic


modifications.
The
only trifling
Bulgarian

Greek

with

tongue

faces

together

kingdom;
the east

They

build ; their heads

middle
with

districts

They

are
are

type quite their

rather

few

of

high

of them

cheek

exhibit

BALKANS

THE

74

part, black

most

and

hair.

The

careless in their

women

attire

unlovely

most

are

flowing,coarse
ments
garof skins and rough woollen
stuff. Though cautious
and
reassured
suspicious,when
they are lively,
good-natured, and hospitable. Secondly,they all speak
the same
language, the Rumanian.
They speak it,of
with variations,and these extend
far that in
so
course,
Rumania, Hungary, the Bukowina, Russia, and some
parts of Bulgaria and Carniola, their speech is called
are

"Dacian

in

Rumanian";

"

Macedonia,

Epirus, Albania, Servia, Bosnia,

Bulgaria it is styled"Arumanian
"Istrorumanian"

Fiume,

and

parts of

other

;" in Istria and

round

north

of

prevent the intercourse

of

finallyto

and

"

Greece,

northern

the

Salonica,"Meglen."
But

these variations

all the stocks

with

composite, is
the

order

each

unit.

of

do not

other, and
Its three

importance:

with

very

the

language,though

basic

elements

Dacian, Latin,

considerable

are,

in

garian,
Bul-

and

of

intermixture

Greek, Turkish, and

stantiall
Hungarian. Their garb is subent
identical,
too, in all places,and utterlydifferfrom
that of those among
whom
they mingle. Both
and women
woolen
men
wear
jackets,pelissesof fur
shirts (those of the males
or
skin, embroidered
short,
of the females long) over
drawers
and trousers, with
laced sandals
of leather,and
leggings;the headdress
is generally a fur cap, sometimes
peaked, sometimes
flat. They have the same
skill as had the ancient Thracians in folds and
plaits,and their passion for color
Sometimes
produces a revel of shrieking contrasts.
the
with

women

wear

ribbon

in which

felt hats, flat

streamers,

case

plaited. They

their
are

or

hair
still a

or

again
is drawn

tall,sometimes
no

headdress

hoods
at

straight back

all,
and

prehistoricfolk, livinglike

THE

BALKAN

PEOPLES

75

Troglodytes,using hand mills and clay ovens.


They
in
shake
the
head
in
affirmation,and nod
sitting,
squat
in negation.
This extraordinarystock is,of course,
most
ous
numerin Rumania
from
the
itself,the kingdom formed
one-time
Turkish
and
Wallaprovinces of Moldavia
chia and
this
now
including the Dobrudja. Within
kingdom and in Hungary much has been accomplished
in raisingthe livingstandard
from
that of the nomads
dwell without.
who
Village life has been established,
firm government
a
inaugurated, education
regulated
and improved, agricultureintroduced.
The
land was
from
immemorial
times
in the possession of feudal
and the aristocratic families still give direction
owners,
life and

the

to

part they have

most

and
generations,
well

as

turned

after

influence
of

sources

have

been

the

culture.

widely

moral
The

The

for

veins,
With

introduced

of
them

among

to the

and

in

"

of

advancement

degrees

life

French

to

some
a

real
due

excesses

unripeness.

Albanians

southeasten

most

in their

their minds.

refinements

extraordinaryfolk

This

of both

die,the puzzle,the mystery


in

influence

blood

in

the

origin which
they claim,
sian
emancipation away from RusFrench
Turkish
yoke toward

in certain ways
in other ways
civilization,

to

Slavic

ideas

and

cases

Russian

under

For

peasantry.

Roman

their

and

the

north

Slavic

great pride in the

they

been

have

north

as

of

customs

to

within

its limits
Some

despise Greek

of

exclusion
Slavs

are

Albanians

orthodoxy,

any
very

other
rare

are

Roman

alike

that

race

and

element;
Slavism

Catholics
of

the

Albanian

politics

They populate a district of


boundaries, broadly styled Albania,

almost

detested.

and

Europe.

uncertain
the

science

is the rid-

Slavs

is
and
on

THE

;6
their borders

that

and

more

many
There

boundaries

south

social and

Christianity.

; it is

little intercourse

very

Within

number

they

in Greece;

loathe

having

likelythat
in Greece, Italy,and
political
they appear

more

kinsfolk

and

Albanians.

of Albania

million, all told

their

Albanians

north

with

of

Moslems

are

are

BALKANS

but

there

uncertain

the
a

are

quarter of

sand
ninety thou-

elsewhere.

In matters

development
arrested centuries ago, if not in prehistoric
times.
They are in the tribal stage, in some
places in the
patriarchal. They have the point of honor developed
the verge
of absurdity,and
carries on
his
each
to
arsenal of arms
and ammunition.
a small
They
person
their

shave

circle

plume

heads

the

on

which

is the

gaudy

and

often

neither

clean

like lords.
of

Europe.
Yet they
in the

close, except
here

crown;

wear

They
are

have

been

admirable

spare

their

to

frame, lithe and

which

are

strut

the earth

armed

children

they

nate
soil,obsti-

the

as
rights,courageous
patriotism, loyal to

are

of

active, and

middle

their

and

stature

equal

in almost

are

few

and

learn

who

strangers

They

ways.

and

hair

nationality.They

tillers of

as

of their

untonsured

traditional

called the

others, passionate in their


observe

one

garments,

whole,

hospitable

for

their

of

badge
nor

represent

is left the

embroidered

defense

chiefs, and

to

selves
regard themas
one
peoplebecause they have one territoryand
one
language, one tradition,and, as they believe,one
divides the Ghegs of the
River
origin. The Skumbi
of the south; and
from
north
the Toscs
though the

proportion

dialects

blonde

of the

two

and

brunette.

differ

so

They

widely

difficult,
yet the differences
and

expression,not

of grammar

and

as

are

to

course
inter-

make

those

of

forms

vocabulary.

The

BALKAN

THE

PEOPLES

language is made up of very


words, about
5,140 principal
1,420

Rumanian,

are

elements.

half

one

400

taken

are

Of

the

importations;

are

1,180 Turkish, 840

Slav; less than

540

diverse

77

Greek, and

be

to

of

ancient

Illyrianorigin.
The

"Albanian"

given to them by the


ancient
Byzantines. Their designationfor themselves
is "Skipitari" the eagle'sbrood.
Among the Ghegs
there are
of Mohammedans
livingabout equal numbers
name

was

"

Roman

and

Catholics, but

aristocracy,
haughty
in their mountain

other

hand, entertain

their

fastnesses.

neighbors. They
Catholics.

Greek
national

but

Scander

patriot,was

While

lost caste.

the

independence

and

furnished

warrior

did

The

Ghegs

are

the

temper,
known

in

is that

Albanians

driven

from

when

the

as

day
his

have
the

as

Suliote

to

the

origin

Thracians

were

they migrated westward,


Illyriansin the fastnesses

the

their

of the Greeks.

their seats

with

and

Toscs

our

for the liberation

as

for

with

Bozzaris, who,

arms

Sultan

renowned

generallyaccepted hypothesis

the

settlers

feats of
of the

service

best

work

noble

brilliant

warlike

hero, Marco

Greek

band,

the

are

into the

drawn

Vlach

and

the

on

friendlyterms with
partly Moslems, partly

latter,after

the

Toscs,

Ghegs have furnished the two


Beg (1467) and Prenk-Bib-

The

heroes:

Doda;

of

The

Greek
many
their territory,
and live on

within

the

are

exclusive, livinglike Scottish

and

clans

former

the

mingled
com-

of

the

Alps, an inaccessible, defensible range of


vales, where
majestic snow-capped peaks and narrow
Serbo-Croats
gained
eventuallya few Goths and some
Albanian

admission, and

that

the

resultant

of all these elements

is the

persistent,primitive,obdurate

Their

nearest

kin

are

to

be

found

Albanian
in certain

people.
districts

THE

78

BALKANS

Herzegovina, where in type, garb, and character


few communities
the Albanians.
a
strongly resemble
These
but are slowly
recognizea degree of relationship,
into the somewhat
being absorbed
higher civilization
rule.
arisingunder Austrian
three
confessed
are
Although there
religious
of the

Catholic

authorities,yet the Roman


behave

Greeks

while

Pope,

they please without

as

and

Moslems

are

Albanians

ously
notori-

reference

to

the

alike indifferent

nians
patriarch. The obedience of all Albato
authority is dubious.
They defied the
any
negro
Congress of Berlin, refusing to Servia and Montethe districts and
of their land assigned
towns
by that august body to those states.
They long preferred
rule because
for
the slack reign of Turkish
that rule was
Now
them
than nominal.
hardly more
best them
and then an army
from Constantinoplewould
for a time, but they were
control
and
restless under

Caliph

to

made

or

trouble

Hamidian

when

not

left to

regime grosslyabused
feeble

its little power,

old
but

it

impinge deeply on the


tribal self-government.The Young Turks, in the effort
into their constitutional
to bring Albania
ployed
regime, emasperating
militaryforce, but they succeeded
only in exthe clans, especially
the Mirdites
and Malliwas

so

that it dared

The

themselves.

of north

sores

not

Albania, into

broken

only by

The

Albanians

resistance

that could

be

extermination.
are

superbly built,active

and

ing,
endur-

ready alike for peace or for war, with excellent


qualitiesof heart and mind.
Roughly, the territory
they assert as their own
corresponds to the Epirus of
ancient

Greece.

culture

have

than

they had

It is needless

made

no

in the

learningand
in this province
greater progress
days of King Pyrrhus. So hopeto say

that

THE

less

BALKAN

the effort of the

was

from

the

authorities

were

PEOPLES

Young

Turks

Great

Powers,

forced

to

united

made,

and

abandon

Albania

that,under

the

amalgamation. The wild tribes


all their demands; in the south
were

79

sure
pres-

Constantinople
their scheme

of the

north

almost

equal

felt itself

of

secured
sions
conces-

to

nearer

and

fore.
half-sovereignindependence than ever bebulwark
The
of Turkey against Slav encroachments
thus outwardly maintained
break
was
up to the outof the war, but only by the reversal of the widely
heralded
policyof "Turkification."
There
of the Gypsy
other unorganized elements
two
are
Balkan
rela- Jcw
peninsula which, although not numerous
are
tively,
actuallyso busy and pervasive that they are
The
everywhere in evidence.
Gypsies are tinkers and
metal
workers.
Generally, they are nomadic, but in
Servia, Bosnia, and the Dobrudja there are numerous
villagesin which they regularlydwell, for the greater
portunate,
impart of the year at least. Ragged, unkempt, filthy,
they play an important role in necessary
occupationswhich the natives disdain.
Finally there
the Jews, almost
are
exclusivelyof the Ashkenazi
branch
phemistically,
peddlers, shopkeepers, money-lenders or, eubankers.
in
They are sternlyorthodox
their inflexible ritual and dogmatic and mysterious in
their business
transactions.
For
the most
part, they
dialect
of
German
Yiddish
and
the
Hebrew, a
speak
those
whom
to
they live.
tongue unfamiliar
among
They are hated and feared; and, in Rumania, where
placesand at
they are very numerous,
they are in some
times savagely persecuted. The superstitious,
some
norant
igfor
suffer
of
the
the
hands
at
folk,made to
Jews
"

their

unthrift

easilyroused

and
to

recklessness

fury.

In

in money

matters,

Constantinopleand

are

in Sa-

and

lonica,
are

and

to

colonies

of

those

respected,
live.

less

in

degree

Sephardim,

or

rural

of

often

the

are

Ashkenazi,

admired,

and

by

Macedonia,

there

Spanish-Portuguese

characteristics

whose

from

BALKANS

THE

80

those

entirely
who

among

raelites,
Isdifferent

generally
whom

are

they

IV

I.

wild

THE

but

THE

world

southeastern

has,
the

been

and

it appears

be

traced

at

best

to

examine

been

is, of

It

and

course,

territory, utterly

for

unknown

fact

may

form
The

or

of
pose
pur-

cially
superfi-

monarchies

the

that

order.
in this

that

vast

of

area

of

majority

the

to

tribal

somewhat

of

centers

platitude

Where

state.

leader.

and

of

nature

the

despotism,

or

Chapter

is its defective

concealed

clanship

of

of

one

the

rapidly

as

that

Purpose
It

advanced,

exceptional

the

Asia.

development, which,

more

is

established

of

early patriarchal

some

chapter

confines

backwardness

theocratic

under

to

have

social

benevolent

this

the

America,

Western

sufficientlyclear

of the

half

government
of

and

economically
to

is not

to-day

made

arrested

part, is that

most

NATIONS

its lamentable

for

causes

of

Europe

trust,

we

BALKAN

intel-

Environment

"J^
t

ligent

from

men

elsewhere,
of

between

the

climate.

in the
a

sort

dimly

Balkan

sternly
If

is

peninsula,

it must,

by

its

generations
from

treatment
;

to

ever

be
for

those

resources

civilization

come

charitable

enjoying

patient, parental

be

not

inhabitants,

own

is

reason,

Europeans,

to

83

high
this

ture
struc-

nowhere

natural
a

as

relation

the

closer;

by

modern

to

is

Nowhere
habitat

social

the

high degree

conditioned

there

apprehended

without

his

and

unfamiliar

for

to

inhabitants.

man

physical geography,

West,

determines

politics more
and

1V

the

as

and
and

higher

behavior

from

of

yet
manding
desiderate
con-

zation
civilithe

atl01

native
from

Before

within.
there

with

Morocco

and

babble

the

violence

the

of

Play

Politics

of

the

of

the

of

there
of

flagration,
spreading con-

world

Western

an

as

the

equilibrium
primitiveand

there

was

was

captains,the

scientific in

so

elsewhere,

chaos, it

elsewhere

shouting

menace

shocked

Warfare,

The

authority,and

While

clansmen

its forces

of

quent
fre-

were

the tribesmen
among
of the Balkans
there

of barbarism, the

anachronism.

claimed

who

peace,

tongues,

which

brutal.

those

of armed

the hush

was

guide the evolution


onslaught of the Allies upon

bloodshed.

much

was

the

to

perpetual friction,there

was

clashes
there

strive

who

statesmen

Turkey

The

BALKANS

THE

84

due to
widely believed, was
the inflaming of local passions, of tribal jealousyby
foreign agents, as part of the game of world politics
played by the Western
powers.
To
what
the great powers
extent
are
responsible,
determine.
only history,as written long hence, can
For
of the three
instance, we
are
to-day fullyaware
united
made
a
Italy.
widely different policieswhich
These
of
were
respectivelyexemplifiedin the work
Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi, and though, as we
their efforts conhow
see
verged
we
get a longer perspective,
to

widely
Cuba

and

result,it is clear that their aims

one

variance.

at

was

Mexico

Again,

have, in

the

were

transformations

in

been

due,

large measure,

is

venturers
of daring adgenerally believed, to the work
backed
by private capital,unscrupulously
their
motives
behind
such
concealing
slogans as patriotism

as

liberty,choosing

and

their

seat

of

war

powerful and jealousnation, so that


temporarilyconstituted authority might be menaced

the

with

frontier

for

of

intervention

annexation

by

and

serve

merely

the stronger power.

as

transition

to

THE

BALKAN

affairs in Morocco

With

should

do, but attention


skill with

the
been

made

rude

and

of the

which

double

strictly
nothing to

policingof
The

playedby the Great


Algeciras Conference,
with

the

cards

on

open

has
of

in that

game
Powers
has

to

frontier

the

the pretext for the overthrow

as

dummy

85

be called in this connection

despotism.

corrupt

world,

have

we

the

France

by

since the

and

NATIONS

part

justbefore

been

of

sort

the board.

In

mysterious way, not one, but all of the players


win.
Germany secured a slice of the French Congo to
widen
her possessions in the Cameroons;
France, a
nial
Morocco, rounding out her vast coloprotectorate over
Africa ; Spain recognition
empire in northwestern
and
as
an
a
enlargement of her African
power
sessions;
possome

Great
end

Britain

there

emphasized by
an

else ; but

there

of

and

1911

was

the

For

that

sirable
de-

negotiations,

of a warship here and of


presence
the equipment of a fleet somewhere

the

overt

no

similar

Something

door.

open

interminable

were

there, and

army

the

war.

going

was

of

autumn

on

between
in the

1912

spring

the

Balkans; in

sufficient scale to
miniature, perhaps, but still on
a
make
tion
Young Turkey shiver, to compel the mobilizaof armies, and
in
to force the new
government

Constantinopleto
it made
been

when,

unseated

fulfillsome

three
and

years

sent

few

of the many
promises
Hamid
had
earlier,Abdul

prisoner

to

Salonica.

The

earlier

described; the
regime has been sufficiently
anxious
complots of Abdul
Hamid, his espionage,
and hypocbribery,peculations,poses, tergiversations,
risies
seemed, when
the
ever.

work

Balkans,
The
of

to

be

the

working

sudden
men

writer

who,

overthrow

as

was

well, if
of

the

second
not

in

better,than

despot

having long lived,as

time

was

the

previously

86

THE

BALKANS

remarked, in Western

Europe,

but

self-contained

unfortunatelyin
entirelythe

statecraft

believed

"

observation

of

of
of

aims

they

their

distance

at

found

in the

surroundings, and

from

home,

in

solution

"

misapprehending
European
superficial

groups,
methods
of

and
had

elsewhere

Paris, or

the

spective
per-

for all the

Remarking what slender influence


in the West
exerted
was
confessional, and
by religious,
of
the possibility
even
distinctions,they conceived
race
of every sect, Christians
of
melting togetherMoslems
all denominations, and
of every variety within
races
the boundaries
of Turkey, into a type citizen,a Turk.
These
of the other, were
to be tolerant
to
were
one
nation, naturally
cooperate in the creation of a modern
under
the leadershipof the Turkish
Moslem
minority,
and thus perpetuate the Ottoman
empire.
to
They had an elaborate plan. The first step was
the cooperation of an
secure
composed, they
army,
lieved,
thought, of first-class material, and trained, they beteachers.
Succeeding in
by the best German
this,they accomplished a coup d'etat as theatrical and
ruthless as any known
to history. Thereupon
they set
did have
what
some
semblance
rethey called, and what
up
woes

Turkey.

to,

parliament,

constitutional

checks

on

the

government

its

and

crown

administrative, judicial,and

military.

months

semblance

was

wild
each
who

there

the outward

was

elections,

"

functions,

For

few

tutions.
of free insti-

During that period of deceitful calm there


no
change, however, in race prejudice,nor in the
still sought
of the human
nature
beings, who
his own
advantage in the destruction of others;
cultivated
of

order,

each

everyone
because
the

his

traditions

own

else's;who

priceof

had

order

to

learned

had

been

the
to

the

tation
detes-

despise
endur-

THE

of

ance

BALKAN

given in

commands

under

and

oppressive

an

NATIONS

savagely
ignorance and

87
enforced

rule,

sanctioned

by

brutality.
in the methods
change perceptible
of administration; there
were
only promises. The
the so-called New
had made
Turkey ; the generals
army
of the country.
Founded
masters
were
on
force, this
must
new
appeal to force at every crisis.
government
There
form.
no
was
perceptible effort to promote true reIt was
frankly asserted in private circles,it
Nor

there any

was

could

be read

even

between

the lines of the newspapers,

change in Turkey, the


its identity. It was
more
sneeringly
persistentwas
side
that
the only singlechange was
repeated on every
for
white
that
the
(silver) baksheesh, the new
authorities had substituted the yellow (gold). To get
anything done required ten times the secret service
Abdul
for the simple
under
Hamid,
necessary
money

that

the

greater the

that there

reason

in the

of

can

before.

Fleet

apparent

was

division

bribery had

more

of powers,
and
the oil
pivots to lubricate than

equipment, foreign relations,


constitutional
cept
adaptation, anything and everything exstantinople
of Coninternal reform, occupied the attention
and of the newspaper
correspondents kept
there
vital

and

supply news
problem, that
to

remained

army

to

of

the Western

Turkey's local

world.
and

The

single

tribal

affairs,

untouched.

after the revoluideals were,


disintegrating
six millions
The
tion,more
livelyin action than ever.
of
planned, plotted, and
Romaic-speaking Greeks
furnished
for their "great idea" of an
before
as
money
of Byzantium.
enlarged Hellas and the restoration
The Moslem
Arabs
of the great desert peninsulaon the
The

Red

old

Sea

demanded

governors

who

were

not

licensed

The
the

Call of

Clan,

or

THE

88

robbers, and
not

for

of

end

an

should

caliph who
half-Giaour.

Turkish

BALKANS

and

rapine

be

The

an

Arab

Moslem,

Macedonians
The

murder.

called

Serbo-Croats

for a Great
than
Servia.
garia
Bulever
agitated more
of enlarging
was
keenly alive to the possibility
and her prestigein the disorders which
her
her borders
foresaw.

statesmen

from
into

side, and

Greece,

other, kept dispatchingtheir guerillabands


Macedonia, incessantlytroubling the racial and
had

of

waters

that

deep-laidschemes

Rumania

alone

distracted
for

appeared

an

land.

negro
Monteinto

advance

bania.
Al-

quiescent, but she,


lately revealed, for

brooding a plan, but


donia,
aggrandizement; she, too, had her agents in Maceknittingup with her interests those of the wild
Vlachs
scattered
throughout various
parts of that
known
at Constantinople,and
province. All this was
sian
was
peevishly attributed to the activities of secret RusThe
Government,
feebly constituted,
agents.
could not supply
though backed by an obedient army,
all these mutually repellent
the menstruum
to dissolve
into even
inchoate
elements
an
nationality.
The
only reallyinteresting
phenomenon of the time
confidence
of optimists throughout
the curious
was
kan
Europe. They seemed
actuallyto believe that the Balby this
question had been settled for many
years
effort to "Turkify" Turkey in Europe.
The
German
the most
and Austro-Hungarian writers naturallywere
too,

Europe

one

the

confessional

Optimistic

She, from

was

confident, and
rich

trade

banquet

struggle for
mineral

summoned
set

southeastern

their
before

economic
them.

Europe

with

hosts

The
its

to

the

economic

magnificent

be renewed
was
agriculturalresources
with vigor. As if to justifytheir confidence, the trade
of German
lands with all the Balkan
kingdoms revived
and

to

THE

90
from

breadth

BALKANS

fiftyto

five hundred

feet.

These, either

by natural attrition and mold formation,


with earth, painfullygathered by
filling
interstices

of

the

fairlyfull

of

soil which,

rock,

gracious, would

more

lower

yield fair

be

seen

coarser

of

only a kind
hay grasses.

Elsewhere

beech

or

there

in this wilderness

birch, and

yet these

Less

frequent

the

tillageis
regions is very
Carniola

and
over

but

it is in

dismal
nature

them

"karst"

Each

latest state-science

ranges,

and

lines.

Such

are

in his

range

has

them

belt his

born
own

karst

these
westward

as

in great

panses
ex-

of the Danube

south

Albania

that

the

undisputed either by
district of Albania

primitive.
that

determined

river channels, form

are

where

but in all of
better tilled,

garrisoned frontier.

capacious

ammunition.

is

marshes.

long,

far

as

upper

and

Here

of

slopes and summits


only a frontier,but

not

fortified and
who

not

are

miles

intervals

successive

fertile and

more

the social conditions

Our

and

ties,
varie-

fertile soil,but

extent

frequent
of Europe

of

man.

is

southward

The

the

dwarf

malarial

few

at

Montenegro

by

several

tree.

of

or

great; they begin

supremacy
or

thickets

admirable.

appear
the whole

are

scattered

are

undaunted

real

vales

are

stretches,

are

of

growth

sometimes

forest

are

there

buckwheat, potatoes, and

of grass,
with
occasional
an

as

sides

pockets there
scrubby bush growth of

blades

now

are

temperature

in these

than

the

little crops.
On
the
the better grains and

grow
inclement
mountain

the

on

and

artificial
from

hand

means,

sun

were

levels,indeed, there

fruits,but
to

both

by

or

by

or

have

we

are

The

of

scribed
de-

naturally

nomad

soldiers,and
arsenal

ary
bound-

proper
as

tain
moun-

each
weapons

men
herdscarries
and

THE

BALKAN

NATIONS

91

utterlyabsurd and ridiculous that a


kingdom so tiny and likewise so infertile,with a
populationno larger than a good-sizedtown, should be
an
aspirant for Servian leadership;but an aspirant it
which
can
is, and for reasons
only be explained by
It may

some

seem

of

account

its scanty annals.

Cattaro

century, the littledistrict between


the

and
miles

distant
from

known,
and

drains

high-lyinglake
in the
the

of

of

name

the

the

being

great

pure

the great Servia

was

forty
Alps, was

some

Albanian

which

stream

waters
was

empire, its
then as they are

Servian

Servians

atic
the Adri-

on

Scutari,

of the

fourteenth

of Zeta, and
it,as the principality
of

When

bosom

In the

overrun

by

Montenegro
Aim

few

pendency
dehabitants
in-

to-day.

the Turks

the

nesses,
fastbarely penetrated to these mountain
in this Chernagora, or
and
Black
Mountain,
tains,
there was
principality
a semi-independent line of chiefat once
bishops and secular princes,under whom
the defense
was
defiantlysuccessful againstall efforts
at subjugation.
fixed
In the fifteenth century a conspicuous warrior
which
the land the then already current
seems
on
name,
nagora,
the lipsof its people,Cherdestined
to permanency
on
This
Mountains.
Black
Monte
Negro
is the
Stephen founded, in 1485, the cloister which
of the little capitalcity,Cettigne, formed
nucleus
an
alliance
with
Venice, and, in triumphant guerilla
before
his companies and
warfare, drove the Turks
vaders.
their forces wherever
scattered
they appeared as inthe notorious
Scander
His grandson was
Beg,
for a period, ruled as Turkish
a pervert to Islam, who,
tian
viceroy; but heathen rule was intolerable to the Chrisfolk with its tradition of heroic victoryover
lem
Mosfoes, and in 1516 the bishop (Vladika) Vavil
conquerors

"

and

headed

renewed

them;

not

as

for

there

was

the

Moslem

advance

of

another

barbaric

non-Christian

bond

into relations

ruler of the iron

broken

by

embittered

It
of

was

was

of
with

formed

and

preconcerted

rude

retribution

of

son

"

Peter,

intimacy with

Peter

of

the

another

Great, relations

reasons,

have

either.

With

other

the

commonwealth

alliance,joined ranks

on

sentimental

on

unite

irresistible

was

Petrowich,

successors

foe

the

1711.

hand, Czar
the

but

could

seemed

of union

of closest

which, for historic and

Nothing

bishop-prince(Danilo,

in the land

signalseized and killed.


the Montenegrin vespers
Thereupon this Danilo

rate
sepa-

reversion

of the Turks

attack

powerful

1697-1735)

powerful

time

and

person

been

as

people repulsed

tribal.

until in the

entered

however,

feuds, personal and


and

every

It was,

nation, that the

foes ; and

their hated
blood

revolt.

successful

clans and

to

BALKANS

THE

92

never

key's
Turstill

side, the then

Venice, he also formed


hers

and

conducted

an

torious
vic-

He then made
campaign against the Crescent.
the episcopate hereditary in his line, the family of
Nyegosh, but intrusted the secular authority to a
in position. This
who
second
to be
was
governor
worked
ill that for a time, over
so
fiftyyears (1625the superior,winning the respect
1681), the governor
was
and
uniting the hearts of the warlike clans on
the Black
But

Mountains.

Peter

I ended

this

prelate himself,
against the

Porte

in the

the great Pasha

insubordination, and,
led

people by

the

Kara-Mahmoud

long years of peace


capable in administration

unified his

hitting
hard-

Montenegrin forces
feating
campaigns of 1788-1791, de-

the fifteen
as

tactful

which
as

he

at

Krusa.

ensued
had

he

been

diplomacy, and

In

proved
in war,
in

1798

THE

promulgated

NATIONS

code

of laws.

But

is war;

and

wherever

men

there

fought

BALKAN

the

93

the affair of Montenegrin


Russian

armies

fierce mountaineers,

generally
under
the vladika-woiwode,
or
bishop-prince. Peter
I and his soldiers won
glory in 1808 against the French
in Ragusa; in 1813-1814, with
the help of English
from
the same
men-of-war, he captured Cattaro
foe;
forced
but at the end of the Napoleonic wars
he was
his longed-foracto abandon
cess
by the treaty of Vienna
to the

sea

adored

so

him
II

Peter

were

and

surrender

that

on

was

his death
less

no

he

was

amazing

canonized.
a

personage;

ordering the machinery


creatinga legislature,
He
and
was
inaugurating a school system.
the

greatest poet who


His

tongue.
While
the

Peter

has

ever

nephew,

Danilo

reversed

sung

I,

abolished

II had

ruler

new

people

His

poet,

administrator, enforcing the law,

and

priest,warrior,

it to Austria.

the

the

in

the

his

was

of state
likewise
Servian

successor.

office of

governor,
resigned the

action; he

secular
himself
as
a
dignityof bishop and announced
prince; the stylehe assumed, with the assent of Russia,
was
prince and lord of Montenegro and the Burda.
In the nine years
This prince was
a
great statesman.
the clan
crushed
of his reign, 1851-1860, he
out
the code and
feuds, extirpated the vendetta, reformed

its administration, introduced


established

military service.

universal

passingswiftly,alike
hereditary war-power
reforms

of Danilo's

1852,

the

by
they

Turks

proven
invasion

threatened

soundly
it

was

the

beaten

day

was

and

twice

the protest of Austria, and

were

occasion

was

of

The

hero-worship,of
particularism. The value

of chieftains
and

of land, and

the taxation

at

and

again

Grahovo.

when,

once

held
with-

were

in

in

1858, when

On

the

prince'sgiganticstrengthof

first
mind

BALKANS

THE

94

and

Austria
of

which

body

set

on

to intervene

army
battle

Such

masterful

assassinated

by

Pasha

make

one

of his

to

foes, and

he

was

but not before


subjects,
and
Montenegro
Turkey,
small

his

and

Born

successor.

Paris, he

revolt

been

district,had

in

called at

was

task

tremendous

in

risen

had

and

own

in Trieste

of nineteen

age

the prowess
him that won

by
a
superior force.

embittered

men

boundary line between


satisfactoryexcept in one
surveyed and established.
His nephew, Nicholas, was
the

trained

led

and

army

second, it was

and

1841, educated

formidable

the

on

actuallymade
against Omar

an

the

foot

the

govina
Herze-

against Turkey,

the

kish
TurMontenegrins were
lending aid, and two famous
and Derwish, were
at the gates of
generals,Omar
venture,
critical for rash adtoo
Cettigne. The situation was
and

willed.

Powers
the

will

good
to

settled the
to

access

followed

Turkey

the

Repulsed

too

Aziz

strong

to

be

the
that

portance
first im-

the

not

merely

but gave Nicholas


Novosella.
There

of peace
and of internal
in 1876, Servia declared
war
the

as

evident

was

of

Abdul

fightingspiritof

still wild

checked, and

organization;
against
taineers
moun-

the Montenegrin

the field.

in their first encounter,

two
cessive
sucthey won
victories of the first importance,at Vucido
and
Fundina, both of which fields were
contested.
bitterly

Russia
reasons,

but

intervened

to

Montenegro

end

the conflict

felt assured

for

her

of additions

as
territory
indemnity. This the great powers, in
of 1877, refused, and Montenegro took
conference

to her

the

Sultan

and

it

years

forces took

own

Scutari,

at

existingboundary trouble
the sea
by the cession of

was

the

be made

by this time
Montenegro was

of

but when,

on

to

But

twelve

Turkey,

had

peace

the

THE

BALKAN

field alone.

Turkey

generals,Soleiman
armies,
ten

back

forced
on,

stubborn

of

days

95

at

the head

conflict before
At

renowned

most

two

the little state.

Albania.

into

her

sent

All Saib,

and

annihilate

to

NATIONS

of powerful

There

the

Turks

were

Nicholas

once

were

passed
tember
(Sep-

and fortress of Nikshich


conquered the town
eighth), captured Spush, in January, 1878, and

stormed

the medieval

fortress

of Antivari

atic.
the Adri-

on

Such

militarytriumphs could not be overlooked,


and by the Treaty of Berlin not only was
the territory
of Montenegro more
than
doubled, but her complete
recent
independence was
formally recognized. Her
boundaries
fixed by an
were
exchange with Turkey,
welcome
to both
parties. The Porte regained a part of
tier;
fronAlbania, essential to the strength of the Turkish
Nicholas

another

secured

stretch

of

coast

land,

of
robber
nest
and fine harbor
includingthe one-time
Dulcigno. All nations have struggled with boundary
questions due to ignorance of geography and imperfect
unsettled
between
surveying; one such remained
Turkey and Montenegro.
rude
in those
For
thirty years there was
peace
miniature
The
borders.
tain
capitalof Cettigne has a cersies
number
of good public edifices and three embaslodged in statelybuildings. But its broad streets
with
flanked
low, one-story villagehouses, small
are
and primitive. The
only conspicuous shops are those
revel of gold
windows
of the tailors, whose
are
a
negrin
The
splendor of Montegalloon and gay colors.
in the statelysaunterings
is exhibited
costume
of
the consent
With
the publicsquares.
of the men
on
the
a

powers,

king. His

and

Nicholas,
consort

the modest

is

state

as
a

stated, has

model

crowned

himself

wife, mother, and queen,

of his home

does not

shock

the

BALKANS

THE

96

his subjects. He
are
primitive peasantry who
has improved every department of publiclife and service,
in the creation of an
active legislature,
especially
of an
tional
improved judiciary,and of an efficient educaThe
crown
prince Danilo led to the
system.
His
altar the daughter of an opulent Trieste merchant.
into
have
married
children
other
powerful royal
portance
houses, and dynastic politicsare still of the first imstill

of

east

The

Leitha

the

River

old

Russia

friendship with
strengthened, and the most

and

the

has

been

Adriatic.
further
of

evidence

conspicuous

capital. The
foreign language cultivated and spoken in Cettigne is
Italian
a significant
fact,as is the use by politesociety

her

bounties

is

found

be

to

in

the

"

of

French

German

in

Bucharest, and, for the

in both

Sophia
Europe English is
it proves

Russians
I have
on
one

bulwark

the

time

the two

parts of Albania
taken

Slavism

defense

once

kindly

when

Strange
What

to

refugees

and

was

permanent

fected,
af-

to

the

vated
culti-

most

content

they
across

the cause?

the

rose

the

merely

For

Those

in rebellion

feated,
and, de-

Montenegrin
of

of

the

border.

relations !

drawing together was

sign

other

dan,
mainly MohammeTreaty of Berlin, or
under
Montenegrin
Albanian
Alps were

rearrangement
The

the

friends.

warm

the

of

south,

northwest.

and

by

unforeseen

one;

the

Turkish

clansmen

the

on

peoples were

rule; the wildest

were

the traveler

south, though

or

assigned to Nicholas
in exchange, were
entreated

to

tral
cen-

speak it if they will.


some
length on Montenegro as I did
defiance;
1911 they stood in armed
of

of

rock

Turkey's
short

at

Until

Albania.

the

north

can

dwelt

Belgrade. While in
foreign tongue most

and

of little service

eastward, whether

part, of

most

coming

not
era

in

BALKANS

THE

98
printing office

in

established

Nikshich.

in

male

every

Cettigne, and

soldier

The

sixty-two,and
portion of every

militaryservice is compulsory during a


The
king has a bodyguard of one
year.
The

soldiers.

as

hundred

constitutional

fessional
pro-

system,

ceded
con-

with such impulse


by the prince in 1905, works
absolute, gives to it ; and that
sovereign,virtually

The

is considerable.
about
a

makes

system

army
sixteen to

from

printer is

second

thousand

hundred

four

exports

value

the

to

are

the

dollars,and

of

imports

million.
visitor to

The

Montenegro has a
the people themselves

poverty, which

point of view
Montenegro is

; amid

his

on

model

and

home!
with

chimneys,

no

cranny

of

doors.

Within

in

middle,

the

cattle

is

better,

But

Montenegrin country

and

roof, thatch

lean-to

wide

couches
the

at

like the

byre, and

slate,

than

worse

field, with

the

their hoard

of

it is.

Some

houses

this faithful
The
march

in

men

with

powerfully accomplish the

women

or

about

round

end, with

treasure

is very low.
but the average
soiled garb,give orders and
the

civilization,

of advanced

oozing out through every


and open
the unglazed windows
clay floor,with smoldering embers

and

some

As

the smoke

eaves,

cherished

manure
are

the

in

are

walls

stone

feel.

not

depends
surrounding peoples

wild

the

state

stimulus.

Four

in

do

of the tourist

said of Greece, the estimate

was

its bitter

of

sense

minimum

of

description,
stately,
though
warrior

work

mien

of house,

assistance

from

physique of the adults is fine and


matism.
rheutheir vigor great, althoughthey suffer sadly from
The
religiousinstincts are primitive and
their church
feelingintolerant. Their minds dwell on
tradition and song, on the mighty deeds of their ancestheir

lords.

The

THE

try, and

BALKAN

their

They

energy.

NATIONS

tempers

easily fired

are

warlike

to

in food, and, for the most

temperate

are

99

part, in drink; hospitable,


polite,and

obliging.

The

best

judges declare that the stranger, male or female,


is safe in body and
in the remotest
estate
districts,
though others are not of this opinion. To a rude peasantry
like this, the meanest
in Cettigne with
house
chimneys, glass windows, tight doors, and plastered

walls

seems

hovels.

The

the

southern

have

conference

the

by
south

and

partlyGreek

Greece

Modern

so.

destined
owes

at the

of

districts which

to

are

of

hands

apparently to

own

the faces of

commission.

much

their

Montenegro

final delimitation

lie the

beyond

of

secured

international

an

and

with

comparison

frontier

Albanians, who
pean

in

self-complacencymirrored on
in the capitalis charming.

the dwellers

On

palace

the
Euro-

their

tiers
fron-

North

and

shock

to

antiquity

and
which

garments
and

men

one

familiar

entirely

the Albanians, who,

its refined taste

to-day

which

his

fathers

its

ancient

of

women

of

hold

the

remains

sculptures representing

Greek

to

with

in

the

The

own.

Greece,

and

tasseled

exquisite

provided alike
to

half-barbaric

adopted

classical

of
the

which

come

for the

upon

destined

tarboosh, the

ruffled

shirt,the gaudy jacket,the swelling fustanella,or


with

its hundreds

hose, and
turned

up

the

of folds of soiled
feet

clad

at the toes and

in

linen,the

Oriental, heelless

adorned

with

the

holiday dress,
seems

**"

already

are

become

during the years of their revolt against Turkey, came


frequently, though spasmodically,to assist in their
the Greeks
that,
strugglefor liberty. So gratefulwere
tume
as
previouslytold,they adopted as their national costhe picturesque garb of their allies. It is rather
a

Grecian

kilt,

woollen

shoes,

ball of wool-

Aims

Influence

BALKANS

THE

ioo

len

yarn
itself,does
"

this

combination,

picturesque enough

in

exactlyto express the ancestry


of to-day claim for themselves.
which the Greeks
narrated
When
writing earlier of their originsit was
of the ^ggean
that the inhabitants
Isles, of some
portions of the Peloponnesus, and of a few districts
the mainland
of Hellas, might well claim a fairly
upon
unmixed
likewise explained how
ancestry; but it was
of other
stocks
there must
race
large an admixture
them.
have enumerated
We
no
necessarilybe among
fewer
than
successive
ten
peoples overrunning and
less completely portions of Hellas.
or
settlingmore
After
the first migrations of
came
prehistoricman
Thracians, Scythians, and Illyrians;then successively
not

appear

of

of Goths, Vandals, and


Celts, of Romans,
Huns,
of Avars, Bulgars, Slavs
Turks.
and
Nevertheless,
the ages
and

the

have

done

modern

Greek

quite as

claim

to

be

marvelous

Greek
much

either

as

work

of

amalgamation,

probably claim to be a
Romance
peoplesof Europe

may

the

Celtic

or

Roman.

They themselves,as previouslystated, estimate their


numbers
in Greece
and in the Levant, including
proper
Constantinople, at twelve millions; their bitterest foes
admit
that in the Balkan
peninsulaalone they number
six.
The
probabilityis that this should be increased
by two, and that elsewhere there are two millions more.
In the great cities of the eastern
Mediterranean
they
are

them
have
of

shrewd
have

are

amassed

merchants,

and

fortunes, which,

enormous

of

many
as

we

said, they liberallydistribute for the promotion


Greek
interests,both in the smaller and greater

Hellas.
and

successful

and

But

their

inferior.

somewhat

numbers

agriculturalcapacitiesare

of

In

Greece

Albanians, possiblysome

proper
tens

limited
there
of thou-

BALKAN

THE

have

sands, who

NATIONS

retained

101

their

language and their


original character, altogether avoiding intermarriage
with the Greeks ; yet they feel themselves
Greek
as
as
their neighbors. In one
respect only are these colonist
Albanians
the native Greeks
and
completely united;
Greek
they are nearly all of the orthodox
confession,
which, in the parts of Europe with which
we
are
Of course,
there are other
dealing,is a powerful bond.
the common
tradition of bitter hatred
ties,especially
for the Turks, inasmuch
as
they are both descendants
of the men
who
suffered
from
Turkish
oppressionat
its worst.
and this is
They have also in common
perhaps the strongest tie the omnipresent "Great
of the Byzantine empire with
Idea," the restoration
its capital.
once
Constantinople
more
as
A certain rather small portion of the Greeks
in Asia
"

"

and

Crete

and

were,

; of these

in

alienate them
neither

This

from

their

the millions

still are,

the Turkish

use

many
characters.

Greek

few

very

fact

nearer

lems
Mos-

language, written
does
not
altogether
kinsfolk,

remoter

or

in the Levant

fanatical

the hundreds

nor

of

ing
we
islands,
repeat, includCrete
Turkish
the others
and
so
lately under
sovereignty, have no other inhabitants, important in
This
be forgotten
not
must
numbers, than Greeks.

thousands

because

it makes

the

The

ultimate

difficult. Those

most

of

in America.

the

national

who

go

immediately

world,
type and

national

settlement
to

fro

and

discover

their

of

the

in that

Church,

character.

retained, when

passionate devotion
outward

for

expressionof

part

undoubted

Every people has a right to be judged from its


Greeks, having really created
standpoint. The
Greek

fate

what

own

the

all else

was

lost,their

the

one

remaining

was

their national

unity.

The

con-

BALKANS

THE

102

of their
sure
very
followed
in the tration
adminis-

Constantinople,never

of

querors

positionin

Christian

of

their

world,

line of

the

conquests

least resistance.

patriarchat Constantinople,throughout a
always a facile
long succession of four centuries,was
of the Sultans
who
tool in the hands
appointed him.
The

His

Greek

alike ecclesiastical and

was

power

of

civil. The

Greek

the administrative
center
city became
of European Turkey.
Contemptuous Islam could see
face reflected in other social systems ; for
only its own
it the communities
ever
professing the Greek faith,whattheir race
Greeks.
Scattered
or
origin, were

quarters

the

from

the Black

Sea

were

therefore

administered

the

through

Greek

agents, who,

Adriatic, these communities

the

to

as

patriarch by

according

to

nation,

means

the

manner

of

or

nations,

Phanariote
of

Oriental

and kept
by their masters
in office as long as the required taxes
were
paid into
the Sultan's treasury. Many, if not all of these agents,
enriched themselves, lived in great state, and frequently

tyranny,

unrestrained

were

combined

to

resist the

interests.

It was,

within

limits

the

subordinate

Sultan's

therefore,
of

their

decrees
not

in their

difficult for

administrative

own

them,

districts,to

everything to Greek interest. The rather


stupid Slavic peoples, stupid at least in comparison
with the wily Greek, were
overridden
into
and crushed
dull indifference,
until they frequentlyprofessedthemselves
Greeks
in sheer despair.
Church
in
influence
the
Servian
By Phanariote
subordinated
the Bulgarian a year later were
1 766 and
to the patriarchateat Constantinople. In Bulgaria the
popular speech almost disappeared from use, except
in the privacy of the
of the lowly or
in the houses
and school the only permitted
better classes ; in church

THE

BALKAN

NATIONS

103

Greek.
As
late as
the middle
language was
Hellenic
schools
eighteenth century there were
not
To
a
villageswhere
singleGreek resided.

position whatever,
think, and to speak like
any

were

was

even

in

assert

feel, to

to

necessary

the

Greek; "Bulgar" and

The

synonymous.

but

it

of

Servians

gar"
"vulcious,
tena-

more

were

the

Bulgarians abroad, as well as at home,


posed as anything but Bulgarians. It was
only in a
few peasant huts that the hereditary hatred
for Greece
and for the Greek
Church
was
outspoken, being especially
bitter against the Greek
virtually
clergy,who
their superiors the positions which
purchased from
they held, and exacted the priceof their simony from
the poor
wretches
whose
spiritualguides they professed
As if to obliterate any possibleretention
to be.
the literary
by Bulgarians of national character, even
remains
of the one-time
powerful Bulgarian empire,
preserved in cloisters or in the patriarchatelibraryat
Tirnovo,
but

popular

these

uncertain

in two

reached

lachia and

empire.

firmer

that

followed
colonized

the

beneficent

an

to

form

most

than

reason,

in

most

us

the

kingdom
in

were

from

powers.

in the Ottoman

across

fertile districts,and

influence upon

Wal-

as

extended

elsewhere

train

rule

received

great numbers

their

Mount

purported

which
principalities,

official titles and

were

For

to

tion;
tradi-

Phanariote

known

united

of

what

lands, the administrators

both

seats

of

vived
sur-

spoken

monk

climax

now

In those

frontier

the Sultan

Their

sources

the

There

and

romances

provinces

Moldavia,

of Rumania.
sense

flames.

to
1762 committed
writing
Slovene-Bulgarian history.

Probably, however,
was

the

in

Athos

be

to

few

from

to

committed

were

of their
the

patriots
com-

Danube,

exercised

the half -barbarous

so

native

BALKANS

THE

104

populationthat they inaugurated a process


those principalities
made
more
which

of assimilation
Greek

Most
others, except those of Greece proper.
able and
Phanariote
voivodes, or princes,were

than
of the

any

use

of

the

schools, introduced

Greek

they founded

men

the
in

instruction

language, provided

Greek

able
admir-

philosophy,and generallyelevated the life of the


civilization.
But the
to a high level of Hellenic
towns
stubborn
in
Rumanians, like the native Servians, were
retainingtheir speech and institutions,so that even
Greek

rious
(disregardinga few notolent,
and
shocking exceptions) was
generally excelit was
probably the least acceptable.
Such
considerations
these explain the pertinacity
as

where

Greek

Uprisings

with

which

the

what

seems

to

Hellenes

true
so

culminated

in

1830 by

The

independence.

the

idea

of

dormant

their

politicalliberties.

Furnished
to

be

cause

societyin

association

them

they

means,

lands.

As

began

Athens

capacity for
in high places.

sent

their

as

youth

1796
Congress

early as

to

known

to

its members

agitate. At the
plenipotentiarieswere
won
by Kapo dTstrias, president

many

Hellenic

innate

kept

in Western

educated

Vienna

Greek

Their

abundant

educated
thus

men

of

with

suffered

never

restoring to

for administration

and

their

recognitionof

the
had

church

grow

trade

in their hearts

cherished

the insane idea of a restored


many
It was
the mainspring of the rebellion

Byzantium.
which

rule

Phanariote

the

the Hetairia.

to

the

of

the

This

high for the


common
Greeks, and a similar one for the plain people
founded
in 1814. Its leaders proclaimed that they
was
aimed
not
merely at the emancipation of Greece, but at
the
restoration
of Byzantium, an
idea which, for a
hundred

moved

years,

has

upon

plane

rather

too

appeared utterlyfanciful.

wholesale

roused

Greek

cause,

valuable
and

Europe

which, in

pitch of enthusiasm
the long run, proved

drove

troops,

fishing smacks

The

Mainotes

them

into

surrounded

vested
Tripolitza,in-

Byron published his amazing verse, and together


the philWilliam
Miiller, in Germany, fanned
hellenic
of Western
For
sentiment
some
Europe.
Greek
bands
successful
the
were
irregular
years

Lord
with

three

in their encounters
in his

Crete

insubordinate

ranks

could

Greeks

the

into

turned

ruthless

viceroy with
Peloponnesus. Before

the

and

their oppressors.
help from Mehemet

with

despair,sought

bribing the

make
of

scene

torture,

bloodshed; volunteers

from

Greeks,
; Lord

fellow

were

his

in

particular,began

in the

December

was

i,

of

weary

1825,

ranks

I,

leadership. Canning took


Duke
of Wellington,under
agreement
Greece
as
a

an

French
of

at

Saint

state
were,

the

of the
ery
butch-

the

philand

England
system.

On

died, and

his

the

Austrian
the

step, and

his instructions,negotiated

tributaryto
perhaps,

Europe;

to

decisive

Petersburg

their

war

intervention.

of Russia
hostile

was

of

and

Metternich

Alexander

Nicholas

successor,

the

of

seat

common

demand

to

Egypt,
promise of
disciplined

rapine, and
Western
Europe,

joined the

victims

Sultan,
in

of

Byron perished at Missolonghi

Europe

hellenes

AH
the

hellenists of the civilized world, those

France

The

; the

stand

no

in their enthusiasm, had

who,

The

the

tional
captured it. The first nafinally
Year's
Day, 1822.
Assembly met on New

Greek

Independence

its most

and

the town,

Grecian

for the

Kanaris, annihilated

larger ships,under
fleet in the ^Egean.

Turkish

armed

of

island

the

flotilla of

asset.

Turkish

was

to

in

Greeks

the

few

the

of

massacres

Chios

wild

BALKANS

THE

106

the

of

for the autonomy

the
most

government

Ottoman

empire.

enthusiastic
was

phil-

forced

to

THE

BALKAN

A
join the movement.
belonging to different
Greek

waters.

1827,

was

The

NATIONS

fleet

consistingof

battle of Navarino,

annihilation

within

October

on

accident,but

an

of

vessels

war

assembled

was

powers

begun probably by

in

107

20,

it

sulted
re-

the

Turkish-Egyptian
fleet. Who
to reap the advantages of this undewas
sired
and
perplexing victory? The
philhellenic
coalition fell apart; Kapo d'Istrias,presidentof the
believed
be under
Russian
Greek
to
Assembly, was
influence ; a French
drove the Turkish
and Egyparmy
tain force out of the Peloponnesus. Canning was
dead
England, under new
leadership,was
jealous of both
for a short period sided with the Sultan
and
powers,
after the outbreak
of the
particularly
againstGreece
Russia
The
sians
Rusbetween
and Turkey in 1828.
war
had pressed forward
under
the walls of
and were
ber
Adrianople, where they dictated the peace of Septemthe Porte
agreed to cede
14, 1829. By its terms
the

"

certain

Asiatic

lands,

Wallachia, and
conference

February
of
it.

in

Greece, and
Greek

Meantime

Greece

in

success

jealousyand
threatened

to

on

April

the

work

24

had

success

the
of

Greece.
the

the Sultan

forces

itself, a

suspicionamong
undo

declared

met

the

On

independence
recognized
with

which

various

in

international

an

regarding

Powers

armed

of

terms

London

1830, the

3,

fortifications

several

raze

accept the

to

held

to

great

created

leaders

and

past eight years.

Assembly, however, under pressure from


littlestate Leopold
without, selected as king of the new
of Saxe Coburg. It was
not amazing that he declined.
was
Incipientcivil war
raging in Greece; Admiral
Miaulis had virtuallydestroyed the fleet of his own
and Kapo d'Istrias was
country for personal reasons;
assassinated by fellow patriots
at Nauplia. Thereupon
The

Greek

THE

io8

the

Conference

London

and

monarchy
of

son

Grecian
Consolidation

BALKANS

the

declared

crown

offered

was

Lewis

King

I, a

Greece

Otto

to

ardent

most

hereditary

of Bavaria,

philhellene.

The

subsequenthistoryof Greece is a story of its


consolidation.
King Otto made his formal entry into
on
February 7, 1833. His
Nauplia, the then capital,
people were
splinteredinto factions,barbarized by their
tracted
diseven
more
long guerillawarfare ; the country was
of foreign diplomacy;
by the machinations
then,
Austria, in particular,

being
to

favorable

more

frontier.

In

1835

part since,

integrityof Turkey

the

of strong Christian

the establishment

eastward

to

for the most

as

powers

her

on

transferred

capitalwas

the

than

established
Athens; in 1837 a universitywas
there,
and in 1841 a national bank; in 1850 the Greek
Church

to

was

emancipated from
When
the Greeks

1853,
their
and

territories
under

kindled

the

by

the

Crimean

patriarchat

War

broke

stantinopl
Con-

out,

in

naturallyhoped for an expansion of


in Thessaly, Macedonia,
and
Epirus,

Greek

in

control

guidance fires

of

rebellion

were

provinces. Great Britain and


France
miked
in dispatchinga fleet to the Piraeus with
virtual command
ately
a
that such agitation
should immediment
not
they were
cease;
ready for the dismemberof Turkey at the hands
of Russia.
This diplomatic rebuff intensified the feelingof distaste
for the German
rule of the king.
bureaucratic
Otto, moreover,
of necessityinfluenced to a high
was
of European diplomacy, while
degree by the pressure
his people thought him
utterly indifferent to their
cherished plan of national aggrandizement. During his
absence
on
a visit to
district of the Peloponremote
a
nesus,
a

Athens

all three

provisional government

without

his

knowledge,

and

was

organized

declared

at

the throne

BALKAN

THE

vacant.

He

native

land.

second

Prince
as

of

son

counter

was

of the

people for

the

between

agreement

the

accordingly,in 1863, the

William

was

chosen, who

Great

of the
Britain

ceded

for

consolidation

considerable
in

When,
arms,

time

1866, Crete

and

to

Greece

increase

an

and

financial

bitter and
rose

troops from

of

in

not

his

was

the

But

this
tecting
pro-

Danish

the throne

Hellenes, in 1863.

Isles,but in spiteof such

struggle for

ascended

to

three

and

afterward

money,

Alfred.

powers,

George I, king

was

the succession

Queen Victoria, Prince


to

109

protest, in 1862

returned, under

choice

The

NATIONS

Not

long
Ionian

the

the
territory,
independence
ful.
success-

very

rebellion,it obtained

the mainland.

For

three

its own,
in 1869 a
and
to hold
Turkey seemed
European conference compelled Greece to refrain from
further activity
remained
a part of the Ottoman
; Crete
empire down to the events of these latest days. Until
within a very short period of time the Greek
population
little capacity for constitutional
showed
government.
Ministries
and fell with a rapidity
that indicated a
rose
public feelingnot marked
by self-restraint;and there
absence
of financial ability,
which
ing
distressan
was
was
and
created
throughout Europe.
great uneasiness
years

It

found

finances
under
to put Greek
necessary
foreigncontrol, and amid the ever recurring disorders
was

in Servia
a

lack

of

restraint

began
But
nation
which
of the

and

at

common

in

its

ConstantinopleGreece showed
in its politics
of
and
sense
administration,

that

its best

such
self-

friends

despairof its ultimate success.


all this was
changed, as if by miracle, when the
of the movements
became
in Turkey,
aware
to result in so generala disintegration
were
sure
that nothing but stern
Ottoman
discipline
power,
to

BALKANS

THE

i io

amid
social storm,
rigid self-control,calmness
could enable it to seize its opportunityand insure that
enlargement of the national borders which they felt
result in national stability.
certain would
and

Social

to the

West

patricianclass, a burgher and

"

familiar

social order

The

Life in

the Balkans

farmer
in

class ; these, at least in America, are


and families passingeasilyfrom
men

three strata

has

class,a labor

perpetualflux,
to

one

the other.

Although they have comparatively little permanency,


they are nevertheless continuouslyin grinding opposition
to

other, the victorybeing

each

this, again with

It

that.

of

because

seems

at

time

one

beneficent

most

with

perpetualvigilance,the
the wholesale
imperious self-restraint,
quired
disciplineremaintain
to rise to and
a
position;the fittest
have every chance, the unfit find relief in agitation.In
the Balkans
there is among
the indigenous population
in any place except the largesttowns,
at any moment,
arrangement,

not

of

one

social

these

mechanics, traders, or
dead

constitutional

their

with

and

them

and

and

is called

what
cannot

; it is not

who

bring

suited for

as

dress and
army
but the atmosphere of

envelope them

not

run

Those

one

it may
be.
Officers of
like their kind elsewhere,
appear

simple

and

Even

do

government

family environment

publicity,
pure
state

labor.

hand

and

into

confused

are

to
popular representatives

as

farmers,

factors; all,whether

herdsmen,

level of peasantry

emerge

the

control

refinement

does

not

them.

the masterful
people,
dynasties,which
through their chiefs and in conjunction with the dynastic
have mechanicallyset to rule over
them,
powers,
is
There
circle in the proper
sense.
in her indispensable
influence of woman
controlling

possess
no

the

role of

no

court

social arbiter.

Whether

mere

worldling or

THE

noble

in

is in every

BALKAN

NATIONS

spiritualaspiration,the
walk

of life

in

Western

woman

ing
commandupliftingpower
and
good manners
decency, outwardly at least;
obscure
and
immorality is not so degrading to the
world
for ages the great
as
flauntingvice. Where
the sphere of femiand the harem
nine
we
was
e Moslems
while
the Christian, the petty worker,
activity,
beasts of burden, the totality
of
as
employed his women
female
disastrous ; and the small folk who
eclipsewas
almost
now
exclusivelythe Balkan
tions
populacompose
have not recovered
from
its effects.
The
public
morals
not
are
merely without the regulatingchecks of
social influence,but too often they exhibit the license of
a
harlotrywhich has injected itself into the lives of
certain controllingmen.
To
what
has just been said
there are superb exceptions; but without
mention
of the
holds the Balkan
humiliating truth that the Balkan man
in low esteem, everything that shocks
and
woman
grieves,in certain events which are notorious, is utterly
incomprehensible.
be true if the dynastic influences
This
would
not
were
strong and pure. The stage of development which
the Balkan
and
a person
peopleshave reached demands
In one
at least, the
a
family as a standard.
case,
influences of the rulinghouse
are
strong and impure;
in another, pure but weak ; in a third, entirely
negative
of
are
as
they a combination
yet; and only in one
an
elevating
strength and purity such as furnishes
example to a peasant folk and gives them a rallying
point for a national patriotism.
elected
George, the late king of the Hellenes, was
to

his office December


would

1912.

have

Danish

an

22,

1862, and

celebrated

his

but

for his

sination
assas-

jubileein
fifty-year

prince himself,

his

queen

was

BALKANS

THE

112

is numerous;
both
princess. Their progeny
characters; the
and
daughters have admirable
sons
family life has been a shiningexample; and Constanking, a nephew of Queen Alexandra
tine, the new
William
II, has
brother-in-law of Emperor
and
a
fit him
for his place.
which
qualities
displayedmany
and son
Father
have, in the main, applied themselves
with diligenceand ability.
to the duties of their rank
later
The
exceptionalmoment,
government, with one
constitutional; and while the
to be noticed, has been
of the mercurial, turbulent
Greeks
modern
display much

Russian

of the

temper

ancients, yet, nevertheless,in this

has been made, partly


important advance
initiative due
mistakes, partly by their own
the tutelage of that
lessons, partly under

half century

by

their

to

bitter

class of

upper

The

governments

only conspicuous

we

failure

call the
has

great powers.

been

It is

noted.

wasteful
that
so
finance,which was
established
and
commission
of the public debt, now
a
essential.
'became
composed of foreigners,
But, on the other hand, there is peace, good order,
of Greece,
much
and
prosperitywithin the borders
of

in the conduct

while

her

great,
into

when

even

her

of

from

all lands

and

amass

measured

educational

west, Athens

coming

without

sons

coffers.

treasures,

pour

standards,
by Western
the
Approached from

visitors; but to
disappointsmany
the east and consideringthe low
once

or

Turkish, the

now

state

those
estate

both

the

capitalcity and of the country as a whole


amazing in what it is,and promises. Both army
small as they are, have
been
reorganized
navy,
rendered

and
efficient,

that the behests


their

annexation

it is

of other
of

tribute

to

national

governments
Crete

and

which
other

of
is
and
and

pline
discibade
for-

Greek

heir

has

of

prince
there

but

distinct,

influences
Christian

and

well

as

There

is
to

Balkan

bear

as

their

in
States.

uplifting

of

Roman

view
olic,
Cath-

keep

become

blood

the

crown

"

to

fairly

Greek

marriages,

effort

twenty-

George,

They

common

determined

at

point

Europe

Protestant.

in

of

crown

betrothed

sister

his

princesses

Catholic

interest

in

systems

the

been

just

dynastic

the

Protestant

Roman

three.

state

Catholic,

Greek

even

From

of

son

bride

coming

the

Greece.

age

while

duchess,
as

three

are

of

years

grand

announced

is

Carol,

throne,

twenty

at

Russian

one

Rumanian

the

to

prince,
to

BALKANS

THE

ii4

and

and

mon
com-

combines

bring

civilization

all

dynastic
of

the

II.

THE

BALKAN

NATIONS

II.

"GREAT
native

IDEAS/'
role

Russia

in

BALKAN

THE

her

well

ecclesiasticallyas
for

Being

foremost

the

Slavic.

be

aversion

Greece

to

but

made,

is

religious.

had

which

well

as

ished
cher-

would

Byzantium

her

as

frequent

emerges

from

these

pages,

Rumania

and

in
to

as

double

such

presented

Greeks

the

and

of

tium,
Byzan-

Her

and

likewise,

considerations

various

the

of

idea"

Idea

Constantinople

always

Turkey,

to

been

has

nation,

therefore

has

that

of

sentimental

Slavic

She

"

mention

but

The

to

politically.

as

acquisition

economic,

merely

not

the

"great

successorship

the

determi-

almost

an

The

Europe.

for

passion

play

repeat,

we

Eastern

demands

NATIONS

Rumanians.

the

Both
of

Slavic

of

question
the
to

of

by

or

the

upon

long

remained

established
the
more

Ottoman

by

which

Danubian

important,
empire.

Eastern

in

charter

not

merely

the
as

principalities, but,
of

all

by

the

Somewhat
117

Greek
later

than

macy,
diplo-

To

Europe.

Hither
the

East.

great

It
of
far

was

Christians
the

(1774)

protector

what

is

warfare

open

Kutschuk-Kainardje

of

public

Russia

of

by

or

no

and

exerts,

kinship,
or

is

world

the

Russia
to

Roman,

There

of

part

Slavic

has
and

Greek.

agitations,

Treaty

the

Latin

and

that

countries

neither

are

appeal

an

secret

various

high degree

in

influence

either

but

veins,

Byzantine

admixture

enormous

an

Rumania

acute

more

have

their
of

those

Greece,

degree
exert,

in

blood

aspirations;
those

peoples

these

in

the

Cath-

Russian

BALKANS

THE

n8

enlightenedJoseph of Austria
joined hands to realize immediately the establishment
of a new
Byzantium with Catharine's grandson, ConAustria
to have
was
stantine,as the rulingmonarch.
Bosnia
the

the

and

of Russia

arine

the Crimea

Servia ; Russia

and

were
principalities

Danubian
under

have

to

real independence

ruler.

orthodox

an

Otchakoff

and

and
Napoleonic epoch Russia
otherwise
Austria
were
engaged, and for Turkey in
and decay.
Europe the period was one of disintegration
Robber
chieftains
ravaged its territories at will and
in its princiestablished
pal
virtuallyindependent powers
the

Throughout

Osman

of

One

towns.

Albanians

threatened

even
rose

extended

her

influence

said that

Wallachia

strengthened
may

be

province

as

late

Austria, preponderant
century because

compelled

to

of

at

her

withdraw

the

Dobrudja

and

the Servians

before

the

was

the

in 1810.

both

What

of

with

the
the

the

Moldavia,

in

eighteenth
Porte,

Bukowina

was

and

of Russia

assaults

combined

be

that

close

relations
from

further

It
principalities.
sian
Rusa
substantially

in

the

Wallachia.

thus

and

1812, and

as

star

quests
devastatingcon-

into

him

crushed

who

his

Danube

the

His

Sultan.

the

1806, and

across

Russia

was

garians,
Turks, Bulmany
his standard
that he

about

until

Mohammedan,

so

overthrow

to

higher

ever

Bosnian

collected

Pasvanoglu,
and

It

these,

might have happened


Napoleon began his

guessed; but when


Russia made
preparations for his march
Moscow,
on
speedy terms with her foes in the peace of Bucharest,
1812, securing the fertile and splendid province of

may

Bessarabia.
for

her

Servia

rebels and

government.

obtained
the

from

right at

Turkey
least

to

amnesty

local self-

THE

facts

These
in

both

the

of those
Ghika

1822

lachia,
to

districts

Phanariote

chief

made

Sturdza

to

of

introduce

of

the

voivodes.

Both

of

In

Walable

were

efforts

Herculean

made

reforms

necessary
condition

respect the

of Russia

administrator

Moldavia.

conscientious; both

and

men

influence

enormous

what
and
has
principalities,
said of the Greek
uprisingmakes clear
could
tration
no
longer intrust the adminis-

was

and

119

Danubian

Porte

the

NATIONS

explain the

previouslybeen
that

BALKAN

in every
populations;but Russia

improve

and

fearing the rise of an


taining
independent national feelingwithin two provincescona
people so closelyrelated, if not in language,
looked

at

with

on

deep

concern,

least in institutions and

interests.

She

could

not

aggregation on her frontiers of even


forces
moderate
unsympathetic with her ambitions.
the
Until 1833 the real ruler of both principalities
was
of the protectRussian
general, Kisseleff,commander
ing
Russian
forces,who actuallypromulgated a sort of
liberal charter, although the nominal
suzerainty was
It was
still in the Porte.
by his influence that both
lost all hold upon
their place and
Sturdza
Ghika
and
tion
the insurrecall their influence upon
the people. When
broke
movements
out,
sympathetic with Greek
contemplate

Turkish

the

troops combined

Russian

and

By 1849 the old conditions were


voivodes
in both principalities
new
and

for

space

of

four

years

to

suppress

it.

virtuallyrestored;
were
inaugurated,

their

efforts to

relieve

people met with fair success.


But
in 1853 the operations of the Crimean
when
and temporarily adminisWar
began, Russia overran
in 1854 the Austrians
and
tered both
principalities;
the

general misery

beset them
the

in order

Balkans.

By

of the

to

the

prevent Russia's
treaty of

Paris

advance

(1856)

upon

both

Birth

of

Rumania

BALKANS

THE

120

suzeraintyand placed
again restored to Turkish
Both
the protectionof the great powers.
ceived
re-

were

under

rulers, and

new

of both

inhabitants

it dawned

last

at

in their union

that

the

upon

there

might

hope of peace.
degree of securityand some
overwhelming was the tide of feelingthat it could
some

restrained, and

be

Cousa, who

Alexander

1859,

17,

elected

Wallachians

of

assembly

February

on

had

already

been

So
not

national

their

as

be

chosen

prince
by a

ing
assembly to be Prince of Moldavia, thus creatthe embryo of a new
kingdom.
with
Austria
to
Napoleon III, contemplating war
of power
the balance
emancipate Italyand to maintain
"Latin"
in Western
Europe, discerned in this newborn
land of Rumania
a
possibleally,and by his influence

similar

the

Sultan

Cousa

acknowledged
Prince

of

nationality,
being

and

again

Russian
of

meddled

influence
Rumanian

the channel

through

in both

1861,

2,

John I, Sovereign

creation

the

exerted

landowners

intervened

who

Once

thwart

to

December

on

Alexander

as

Rumania.

attempted
Russian

Medjid,

Abdul

of great

the boyars,
principalities,
with

affairs

internal

at

possiblejuncture. On May
14, 1864, Cousa,
keenly alive to the procedures of French
politics,
organized his own
promulgated a
coup d'etat and
Napoleonic constitution providing for two chambers.
every

He

had

realm
His
the

that he
success

new

But
of
and

been

so

faithful

enjoyed
was

therefore

this,in

was

best

interests

of

his

boundless

popularity.
apparently complete, and
set going in all its departments.

plan
In 1865 tne
failed completely,
harvests
meant
country almost purely agricultural,
proved

reform.

the

almost

an

administration

nature

to

an

implacableenemy

to

his

Rumanian

Origins

BALKANS

THE

122

lightof
have

definite

very

whence

they

theory

they

lightof
is

reasoning; indeed,
It is

is unsafe.

who

to

as

the cold

but

came,

gaps in their
the foundation

insoluble.

to be
investigations,

the latest

They

science

shows
that

show

to

seems

and

are

accepted principle
language is a will-o'-the
an

ethnographers that
unless
wisp in their prehistoricinvestigations,
Their
own
merely as confirmatory evidence.
among

wit, that

to

of Roman

legionariesand
is untenable.

Trajana,
declares

the
of

Danube

province;
a

first

the

withdrew

out

in the

Coloni

the

of

of

old

second

direct

the

are

In

Aurelian

that
the

across

they

Roman

place
finally,

place, Vopiscus

the

soldiery
abandoned
is

place, there

furnishes
years, which
Coloni
existed
of the
north

Dacia

of old

Dacia, and

thousand

viction,
con-

descendants

Roman

the

used

period

evidence

no

Danube

that

all;

at

logical
persistentarchaeorecords
of
and
Rumanian
place names,
of Latin
virtuallynone
are
origin. The great weight
of authorityis for regarding the present population as
back

names

are

from

Dacia

Servia) occurring

toward

surge

Stated

century.
have

had

an

most

Aureliana
the

in another

so

of

became

the

way,

original ancestry

more

considerable

their

speech

than

half

Slavs.

evidence

in

poetry, which, according


who
Slavic
the wild
Slav

lives and

and

Romance

passion and

commingled

Roman's

and

works

to

of

end

of

cians, which, in time, absorbed


much

(Bulgaria

from
their
For

Rumanians

the

may

Thra-

Slovenians

blood

that

folklore

Emil

Fischer,

is very
folk
and

an

gist,
ethnolo-

them, displays both


He

brooding melancholy

finds
of

the

equal proportions with

sound, yet sensitive grasp

they

this there

their

among

twelfth

Romanized

temperament.

in almost

the

and

on

reality.

alike
true

the

THE

have

BALKAN

NATIONS

123

said in
what
was
brieflyresumed
in order to explainwhy Rumania
another
connection
ambition
like those
has no overpowering, all-mastering
Of course,
of Greece, Bulgaria,and Servia.
they have
serious
A
most
problems of their own.
large proportion
of their kinsfolk
the Carpareside across
thians
in Hungarian lands, where
they are ruthlessly
that
Magyarized.
They are
bitterlydiscontented
sarabia
Russia
forced upon
the exchange of fertile Besthem
for the swampy,
dreary Dobrudja.
share
Rumania
has been at peace since 1877. Their
Rumania
We

in the

thus

Russian-Turkish

chapter of

their

forms

war

war

excellent

an

the nation

regarded

was

both

looked
The

upon
choice

At

vassal

as

as

the

prince
beginning of

fires ; the

two

Rumanians
between

the

their
two

the

sians
Rus-

the

aries.
auxili-

natural

interests

had

still

Turks

states;

"

promising
un-

Hohenzollern

army.
between

provinces

brilliant

most

of the most

history. Already, out

material, the
created

the

far

was

The
easy.
unselfish.

from
means

by no
friendship of Russia was
mania's
She
had
deliberatelyselected Ruof her impending conflict
territoryas the scene
Turkey. It was the firm conviction of most

with

Rumanians
to the

that

dreaded

their ultimate

empire

doom

annexation

was

of the north, and, in

particular,

cherished
of their most
that one
well aware
they were
Naboth's
Russia
to
a
possessions, Bessarabia, was
was
negotiated,
vineyard. Accordingly, a convention
permittingthe Russian armies to pass, with guarantee
that no
by the
unfriendly act should be committed
way.
The

marching

noted, with
Rumania's

officers

were

keen

observers, and

dismay, the enormous


militarystrength during the
some

increase
eleven

of

years

Wftr

of

BALKANS

THE

124

the

their

under

force

Of

administration.

new

incorporatingsuch

command

own

could

there

be

a
no

princeheld himself ready


it might be, unhindered
and
for the event, whatever
Russians
had
uncontrolled by either belligerent.The
and unexpected resistance on their
with a stubborn
met
toward
march
Constantinople, and at Plevna
they
in a desperate plight. On
themselves
found
August 5,
Duke
Nicholas, grasping at the last
1877, the Grand
"Come
Charles:
to
our
straw, telegraphed Prince
where
the Danube
help; cross
you choose, under
any
Hohenzollern

question. The

conditions

quickly;

we

the Rumanians

Calif atu,

themselves

and

storm

of its

final outcome

actually captured

Osman

mander-in-chief.

These

bought at an
the price did
been

and

won

nation; but
and

immense
not

when

Rumania's
which

later
reward

Russia

obtained
and
of

the
was

worthless

of

distinguished
termined
powerful fort, degreat struggle,and
Turkish

the

of

were,

life and

com-

course,

property, but

glory that had


consolidatingthe Rumanian
high

for the

dictated

was

at

felt for
she
For

her.

Her

lost her
this

the

Stefano,

San

plenipotentiariesmet
only the measure

recognition,but
valuable
province.

the

the

Before

men

successes

too

peace

most

Pasha,
cost

seem

Smordanu.

his

of

its effect in

when

and

Charles

in the
the

come

With
by the Turks."
admirably equipped and wellhundred
and
a
eight efficient
advanced
through
victoriously

Nikopolis,Rahoba,

Plevna, Prince

and

come

surrounded

are

thousand
thirty-five
and
disciplinedmen,
cannons,

but

make,

to

care

you

in
of

Berlin,
the

tempt
con-

sovereignty
most
pleasant

compensation

insult.
an
Dobrudja was
This painful experience was
stamped with European
approval in the capitalof Germany.
By this time

THE

Charles
of

BALKAN

his poetess consort,

and

state, had

independent

an

NATIONS

king

now

made

they

culture, to

cultivate

and

queen

themselves

had

Rumanians;

125

type

organized a
court, the
influence of which
has always been profound and beneficent.
The
monarch
had
performed the double
task of discoveringthe deeply hidden
wellspringsof
life among
national
his subjects and
of developing
into a vigorous stream
of national activities.
them
This
nation, emphasizing its Latin
new
origins,Social and
Economic
began, as if in defiance both of Slavic and Germanic
"

Its social

of its

than

more

have

least the

literature and
The

growth

the outer

Turkish

even

is the Mecca
preme
reigns susociety,or in

manner

in

art.

capitalcity
:

Rumania
since

dignitybelonging

Paris

in army,

style. AsPects

..of

"

at

Bucharest, whether

Latin

aristocratic,

course,

largeestates, yet democratic


pilgrimages,and the French
at

the

ever

is, of

organization

the great landowners


to

modest

now

has

is mean,
; the

recognizablerings of
rural, rough, and somewhat
is an interesting
transition

three

next

higher styleof life ; and the inner nucleus is


in
small "cityof light,"like its exemplar
a
startling
of
its beauty,style,
and brilliancy.In this constitution
toward

"

its parts Bucharest

whole;

at

mechanical

first
mixture

is

microcosm

of the country

as

sight unorganized, disconnected,

of unrelated

parts.

But

this,when

closelyconsidered, is in itself a characteristic quality;


a
long soaking of the refractorymaterials is required
before
disintegrationsets in, or reintegration can
This fact is
is there.
Yet the integration
commence.
istering
making and adminlargelythe work of a government
of its people,
laws adapted to the conditions
establishingand conducting a system of education
of Eastern
quite above the average
Europe; ruling

BALKANS

THE

126

disparate populations;showing a brave


its
the north
and
front to its mighty neighbor on
with the nationality
restless rival on the south ; content
in sight,and
eschewing the general Balkan tendency
the grandeur of a past, somehow
of dwelling mainly on
firmly very

be

to

visionary,dreamy future.
discouraging conditions, and from

reproduced

Under

the

most

in

unpromising possible,

the most
beginningswhich were
and
the court, the aristocracy,
Rumania

have

which

appeared
the

even

of

that

an

answer

land

and

tenure

judging

far-off

of

the

are

the

revealed.

have

to

spot

The

and

the

rather

livingthroughout

overrefined
times

at

as

between

the

be examined

must

of

their

antry
peas-

landlords

absentee

The

kingdom.

meaning

brutalized

threaten

to

Western

to

standpointof

the

glimpse

relations

strained

so

even

the cohesion

riddle

from

one:

reactionary Jew
to

find

later

menace

land

seems

or

sooner

that

problems
likelythat
manding
questionsde-

many

terrific

civilization,
questions which

Western

are

will

"

minds

on

most

It

pressing and

questions which are


national
elements, which

usurer

of

two

insoluble.

be

to

solved

and

already met

of

administration

the

all

Jew

orderly
is

usurer

a parasiteof terrible
threatening,in hundreds
energy,
of communities, the utter extinction
of enterpriseand

Bulgarian

energy
The

Beginnings

of an

most

recent

our

have

events

focused

the

attention

era

peoples upon Bulgaria. At the end of


and the beginning of the thirteenth century
pendence,
Bulgaria enjoyed a short period of inde-

but
was

populations.

Western

the twelfth
of

the

among

by

Servian

alliance,the

Anjou,

who

Serbs

for the

the

end

was

and

overthrow

of the

Czar

thirteenth

century

Bulgars. In
Bulgars joined Charles
of

of the

Byzantium.

Soon

it

close
I of
after

THE

there

was

fresh

before

lands, and
was

BALKAN

crushed.

NATIONS

migration of

127

into

Tatars

their assaults, the enfeebled

As

far

as

there

was

Slavic

in the

Bulgarian
Bulgaria
tion
organizaand kept
Bulgarian

assumed
peninsula,Servia now
of
the hegemony, until at last all semblance
disappeared before the crushing victories of
power
Sultan
Murad.
As
was
previously related, there
for centuries
seemed
be no
to
Bulgarians,and least
of all a Bulgaria. Longer than any other ethnic stock
the oppression of the Turkish
they groaned under
of reviving spiritmay
be
yoke. The first symptom
in their literature.
observed
As
early as the first
quarter of the nineteenth
century Bulgarian schools
supplied by the efforts
They were
began to reappear.
in foreign lands with
of Bulgarian merchants
fairly
Then
the author, previously
came
good textbooks.
what
mentioned, who wrote
rian
purported to be a Bulgafirst
In
the
there
1844
history.
appeared
beginning to end, this
Bulgarian periodical. From
directed
intellectual uprising was
against the Phaof the panhellenists.
nariotes and the aspirations
Easter
On
Day, 1860, the Bulgarians resident in Religious
Secession
sufficient courage
to commit
Constantinoplesummoned
declared the secession of the Bulgarian
a daring act, and
of the Greek
the control
Church
from
patriarchate.
So terrified were
these ecclesiastical rebels by their own
templated
daring that a large number of Bulgariansactuallyconunion

with

evident, however,

the Roman

that

they

could

Church.
not

It
carry
the

was

the

soon
mass

Pope had
Already
for the united Bulgarian Church,
named
an
he began
the moment
safe from
but his life was
not
So extensive were
fled.
his activities,
and he finally
that on
disturbances
these
February 28, 1870, the
of

their

people with
archbishop

them.

Porte

intervened, and

whose

high priestwas

by

confirmed

and

Reign

Alexander

of

the

Bulgarianexarchate,
chosen
by the people and

founded

the

be

to

Ecclesiastical

Sultan.

was

to

be

independence.
political
with the decline and fall of Turkey, the conWhat
flicting
of Russia
and
ambitions
Austria-Hungary,
conditioned
almost
pletely
comBulgarian aspirationswere
by intrinsic affairs. At the outset the pressure
by civil and

followed

Accession

BALKANS

THE

128

Russia

of

and

upon

her

influence

in

the

Bulgarians lived were


paramount.
that
her
It was
on
April 29. 1879, a
reallyby
impulse
national assembly of Bulgarians declared
a conditional
of a princiand partialindependence, the establishment
pality,
territories

where

chose

and
Prince

Alexander
of the

factions

so

was

would

he

endowed

with

were

His

on

abandon

accepted by

be

seat

the

was

so

Czar,
first

cupant
oc-

uneasy,

general temper of
May 9, 1881, the prince
his task, were
he
not

extraordinarypowers
Two
the

Russian

the

savage,

orderly government.

an

It

so

uncertain, that

declared

of

of

nephew of the
Battenberg, to

princelythrone.

strife

party

for

months

the

creation

later his

ditions
con-

assembly.

immediately manifest that Russia's intention


was
graduallyto turn Bulgaria into a province of her
The
of factional
storms
own.
politicsraged more
than ever, and
amid
them
there appeared the
fiercely
real parties, radical
and
vative.
conserbeginnings of two
Under
radical ministry there was
a
organized
intoxicated and
overelated
an
among
population the
Pan-Bulgarian agitation,whose workings have in this
was

latest

disastrous
the normal
to
struggle proven
so
evolution
of a Bulgarian nation.
of
This movement,
aimed primarily at the immediate
course,
incorporation
of all East Rumelia, which
was
peopled by Bulgarians

seventh, but he had

the

and

Reign

Ferdinand

of

him, and

before
The

Accession

for the succession

of Denmark

Waldemar

of

house

no

the

has

had

Coburg
it did,

history, furnishing,as
series of most
a
politicalpower,
Kings and empresses, princes of
leading members, have cherished
their

and

ambitions

privatewealth

their abundant

characteristics.

daring

Ferdinand, that
throne, and

now

be

and

slow

To

him

desired

realized

have

entered
may

of

plans

on

the

one

she

methods

she

been

thought

no

July

can

has

seemed

desired

15,

the performance

upon

to

arisen

people had
Russian

national

the

deny

as

evolution

it

his

must

his

under

was

of

first to last
have

civilization.

that

for the

hesitated

expedient
influence.

and

to

conduct

in the

standards

of internal
of her

furtherance

adopt

whatever

efficient among

Stambuloff

was

immediately Prince

barely

Whatever

in the administration

never

1895, and

for

began to reign, and,


his
Stambuloff's
policieswere

Russian

and

was

Ferdinand

highroad
of

name

complete independence

that

man

interference

forgottenthat from
dealing with peoples who

foreignaffairs

ones,

little

their

of

be

not

upon

be

national

The

reversion

self-disciplined
; and

It must

we

these, Prince

of

one

politicalinsight, whose

leadershipthat Prince
indeed, to rule,as far
own.

of

use

the exercise of their

7, 1887, he entered

great

intolerable;he
he

the

by

turned.

the

ambition,

boundless

to

the peasant

among
with

country;

insignificant
successful
royalties.
the highestdegree, its

his duties.

Stambuloff.

was

him

to

July

on

of

endowed

Bulgaria

offered

assembly

From

was

wonderful

its

from

and

It

invitation.

realized

been

have

ber
Septem-

on

for the task

inclination

politelyrefused

Saxe

Prince

assembly chose

national

finally.The

abdicated

set

BALKANS

THE

130

those

assassinated

Ferdinand,

THE

he

forced,

as

entered

into
He

BALKAN

believed,to adopt

has

been

permitted

with

his

exhibited
The

certain

court

refinement

himself

the

Sophia

at

and

the

throughout

peasant virtues.

and

but

elsewhere

that

however,

than

mention

to

which

those

Paris

testy folk, quick


of

American

these

ideas

the
have

Bulgarian notions

No

restraint of law

the

court

father may

suits the

quent,
fre-

more

capitalsof
in Washington,
Bulgarians are

American

wonder!

seats

of

is

not

but
initial,

an

be

and

sets

devoted

final state

best-informed

The

that,

say

on

the

siders,
out-

whole,

reigns; that
good example; that if the
it

whom

and

church, the

is; that careful

the

under

Liberty

people over

in the main
not

The

the

to

believe

of the national

Boris

Vienna.

in free government.

dynasty

are,

As
Bosporus.
might be expected,
been
exaggerated and warped until
of liberty,
rights,and equality are

severe

the

They

ence
cry out, quick to act; the influideas in Bulgaria has been and remains

grotesque.

however,

are

to

often

of mind

is

in the great
or

devout

son

consideration

and

People

suspicion

though perhaps

Westminster
or

of

in their

occur

is insecure.

Court

faults

peasant

scenes

occur

thanks

enormous,

learning on

at

has

littlepower

frequentlyarouse

worse,

world,

the Western
not

much

not

he

large. This
Bulgarians

at

country

government

while

influences

permeating

Turbulent

assembly, and

national

of

qualities.

to exert

seems

two

Czar

crowned

reflection upon
its members,
for the
obdurate
folk, a peasant people with

an

burg.
Peters-

consolidate

to

remarkable

very

securing widespread

no

Saint

Bulgarians in their ancient capitalcity,and


day as Bulgarian king has been brief, yet

the

have

131

opportunist policy,

an

friendlyrelations

more

portions of Bulgaria,to

in

NATIONS

Greek

olic
Cath-

heir-apparent

is shown

for

the

end

BALKANS

THE

I32

Bulgarian temper; that the constitutional development


is not hindered
of politics
ecutive
by the meddling of the exto

important degree.

any

be

If Bucharest

Sophia

type of Rumania, Sophia is

no

less

Bulgaria. There is a palace,and there are other


modern
solid buildings,also a few
streets; but the
cityhas no pronounced architectural type. There are
so

of

great

extended

an

There

outskirts

the

of

unspeakable squalor

Sophia is
regard to the

cityof

future

its site is not

great part
the

future

of

the

be

in the

future.

It

was

not

to

be the

chosen

to

secured.

from

It is but
The

near.

without

then

the

oughfares.
thor-

capital,
existing

central,Macedonia

be

swiftly forward,

the

exhibit

these

shame

distant

in order

and

town,

without

that it was

seemed

went

their

to

was

the

far

frontier

southern

since

street-car

the

on

for

of

network

promise is greater than the fulfillment.


is an
district not yet destroyed
old, unkempt Turkish
ments
settleare
gypsies squatted in unsavory
; there

lines; but

their

and

avenues

short

time

of

formation
trans-

process

alike

as

in

the

to

sonalitie
per-

Bulgarian people, their institutions,

material

expression in dress and housing.


Nowhere
in the Balkan
peninsula is the visitor so
tempted to feel that he is in the laboratory of history,
where
experiments are being made, some
with, some
and

without,success.
cannot

be

rudeness

spiteof

said ;
to

Of

other

they

remain

which

Turkish

the latest events,

the Balkan

much
so
Bulgarian towns
strangelyquiescentin the

it must

rule

reduced

be admitted

armies, the Bulgarian

was

and

organization,morale, and personnel; and


are
garrisons improvement in the towns

them.

In

that of all
is the best in
where

there

is

able.
notice-

THE

BALKAN

NATIONS

humiliations
frightful

The
of

both
1913
due
been
to

have

might perhaps

be

to

nation

and
of

type

expected in

insubordination, namely, of
commander-in-chief
their

to

which

the

133

in the

mer
early sumsubjected

were

army

insubordination
so

country

young

which
; the

prime minister and


plain dictates of common
a

feeble

lurid
and
yielding to a vague
national
of
ambition, and their adoption in warfare
brutal and
barbaric
a
cruelties,
system of retaliatory
it
be
must
which,
confessed, had largelybeen evolved
by the three sets of Bulgarian, Servian, and Greek
in the
graceful
diskomitadjis active for so many
years
which
horrors
have
so
given Macedonia
the
sad
a
renown.
Throughout
generally
country
the
life of
the
people is the life of well-tilled
of the
fields and simple, peaceful villages. Education
is only fair; that of the higher type is
sort
common
fine designations
than embryonic. The
scarcely more
sense;

world

of the Western

are

learning,but they do not


the same
things. The sum
Bulgaria, though a child
naughty, and as yet with
fine child indeed

very

and

for their institutions

used
connote

is that

matter

qualities,often
would
little discipline,
its

very

be

if it could

full of

promise
distinctlyhow wild

its eyes and see


its cherished
ideal, the "Great
rub

only

approximately

even

of the whole
in

of

Idea"

of

has

the

been

Greater

Bulgaria.
The
were

the

Turkish

from

rule

resistance

kind

there

was

existed

of half-armed

whose

territories

successfullyto emancipate
of course,
Hungary.
was,

story of the struggle is

others
a

nationalities

the

by Turkey

overrun

itself
The

first of

curious

one.

Sometimes

organized and determined; at


between
conquered and conquerors

well

peace,

some

districts

rejoicingin

The

Rise

Servia

of

THE

I34
their native

rulers,while

their

immediate

administration

Turkish

endured

BALKANS

neighbors
best they might.
dary
recognized boun-

as

long struggle ended, the


the
of Turkey in Europe to the westward
was
that splendid river unites its flood
Where
Save.
tier
the stillmore
lay the great fronmajestic Danube
the

When

river
with

fortress

of

lent

it stands

Belgrade.
itself

The

great bluff upon

completely in

reduced

In

the

Greek

the

it in time

thirteenth

of

rather

of

peace

century the

to

Servian

substantial

Church

activit
in-

was

the
archbishop. It was
by a Roman
it to the
Stephen I Nemanya, who subordinated
patriarchate,institutingfor Servia an arch-

still controlled
same

to

of

days

pregnabl
well-nigh imfortress, comparable in the splendor of its
Behind
this lay
situation only with that of Quebec.
the land of Servia, inhabited
typically
by people more
tianity
south Slav than any others ; though converted
to Christions
under
Cyril and Methodius, their civil instituhad
not
materiallychanged since the primitive
The
days of heathendom.
separate clans had each a
patriarchalgovernment, being ruled according to the
law of seniority,
struggling perpetually for supremacy
lished
with the other, until at last a certain Stephen estabone
in their tongue as
a
type of monarchy known
the Zupanate.
By the vote of heads of families, one
chosen
the first among
was
as
equals, to coordinate,
interests of the larger
control, and defend the common
been
often
stocks
elder
have
community. These
called an aristocracy,
but they were
not in the modern
of the term.
The
sense
only
monarchy itself was
nominal, since the limitations put upon it by the many
munes,
compeasant proprietors,speaking for their respective

primitive warfare

erection

the

which

THE

BALKAN

bishopricwith his
of the place.
residence

His

crowned.

of

with

the first Oriental

as

official

Sava,
stylewas
Servian
kings should

bishopricswere
Servian
bishop.

thirteenth

the

135

Twelve

instituted,each
middle

son

Zica, where

was

be

own

NATIONS

century

the

pant
occu-

and

his

after
therelikewise

About

Servian

the

Church

recognized as independent, and a hundred


years
later the great Stephen Dushan
raised the archbishop
As between
this church,
to the dignity of Patriarch.
its spiritualpower
with
self-assertive
and
the now
difference of policy; on
the
no
kingship, there was
In like
an
identity of purpose.
contrary, almost
was

with

measure

the

Patriarchs

rise of

church

become

had

and

state, the

cessive
suc-

patricians,and

patricians successfullyasserted

for

the

themselves

the

of nobles.
privileges
Royalty with its associated clergy
and nobility
constituted,of course, a very small ruling
class. All other Servians
were
serfs,livingin a dead
level of humble
servitude,ignorant,stupid,and dumb.
This

tained

was

the

certain

Turkish

tine and

Servia

which

identityand

for five centuries

unity,in spiteof ByzanIts power

dominion.

main-

rose

and

fell

personal character of its


of Byzantium had
feeble government
The
ruler.
with Servia and Bulgaria;
serious troubles alternately
sister states
of the two
was
one
just as, alternately,
of Servian
climax
The
more
powerful than another.
in the
under
reached
Stephen Dushan
strength was
under
fourteenth
century, the depth of its humiliation
in

proportion to

exact

the
were

conquering Sultan
comparable only

mentioned;
than

the

deeply

but
sister

embedded

Servia

the

Its further

Murad.
to

Bulgaria, already
institutionallystronger

those
was

fortunes

of

more
people. Its clan system was
in popular feeling;it. preserved a

Servian
Vicissitudes

BALKANS

THE

136

lore
its folkindividuality;
richer, and while it probably had no such
was
literaryefflorescence as had Bulgaria under Simeon,
siastical
and a body of ecclea literarytradition
yet there was
aided
in perpetuating a
literature, which
national continuity.
rule was
maintained
Just in proportion as Turkish
tral
with
by a steadilydecliningcenincreasing difficulty

higher degree

Turkish

local

the

did

power,

ecclesiastical

of

administration

come
be-

At
oppressive,ruthless,and intolerable.
beginning of the nineteenth century the Servians
more

the

of

turning

the

crushed

had

was,

perate
the des-

therefore,

when, in 1804,

worm

feebly organized

was
self-protection

for

movement

It

officials become.

Turkish
like the

brutal

extinction, so

with

menaced

were

The
made
to arms.
insurgents had
appeal was
no
thought of liberation at the outset; they wanted
material
for personal and
security.
some
guarantee
the uprisingwith interest ;
Naturally,Russia remarked
pansion
designs by the exbeing encouraged in its Pan-Slavic
take
of Servian
and
rebellion,
ever
ready to
and

an

advantage

of Turkish

in 1812
and

weakness.

provided

financial

Servia

with

the

autonomy;

The
a

old

peace

Reign
Milosh

of

No
this

frowning fortresses,
of

in the hands

garrisons.
Servian

had

sooner

of

measure

under

of internal

measure

however, Belgrade included, remained


Turkish

of Bucharest

success

efforts been

sufferingServia

which

it has

posed
quarrels im-

unhappy

since labored.

The

conditions
leaders

of

were

Servia's

glory, and

stock

serfs

of

the

with

partlyof noble origin,or at least


family tree reaching back to the days of

the insurrection
boasted

ever

factional

than

upon

crowned

and

partly able
peasants.

men

Of

sprung
the

from

latter,the

the
most

of constitutional

the semblance

out

BALKANS

THE

138

referringhis

once

There

occasional

were

to

measures

out
with-

government,
national

assembly.

of protest, but

movements

such

crushed, and often with much


pitilessly
democratic
The
bloodshed.
feelingof the Servians,
forced to organize itself in secret, and
therefore, was
rebellions

were

aid, it

Russian

successful.

in

this, with

of

enough, the Porte, when


aware,
it
the incipientrebellion, favored
Russia.

did

agencies,what
formulated,
would

not

of which

was,

of

these

three

laboriously

was

that if Milosh

Assembly,

at least

This
was
regulated by a senate.
1838; Milosh accepted the inevitable,
of adhesion

oath

an

soon

be

in

promulgated

ously
Curi-

as
efficiently

as

was

National

it

as

action

"statute"

the substance

must

took

called

was

cooperate with

his powers

and

combined

the

By

was

this ustav,

to

the

as

pression
ex-

popular will. He abdicated, however,


succeeded
by his son Milan, who died a

of the
in

1839, was

few

after

weeks

and

Michael
Alexander

in

was

turn

his

by

III, who
and

throne, and

the

apparentlyworthless brother, Michael


was
compelled to abdicate in 1842. The
Assembly, or Skupchina, proceeded to the

succeeded

Milan

ascending

National
election of
Obrenovich

aristocrats, it

of the

for the moment

Weary

successor.

chose

the

of

son

Black

He
proved a
Karageorgevich.
George, Alexander
ence
influRussian
fairlysuccessful ruler,but fretted under
until,at the time of the Hungarian revolution in

1848, he
in

furnished

suppressing

affairs almost
Between

Second

Reign
Milosh

of

and

the

and

purpose.

the

corps

revolt, and

completelyfrom

the senate,
National
The

of volunteers

created

Assembly,
former

was

his

took

to

aid Austria

cue

in

public

of

1838,

Vienna.
the statute

by
there

was

little unity of

and
self-assertive,

in the

Michael

main

inclined

to

the

support

of

the

Obrenovich

line.

In

1858

senate,

THE

BALKAN

Alexander

came

deposed, and

was

it most

unwisely

the throne.

For

lessness,and
his
time

the

two

when
the
he

years

in 1860

III, who
In

rupture with

open
the new

the

Skupchina met,

octogenarian Milosh
ruled

succeeded

was

throne.

an

139

thus

with
a

also

willful

came

ruth-

time

second

to

by

second

istration
eight years of his adminhe proved wiser than was
portant
expected, and impolitical
changes took place in Servia : for the

to

senate

to

recalled

Michael

son,

NATIONS

substituted

was

the

council

of state ;

constitution

meeting of the Skupchina at least once


in three years;
a
general obligatorymilitaryservice
introduced
substantial period of
a
was
; and there was
national
Servians
had
recuperation. Many
young
guaranteed

been

for

westward

sent

their

education; these

were

manhood
began to
returning,and in their young
share
in the political
life of what
seemed
a
rising
nationality.They, however, cherished too fondly the
"Great
Servia"
idea, and by them
was
organized a

now

more

less secret

or

aim

association, whose

was

the

earlydate of a Servia,including Bosnia


and the Herzegovina, arrayed in pronounced hostility
It
of Hungary
the Danube.
across
againstthe power
which
the events
were
was
taking place in Rumania
that interrupted these activities,
alike of the prince
his people. There
absolute
and
was
unanimity of
garrisons must
feelingin Belgrade that the Turkish
creation

be

at

driven

Turks

an

out

of

Servians

Servia, too;
became

street

brawls

between

Turkish
finally
hurled
shot and shell from
tress
the lofty forcannon
of the city below.
the houses
and
streets
upon
in Constantinople;
met
Representativesof the Powers
by Austria's insistencythe Porte was brought first to
evacuate
Belgrade, and finallythe other fortresses.
and

frequent,and

the frontier

over

Left

IV

companies marched

6, 1867, the last Turkish

March

On

Milan

BALKANS

THE

I4o

of Servia.

out

complete control
more
displayedonce

in

thus

the

Servians

the

cleft

between

of

their
to

irreconcilable

two

affairs,

own

puzzled world
The

factions.

supporters of the Karageorgevich line in part, together

they had lost


privileges
constitutional government,
under
conspired together
Michael
in the park of Topshider
assassinated
and
but one
There
was
near
Belgrade on June 29, 1868.
of the Obrenovich
line, a young
surviving member

with

who

some

in

student
Milan
The

hoped

to

he

Paris, and

IV, reigning from


defeat

of the

secure

was

called

1868

until

Servians

to

the

throne

as

1889.

in their short

war

with

but
perfectlyhonorable
one,
it was
a
sorry counterpart to the victories they had so
in Turkey.
Nish, Pirot, and Turn
they
recentlywon
themselves
had
incorporated into Servia and plumed
their warlike
spirit
; but less than ten
upon
years later
been
the most
had
dered
surrenimportant of these towns
and they would
have been overto the Bulgarians,
whelmed

Bulgaria

was

perhaps

of Austria.

except for the intervention


with

these

about

the

humiliations
throne

and
in the

and

shameful

the
rival

claimant

What

quarrels
families,

Their
of a healthy evolution.
possibility
finances
were
shockingly mismanaged; they had no
as
respect for their rulers; to the traveler it seemed
if languor was
their most
strikingquality. A kind

there

of

was

no

sullen

discontent

mirrored

was

in their

faces, and

of
the dismemberment
they brooded ineffectually
over
their nationality
to their own
: indifferent
regeneration,
hundred
sands
thouabout
the
they were
deeply concerned
of

Serbs

Bosnia, Macedonia,

in

Hungaria,
and

Old

Croatia,

Servia, with

Dalmatia,
whom

no

THE

organic union

BALKAN

NATIONS

141

possible,and who, moreover,


enthusiastic
for the leadership of a Servia
not
were
with so many
branded
disgracefulscars.
Milan's
of
The
events
Alexander
reign do not, therefore,constitute a brilliant chapter in Servian history. His hold
less
the people was
steadilyrelaxed, yet he nevertheupon
in securing from
the Skupchina a consucceeded
stitution
of

seemed

still more

modern

type than

that

which

6, 1889, he
previouslyadopted. On March
voluntarilyabdicated in favor of his son, Alexander
his shaky
the heir ascended
I, stilla mere
boy. When
and
the
throne
plots and
counterplots of Russia
steadilyundermining the small
Austria-Hungary were
of national morality; indeed, there was
remainder
no
national
force, moral or otherwise.
Perpetual efforts
made
the situation by amending the
to amend
were
The
constitution.
a
king chose as his consort
young
whose
woman
beauty and charm had hitherto adorned
of gay society. Ashamed
of
only the basest stratum
their queen,
and their sovereign became
the ministers
debased,
entangled in backstairs
conspiracy and
theatrical politics.It is only ten years since the king,
the queen,
the queen's brother, two
ministers
of state
in the
and fiftyother persons
were
brutallymurdered
flung
palace of Belgrade; and the woman's
corpse,
from
the grassy terrace bordering the
onto
a window
main
street,lay for hours and hours for the baser sort
of a foreignpower,
to gloatover, until the ambassador
from
of guiltycomplicityor
whether
from
a
sense
compassionate humanity, intervened to give it decent
burial.
indictments
Whatever
be brought against
may
the private and publiclives of Alexander
and Draga,
last of the Obrenovich
line
would
and weighty ones
lie against them
the deed
of shame, enwas
one
it had

"

"

BALKANS

THE

142

gendered in disgracefulconspiracyby those


Peter

for power
cost.
at any
The rival Karageorgevich line
of the

the person
after such
latest war,

when

masses

the unmarked

over

lifted up
unhappy land

had

time

alone

such

an

at

last sometimes

said

of his

predecessors,no

voice to say that the latter state


better

was

did

and

to

King Peter;
the opening of

were

graves

not

the

than

in

throne

reigningmonarch,

interval, down

an

to the

came

lusted

who

former.

produce oblivion;

interval,arrangements

the

one

of .the

Somehow,

and

after

when,

made

only three
for an
official visit of the Servian
king to
years
ago
of what
Vienna, it proved a happy evasion
highminded
or
people stigmatizedas a scandal, politics
no
that
the
Francis
politics,
Emperor
Joseph caught a
heavy cold, which
for

excuse

recollect

the

that

the

Servian

for
After

General

Characteris-

tics

entertained
nature,

is

and
an

We

cannot

the

suspicionof

dim

which

nature

sufficient

without

or

ment
chastise-

under
in

many

unsuspected

hardity
capac-

discipline.
hundred

than

daughter,

Belgrade

years

with

town

remains

of

educated

scion

of

at

no

heir

to

character.

foreign

royalty; but

place,
common-

provincial Austrian,

Servian, impress. The

dissipatedyouth

Russian

even

renewed

unthrifty
rather

within

its courage,
battlefields has exhibited

has

fought

age was
of the call.

personage

any

kingdom

true

at his advanced

postponement

Servian

were

the throne
The

king's

court, is married
the

rehabilitation

to

of

of Europe
the reigninghouses
royaltyamong
spread
sadly halted.
Corruption in publiclife is a widemized,
disease, and where
bribery is minimoney
As long as a
place bribery stalks unabashed.

Servian
has

British

ministrycould

see

no

shame

in the

proposition

THE

to

confer

it is unfair
account
on

title in

at

yet

Russian

overthrow
was

funds.
traced
there

evidence

Public

Parliament,
public life on this

Servian
trade

to

of

matter

one

in

vote

of

has
politics

king

of money,

its
a

been

it be at Constantinople.
and

the

and

in

The

is not

cannot

for

143

elsewhere, unless

ambassador

needed

even

Belgrade the

level unknown

of another

NATIONS

exchange

to besmirch

The
up

BALKAN

it

settingwas

Belgrade who
provided
whole
conspiracy has been
sources

and

outlined

step for which

the

the
the

tiently
pain all its tails:
de-

documentary

be produced.

opinion there, as elsewhere, refuses to fix the


in high places and on
guiltof bloodshed
great names,
where
national
policiesare concerned.
Slowly but
criminals have one
surely,at Belgrade, the red-handed
paid the penaltiesof a scandalous, unclean,
by one
Those
who
profited are
shocking series of crimes.
under
the ban, whatever
likelyto remain
diplomacy
in the
face
of
No
demands
accomplished facts.
that of all Balkan
wonder
lands, poor Servia has been
and
the least advanced, that her training in school
was
as
embryonic as her visions were
army
terous.
preposof a single great state,
Being at the mercy
inlet uncontrolled
with
outlet or
no
by others, her
economic
plight has been sad; but it neither explains
nor
palliatesher deplorable moral
plight. Religion
is as yet largelysuperstition;social organization of a
modern
sort
barely exists, and her leaders stimulate
national
ambition
with
of politicaltoys
the exhibit
the cohesive
and the emphasis of primitivemanners
as
force for a great empire! They appeared to be and
in a measure
still are
a
peasant folk poisoned by the
virus of a showy civilization for which
they have no
receptivity.Their agricultureis rude, their manu-

in

mines

and

but

the

This
its

is

of

ideal

all

their

books,
in
the

trade

subject

of

of

their

nourishing
the

is

they

newspapers,

of

The

Serbo-Croats

baby

talk

it

on

young
the

demagogue,
and

cradle

and

name

control

passion

in
for

species

of

Servia

expound

little

set

its

and

Servia.

Servians

The

the

restore

can

of

reason

leadership

Greater

the

gods

ing
Noth-

boast.

by

to

lumber

exploiters.

false

they

which

land

aspires

among

insanity.

which

of

the

language

creation

of

abandonment

of

resources

foreign

of

hands

the

virtues

pristine

natural

their

inchoate,

factures

in

BALKANS

THE

144

forth

in

wind

of

theme

song.

is
the

this

imperial

their
it

the

it

schoolthe

stock

rhymer,

VI

REVOLUTION

THE

outline

THE

of

Kitchen

cabinets

substituted

had

Christian

and

had

peoples

driven

even

the

apathy

by

the

There

army,

but

it

what

believed

was

this

although
native

the

Turkish

in the

upon

of

nor

drilled
chine,
ma-

rather

doggedness

proof

any

into

fighting

based

fatalistic

duced
re-

exaction.

been

on

of

their

the
tary
mili-

efficiency.
international

The

by

reforms
been

in

and

jealousies
active

inchoate

JSee

of

this

great

then

Political

so

powers
of
in

considered),
Science

Quarterly,

which

upon

the

the

March,

Duggan.

147

pp.

had

reciprocal
Of

against
the

(Albanians

Macedonians

1913,

for

utterly

guarantee

wishes.

Balkans

1878

government

remained

as

in

Turkey

law,

their

the

for

suggestions

Turkish

relied

enforcement

nationalities

The

so-called

shrewdly
the

made

Vilayets

retain.

to

provided

and

met

European

ratify

not

passive,

not

the

Berlin,

permitted

would

their

of

Treaty

the

commission,

95-123.

alone

Professor

and

Corruption

for

clad, fed,

efficient
was

Apathy

provinces

of

it had

an

of

had

taxes

neither

was

Turkish

spying

and

process

conviction

than

peasantry

same

pre-

Hamid.

agricultural Turks

be

to

and

courage

Abdul

despair

to

character

the

instruction

German

Under

paid.
into

an

of

few

dull, fatalistic
was

the

terror

farmers

in

given

practiced by

as

paternal government;
the

CONSEQUENCES1

ITS

methods

tyrannical

despotism

Oriental

AND

sufficientlyindicates

chapter

vious

1908

OF

then
were

had
S.

P.

BALKANS

THE

148
received

of autonomy

measure

no

with

Berlin.

They regarded
had.
peoples who

from

hungry

At

the

of

ing
the surround-

eyes

risk

the

Treaty

of

repetitionit
be recalled that while Macedonian
must
tained
villagesconfor the most
part people claiming to be of a
Greek
Servian
to wit,Turkish
or
or
singlenationality,
or
Bulgarian,yet in each district there were
villagesof
variety; and that under the hideous
the komitadjis a villagemight be Greek

compulsion
one
day and

each
of

Bulgarian the next,

in the

due

was

cruelties,yet
become,

children, that
same

and

Powers

the

destitute

so

the

ing
shock-

human

fiber

women

and
the

bribery frequently served

Austria-Hungary

1903

Futility

of the

had

of

purpose.

In

Feebleness

shrewd

exercise

the

to

lacerated
and

sion"
this "conver-

While

versa.

main

so

hungry

so

vice

or

Miirzteg

to

Russia

and

October

on

the

sent

tatives
representhese

ninth, and

well-meaning gentlemen proceeded to draw up a program


Macedonia.
for the
regeneration of bleeding
Personal
representativesof these two
great powers
the spot the carrying out of reforms;
to superviseon
were
there

police under
an

associated

powers.

be

to

was

of

the control
staff

Two

of

some

foreigngeneral with

officers

of

later

years

mounted

selected

by

provision was

of France, Germany, Russia,


representatives
for

series

financial

of

but

specious appearance,

backing whatever
just as sullen and
one

1907

for the

outrage

did

made
and

by
Italy

agents of reform

had

the Turkish
as

who
officials,
There

ever.

: authentic
futility

penetrate
of such

great

had

to

news

the Western

pretense

was

of

a
no

were

only
cre
massa-

world.

compensation

Austria-Hungary accepted as
abandonment

the

These

reforms.

the

inactive

result of all this


and

In

from

military

body

concession

to

THE

her

connect

railway lines

Monastir

from

one

REVOLUTION

at this

however,
in

and

the

matters

the

Czar

went

and

King

149
Turkish

the

the

of

Sanjak

feelingof outrage
on

before.

as

in Macedonia

specific
; British opinion

1908

with

no

agents resident

new

1908

across

exhibited

procedure, and

from

in Bosnia

Salonica

to

Russia

Novi-Bazar.

OF

ports
Rewere,

greatlystirred

was

Edward

VII

for
fairlyelaborate program
supervisionand compulsion of the recalcitrant
devised.
It is possiblethat the
authority was

Turkish

of

working

Reval, where

efficient

Reval

the

was

program

for the overthrow

although
likely,

of Abdul
it may

of the

one

Hamid.

have

causes

This

quickened

menace

is not

the

at

met

very

march

of

events.

We

palace scandals of Balkan


Servian
thereafter
politicsConditions

have

the

already recounted

Belgrade. For five years


had no consistencyand the nation drifted without
effi- ^
concession
cient leadership. The
to Austria-Hungary
for her Novi-Bazar
railway outraged the Servians,
for it rendered
even
more
complete the possibility
of domination
in economic
by the Dual
Monarchy
district
Their
matters.
hope of annexing that
in order

to

be conterminous

with

the

of Montenegro

Serbs

tling
setpall which seemed
but one
Servia there was
mercial
light-ray a comupon
concluded
in 1906 with Bulgaria,
arrangement
outlet
find an
she could
whereby in the last resort
into
down
the Danube
and through Bulgarian harbors
the Black Sea.
of Servian
The
state
opinion at this
of desperation.
described
be
as
one
juncture may
Quite otherwise was that of her neighbor Montenegro, (2) Monte-

vanished.

In

the

dark

"

whose

people, after
eager

in many

advances
a

for warlike

directions

prolonged period
advance

as

ever

had
of

rendered

peace,

before

quite

in its

its
as

history.

As

(3) Bulgaria
over

BALKANS

THE

150
to

Bulgaria, she possessed


minor

other

the

states

of

double

advantage

Balkans.

the

The

Bulgaria had been educated in


tion
instituat Robert
College,the American
large numbers
of learning at Constantinople,where
they,had
of common
been taught at least the principles
honesty
had kept her,
in publicfinance, the practiceof which
of

founders

in marked
of

new

contrast

her

financial

to

purse

own

While

control.

Servia

both
and

and

tress
Greece, mis-

independent

taxation

was

of
not

foreign
unduly

honestly used to create an


proceeds were
of transportaefficient army,
to improve all the means
tion
certain
extent,
throughout the kingdom and, to a
It was
educational
in the upbuilding of an
system.
in this last regard that they experienced the greatest
in the Greek
of fanaticism
trouble, partly because
zeal
for
the
of
Church, partly because
per fervid
and
the young,
partly because young
politicsamong
Bulgarians,like old ones, are extremely restive under
rally,
Natuin civil affairs.
the exercise of stern
discipline
the relations between
Bulgaria and Turkey were
cause
strained; those with Greece were
scarcelybetter bebrutalities.
of their rivalryin the Macedonian
The
in 1908 seemed
outwardly
plight of Greece
consistent
enough. Political factions had made
sorry
in the
impossible. Greek finances were
government
iron hand
of a foreign commission, and so thoroughly
tions
ambisenseless had been
the proclamation of Greek
that
in puzzled wonder.
looked
the world
on
heavy,

(4) Greece

the

Her

its

attempts
her

to

borders

"convert"

the Rumanian

exasperated Rumania

had

Vlachs
until

in
withthere

diplomatic intercourse with her,


while that with Bulgaria was
scarcelybetter, because
of the favor
in Macebands
received by the Greek
was

no

semblance

of

THE

donia

at

REVOLUTION

the hands

1908

OF

of the

Turkish

151
Crete

authorities.

forced
clamoring for annexation, but the powers
the unhappy littlekingdom to maintain
the status
quo.
At this time the relative populationsof the Balkan
Population
and Finance
States in Europe were
Of
about
follows:
as
Turkey,
of a total of thirty-five
garia,
out
millions,about six; of Bulwas

four; of Rumania,

over

nearly three; of Greece,


a

of

quarter

respectivelyin

the

hundred

and

and

million

and

two,

Their

hundred

quarter dollars.

of Montenegro,

hundred

hundred
a
thirty-five,

and

Servia,

publicdebts

Six

two

of

seven;

half; and

order:

same

dollars, a hundred

and

two

million.

about

were

million

fifty-six,
thirty-eight,

and

and

When,

however, it

the situation is quite


estimatingthe revenues,
different.
and
Turkey had about a hundred
thirtyeight millions; Bulgaria, thirty-sixmillions; Servia,
twenty-eightmillions; Greece, twenty-nine millions;
and Montenegro less than ten thousand
dollars.
in Turkey and Ser- Plight of
Matters
might have been worse
Powers
in Greece, but they were
via and
bad
to
sufficiently
of the West
render the great powers
extremely timid.
heirs
The old legend of Turkey as a sick man,
whose
were
waiting to divide his fortune, might be precipitated
into realityat any
Russia
had been
moment.
with
brought to the verge of inanition by her war
feared
her
Japan. No one
her, and in the Balkans
Britain has in
Great
ebb.
at the lowest
prestigewas
India and Egypt so many
millions of Moslem
subjects,
to

comes

and

her

commercial

for

interests

long years she had


give advice and exert
is her control

influence which
Porte

and

done
moral

are

Greece.

extended, that

Constantinoplebut
Indeed, so jealous
pressure.

little at

of the Mediterranean

kept Crete

so

in the balance

France, too,

was

was

her

between

the

that it

utterlyimpotent.

the

After

Britain

Great

expansion
ruler

BALKANS

THE

152

of

power;

of

African

her

she

moreover,

difficulties.

loaned

millions

awake

to

was

financial

Her

empire, the

institutions

had

peninsula,and
with her thriftypeasants in possessionof the ballot,
and consequentlyof political
her foreignpolicy
power,
had become
almost
and mercantile.
entirelyeconomic
of the Triple Alliance and
Italy,though a member
the necessities

rendered

inactive
in

southward
Adriatic.

of dollars

colonial

mous
enor-

subjectsthan any other


entangled in the web of

Mohammedan

more

Moroccan

become, through the

she had

For

of

her

some

of the

time
had
eastern

in

reform

double

own

Africa, and

Austria-Hungary
the control

by

in the Balkan

the

to

enhanced

shore

problem,

eastward

the bitterness
been

Macedonia,
to

the
the

across

between

was

her and

by rivalry for

of the Adriatic.

There

developed as the almost pivotal principleof her


that that shore should
foreign policythe determination
be kept in weak
habit
inof Albanians
hands.
Thousands
had

Italy,and in all this seethingfurnace of sordid,


in
the Albanians
at home, the Albanians
petty politics
in Italywere
Greece, and the Albanians
beginning to
from
ask, "If a Macedonian
nationalityis to emerge
all these troubles, why not
Albanian?"
With
an
an
Albania
created, so to speak, under the Italian aegis,
would be greatly
the narrow
sea
Italy's
positionacross
strengthened.
Of Germany and Austria-Hungary we
speak
may
so
in this connection
of a single great power,
as
their understanding and so unified were
thorough was
their

interests.

From

the

Ottoman

government

at

privilege.
Constantinoplethey had secured immense
The
latter already held Bosnia
and the Herzegovina,
and was
expecting an outlet to the^Egean, with possibly

BALKANS

THE

I54

of Western
land

own

few

Europe

were

within

1908, and

days
east

Turk

idealists

of affairs in their

of that continent.

In the

its doleful
tale of
years, with
humiliation, it is hard to realize the elation

retrospect of
failure and

Young

the helm

at

in the extreme

the

spiritfelt

few

Constantinople,but throughout
the Western
lieved
beworld, by honest idealists who
constitutional
that a regenerated and
Turkey
but in the process
of formation.
not only possible,
was
of quiescence, British diplomacy at
After
ten
years
Constantinople suddenly regained its ascendancy. The
British ambassador
the most
was
popular figureon the
of the city;a British admiral
streets
ganization
began the reorof

of

not

the

only

at

fleet; a

British

agent

assumed

the

the finances; and


British ena
gineer
rehabilitating
was
put in charge of the publicworks.
So swift and specious was
the immediate
advance
felt forced to behave
that all European authorities
as
if the gain were
Not
only the civil and
permanent.
militaryofficials of foreignpowers, but the komitadji
bands
alike disappeared from
drawn
Macedonia, being withthat order might be restored under
tional
constituso
racial
Religious liberty and
government.
because
terms
no
equalitywere
longer essential,
every
inhabitant of the Ottoman
become
to
a
empire was
citizen. There
obliteration
to be an
loyalOttoman
was
of race
be an
to
and
religiousantipathy;there was
introduction of legal reforms
radical as to insure
so
the equalityof Christians
in
and
before
the courts
the militaryservices by land
and
by sea; the ballot
be free.
to
was
Throughout the pleasant summer
months
of that year there was
joicing
a period of general reand complete inactivity.
As yet,Bulgaria was
a vassal state,bound
technically
task

of

155

tribute to the Sultan.


For years no
pay an annual
than
otherwise
had considered
the technicality
as

to
one
a

1908

OF

REVOLUTION

THE

farce, but

when

the

government

new

at

Constan-

Sparks
Before
Fire

the resident
September, summoned
overlooked
a
banquet, they deliberately
the Bulgarian agent, who
not
a
matist.
diplowas
technically
her
Within
a
fortnight Bulgaria declared
complete independence, and when a strike broke out on
the Oriental
railway, in Rumelia, Bulgaria restored
order
and assumed
the control of all Turkish
railways

tinople, late
diplomats to

within

in

its boundaries.

It likewise

of

denounced

the

tem
sys-

operative in Eastern

as
no
longer
capitulations
Rumelia.
This high-handed procedure was
recated
mildly depof the Treaty
as
a breach
by the great powers
of Berlin,but Bulgaria retorted that she had not been
a

With

that

to

party

fringes of
Austria-Hungary
the

to

and

compact.

the

the

world

that

Herzegovina

provinces were
The

now

Treaty

lated,
public charter thus mutialmost
nounced
simultaneously an-

that

had

her

protectorate of Bosnia

ceased, and

an

integralpart

of

Berlin, violated

of the
from

that
dual
the

those
archy.
mon-

ning
begin-

of

its signatories,
by each
according to their
The
ceased to exist.
respectiveinterests,had virtually
two
garded
provinces, solidly populated by Slavs, had reof
the Young
Turk
Revolution
a guarantee
as
their own
freedom
of the full electoral rights
and
which
the Austrian
under
protectorate they had never
enjoyed. For this reason
they had begun an agitation
and announced
their aspirationsas loyalsubjectsof the
Sultan to be represented in the parliamentat Constantinople.
This

Russia
and
the annexation.
precipitated
Great
with
Britain were
indignant and remonstrated
Austria-Hungary. To their joint note the Austro-

the

BALKANS

THE

156

Hungarian foreignminister, Aehrenthal, gave answer


limitation had been set to the Austro-Hungathat no
rian occupationof the provinces,either as to time or to
control ; that his country
for

the

improvement
was

to

of

settled

given, Servia, having


its

the

made

sacrifices

enormous

provinces;that

matter,

never

to

be

March
On
22,
congress.
Russia
that if her consent

European
notified

out

had

to

reserves

back

mobilized
a

claim

their

nexation
an-

submitted
1909,
were

many
Gernot

called
its army
and
for territorial compensation,

immediately be invaded
by Austroby which
Hungarian troops. Through the channel
this information
was
conveyed there rang an imperious
submitted
bound
note ; Russia
by the Triple
; Italywas
Alliance ; England and France
were
pacific
; all talk of
ceased.
a European conference
Crete thought its opportunity had come,
and voted
would

its union

with

Greece.

This

littlefolk, however,

had

castigationat the hands of


the Powers, that it humbly asked
for their sanction,
which
disallowed
was
by them immediately.
the Young Turk
Here, then, was
government,
claiming
proand
the unity of the Ottoman
empire, at once
disastrously
strippedof two great vassal territories and
with the loss of a third.
menaced
They dared not fight
Bulgaria with arms, and least of all Austria-Hungary.
As regards the latter power,
had to a comwas
plete
recourse
boycott of her wares
; a boycott so complete that
it entailed enormous
losses,amply retrieved,however,
of Bosnia
and the
by exploitingthe natural resources
Herzegovina. In order to end the boycott, Austria
finally
paid eleven million dollars as compensation for
church
property and other lands claimed by the Porte
within
these two
likewise
a
provinces; and it was
so

often

endured

serious

THE

clever

of the

move

from

goods

on

that

REVOLUTION

exaction

Turks

Young

Eastern
because

OF

to

157

levy heavy
hitherto

Rumelia,
it

1908

customs

free

from

nominally a tributary
province. Bulgaria
agreed to an indemnity
of sixteen million dollars payment
way
partly for the railand
partly as
compensation for the tribute
Turkish
The
technicallydue to the Sultan.
new
was

therefore

defied

government

annexation, but
of Bosnia
and

and

the

the

tion, yet from


have

gave

recognized the

Although
been
and

Greece
formal

in every

the

assent

of

matter

the

to

Cretan

annexation

Herzegovina by the dual monarchy


independence of Bulgaria.

central
the

in

doctrine

days

of

Islam

Mohammed

Mohammedan
of

of

resigna- Fanning

onward

state

reaction.

is

there

Flame

party of progress

The

blindly fanatical,
of their religionwere
reactionaryadherents
bitterly
opposed to a politicalsituation antagonisticto the
In particular,
the half -savage
precepts of the Koran.
Kurds
in a blind fury ; there was
sacre
masrose
a hideous
a

party

of Christians

in Asia

Minor, and the Arabs

men
in Ye-

empire.Among the
rank and file of the Turkish
soldierythere was, it is
said, great murmuring.
They could fightfor a cause
in harmony
with their faith, but the Europeanized
who
Turks
movement
were
leading this disastrous
made
no
pretense of -being faithful to the religionof
it. On
classes understood
Islam
the lower
as
April
threatened

secession

from

the

effort to oust
an
13, 1909, there was
Union
and
Progress from power.
Pasha

swiftlyinto

the

the Committee
Mahmud

city with

of

Shefket

twenty-five
and crushed
all opposition,
thousand
at his back
men
and
showing no
establishinga military government
regard for the constitution.
became
of
minister
The
war.
general himself
marched

the

BALKANS

THE

158
in

Educated

he intrusted

Germany,

the

reorganization

officer,von
distinguishedGerman
thereafter
the militarypower
in
der Golz, and
was
the Triple Alliance.
relations with
intimate
Young
rulers, in realitya
Turkey, nominally constitutional
the same
tude.
attiof the army,
mere
slowly assumed
annex
Russia
Fearing the partitionof Persia between
and
Great
Britain, they sent troops to the Persian
of

the

to

army

in

frontier

order

to

Both

boundaries.

own

encroachments

prevent
the

great

against

exhibited

annexation
alienate
and

with
the

assistance

ruin
to

was

members.

Of

heavy
assumed
and
the

of

the

taxes
a

the

assent

could

be

tariff in

position of

had

attitude

regained by
influence

far

went

face, since
of

to

no

its three

ministra
public-debtad-

increase

no

for

Triple Entente;

the

combined

and
1910;
merchants.

alien

disinterested

of

France

its desire

one

any

the

in

customs

tria-Hunga
represented in that body, Aus-

Germany

upon

Marshall

from

had

the powers
and

increase

be

the

in the

them

and

facts

from

stared

Without
there

duties.

Turks

Young

financial

These

Greece.

concerned

powers

remonstrated
impatience and
Britain
action.
Manifestly, too, Great
sympathized with the Cretan people in

their

on

had
Both

he

use

permit

assented

in the Cretan

skillful

which

to

of

an

to

them

matter,

of these

facts

occupied under
the Hamidian
and Turkey, for reasons
regime. Rumania
embittered
previouslygiven,were
againstGreece,
and
in proportion as Greece
and Bulgaria seemed
to
draw
together it appeared essential that they, too,
should make
common
cause
against a power hostile to
both, which was
assuming portentous dimensions.
It must
be said of the Young
Turks
that at least
for
of their convictions.
Not
they had the courage
had

THE

instant

one

Kurds,
because

of

Arabs, and

be

their

recalled

Macedonians

hope

that

Albanians

of

infuriated

were

Turkification, in itself

by

the

as

It will

disappear.

autonomy

thwarted
always initially

was

citrant
recal-

were

respectivebut primitivecivil

their

constitutions; the
saw

159

they relax the effort to centralize


authority; and the ruthless process of
steadily
throughout the empire went

Turkification

they

1908

did

government
forward.

OF

REVOLUTION

absurdity,

an

the

that

fact

Ottoman

empire, in so far as it had an organization,


church
a
was
ruling other churches, and unfamiliar
with the concept of true nationality
tary
rudimenin its most
form.
ties
The effort to stripthe Christian communiof the bitterness accumulated
during five centuries
of oppression within a few weeks
than futile
was
worse
it was
of the rebellion
the cause
incendiary. It was
in Albania
which
bulwark
destroyed the Turkish
of
against the Slavs; it brought about the renascence
in
it ended
the Albanians;
race
patriotism among
Forced
to grant an
humiliatingsurrender.
amnesty,
of
Turk
the Young
one
yielded every
government
banians.
twelve
radical demands
formulated
by the rebel Al-

"

This

said, kindled

as

moreover,

process,

the

where
else-

have

we

conflagrationof

revolt

in

Macedonia.
The

cup

of their humiliation

ran

over

when

one

of

ItalyAdds
Fuel

the great powers


preempted its share in the disintegration of the Ottoman
empire. On September 28, 1911,

Italyannounced
was

she

to

somewhat

startled world

Tripoliand
promptly made good the menace
by transportingan army into
about

of
has

to

occupy

this

act

not

been

for

the

that she

Cyrenaica; and
of her proclamation
Africa.
The
cance
signifithe

government

fullyunderstood.

at

These

tinople
Constanwere

the

BALKANS

THE

160

only

remaining purely Mohammedan

two

Turkish

the
who

has

What

empire.
believers

no

over

distinction

the

confines

whom

between

he

of heretical

the intervention
no

does

provinces of
to
Caliph amount
out
preside withmay

states?

Islam

knows

civil and

a
spiritualpower;
sovereign with no secular authority is to a
spiritual
faithful Moslem
a
simple absurdity. The wayfaring
could understand, and did, that this situation had
man
rule.
been created under
Young Turkish
Throughout

and
at

of

Mohammedanism
discussion

much

fit to

and

believers.

true

secular

control

Nothing so
its long history.

to

be

whether

was

the

ing
murmur-

Padishah

the

head
of
spiritual
Islam as a system alike of spiritual
tion.
reduced
to its deepest humiliawas
degrading had occurred throughout

Constantinople were

the

as

there

Italy had feared lest the annexation


by Austriaish,
Hungary of Bosnia and the Herzegovina would diminshe
and perhaps annihilate the influence in Albania
Her
had
so
dexterouslyinaugurated and increased.
emigrant populationcould find no place of settlement
In the Treaty of Berlin,
except under foreigncontrol.
when

other
she

had

powers

enriched

themselves

ally,
territori-

nothing. The time seemed ripe


to proclaim her
by
positionas a truly great power
demanding a share in the partitionof Africa which
had
been
these many
so
diligentlycarried on now
ter
minisThe
by England, France, and Germany.
years
for foreign affairs of Austria-Hungary demanded
and
obtained
the
that
assurance
Italy'soperations
should

had

not

European

received

extend
state

to

to

Balkans, and

thereafter every

regarded Italy'sprocedure

indifference.

by land

the

with

parent
ap-

Turkey could not dispatchtroops


Tripolibecause Egypt was in the possession

BALKANS

THE

62

with

Familiar

their task, its

members, partlyby
partly by intimidation,secured
thorough organization,

cians.

April,1912, a majority of faithful


a
Chamber;
majority, however, which
therefore
publicopinion, and was
in

the outset.

In

for

political
group,

new

Accord."

Liberal
a

The

The

Balkans

Ablaze

of

group

excellent

leaders

the

December,
terrible

massacre

another

perpetrated

the

ministry was
bring these
a

upon

now

to

power.

frontiers

of

both
of

news

Almost

instantly,
sort

The

was
new

purpose

justiceand
by a chamber

to

carry

out

which

had

and

Progress
fightingbegan on the

Guerilla

Bulgaria.

and

Montenegro

the Balkan

in
in

eventuated

party of Union

The

to

occurred

to

conciliation

returned

of

assembled

its admirable

in

latest offenders

hostile.

grown

way

"Party

atrocityof the same


Bulgarians at Kochana.

thwarted

policy of strong

the

had

had

and

Christians.

earlyin August,

made

Pasha

riot, which

of

sent
repre-

as

Ishtib

at

1911,

not

ministry.
immediately proceeded

men

in

in the

inefficient from

as

Mukhtar

government

new

punish

known

Ghazi

did

fell and

the government

July

adherents

nople.
Constanti-

reached

Alliance

upon
There-

Kiamil
Pasha, the
precipitated,
affairs commanding
only preeminent figure in Turkish
On October
Vizier.
Grand
general confidence, became
In the crisis thus

first

Bulgaria

States
was

of

an
a

did likewise

hundred
at

which
a

of

army

its troops;

mobilized

; and

by

the

half million

thousand

along

hundred

eighth of
foes along
south.

the

Constantinople confiscated

they thought belonged


Greek

Western

ignorance.

merchant

Europe,
There

to

the

all

Balkan

other

there

October
the north
The
war

and

ment
governmaterial

Allies,and

seized

vessels.

of course,

was

the

did

not

in entire

remain

general consensus

of

opinion

THE

REVOLUTION

that the inevitable

Hungary

in the

Danube.

along
and arrayed her forces
real danger of
was

There

but

France

of

and

put

Russia

Austriaests
interfoot

on

was

frontier.

general European

succeeded

in

ated,
exasper-

the Galician

upon
a

163

protectingher

Novi-Bazar,

the

great army

preventingthe

flagration,
con-

break
out-

of any actual hostility


between
the great powers.
its leadershiptheir several governments
agreed :

Under

first,to
case

intention

of

Sanjak

1908

be localized.

strugglemust
her

avowed

OF

condemn

it could

belligerentaction;
any
be prevented, to permit no

not

second, in
tion
modifica-

of

existingterritorial boundaries; third, to take


efficient action for securing reforms
to the
necessary
welfare
of the Christians
of European Turkey. These
in a joint note
embodied
were
presented at Cettigne
October
mediately
on
eighth; in consequence
Montenegro imdeclared
and defiantly
war
against Turkey.
This
attributed
influence.
to Russian
precipitancywas
The
Balkan
ultimatum
other
States
presented an
Porte
for Macedonia,
the
to
demanding autonomy
Christian
for the Christian
Vilayets, the
governors
withdrawal

of Turkish

local militia.
of

war

17, 1912;

The

troops and

the

substitution

of

Turkey was
against Bulgaria and Servia
and thereupon Greece
declared
answer

of

tion
the declaraon

October

against

war

Turkey.
The

course

of the

strategicplan, at

displayedno

war

least

as

far

as

the

carefullystudied

Progress of

Turks

the War

were

con-

tered
preliminary stages, hostilities cenabout
the three great fortified places of Scutari,
Janina, and Adrianople. Elsewhere, the Turkish armies
cation
mortifito the intense
displayed little resisting
power,
with
which
of Germany,
had
supplied them

cerned.

war

After

material

its

and

had

trained

them

to

what

was

be-

lieved

be

to

this

Turkish

result it

the Allies.

of their

even

clear that, accidental

was

development,
the

but in these
efficiency;
resistance
was
manding
superb, com-

unwilling admiration

the
In the

of

high degree

places the

three

of

BALKANS

THE

164

it had

At

the

of

close

the

been

resources

hostilities,,
experts

General

opinion that

had

as

reallyexhausted

foes.

Savoff

had

pressed
ex-

the

made

"the finest fightingengine of its size


Bulgarian army
in Europe." The
Bulgarian people for ten years had
all its passionate effort to be ready for
concentrated
the inevitable struggle.
even
more
Possiblythe sacrifices of the Greeks were
remarkable.
The
little land had secretlyaccumulated
very substantial
had accepted as
a

of

of

reserve

funds.

war

minister

prime

it

Crete

From

Venezelos, admittedly

the

statesman.
From
as
a
highest power
France
it obtained a general,a number
of staff officers,
and the necessary
and equipment. As if by
artillery
became
special grace, financial administration
thrifty
and excellent.
It was
Greek
under
parative
auspicesthat com-

man

union
The
of

Servia

of

1888.

morale

her

She,
money

to

too,
to

had

than

had

been

her

said.

these

of

are

the
was

sobered,

recuperationcompleted.

found

offensive
been

Servian

army

been

politicianshad

somehow

enough has
of people and army;
although somewhat

Servian

of

view

fighting strength

tested, the

Her

Servia

the

disposed, in
scandals, to despise the

belittle the

refit her

from

secured.

been

chastened, and

court

been

had

far different

had

yet, when

efficient.

action

and

was

government

and

Servians;
found

1912

Travelers

and

court

of purpose

or

power.

There
one.

antiquated, was
expected; indeed, it

sufficient

saved
As
is
Their
more
was

to
no

negro,
Monte-

question
munition,

complete
remarkable

THE

that

land

so

REVOLUTION

OF

had

accumulated

poor

1908

165

supplies

war

all.

at

Allies

The
hundred

thousand

number.

It is

Golz

der

four

had

had

Turkey

men;

claimed

now

been

actual; that

armies, numbering

the

in

the

main

reforms

theoretical

of

the

and

not
warded
re-

its supporters
for

the

by substituting
politicians
young
hear
that
experienced officers. We
transportationwas
contemptible,their

former

their system

of

commissariat

worthless, and

half

This

starved.

Europe

thought quite
after

weeks

the

within

the

otherwise
of

of

by reason
designated as

it

"mountains."

it is curious

war,

from

Turkish

the

is; the

word

three

military

consideration, except
The

entirelythe

which

that

until, within

great fortresses.
almost

themselves

troops

true, but

vanished

of course,

was,

be

declaration

almost

strength had
war

may

the

theater

of

mountain

the
tricts
dis-

Balkan

peninsula is
"Balkan"
meaning

Greeks, Bulgarians,and Servians


alike pushed forward
through the frontier passes of
mountain
into Thrace, Macedonia,
the various
ranges
Old

The

gagements
Epirus. The ensuing enwere
naturallyand necessarilyof minor
dimensions, resulting in an apparently prearranged

Servia, Thessaly, and

unbroken

withdrawal

week, when
of

the

order

army

slowly and
where

the westward

to

Bulgarians pushed
to
gain touch with

northern

had

of the Turks.

even
a

stubborn

the
onward

of the Allies

This
Servians
in four

for

lasted
and

columns

part
in

the
While
Montenegro.
captured Pristina,pushing

with

onward, the southern


difficulty
army
i
n
Kumanovo,
greater difficulty reaching
with
to be effected.
junction was
They met
resistance

from

Turkish

columns, with

which

of

the Allies

von

had

government

Success

seven

barely half

that the

Turk

Young

had

in all

BALKANS

THE

66

successfullyfor

they fought steadilyand

three

days,

the twenty -first to the twenty- fourth of October.


Again the Turks slowly withdrew, and the way to a
junctionof the three allied armies was opened. Ueskub
from

Koprulu

and
a

successful

advance

the

upon

were

The

stands.

way

separated from
the main

between

Bulgarians
a

They
Turks

Turkish

of

to

last stand

Peace

Constantinople.

and

of

the

west

was

Everything depended
strugglebefore Constantinople

armies

of

Turkey

and

in separate columns

Tirnovo

to

enemy

the

foes.

her

the

Maritza

the

adventure

with

River.

The
front
This

succeeded.

successfully,and
at Kirk-Kilisseh.
Again the
Bulgarians invested Adrianorange

The

October

for

the

force, after several days


principalTurkish
lastingfrom the twenty-ninthof
desultory fighting,

ple.

Efforts

cut

that of the east.

off and

drew

had

and

Mesta

army

risk, but
necessary
passed the mountain

the

met

Turkish

advanced

stretchingfrom
was

the

result of the

the

upon

the Greeks

Salonica
edge of the plain in which
approaching through
Bulgarians were

and
valleys of the Druma
Salonica
railway line between
this

was

through Thessaly and

onward

the

In

there

all-important harbor
Meanwhile

the north.

pushed
successfully

had

after

soon

the

upon

from

Salonica

cityof

occupied, and

were

This

the
behind

seemed

of

second

November,

the lines of
France

to

for

withdrew

Chataldja.
the

proper

for

moment

European intervention, on the basis of recognizingthe


political
changes wrought by the war, and guaranteeing
the Turkish
sovereignty in Constantinople with a small
Powers
The
bordering territory to the westward.
could

not

agree.

had

defied

the

Adriatic.

Before

December

Austria-Hungary
The

Greeks

and

first,the Servians

occupied

Durazzo

justly claimed

to

on

have

REVOLUTION

THE

OF

1908

167

captured Salonica, although a vanguard of Bulgarians


insisted on
as
being admitted
part of the garrison.
The
All parties by this
Chataldja lines held firm.
time

began

armistice

an

feel the

to

strain,and

signed as

was

December

on

between

Turkey

side, Bulgaria, Servia, and

Montenegro
signature because

Greece

refusing its
by its forces,

invested
Greek

able

fleet been
A

^Egean.

Peace

of all the

The

of

utterlyaside

of

the

when

the mark

New

on

dissolution

virtual

concessions
the

to

of

the

ople, which
and

the

she

Could

islands of

held

them

too, the

in

and

almost

the

wide

debates

the

the

and

so

absurd.

to

rather

bazaar

Ottoman

were

theless,
Never-

the Turkish

irreducible
Allies

quite

like

'than

empire

as

Oriental

an

like

serious

still retain Adrian-

Turkey be permitted to
Imbros, Tenedos, and Lemnos

others

them

Balkan

among

Turks

essential

and

thought

of

regarded as their Holy City


Bulgarians as an
indispensable frontier
the

fortress?
Greek

new

ensuing

world

Western

haggling
negotiator.

the

they did a
the alliance and offeringinadequate
territory. In fact, Turkey appeared

of

merchant

Should

the

before, suggesting

impossible as

as

exhibited

still seemed

their terms

had

ber
Decem-

Allies

the

Day, 1913,
they called an

what

other,

tives
representaon

Year's

delegates presented
minimum,

of

Turks

feeling that
from

of

London

at

one

yet Janina,

as

composed

proposals

the

on

islands

the

occupy

Conference

proposals

difference

to

on

fallen, nor

not

belligerentsmet

thirteenth.
counter

had

third,
the

to

such

the
as

part of Asiatic
Allies had

themselves.

protectionof
Mitylene

retain

Progress of
Negotiations

the

because
the

because

danelles,
Darshe

Turkey? Apparently,
bania
agreed to "partition"AlAustria-Hungary with the

THE

i68

moral

support of Italyimperativelydemanded
boundaries

doubtful
that

BALKANS

should

autonomy

should

of

kind

some

of that land

that the

be settled and
be

in

given

should
recognitionof its inchoate nationality.How
loaned
who
had
the European usurers
to the
money
Ottoman
empire on the securityof its former possessions
States the respective
apportion to the enlarged Balkan
assume?
shares of the obligationsthey should
of the railway lines,
become
to
was
Finally,what
in
nominally belonging to the Turkish
government,
held
companies, who
reality to Austro-Hungarian
their obligations
? In view of the very delicate nature
of the Balkan
these questions were
alliance,
reallyof
appalling importance, a fact well understood
by the
The
Turkish
Conference.
delegates in the Peace
and unscrupulous they were
sequelproved how shrewd
in the use
of these centrifugalforces.
Throughout the
of January they practiceddilatorytactics,
and
month
the war
Turkish
forces repulsed all the attacks
went
on.
the fortresses of
the Chaitaldjalines,upon
upon
Public
opinion in
Adrianople, Janina, and Scutari.
defiant.
The
Constantinople became
ministry of
Allies were
that the Balkan
exhausting
Kiamil, aware
their resources,
spirit.
struggledto allaythe risingwar
Rumania

the idea

scouts

that she

holding herself vastly superior in


Slav neighbors on both sides.
She

is

Balkan

all respects
had

long

State,
to

her

demanded

Bulgarian
frontier.
In other
words, her military preparations
awaiting a propitious
complete, she was
being now
from
moment
to demand
as
an
Bulgaria both Silistria,
able
indispensablefrontier fortress,and Varna, as a desirwhat

she

harbor
her land

called

on

the

the

greed did

rectification

Euxine.
not

What

of

was

actuallyappear.

her

the extent

of

Simultaneously

BALKANS

THE

70

headed
his

and

mob

demanded

and

colleagues.

of Kiamil
resignation
formed
with
ministrywas

new

Pasha

Shefket

Mahmud

the

Vizier.

Grand

as

To

this

for

formulating a reply
Meantime, all the belligerents
to the collective note.
their arms
had been restingon
during a very uneasy
Turkish
The
armistice.
to
new
ministry could come
no
agreement, and on January 29 the peace representatives

ministry

of

week

Balkan

the

armistice

States

ordered

and

This

February

3.
first
of
the

On

granted

was

action

February

London

denounced

resumption

of hostilities

Grand

Vizier

on

results.

produced immediate
the

the

repliedto

would

accede
to the
Turkey
propositionabout the vEgean Islands, but demanded
of the
that the portion of Adrianople on the left bank
the

collective

the

at

population,should

Turkish

days

sanctuaries

River, containingthe Turkish

Maritza
a

that

note

later

Germany

the
at

representativesof

Sophia, the

latter

in

Two

Turkish.

remain

Great
rather

and

Britain

and

peremptory

the
Bulgarian government
acceptance of this offer. To this they repliedthat the
Turkish
communication
was
only another subterfuge
in the long game
of procrastination,
which
had already
lasted two
ment
months, and that very evening the bombardof Adrianople was
renewed.

language, urged

Second

Stage

of the War

This

chief
either
forces

upon

marked

Turkey and
pointof view

the

the
the

second

Balkan

stage of the
Allies.

From

war

the

between

military

quite different from the first. The


concentrated
on
strength of both parties was
side of the Chataldja lines. There
the opposing
the other,
remained, jealouslyobserving one

manifestlyin
tactical

was

state

of considerable

exhaustion.

Bulgarians retreated a short


their previous position. To the chief

reasons

from

it

the

For
tance
discom-

THE

REVOLUTION

of both

manders

hostile

seemed

impossible,and

tended

toward

the

OF

forces
what

1908

171

direct frontal attack

there

movements

were

execution, if opportunity should

present, of flank movements,

the Allies with

view

to

toward
advancing toward
Constantinople,the Turks
efforts were
Adrianople. Persistent and continuous
made
by Turkey to land fresh forces in the harbor
cities along the coasts
of the Black
Sea and
the
on
shores of the Sea of Marmora;
the almost microscopic
of Bulgaria and the larger,better-equipped,
and
navy

efficient sea

more

in

of

power

Greece

these

rendered

forts
ef-

round
completely futile. The Turks could neither surthe Bulgarians nor
did the Bulgarians succeed
occupying the peninsula of Gallipoli.

About

all these movements

characteristic

of

there

an

was

tude,
air of lassi-

The

exhaustion.

siege operations,
however, were
energetic in the highest degree,
resistance
after a superb and
heroic
and
Adrianople
earlier
weeks
fell on the twenty-sixthof March.
Two
Janina, beset by the Greeks after a series of minor
victories in Epirus, had opened its gates to the conquerors.
The
military
surviving fragments of Turkish
power

in the west

although they
withdrawal

surrendered

were

of many

much

on

the Lake

diminished

bands

under

of Ochrida,

in number

Djavid

by

the

into Albania.

of resistance which
most
aldisplayed powers
paralyzed the Servian and Montenegrin forces
for a time; but the gallantgarrison,threatened
with
of
marched
with all the honors
out
starvation, finally
the surrender
Whether
not
war.
or
was
entirelyin
question. Many believed there
good faith is a mooted
the
secret
was
a
bargain with certain leaders among
and
celebrated the
entered
besieged. King Nicholas

Scutari

Greek

had

Easter

festival within

the fortifications amid

the

ruins of the

his exultation

and

of

all

that

kind

some

duration.

Turkey

in

The

Allies

Europe

west

of

insistence

tria
Aus-

should

existence

national

of

be

national
inter-

imperative an

rendered

Albania,

for

secured

Montenegro

the

Chataldja lines, but

the

place which

capitalof

of short

were

possessionof

in

now

were

the future

be

to

of the

his tenure

but

town,

announced

he

BALKANS

THE

72

occupationof Scutari, and it was a crestfallen


monarch
over
who, as gracefullyas he might, handed
the fruits of his hard-earned
victory to a composite
of

force

marines

admiral.

As

fleets were

Balkan

Partial

marked

not

were

of considerable

by

any

tactical

Temporary

in

the

war

ern

pOwers

state

Peace

of

be drawn

should

into hostile relations

juncture,both
a

considerable

their
of

with

Russia

and

portion of

reciprocalfears

the

were

ambassadorial

to

these

other.

each

portionsof

lest the West-

greater

of the

importance,but they
and had
regularity,
militarymovements

uneasiness

nervous

British

movements

absolutelyno connection with the


by land.
All Europe had lived throughout

and

of

command

indicated, the

have

we

the

under

or

less

degree

Indeed,

at

one

Austria-Hungary mobilized
their respectivearmies, but
allayedby the dispositions

conferences

in London,

and

by
the

at
acquiescence of the Balkan plenipotentiaries
ary
boundsame
capitalin a peace which fixed the western
of Turkey in Europe by a line extending more
or
less irregularlyfrom
Enos, a villageon the ^Egean,

the

to

Midia,

peace
which
those
r

the

town

question

command
so

was

of the

the

close to the

virtuallydominate
It

the Black

on

understood

it

In this temporary

Sea.

^Egean Islands, alike

those

Dardanelles

and

entrance

shores

the

to

of

was
strategically,

that

the

Balkan

that

Minor

Asia

they

left unsettled.

States

had

already

REVOLUTION

THE

agreed

as

Ottoman

there

the division among


themselves
possessionsin Europe. This was

question
be

to

were

calculations

with

been

not

opened

as

175
of all the

'

true, had
it

was.

If

semiautonomous

were

flung

was

formed

1908

to

Albanian

the

OF

Albania, all previous


cord
overthrown, and the apple of dis-

into

the

very

marked
difficulty,

midst

by

of

an

mutual

alliance

suspicion,

existingunder the most favorable circumstances in


unstable equilibrium.
the conclusion
of this so-called
Accordingly, on
stage of the war,
peace, marking the end of the second
of the Balkan
not
one
began to disarm.
Quite
powers
in some
the contrary; they put forth spasmodic, and
efforts to increase their militarypower.
efficient,
cases
Were
Bulgaria to retain all the lands marked
by her

and

for
would

before

annexation
have

territorial

oversettingthe Balkan
were

to

the

outbreak

of

the

war,

Discord

Among
AUies

she

aggrandizement completely

balance

of power;
bania
while, if Alfrom the respective
shares

be withdrawn

of Greece,

Montenegro, and Servia,their expectations


of enlargement would
be bitterly
disappointed,at least
to degree. Whether
as
wittinglyor not, Bulgaria left
observant
world
an
an
impression of dictatorial
upon
arrogance.

It

was

she

who

had

furnished

conflict,as her peoplefirmlybelieved, the


had

the fiercest brunt

of

the

efficient

battle,and who
the largestshare in the booty.
ought therefore to secure
unmasked
her plans. She
Suddenly Rumania
peared
apand others in the light of a Balkan
to herself
With
shrewd
arbitrator.
a
though selfish policy,and
managed by a wise, experienced band of statesmen,
headed
by a trusted sovereign,she was also backed by
It was
a
superb army.
perfectlyclear that she would
not
permit the readjustment of frontiers so as to leave
army,

borne

most

for

the

BALKANS

THE

174

equalityin

her

compensations as

such

without

herself

the

balance

Balkan

tension

after the so-called peace

electric

wire, and

decision

discouraged

in the

insure at least

of

The

power.
like that of

was

live

only be a question whether


strugglesthe largerEurope

it could

in the third stage of Balkan


could again refrain from
ultimate

to

intervention

and

of

weary

hands

the

leave
but

the
not

combatants.

April the armistice of Bulair


been
had
signed by Bulgaria, Greece, and Servia.
of Montenegro on
fallen into the hands
Scutari had
then become
had
the twenty-third;the truce
general
kan
and thereupon hostilities between
Turkey and the Balallies came
to an
end, at least for the time being.
It has already been explainedthat for her own
lar
particureasons
Austria-Hungary made the creation of an
On

the

Albania

autonomous

settlement.
created

of

nineteenth

an

Throughout
almost

condition

basic

Russia

universal

of the

ultimate

the fall of Scutari

enthusiasm, while,

on

had
the

and Central Europe


hand, the powers of Western
the evacuaand
tion
demanded,
secured, almost instantly,
other

the
On
by the Montenegrins.
of May
of the Six Powers
fourteenth
representatives
behalf of the inchoate
took possessionof the place on
it
of Albania.
Thus, and thus only, was
principality
of hostilities between
possibleto prevent the outbreak
Russia
and Austria-Hungary. Shortlyafter,delegates
and
from
the states
engaged in the war met at London
of
the pressure
Under
opened a second conference.
the Six Great
Powers, exercised in a cogent warning
of

the

town

Sir Edward

Grey,

treaty signed on

the

by

surrender

an

agreement

thirtieth

Crete

was

to

west

of the Enos-Midia

and

was

of that month.
all the

line. The

and

reached

Turkey

continental

land

delimitation of Al-

REVOLUTION

THE

bania

and

the

question of

OF

1908

175

to be
-^EgeanIslands were
the affair of the Powers, and financial questions were
international
to be adjusted by an
commission, which

would

be summoned

the

in due

time

at Paris.

to meet

Immediately thereafter, however, the question of


territories among
how
the
to apportion the surrendered
victors
became
acute.
persistent in
Bulgaria was
of Macedonia,
claiming most
including Salonica and
Monastir;

Servia

Macedonia

which

to

both

Salonica

Rumania

for

that

greater share

Serbo-Bulgariantreaty

the

allotted

had

13, 1912,

clamored

to

her; Greece

Kavala

and

on

avowed

of

of March
her

right

the basis of conquest ;

from

demanded

Bulgaria, as compensation
of important territories in
for her neutrality,
a cession
order to secure
her share of the booty and a strategic
the state of public opinion
frontier.
So alarming was
that the Czar
of these
in each
states
proposed to
He met with a chilling
mediate.
repulse,and Bulgaria,
encouraged, as is generallybelieved,by Austro-Hunhostilities not only
garian influence, graduallyrenewed
allies but with Turkey and Rumania
with her one-time
well.

as

There

neighborhood
Slatovo

with

conflicts with

were

of
the

Panghaion
Servians.

and
This

the

in the

days' battle

three
was

Greeks

on

at

the thirtieth

diplomatic relations with


Servia were
Greece
and
suspended, and Montenegro
lowed
foldeclared
war
againstBulgaria. Her example was
the tenth, and, as if by prearon
by Rumania
advanced
Turks
the
on
Adrianople,
rangement,
reoccupying it on the twenty-second of July.
of

June.

To

Five

the Rumanian

days

later

invasion

no

resistance

was

made,

there was
of the Greeks
a
against the advance
could not
armies
The Greek
of orderly warfare.
show
advancwere
be checked, and, while those of Rumania

but

BALKANS

THE

176
toward

ing

coming

were

the

up

their

movements,

town

of

move

upon

north, those

the

River

Struma

armies

Servian

The

goal.

from

Sophia

and

toward

likewise

were

menacing
they, too,

were

Kustendil, whence

on
Sophia. Surrounded
invaders, Bulgaria expressed

for
with

by

Unable

peace.

enforce

any

utterlyexhausted,

an

army
victorious
she

to

enemies

assented

the terms

to

Greece

the

same

successful
the

in

Bulgarian

threatened

all sides

by

the desire

claims

and

embittered

of

whatsoever,
than

laid down

cessful
suc-

treat

to

about

compassed

more

to

at

fore,
be-

ever

Bucharest

of her foes and


representatives
emerged from
long strugglenot only shorn of her militaryprestige
but
with
territorial gains almost
contemptible.
frontier demanded
was
by Rumania
granted; to

the

by
the

The

Servia

Kotchana

ceded

were

Salonica, Doiran,
Kavala.

From

of the
Maritza.
drawn
Fiorina

It is
armed

about

one

latter.
half

that

the

of

the

the

recent

and

in Macedonia
and

those

Greece

and

was

former, Vodena

Montenegro
the Sanjak of

by

Greece,

the rivers Mesta

Servia

fell to

fairlyclaimed
peace

between

line between

the

to

claims

of Strumnitza

shore

; to

Seres, Drama,

exorbitant

town

Monastir

that

Servia

all her

The

Radovisht

Demir-Hissar,

only the
^Egean

she secured

and

received

tricts
disand
so

and
from

Novi-Bazar.

dismayed opponents of
enormous
expenditure

imposed by Germany upon herself in order to raise the


to 900,000
an
ture
expendimen,
peace footingof her army
of $300,000,000 in our
which
will result
money,
in an increase of the annual
budget by $45,000,000,is
in Eastern
altogether due to the rise of Slavic power
Europe. Since her humiliation
by Japan, Russia has
her
now
virtually doubled
military strength, and
the

south

Slavs

have

become

force

of

the

first

BALKANS

THE

78

the maintenance
distribution of
about

disaster

of

armies, and

materials, these countries

war

and

one

mobilization

and

billion

half

consequent

dollars.

losses

upon

the

expended

The

economic

in commerce,

factures,
manu-

agriculturecannot
possibly be represented
in figures.
These
have explained,were
as
we
ostensibly,
wars,
fain to believe,in a measure,
and we
taken
are
reallyunderthe horrors
of Turkish
misto emancipate from
and

of

the

nationalities.

various

ately
peradventure they turned almost immediinto a freebootingexpedition to despoil Turkey;
close was
tions
marked
shocking exhibiby the most
of greed and violence in the distribution
of the

Beyond
their

kinsfolk

the

government
any

spoils.1
Furthermore,
down

in the

little

to

the various

glance at
that Rumania,
by
frontier, acquired
abandoned

declared

Radovisht

Salonica

extension

that

great

be

of

10,

laid

paid

inhabitants

the

ants.
the combat-

to

map

will show

southeastern

her

subjects,a majority of
Bulgaria under
compulsion

new

many

Servia

to

Greece

to

the

to

of

apportioned

numbers

great

August

good ethnographic

Turks;

were

loudly

lands

settlement, as

on

"nationalities"

the

whom

of

treaty of Bucharest

regard

livingon

final terms

the

her

on

the

slice

of

those

kinsfolk

whom
in

she

Kotchana

one

side, and

of

Macedonia,

on

had
and

the other

including

with
Kavala, which presumably swarmed
so-called Bulgarians. The
be content
Greeks
had
to
when
their kinspeople in Monastir
were
assigned to
Servia, while Servia granted to Montenegro, as has

Few

and

Lessons

Taught

by the Balkan

the International Conciliation

Series.

War,

by Alfred H.

Friend, published in

REVOLUTION

THE

told, about

been

Novi-Bazar

OF

half

one

of

the

1908

179
of

Sanjak

coveted

its Servian

with

population.
By the treaty of Constantinople the line between
was
Turkey and Bulgaria,the two contractingpowers,
of the
arranged partly with reference to the mandate
line,but by
concerning the Enos-Midia
great powers
deviations

substantial
to

as

not

control

secure

even

the

one

port

new

incurred

acquired, and

the

authorityover

her

in such

and

Turkish

under

with

to

ends

keep Adrianople

could

had

both

at

on

way

rule.

Bulgaria
of the railway connections
the JEgean which
she

serious

losses

portion

of

ing
in establish-

Thrace

allotted

her.

There

is

considered

almost

Greeks.

Even

Hellenic

traveler

recent
to

be

become

The

themselves

been

of

assigned to
have

been

will, and

there

than

Albania.

When,

the

to

government
their

as

remote

commissions
the

limit stop for

Hellenism

not

sufficient

have

frontiers

and

as

recent

is

moment,

probably

Koritza, which

of

years

part

of

constant,

the

Western

if,

greater

no

has

the frontiers
finally,
only definitelysurveyed, but

it will take
on

Christians,

their

of

completed, but the guerilla


until
did not
against the Servians

doubtful
ever

Greek

determining

work

directed

indeed, it
hotbed

work

their

only

international

The

steadily at

warfare
within

Greek

were.

announce

be

to

permit no

generation

next

part of the

the

orthodox

ancestors

tants
Its inhabi-

myth.

descendants, it is declared, await


on

Epirus

Albanians, assertingtheir undiluted

character.

inducement

be

may
in

of that land

the Mussulmans

call them

to

nation

Albania

new

declare
persistently

and

roundly

the
A

joke.

the Albanian

declares

one

in which

sense

watchful
powers

been
shall
cepted,
ac-

vention
interto

BALKANS

THE

i8o

effect
anything like order, and the moral
foot
the
of
whole
doctrine
of
trampling under
for which
war
was
nationality,
ostensiblywaged, will
Hoti
Gruda
and
tribes of the
be deplorable. The
refused
north
have
to
acknowledge Montenegrin
of Tuzi has been seized and
sovereignty,and the town
Servia
When
occupied by the Malissores.
finally
border
crossed
the northern
and captured a chieftain of
the Albanian
marauders, Austria-Hungary
presented
ultimatum
drawal
withat Belgrade demanding
the prompt
an
maintain

of Servian
Servia

troops behind

acquiesced.

For

their

time

there

frontier

own
was

and

provisional

at Avlona, and
"republic,"stylingitself a government,
native
Albanian
a
"king" reigning at Durazzo, while
British
An
admiral
a
governed Scutari.
attempt in
January of this year (1914) to create a throne for a
Turkish
thwarted
prince was
by the joint military
action of the great powers
and
the vigilanceof Italy.

The

International

Control

of

its seat

has

representingthe
Six
Great
which
Powers,
by correspondence have
of Wied,
finallyagreed upon Prince William Frederick
Protestant
and a nephew of Queen Elizabeth
a German
at

Avlona.

Commission

There

of Rumania,
to

yet

as

be.

Mussulmans
Roman.
endure
He

but
How

the

himself

sway

of

the first ruler


His

these
of

will

The

comprise

Christians, both

three

nia,
Alba-

of the autonomous

subjects

Catholic

duty. He enters
the problem, and

securing an

members,

remains

Protestant

Greek

of

such

to

has

and

it with

full

can

be

throne

task, however, appealsto his


upon

only

not

antagonisticelements

regards the dignity

enthusiasm.
of

six

are

seen.

out
withsense

comprehension

displayed great
auspiciousbeginning.

firmness

in

VII

THE

FORMATION

OF

ALLIANCE

181

THE

BALKAN

VII

FORMATION

THE

THE

of

with

foolish

for

what

principle

and

Europe,

the

Europe,

and

its

Constitutions
which

perfectly

formation

In

of

one

Bryce,

of

after

problem
were

to

as

be

federation
compare
and

in

the

there

was

ended

series

of

articles

in Western

of

which

of

the

Balkan

possible

one

all the

tyranny

then
London

16, 1913.

183

; of

way

tutional
consti-

by

learned

them.

lie athwart
alliance

examination,

Turkish

the

in

political studies,

but

in

whole

have

connection.

definitelyin Europe.

including

Western

the

alphabet

Balkan

every

spot,

how

to

the

cal
fanati-

Compensation

difficulties

the

comprehensive

of

yet been

not

admirable

his

upon

that

that

permanent

themselves

presented

clear

has

preceding chapters,

the

well

too

doctrine

idea

have

tions.
assump-

continuously prating

are

government
In

-Power

corollary, the

they

makes

only

the

ity,"
national-

in

even

of

cases

preposterous

upon

Balance-of

have

principle of

understood

know

of

in many

they

The

still in

Certain

amounts

call "the

based

have

we

politics they

example,

well

not

likewise

of

story

which

they

as

are,

preceding chapters,

European

For

them

by

They
sad

of

obstinacy.

regard

the

firmness

peninsula

political apprentices.

principles

prominent
grasped

in

ALLIANCE1

BALKAN

THE

Balkan

the

clear

made

condition

the

to

of

states

probably

OF

parently
ap-

peoples,
and
He

independent
Times

made

solution

published

James

of

gested
sug-

the

oppression
spoke

of

and

Semi-

between

June

Principle
Nationality

THE

184

BALKANS

could
states, which
young
Turkish
yoke and if cemented

both

independent
off

the

will

good

could

propose
obtainable

After

for this purpose


the Russo-Turkish

adoption

the

Balkan

ignored the
time, and since, the
sought diligentlysome
demarcation.
it

was

Greek

Efforts

Alliance

1877,

the

and

basis

was

of

case

difficult to

nation

in

leaders

of

each

for

those

lines

Rumania,

as

find

of
we

states

national
have

seen,

in

the
a
them, and,
way,
it
likewise
discernible; but when

dwelled
of how

Rumanians

to

and

Kutzovlachs

did

who

not

live

to be treated by
kingdom of Rumania
were
the other race
elements, there appeared powerful and
uncontrollable
centrifugalforces.
of
One
Servia
has not
statesmen.
produced many
and conthe few, Ristitch, suggested that a reformed
stitutional
Turkey might cooperate with Bulgaria,

within

Toward

of

war

Servians
from
mining
Croats, to deterdistinguishing
he
and where
exactly what the Bulgarian was
the question
to settling
; when, further, it came

came

Futile

In the

not

secured.

was

those

known
alliance

of

trol
conprinciplesfor international
the
as
Treaty of Berlin, suggestions
in
secured
some
even
slight attention
States.
The
Treaty of Berlin utterly
so-called principleof nationality.At the

of

of

the

by reciprocal

nople.
Constantiproblem
the information
to outline as accurately
as
the
will permit how
temporary

best

We

federation

solve

throw

the

Greece, and

Servia

in

of conditions

King Charles of Rumania


Bulgaria expressed some

for

confederation

which
and

provement
im-

intolerable.

h?id become
Prince

the

Alexander

of

project.
When, however, Eastern Rumelic; rose in revolt in 1885
and was
incorporatedin a Bulgaria quite
substantially
from
that contemplated by the
different in dimensions
interest

in

such

is

all who

that time

At

felt that

adventurous

any
and

rate, the facts

For
of

was

four

governments.

for the consolidation

of his power

twenty

remained

in

Diplomacy

the
The

be very

At

dangerous.

knowledge of the Porte


publicto prevent any
sufficiently
the plan.
of

the scheme

years

The

abeyance.
opinion that

of

Macedonia

an

federation

Balkan

observers

shrewdest

such

guerillabands

ravaged
Mutual

all

the

to

came

by it made
agitationof

further
Twenty

there

policywould

any

were

remained

very hazy in the minds


in the conduct
of Balkan

blustering patriotism of

Ferdinand

the

cumstance
complication of cirperhaps justifiedthe exaggerated

which
and

partitionof

however,
principle,

influential

are

the

to remain

likelyalways

affairs.

Years

ripe for

be

possessions.This

Turkish

of

should

the time

when

and

BALKANS

THE

186

alliance

pressed
ex-

sible.
impos-

was

garia
Bul-

Greece, Servia, and

all its borders.

throughout

spitewere
kept at fever heat by
and men
perpetual agitationsfor securing money
and

envy

this nefarious
was

no

warfare
no

sense,

wild, vague
should

come,

that
national

the

of the

share

this

degraded
has

by

the

as

has been

influence

inclusive

Greek

hand, has had


aim

period of twenty

almost

to

of

made

is

to

be made
the

ciple
prin-

greater the

diplomacy

years,

the level of

conspiracy.

the

Ideas"

"Great

of Eastern

said, that of Russia


and

power

of

what

may

tion
Men-

entertained

Among

Europe.

is her succession

Byzantium

be called Greek

the

as

empire. Austria-Hungary, on
historyso extraordinary that

prevent

climax

the

on

booty.

the respectivenations

these,
to

been

There

states.

the inevitable

bandits

national

more

for

procedure; merely

in the

reason

conception that when


the partitionwould

Throughout
was

in all three of the

the

all-

the other

her chief

and

Slavic

FORMATION

BALKAN

OF

ALLIANCE

187

frontier of the Hapsburg


aggressionupon the eastern
Her
lands.
general policy,therefore, has been to
the various

dissensions

create

embitter

prevent

among
relations

their
whatever

strength

Any combination,
which

with

one

is hostile

however

powerful support

with

the

be

authorities

in

to

union.

preposterous,

or

pretenses, is

the

stocks, to

other, and

might

temporary

Russian

to

there

Slavic

at

to

sure

Vienna

find
and

Buda-Pesth.

Accordingly, this period of outward


of fierce diplomatic warfare.
was
really one
peace
While
the inner historyof the time has been carefully
doubt that, when
in 1897
no
concealed,yet there seems
Greece
entered upon
with
a
period of foolish warfare
and
to
Turkey, Russia
Austria-Hungary combined
Servia
and
Bulgaria from
joining in the
prevent
hostilities.
Rumania

with

The
had

most

events

recent

Servia, whereby

she

Macedonia

with

that

if necessary,
to attack
compensation a considerable
was,

in
Bulgaria and secure
Rumelia.
portion of Eastern
Bulgaria rejectedovertures
of

prove

understanding, probably

secret

some

to

seem

harbor

Whatever
from
on

the

Greece
the

for

reasons,
a

./Egean.

portion
Russia

for the moharmonious


ment
Austria-Hungary were
in preventing Bulgaria from
tion,
joining the federain keeping active the Bulgarian policy of
and
friendshipwith Turkey. Utterly futile was the effort,
the origin of which
is not clear,to secure
in 1901 some
between
Greece
Rumania.
and
King
arrangement
Charles
the late King
and
for some
George were
time visitors togetherat an Austrian
watering placeon
the Adriatic.
A body of Rumanian
students organized
to Athens, where
a tour
they were
warmly welcomed.
and

It is inconceivable

that there should

statesmanshipconcerned

in such

have
a

been

movement.

any

ous
seri-

Jealousy

effort

The

Balkan

and

Strife

BALKANS

THE

i88

under

Abdul

of

emissaries

The

futile.

settlements, and
relations

earth.

on

union

between

empty

rtalk.

visitors
could

see

of

other

that

the

but

by

created

of wild

out

was

the

was

of

contemptuous
tribal conflicts,

based

to

powers

the

was

Europe.
darkest

problem

attractive

and
liberty,justice,

the

rivalries of

Balkan

the

Europe

Eastern

the

it

Revolution

it remained

The

of civilized

of

customs

situation which

and
glittering

most

of

and

partial solution
Turk

Young

portion

shown

into

therefore, intelligent

the half -barbarous

Curiously enough,
the

talk of

an

within

turned

was

was

1911,

as

distracted

these

"

Greeks

Bulgaria, but

and

late

rage

despair alike

Way

As

there

1905

Turkey,

barbaric

each

In

to

came

persecute the

light in the darkness.


Austria-Hungary,

no

and

tyranny

Turkey

Rumania

and

to

Servia

that

to

Russia

Prepares

Greece

between

diplomatic

the

1905

borders, and, in short, Macedonia

hell

the

of

in the autumn

Bulgaria began

end.
her

to complete
specialaim was
1903, of "converting"the Vlach

in

begun

the process,

and

more

Their

numerous.

more

creeds.

and

races

bandits, became

komitadjis, or

Greek

equally
ranged the

was

Hamid

conflict of

provinceand intensified the


The

control

Austro-Russian

combined

conditions

Macedonian

in

reform

for

upon

Turkey
The

came.
a

chimera,

Promising

one.

cessful,
would, if sucequalityfor
possible
regenerate Turkey in Europe, make
long-sinceabandoned
conception of a peaceful

federation

between

all,it

the Balkan

States, with

Turkey
produce, at

as

all
important members, and
events, a period for recuperationand reflection. In
rule over
all the
extraordinary story of Turkish
one

of

Christian

its

peoples there
from

an

is

no

historical

series of

events

point of view,

so
as

lightening,
en-

those

FORMATION

which

OF

constituted
It

religionto

the

the

was

BALKAN

ALLIANCE

189

so-called

effort

of

Young Turk
the vanishing

tion.
Revolurace

and

the

constitutional
garb of Western
and thereby retain,for a time at least,its
government
the Christian
ascendancy over
subject races, to ward
off for a period the menace
of European intervention,
abolish
the capitulationswhich
and
hitherto
to
had
secured
alities
some
degree of tolerance to Christian nationwithin
the Ottoman
empire.
The
it must
be remembered,
Young Turk
movement,
Based
was
essentially
militaryin its character.
it was
solely and
entirely on
military power,
an
alliance
of
so-called
with
statesmen
an
ignorant
soldiery, in realityof scheming politicianswith a
assume

fanatical

uniformed,
in

the

Moslem
of

glamor

peasantry.

its earliest

less,
Neverthe-

stages, the

more

enlightenedsentiment of the Balkan


began to
powers
itself. In 1908 Bulgaria had
assert
proclaimed her
absolute
independence and thereby put a considerable
strain upon
her relations with jealous neighbors; but
when
Austria-Hungary formally proclaimed to the
and the Herzegovina,
world
her annexation
of Bosnia
the two
purely Slavic states of the peninsula, Servia
ence,
for their very existand Montenegro, began to tremble
which

relations

and

rendered

been

had

hostile

point of rupture, partlyby the dynastic


scandals
at Belgrade and
partly by the machinations
in the face
of radicals in Cettigne,were
slowly renewed

almost

to

the

of the

common

armies

and
The

so

agreed
apparent

regarded

on

the

ease

these
terms

with

mobilized

states

of
which

their

tion.
militaryconven-

two

governments,

mosity
deadly foes, laid aside their anifor self-preservation
combined
fairly
may

long posing
and

be

Both

foe.

as

as

sign of

the times.

The

in

alive to the

success

began

assert

to

their

with

movement

Albanian

devout

great

Moslems

impregnable barrier against Slav aggression


The
for nationality
the north.
movement

been

an

from
in Albania

was

Europe,

troops could

pity

the

and

two

were

clans, those

formation.

Christians

Turkish

wherever

into the mountain

Mallissores, troops
and

Church.

of Turkey

accordingly suppressed

was

mercy

wildest

regular military

moreover,

revolt

or

But

march.

occupied by
Mirdites

the

and

existence

to the very

menace

without

in

the

the

Hitherto

uneasiness.

populationsround about,
nationality,and
thereby
disintegrationof Turkey.

regarded

Turkey

in

1910,
of other

further

the

threatened

Young

unexpected political
enon
phenomthe Albanians, keenly
when

strange and

next

occurred

had

BALKANS

THE

i9o

could
Those

members

fastnesses

known
not

as

the

penetrate

wild

tribes,

of the Roman

Along the frontier line between


for
brave
stand
a
Montenegro they made

them
what

and

they

comparativelyshort time
their scanty resources
exhausted, and they threw
were
themselves
of little Montenegro,
the mercy
a
upon
land of Slavs who
of the Greek
professed Christianity
form.
What
was
amazing, these
perhaps still more
cal
fanatical Greek
Christians
received the equallyfanatithem
Roman
Christians
with
kindness, afforded
protection,and, at great cost, suppliedthem with the
called their

necessities

but in
liberties,

of

life.

naturallydismayed, but in
Albania
nevertheless
outwardly
they had
proper
restored peace.
like that described
It was
by
a
peace
Tacitus
The
the peace
of a desert.
populationwas
Sultan
made
a
disarmed, and the new
royal progress,
stimulatingthe religiouszeal of the people,as he and
The

Young

"

Turks

were

his

followers

success

resolved

in
silence
events
one

upon

similar

been

public has

191

the part of the

of that terrible

of the consular

informed

there

has

as

been

Macedonia.

reports has been

government

of Western

Macedonia,

there

great powers

period in

monies
cere-

with
Turks

of Macedonia.

treatment

well

very

Albania, but

on

ALLIANCE

vainly supposed, by the pompous


the selamlik.
as
Entirelycontent
in pacifying Albania, the Young

known
their

BALKAN

OF

FORMATION

The

what

to

pened
hap-

conspiracy of
as
regards the
As

yet, not

publishedby

any

Europe, and, what is stillmore


extraordinary,the entire European press has seemed to
combine
letters from
to prevent the publicationof any
its correspondents. Whatever
the facts,the result was
that the Christian
of Macedonia
races
began to act in
harmony.
They forced their prelatesof high and low
degree, those
professing allegiance to the Greek
of Bulgaria, into a
patriarch,as well as to the Exarch
miracle had been
kind of political
leadership. Another
wrought, and even amid the Greek peasants of southern
formed

was

the

conviction

that

the

Bulgarians and Servians within the possessions


of Turkey in Europe was
King
reallytheir own.
Nicholas
of Montenegro
had invited King Ferdinand
the crown
of Bulgaria, and
princes of Servia and
Greece
well, to celebrate his jubileewith him at
as
which
another
was
proof
Cettigne,and they came
States was
that public opinion throughout the Balkan
at least embryonic and liable to develop. Very shortly
garia
that should
afterward
it leaked
out
Turkey and Bul-

cause

of

"

the
hostilities,

renew

with

cooperate
in other

of

Turkey.

As

combination
the best

of

What

Rumania
would

of

would

happen

Bulgaria be
Turkey
Young

should

parts of the Balkans

by
Rumania?

that

army

authority(Bouchier)

feated
deand

has de-

clared, this

awakened.

Suffering
Unites

the

revolution

The

Common

the
indirectly

Constantinople,therefore, was

at

of

in

every

seemed

Bulgaria and Greece,


tion.
a gradual reconcilia-

to

affairs

the

ended
matters

time

it

were

at

was

due

Turk

Young

Turkish

and
religion,

to

To

the

preserve

but

worse,

obliterate

to

ruthlessness

of

yet famine

extent, elements
children

are

as

this
the

doctrine

to

which

with

be

feelingof

the

regard

Diverse

their

all

enforce

population and
citizenshipwithout

certain

race

or

ance
all resistthe

race

rapine have
the amalgamation.

and
in

alive, and

their

villageleaders were
sion.
disposed in their extreme
discouragement to submisIt is said that Abdul
Hamid,
hearing in his
enforced

from

if not

not

1908 had
Turkey,

of

Hamidian

of

its

to

it could

that

the

1903

grim determination

the

to

In

revolution

bad,

as

in Macedonia,

elements

families

least

overwhelmed.

was

bad

so

administrators

nationalityin

been,

appeared

after the
1910,
administration

In

worse.

of hostile lassitude.

interval

short
of

state

of

the Christian

give promise of
Since the opening of this century the condition
could only be likened to that of a primiMacedonia
tive
giant, lacerated and bound, at times seemingly
its death
throes, yet recuperatingits strength in

which

of

between

of the /truce

cause

those
especially
nationalities,

Balkans

the instinct of self-

when

the moment

was

preservationwas
A

BALKANS

THE

192

even
violation,

retirement

the

of the conditions,chuckled

tively
vindic-

of
destruction
prophesied the ultimate
Greeks
and
Young Turkey, when
Bulgarians should
of
be even
the climax
It was
partiallyreconciled.
their common
which
brought about justthat
sufferings
degree of reconciliation which was
necessary to ruin
and

Young Turkey.

BALKANS

THE

I94

be conciliated,in order

reorganized and
offensive
new

the

Almost

navy

and

Greek

army
refitted antecedent

Venezelos

movement.

government,

that the

became

undertook
the

foremost

might
to

to

form

Greek

be

any
a

of

simultaneously Gueshoff, a commanding


figurein Bulgarian affairs,had advocated, in
a
powerful and widely read speech, a similar policy
for Bulgaria. King Ferdinand
and his people felt the
force of the reasoning,and
called to form
he was
a
would
his plan.
which
out
government
carry
Rumanian
been
policy has, of course,
chiefly
determined
For
by the fact that its border is Russia.
the same
there has always been
less
reason
or
more
of Eastern
mystery about her attitude in the politics
Europe. During the negotiationswith Turkey, Bratiano had been prime minister
at Bucharest, the exponent
of vigorous militarymeasures
for his
to secure
country compensation offsettingthe enlargement of
Bulgaria'sborders.
Naturally,his vigorous foreign
policy had reacted, and not in a conciliatoryway,
the internal
politicsof the kingdom, and in
upon
January, 1911, being unable to control his government
Rumania
longer,he resigned. For the moment
any
eliminated
from
the question to be considered
was
by
Venezelos
hoff
Guesand
Bulgaria, Greece, and Servia.
stantinopl
at Conovertures
were
just proceeding to make
when
completely
suddenly their plans were
thwarted
by a violent agitationin the Turkish
press,
which
regarded the appointment of a Cretan rebel as
Greek
premier in the lightof an insult to Turkey. In
the entire Greek
more
boycott became
consequence,
in
leaders
Christian
of
murders
harassing. The
Macedonia
increased in number, and all pretense of
with moderation
abandoned.
was
treatingMacedonia
his

time.

FORMATION

BALKAN

OF

ALLIANCE

195

Already, in 1910, the Austro-Hungarian Minister for


the Young
Turks
of the
Foreign Affairs had warned
imminent
perfectlyclear to the
danger, and had made
Grand
Vizier that their policies
would
inevitablyproduce
Balkan

when
and

alliance

that

it was,

the very

at

ment
mo-

were

newspapers

he

in terms

government

indeed,

breathingfire
expostulated with the Young

the Turkish

slaughter

Turk

could

which

be

not

garded.
disre-

the governDeferentiallyand hypocritically,


ment
Greek
the
patriarchand publicly
pretended to woo
inchoate understanding; but the deeds of
announced
an

their

agents

continued

the

and

be

hostile

Venezelos

government

of

as

in

before.

Ottoman

mountains,

then
that

more

formally proposed
the

two

to

sentiment.
in

empire,

insurrection

hopeful.
the Bulgarian
cooperate

in

Porte, in the efforts of the

the

Constantinople,which were
in making such representations

at

harmony, and
Western
Europe
Powers.

Professions

in Macedonia

should

powers

in

of the

and

Macedonia

Greek

upon

the

rebellious

more

the pressure
exerted
on
ecclesiastical authorities

to

effect

Albanian

the

alike

working

cities and

determined, while the temper

more

became

harbor

extremities

two

Yemen
grew

the

quiteas
produced no

to

therefore
At

in

as

This

would

secure

document

was

the

ance
assist-

presented at
the point, it

Brief
and
to
Sophia in April, 1911.
tians
of the Chrisaction for the defense
proposed common
in Turkey
and
alliance,
eventually a defensive
should
contracting
Turkey attack either of the two
full
with
taken
the
knowledge
parties. This step was
and
approval of King George, but in such secrecy,
that

fact.

outsider, not

no

This

Athens,

and

secrecy

it

was

even

was

not

a
as

Greek,

was

complete

until

after

of

aware

at

Sophia

weeks,

as

when

the
at
a

Greece

and

Bulgaria in
OE

diplomaticbasis
that

BALKANS

THE

196

of the Greek

members

even

is

Ferdinand

ruler.

and

established,

Bulgarian governments
slow

very

act.

to

farseeing and

extremely cautious
peasants claiming to be

Macedonian

Whatever

be

to

Bulgaria was

informed.

were

King

negotiationhad

for

Bulgariansmight feel with regard to their fellow peasants


be
authorities
the
to
at
Greeks,
claiming
Sophia
of
official
slow
Greek
the
to
were
sincerity
accept
professions. Moreover, the Bulgarian government
had

the
be

confidence

in

of
efficiency

the

unlimited

Venezelos

sure,

British

had

instructors

for

its

own

Greek

already

To

armaments.

French

secured

Greek

the

trusted
dis-

and

army

forces

by

and

land

and

German
under
Bulgaria, trained and armed
and
guidance, was
disposed to be contemptuous
adopted a passiveattitude. The only indication of her
tendency was
given when, in August, the Bulgarian
tion
the ConstituParliament, sittingat Tirnovo, amended
sea,

but

in

of

powers

invest

to

way

treaty-making.

intercourse

between

Crown

the

There

was

subjects of

visited Athens

Bulgarian students

and

the

Bulgarian Exarch,
patriarchsunited for the

Chaldean

Suggestions
of Full
Alliance

the

with

enlarged

also

nations.

the two
were

quent
fre-

more

kindly

first time

treated;
en-

and

Armenian

in modern

nople
a
history to make
joint representationat Constanticoncerning the rightsof Christian communities
in Turkey.
Into this entangled skein of affairs there entered
a

further

between

element

of

Italy and

proposed
consolidate

Turkey.

immediate

sovereigns in
her

frontiers,and

the

was

when

King

mobilization
Balkans.

armies

it

confusion

on

not

war

Nicholas
to

Turkey

all
was

broke

out

promptly
his

fellow

forced

to

Bulgarian
until Italypromised to rethe

Greek

and

FORMATION

OF

situation

spect the

States

1912,

peninsula, that

The

States

coming

of

was

peace

effect,however,

this

was,
On

to

both

of

The

in

Prince

demonstration

be

the

upon

The

by

Gueshoff

minister
be

the

states

defensive

this

that

the two

relations

correct

nations

with

the

nationalities

in

would
Porte

with

attacked
their

the

two

to

Bulgarian

to

rights.

promote

consolidate

Greeks

influence

entire

to

agreed

powers

by Turkey, they
Both

the

uttermost

Macedonia

for

would

the

rians
Bulga-

and

states

with

were

if either

that

aid

conclude

forces, and

reciprocalagreement.
in

of treaty

cooperate
and

Grcco-

Turkey.

Furthermore,
was

ambassador,

of

good will already existingbetween


in

signed

was

alliance,by the creation

the different
politicalequalityamong
Turkey, and by the careful observation
this end

it

firmly desired
object can best

kingdoms

two

as

alliance.

Greek

the

heir

intended

had

understood,

inchoate

and

the

Bulgarian

Greco-Bulgarian treaty

the

document

reached

an

celebrate

to

Boris, the

of

all the

princes of

Sophia

early

and

1911,

crown

should

indication

an

declaringthat

peace.

2, the

Bulgarian prime

May 29
Sophia by

at

November,

assembled

age

apparent.
that

in

was

February

on

Balkan

To

197

was

This

Belgrade.

be

the

ALLIANCE

garian
noteworthy. While the Greco-Bulproposition was
apparently held in suspense,
at
advances
to that at
Sophia made
government

the

in

in

assured.

momentarily
Balkan

BALKAN

each

only by

peace
to

use

their kindred

securing

other

peaceful

their

tions
populasolution

cal
previous animosities, and offer active reciproin order
that
assistance
they might conjointly
alike the
impress on Turkey and the great powers
made
to
as
were
importance of such representations
of their

assure

the

performance

of treaty

obligations.

BALKANS

THE

198
The

treaty

fourth

to

was

unless

for

run

three

six months

denounced

and

years,

for

in advance,

and

between

the two
tracting
conkept absolutelysecret
parties. Bulgaria would not intervene in the
of the Cretan
settlement
remain
question, and would
be

must

should

neutral

break

war

between

out

Greece

and

of Cretan
Turkey regarding the admission
delegatesto
the Greek
this
parliament. To all outward
appearance,

but

merely defensive,
states

would

would

bring

Ottoman
with

avoid

their

to

been

aggression

the

live

the
and

other

Its aim

of efficient
in the

within

each

subjects.

Constantinopleand

at

kinsfolk

peacefullywith

exertion

and

provocation

or

their

upon

fellow

Turkish

both

containing the pledge that

pressure

empire

have

to

its intentions, being not

appeared pacificin

compact

appears

diplomatic pressure

capitalsof

Western

Europe.
Antecedent

BulgariaServia

Treaty

similar

had

agreement

Servia.

and

the

to

been

of

this

reached

document,

between

Bulgaria

forgotten that, to all


Servians
in Servia
Austria-Hungary appeared
proper,
in the lightof a deadly foe, a malicious
viper,engaged
in stranglinga small but courageous
I have
enemy.
here and there in these pages
narrated
ences
personalexperiin

must

Belgrade,

importance
seemed

It

signature

of

the

ludicrous.

underlying the
known
and

where

the

Servian
There

the Kosovo

to

only one,
braggadocio. In the

and

Old

Servia

Servian

unquestioned
many
in general did not
impress

Servians

people,and
were

will with

in those

two

me

there
stock.

as

districts Albanian

permitted by Young

the Servians.

in Macedonia

and

one,

Whether

Turkey
this

the

exaggerate

population
was

Servian

effort

of

are

bandits

as

be

not

was

to

ity
realtricts
diswere

The

fighting

robbers

and

work

their

active

insti-

"20"

48"-

THE

BALKAN

SHOWING
AGREED

ANJ"

STATES

BOUNDARIES
ON

SERVIA

BY
IN

SCALE

SECRET
OF

AS

BULGARIA
TREATY

MILES

20

40

60

80

3S'

:JG

Longitude
This

map

indicates

22

the intended

East

partitionof Macedonia

W""

from

only

Greenwich

the author

has found

no

trust-

BALKANS

THE

200

the effort

far

she

and

Russia

what

that

outlined

had

would

have

King

Peter

by a rumor
probably by

thwarted

was

near,

wanted

was

in the treaty of

given even

San

in

was

Turkish

mulgated
pro-

agents,

readjustment

as

Stefano, which

greater ascendancy

his advisers

and

such

which

Belgrade

to

Bulgaria.

grew

more

Servian
suspicious. Large and numerous
into Macedonia, where, for the most
bands
sent
were
The
ones.
part, they cooperated with similar Greek
of 1908 brought about
no
Revolution
Young Turk
still regarded as
The
real change.
Bulgarians were
in Macedonia;
the most
many
dangerous element
which
monasteries,
they
schools, and
churches,
and

more

claimed, were,

in

control, and
Servia

were

one

for

way

another, put under

years Young
each other.

three

friendly to

or

Turkey

vian
Serand

principalindustry of Servia is the raisingof


swine.
It was
territorythat she
through Turkish
In 1906 the tension
able to export her wares.
was
onstration
with Austria-Hungary was
such that the hostile demin the
resulted
known
the Pig War
as
Matters
frontier.
complete closing of the Austrian
reached
climax
when
to approve
a
Bulgaria seemed
o"f Bosnia
the annexation
and the Herzegovina by the
In
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
regard to this,
cause
a
however, there was
complete misunderstanding,behad declined to cooperate in the
King Ferdinand
overthrow
of Servian
and extinction
independence. It
remarkable
is clear, therefore, that something most
in securing Servian
occurred
support for the Balkan
alliance.
The
common
gossip is that the revolution in
who
the work
of a Montenegrin princess,
feelingwas
had become
the consort
of a Russian
grand duke, and
had
minister, to make
urged Iswolsky, the Russian
The

FORMATION

ALLIANCE

BALKAN

OF

201

suggestionsto Milovanovich,
the Servian
prime minister, as early as March, 1910.
have
referred
to the preliminary conversations
We
the
The
definite propositionwas
at Sophia in 1911.
attractive

friendly and

direct
formal

be

to

and,

Sophia

at

secret,

Servian

one

Prince

when

learned

what

the

world

admitted

Russian

one

ately
immedilikewise

negotiationswere
but two
Bulgarian
were

Boris

and

war,

almost

inaugurated

minister

further,

Turco-Italian

the

negotiationswere
at
Sophia. These

intended
and

of

consequence

Content
of Serbo-

statesmen

sion;
the discus-

to

grand duke, present


of

came

somehow

age,

Accordingly, as might
going on.
have
been
of the initiated was
one
expected, some
known
indiscreet,and the Serbo-Bulgarian treaty was
to

and
of

was

earlier

Bulgaria,
time.

which

This

between

that

was

identical

almost

was

it contained

series

delimitations,provided there should


be a success.
Turkey and the event
This

addition

due

was

because

compact,

plan

of

desire

Novi-Bazar,

lying

mountain

ranges,

south

east

and
to

was

be

autonomous
some

to

render

both

Servia

between

were

combine

to

and

the
be

the

military
to

for Macedonian

Sanjak

Servian; the

and

it

Servian

more

and

of distrust

solemn, it

in the

of

Shar

territory

Rhodope and the Struma


to
was
Bulgarian; what lay between
Macedonia.
Moreover, this treaty

elements

the Servian

Rhodope

of the

have

spot in the

Bulgarian scheme

the
Old

autonomy.

to

conflict with

of Servia
weak

the

territorial

of
a

point

with

greater

the

was

it endeavored

partitionwith

the

to

strength of Bulgaria and the


due share in the booty. It

be

Greece

it in

actually preceded

treaty
that

other, except

than

River
be

an

its
exhib-

fact that, in order

signed personallyby
Bulgarian kings.
was

Within

The

Military
Conventions

BALKANS

THE

2O2

between

arrangements

had

and

completed,
mobilize

200,000

In

these
be

would
100,000

send

the

the

to

to

to

men

for
of
be

Servian

compelled

Bulgaria was

took

as

the

mum.
mini-

field they

nia
Anticipatingthat Macedoto dispatch
battlefield,
Bulgaria was

200,000

proved

the

numbers.

promised 100,000
anticipationwas,
which

were

powers

150,000

their armies

as

Austria-Hungary

Were
would

Servia

into Thrace, and

men

Balkan

September, 30.

men;

fact,when

twice

were

of

military

the

definite shape before

taken

general mobilization
to

three

the

time

short

comparatively

draw

intervene, Bulgaria

to

Servians

use

donia.
Mace-

to

more

many

aid, while

Servia

against Turkey.

Their

based

course,

reckoning

upon

sity,
subsequently,of necesstaffs
were
Bulgarian military

false; and

and

of

series

up

which

conventions

abrogated the militaryarrangements of the treaty. As


between
Greece
and Bulgaria,the militaryconvention
after
was
signed on September 25, 1912, four months
that between
Servia
and
Bulgaria, whereby Bulgaria
undertook

to

120,000.

Should

to

were

be

put 300,000

The

prevent

the
Montenegro
Joins

resources

The
of

Balkan

such

by
he

Greek

an

had

and

adopting

fleet
in

Turkey
of Turkey

control

to

Europe

plan

own

from

These

of

the

paign.
cam-

^Egean,

drawing

upon

in Asia.
was

memorialized

alliance.

was

its

completed by
Indeed, as
early as

alliance

Montenegro.

Nicholas

Greece

Turkey attack either, these forces


the
retained
joined, although each power

right of forming
and

in the field and

men

Russia

on

the adhesion

the

were
representations

1888

King
subject of
renewed

tween
beJuly, 1911, before the outbreak of war
Turkey and Italy,and, immediately thereafter,
made
general proposals to his three stronger neighhim

in

FORMATION

bors
time

OF

Servia, Bulgaria, and

"

slightadvances were
purely defensive

each

of the

three

of

1912.

summer

in the

forces
town

or

event

and

at

the

with

house

of

ments,
arrange-

outset, with

should

be

Servia, wherein
no

combination

joint occupation

on

to

completed during the


was
only important reserve

of

"

troops

time

were

The

no

203

From

with
village. During the war
gave umbrage to Montenegro

the Servian

The

Greece.

in nature

powers,

there

ALLIANCE

his
made, and finally

treaty of alliance

that
stipulated

one

BALKAN

Allessio

was

of military
Turkish

any

Turkey
the march

only
of

Durazzo.

ulate
seemingly sought to emof Savoy, with which
it
the policy of the house
of Italy
the queen
has now
at least a marriage alliance,
long ago said
being a Montenegrin princess. It was
choke.
artitaken leaf by leaf as a man
that Italywas
eats an
King Nicholas, therefore, regarded, as did
his ministers, this latest conflict with
Turkey as a
for the enlargement of Montenegrin territory.
means
Since
had
the days of Peter
the Great, Montenegro
of independence it has
owed
the considerable
measure
By
enjoyed almost
entirely to Russian
patronage.
the Treaty of Berlin
had
secured
the kingdom
an
lieved
outlet to the sea.
What
the Montenegrin Slavs be-

to

by
at

be

Nyegosch

and

it

their

has

natural

boundaries

were

mutilated

In that direction
occupation of Dalmatia.
seemed
hopeless; it now
expansion was
possible
To quote again the highest
the expense
of Turkey.
the Austrian

Balkan

authority,Bouchier,

Sophia:

"The

four

years,
mountaineers
gans

were

of

an

been

English

resident
for

of

thirtya period unprecedented in its history. The


were
spoiling for a fight;their yatavention
rusting in their scabbards; and the interof Macedonian
Europe, with a scheme
country

had

at

peace

reform,

threatened

desire.

The

only

in

sun/

the

to

advance

an

alliance

field

in

the

on

much

underlies

the

all

What
human

time,

suffices

exhibit

to

how
in

both

dissension,
real

this

even

wonder

is

was,

during

and
worked

with

least,

The

able

was

treaties
in

the

that

and

appendix.

the
its

little

as

to

to

military

all

declaration

of

of

and
war,

the

life,

short
friction

as

the

evolution
of

elements

long

as

fairly
the

At

interest.

and

lasted

of

range

the

the

were

temper

they

world.

pass.

of

account

powerful

as

startling

to

come

alliance

Balkan

evolution

outside

short

the

unsuspecting

an

really

national

them

however

events,

had

possibility

of

historical

of

considered

been

had

ingly,
Accord-

formation

the

announced

allies."

frontier.

sort

same

Nicholas

advance

Albanian
in

'place

it, King
his

formal

was

Montenegrin
obtain

to

was

of

important

when

appear

given

the

without

the

achieve

to

hand

is, therefore,

There

same

order
the

hostilities,

opened

object

heart's

rayahs

from

force

took

he

by

in

and,

determined

main

the

their

Macedonian

the

consideration

view;

of

of

liberation

of

them

deprive

to

secondary

point

BALKANS

THE

204

as

The

it did,

efficient,

outside

and

world,

at

observe.1

convention

as

published

by

the

Paris

"

Matin

'

VIII

NATIONAL

CHARACTERISTICS
LATEST

IN
WAR

THE

BALKANS

THE

208

known
to late geo(excluding Albania) what was
graphical
Macedonia.
Austriaparlanceas Thrace and
million
Slavs
within
its
has twenty-eight
Hungary
half its population; Prussia
has
than
borders
more
and
probably six million and Russia about a hundred
million
Slavs; Turkey in Europe, with its
fifty-five
five hundred
of sixty-six
thousand
ante-bellum
extent
miles, had a population under six million, and
square

or

"

of

to be

appears
a

is to be

The

ideal

real

Slav

in the
The

Pan-Slavism

sense,

Illustrated

about

in

stock

European

already been

From
has

been

to

is Panattractive

this remoter

make

exhibited

this is best

is here

five hundred

more

thrown

larger

return

This

it

politics. But, closely

European

are

it.
upon
the times
of
in Macedonia

This

leaves

narrower

But

real Turks

Moslems.

indicated:

Slavs.

in its

used

territoryof
miles, with a populationof
possibly
thousand, of whom

Servian, or Greek?
also already been
broached
but only -a
possibly a little,
be

to

as

; that

states,

so
possibility

dred
hun-

two

Macedonia.

thousand

South

of Slav

chimera, and

hundred

"

about

remaining must

has

excluding Albania.
fiftythousand
square
million

Slavs

or

with

Europe,

annihilated.

be

"Macedonia"

term

three
two

force

of

case

federation
Turks

that

"

anything

totallyand entirelySlav

the notion

it is

examined,

few

peoples of

the

many
has

of

composed

Slavism, and
to

is to be

earliest home

their

If

manifest, it is that Eastern

"

smaller.

or

Folly of

Slavs.

were

population overwhelmingly
million

The

million

fully four

these

what
This
in

earliest
the cry,

rest

as

are

overwhelmingly

are

kind

perhaps
the

What

they

very

and

of

Slavs?

garian,
Bul-

knotty question has


connection;

another
more
little,

recorded
"Come

light can

history there
and help
over

THE

us."

No

other

LATEST

land

from

in

WAR

Europe

the desolation

209

suffered

has

As

writer, it was

Thirty Years'

to

many,

German

has

been

centuries; the

many

tinuously
con-

of battles,sieges,ravag-

ings,burnings, forays.
a

so

remarked
War

hand

by

one

prolonged

of

man

every

whether
in state, province,
against every other man,
village,or family. Pelasgians,Greeks, Romans, Byzantine
Crusaders,Genoese, Venetians, Huns, Avars,
Bulgarians,Servians, Wallachs, Albanians,and Turks
have overrun,
fled from, and turned
devastated, settled,
back

its borders.

to

garden

such

"

What

its

are

would

splendid

rivers, forests, and


almost

desolation.

times

many

further

off than

been

has

"

in peace
but peace

support

population;
Before

ever.

be

the

kept
many,
seems

bandits

war

derailingrailway trains, Bulgarian bands were


strife, robbers were
holding European
up
for

ransom,

Albanian

rangers

in soil,minerals,

resources

pastures

It could

its present

otherwise

were

were

ring
stirtives
cap-

threatening

the

villagersand herdsmen, feeble Turkish


it formed
its camps,
was
reveling,wherever
else was
repression. What
going on news

authority

did not

discover

there

rapine

and

; but

beyond

bloodshed

description. Bouchier,
foremost

to
so

in harsh

gatherers

peradventure

an

often

extent

which

mentioned

as

was

beggars
the very

authority among

Englishmen in regard to
the Balkans, a resident
of Sophia, but well-known
and
welcome
the other
Balkan
at
capitals,openly
horrid
charged a newspaper
conspiracy to suppress
truths

which

were

the Jews of Europe

known.
and

His

explanation

was

America, having secured

of the most
the atrocities

be

known,

at

desired
widely read newspapers,
perpetrated by Young Turkey should
least not

before

the

Turkification

that
trol
con-

that
not

plan

THE

210

had

had

BALKANS

longer trial. Moslems


against Christians,
he asserted that the powerful Jewish influence has been
be
and
must
historically
temperamentally with the
a

former.

Beyond

Servians, and
As

proportion.
has

far

so

far

by

Slavic

the

the whole

orb

in

Greek,

and

South

some

distinction

was

no

and

Greek;

"hogs

in

under

ruled

between

all were,

could

regime

the

be

some

in

old.

his

taxed

Snarling

latter

curs

no

when

conspiringrebels

and

with

other

separated

yet in those

Roman,

some

there

Serb, Roman

elegant language,

own

The

the

were

rulingTurk

Bulgar

much

made

are

the

formulated

but
pitilessly,

than

For

of
are

as

it

five Balkan

Turkey,

Slavs

sty." Accordingly,his

that

religion,
strongest

Moslem.

uncertain

aspiration goes,

possession

parts of all the social bonds

garians,
Bul-

are

in most

fact

the

Besides, these

land.

but

character, besides

simply lusting for

each

Macedonia

Pan-Slavic

as

Slavic

of

of

Wallachs,

blocked

been

monarchies

by

Slavs

questionthe

task
more

effort
cowed
civic

under

the

simply

new

than

and

tolerated; it

at

conversion.
political

are

less dangerous

recognition.

The

regime purposed to tax and tolerate, but also


rule: and
to
to
give an unreconcilable
peasantry an
ostensible
responsibilityby further trituration in the
of administration
with
the pestle of compulmortar
sion.
new

Said
of

Macedonian
Characteris-

well-known

Prussian

monarch

to

his

one

subjects "Love me, hang you; I command


you
Said Constantinople to the Macedonians,
to love me."
"Be Turks, hang you ; I command
you to be Turks."
It was
an
amazing idea for a constitutional Sultan
in Macedonia, exhibitingto its
make
to
a
progress
the reformation,
population in his personal presence
politics and by
or, rather,the revolution, of Turkish
"

THE

what?

which

ceremony

if the

and

then

Macedonian

Greek, why

by
is sweet,

the best
and

francs

he

harvest

could

would

all

Macedonians

were

crusaders, who

in the

and

Salonica.

found

occupied
bribery,would
bitter jest!
In

schools

do

and

the

other

some

cuse
ex-

things

as

saying

be

to

desired.

the

with

that

descendants

French.

children

of

few

that

French

the

conquered
coin, simple
are
spoken in

had

century
nimble
truths

Treaty of Berlin
in 1878 was
the partition,or
at least the completed
the peoples
partition,of Turkey in Europe among
dwelt in it,Macedonia
who
alone excepted. Only one
of the Powers
Great
made
:
a direct gain in territory
Britain took Cyprus and, thanks to the stupidityof her
Had
there been
Egypt.
partners, has since taken
of the independence
measure
a
given to Macedonia
a

very

bestowed

on

the

Turk

altogether,as
nature

he

nomad,

his forbears

sense

Balkan

the

States,

or

had

her

tricts
dis-

divided

been
powers,

loose

Life

communities.

teach

What

is attested

not?

all Macedonia

The

such

ever
subsistence,how-

such

twelfth

fact of

Why

in

and

the rest.

broad

fessed
con-

communities

and

are

make

He

had

The

Macedonian

and

be

must

the

villagecould within the


Bulgarian and then Servian

primitive and mean,


Bribery, too, is efficient
French
consul
is reported
million

It

rule.

possibleevidence.

home

performed

as

Turkish?

not

in the

conversion

easy

be first

stated, the defiant

constitutionalists

strange

years

21

often

of Ottoman

same

of ten

space

earlier

emphasizes as

reactionarynature
these

WAR

selamlik, as

the

By

LATEST

used

conterminous
the
new
among
have
would
departed from Europe

already in great measure.


using his European house

By

has

an

Asiatic tent, he has

much

refused

to

as

re-

BALKANS

THE

212

main

where

obey

and

and

commanded;

he

once

pure
the

Slavs, have migrated over


Turks, not Moslem
But
all the
numbers.
jealous
Bosporus in vast
European states representedat Berlin desired a weak
buffer

and

the

paid

Britain

The

price.

embittered

long

since

has

is

whole, and

the

while

lines.

economic
been

provinces intrusted

Albania, undaunted,

and

further

against a

social

and

than

had

Slavic

the

martyr,

only

the

untamed,

swell of

omy,
auton-

the beautiful

Macedonia,

But

expected.

of

is far less discontent

There

ministrat
ad-

beneficently

in

advances

great

her

to

quit. She holds them


they enjoy a measure

making

Austria

sister powers.

the

the

annexed
and

on

Constantinople,and Macedonia
solid profitspocketed by Great

at

power

wave

bulwark
of

what

"

them?
The

The

Plight of

Albania

Macedonia

and

work

Turkification

of

in

began

Salonica,Monastir, and Ueskub.


garrisonedthe flower of the Turkish army

cities
"

Abdul

and

Hamid,

for their
it had

Turks

Young

plans. Terrorizingcould
would

there

soon

gone;

no

was

created
the

won

go

be

In them

by

troops

further

than

Macedonia

no

to

Ottoman
intervene
and
Europe would
guished
be extinin Europe, already burning low, would
revolution
accomplished
was
entirely. The
banians
But the Althe will-o'-the-wisp
began to dance.

rule

or

rule

and

tax.

distrustful

were

for
not

the

Macedonian

time, they

singlesubstantial

the price of Albanian


not

even

earnest

and

Christians, they

rebellion burst
methods

of

of marsh
found

gain

that

Tosks

The

procedure

new

than

ises
prom-

on

nothing happened,
hopes ;

paid,there

not

Ghegs,

and

restless and

grew

Fed

for their cherished

loyaltywas

money.
forth.

gas.

Turkey
those

of

bitter.
knew
the

was

Moslems

Finally,
no

old.

other
The

THE

LATEST

former

conditions

were

only by

the united

behests

that

which

demand

to

extinction

to

was

service

language,

own

officials

be

common

of

assured

was

As

for

Servian

Macedonia,

than

worse

the
be

must

her

is

no

part
such
of

set

up.

dilemma

close

to

as

state

was

well.

as

of

then

even

But

sion
conces-

Albania

is
and

clans, stocks,

there

contract.

In

is

party of the
there

Macedonia

artificial personage,
and it is surely the
the partitioning
should
that none
states

The

out

way

appeared

European

autonomy

of trouble.

case

and

"

in his
Turkish

equallywholesale

there

chieftains,but yet united


second

in

latter

composite

"

military

agitationor from
Montenegro, which in turn

and

the order

his

further

support

former:

politicalperson

with

cause

the

won;

not

his substantial

secure

price of refrainingfrom

making

that, these

conducted

Albanian,

by

from

Wildest,

at

perform

of

dread

Mirdites.

schools

own

ruled

in short,

"

the

his

nians
Alba-

desist

to

Catholics

kept

sale
whole-

the wild

It is the

his arms,

wear

home, have

at

through

rebelled; they fought and

have

Albanian

that

and

their blood, Roman

Albanians

in bounds,

held

Turkey

Malissores

was

gary
Austria-Hun-

and

more.

forces Young

which

of

and

It

worse.

only emboldened

more

utterlyTurkifying
rudest

of Russia

conflagrationwas
Turkish
question; and

concessions

213

bad, the latter

the

internal

an

WAR

to

congress

to

was

not

be either
make

then

in

sight.

perpetual outrage;

Turkish

tention
inbe
The
a

or

rule nominal,

by

settingup Christian governments like those in Crete and


the outbreak
of war
of
Syria or Egypt ; or finally
war
the Christian
states
against the one surviving Moslem
and then possiblywar
the Balkan
States
power,
among
themselves
the division of spoils,since spoilsfor
over
"

some

one

there

must

be.

The

hatred

and

distrust

"

BALKANS

THE

214

not

suspicion,but

for

the

Turkish

conviction

utter

and

government

of

bad

faith

the

men

in

felt

"

power
solutely
regenerationab-

subjectsrendered
rule.
impossibleunder Turkish
could four years
The
pleasant land of Macedonia
since be seen
only from the railway, except by the
adventurous.
waylaid and
Daring Europeans were
held for ransom
by banditti almost within the suburbs

by

their Christian

of

the

cities;instances

Salonica

Ueskub.

and

occurred

late

as

as

near

1911

American

publichas nearly
Stone, the missionary,

The

forgottenthe capture of Miss


that it took
less than
ten
though it was
years
ago
Richter
place; but the seizure of Professor
by Greek
komitadjis is still recalled. Lives of the natives were
being ruthlesslytaken by the ruffians; those of captured
tourists
of

means

extended

further, even
the

travelers

though

it is doubtful

life of

the hands

valuable

tourist

been

of

source

would

securingmoney
had

Albania

were

rash

enough

their lives should


whether
would

be

for
safe

indefinitely

been

have

some

for

This

funds.

to

be

penetrate

spared.

time
any

to

In

come

reason

in

of the

untamed
fierce,
rangers.
The
railway line from Constantinople to Salonica
is about six hundred
nica
Salomiles in length,that from
It is not long since
about four hundred.
to Ueskub
the
the principaloccupation of the Turkish
was
army
way,
guarding of these railwaysand the protectingof roadfrom
bridges,tunnels, and trains ; passengers saw
their
there

windows
was

soldiers

more

hope

for

the

than

civilians.

fulfillment

of

the

While
lavish

promises made
by the Young Turks, a relaxation of
and the
vanished
but hope soon
vigilancewas
possible;
immediately renewed.
operations of the bands
were
Their forays were
intermittent
but frequent, and out-

BALKANS

THE

2l6

populationby crueltyand tyranny are far from being


in
the well-informed
Almost
eradicated.
universally,
much
those provinces express
hopelessnessas to the
of

improvement
Christians

As

bold

The

native

guile,effrontery,deceit,
in

dweller

the

as

with

"They are
bedbug, and as

conversation

conditions.

present

charged

are

idleness.

and

the

the

idle

as

said

country
the

as

deceitful

as

in

dormouse,
three

as

Galician

Jews. These creatures," he continued,"could only be


and
understood
them
managed
by the Turks, who
them

trusted

not

at

for

all,enforcing a day's work

sign of deference
day's pay, compellingevery outward
and punishing delinquencieswithout
mercy." Making
deed,
infor the exasperation of an employer
all allowance
evoked
the language quoted was
by a cringing,
servile effort to collect a pittance for services never
"

rendered

by
are

hatred, there is

race

truth

discounting all

"

what

they

little difference

degraded
problem

so

revolution

being; probably

as

be

may

of

urgent

God's

tricky laborers

the

Yet

worse.

foul wrong

perpetrated the

who
many

was

wonder

described

are

Macedonians

wretched

exasperationproduced
a large depositof
yet certainly

No

bottom.

the

at

the

noblest

it makes

which

creatures;

difficult.

and

Alas,

the

that

the
the

Constantinople,could do little,indeed
than nothing, to improve anything; that events
worse
in Albania, even
will probably aggravate the
the latest,
Macedonian
situation to the limit ; and that the policies
at

Naivete of

of the great powers


to block any
seem
In the primitivedays of the theater

Balkan

was

Claim

of

so

declare

"Christians"
as

he

groups

innocentlynaif
that
held

as

up

this

he
his

was

stood
hand

the

that

rude

there
and
chink

he

hope

stage-setting
needed
only to

the

boor
was

opened

of progress.

his

through

wall, and
fingers in
which

that
two

lovers,

THE

otherwise

LATEST

WAR

217
their

separated, might exchange

imagination of

the

vows;

the onlookers

suppliedall the rest and


the deceit was
utterlyforgotten. We of the Western
world
of centuries
ancestors
are
quite as naif as our
in our
consideration
and judgment of the Balkan
ago
of
in the center
peoples. They have placed themselves
the stage with a claim to represent a high civilization
in revolt against a degraded one
proclaimed
; they have
the world
that they were
Christians
to
practicing
Christian
agements
virtues, organizing under
frightfuldiscourChristian

Europe

been

have

to

other
For

nations

Western

themselves

the

to

portions of

them, the author


those

of

after

think

otherwise

Slav

of

own

purposes

to

our

it is

them

literally.
considered

who

their

visited, to
of

furtherance

in

and

country

own

accepted

have

ment
overstate-

no

their

great

education,

peninsula. Being one of


observations
compared his own

the Balkan
has

others

certain

nations

tourists

adventurous

delight and

with

have

decennium

but

in

masses

The

for their

in measure,

that the

say

perhaps

many

disposed

claims

accept these

civilizations.

like

of

degree
than

found

himself, and

well

it,even

experience, impossible to
and

kindly

of

South

the

peoples.

No
about
have

them

some

it

the

general impression

The

was.

concerned, each

was

the

tutelageor

Western

power.

The

made

manifest

those

of

which

were

that

well-ordered
in

measure

the

As

brief

decisive

far

as

of the Balkan

followed

previouslygiven, though

conflicts

recent

terrible disillusionment.

warfare
under

what

was

caused

was

therefore, that

wonder,

the

outline
a

of

tradition
of

the

paigns
cam-

sketch, has

mere

struggleswere

battlefields;even
decisive,have

lar
regu-

nations

been

the

not

sieges,

conducted

Atrocities
the War

of

to

BALKANS

THE

218

successful end

the exhibition

by

rather than
courage,
of the forces engaged. But

furious

at

all times

officials and

with

that

exhibition

an

atrocities

horrors

longer

no

in regard
especially

humane

the

of

admit, and

horror.

the

ranks

been

indictment

in

the

an

ing
endur-

begets fury
was
a beginning
been
made
by

Fury
have

the

The

and

civil

murdered,
have

read

limbs, the

officials.
of

frenzies
awful

of
truths

in

those

tute
consti-

to the

neck

not

have

of

with
and

faces;
oil and
abandoned

we

are

set

on

to

children

of

heard

ravaged, of men
gouging of eyes,

the

slashing

beings saturated
buried

We

women

about

lies

of

against any one of


the combatants, but certainlyagainst two
to the highest
degree, and probably against the other two as well.
In their mutual
recriminations, hard facts,probably
facts, have been proexaggerated, but nevertheless
claimed
the world
to
by the highest royal,military,
an

which

brave

beginnings
development of

there

check

It is with

such

made.

know.

cannot

been

disenchantment,

our

efforts
to

have

doubt.

any

in the foundation

Whether

we

of

somewhere

enlightenedleaders

various

example, but
perpetrated worse

have

peace,

have

the

indicating
brutality,

Greece, where

to

sentiment, and

must

of

awful

an

admit

we

of

arts

civilization

set

admits

regret that

in

mitted
per-

the combatants.
The
among
Turks
Moslems
ginning
and
at the be-

Christians

so-called

sorrowful

we

of atrocious

practicedby
unquestionably

these

been

has

secure,

that victories

manifest

desperatebarbarism

to

truth, difficult

the

as

military officers

it seems
nationalities,
won

far

as

everywhere

personal,
scientific cooperation

told, despitethe rigidcensorshipof both

be

to

civilian

and

by

of rude,

maimed;
the
told

hewing
of

fire;of
a

slow

we

of

human

persons
death with

THE

basins
found

of

food

by

the

and

LATEST

water

WAR

before

filled with

219

their

eyes; of
women's
ears

bags

that
wayside
stillcontained
the inexpensiveearringsfor whose
sake
ruffians had amputated them
with swords
the hurried
;
we
might add an almost endless catalogue of shame
Such
bestial license is
and
crime, but it is needless.
attributed
to the example of the lawless
banditti,the
have been
deeds
execrable komitadjis;such atrocious
in the villagesand
practiced for long years unchecked
districts
for
which
nations
the
respective Balkan
of nationality.
lusted ; and all this has been in the name
Our
foremost
English authority, to
quote Mr.
Bouchier
once
again, a personage
kindly received not
only at every court, as we have said, but in every
household, either peasant or patrician,has published
ants
opinion that every one of the combatas his deliberate
has in greater or less degree been guiltyof such
atrocious
That

in the

strata

but,

excesses.

honorable, high-minded,
societies of all these people no one

there

on

the

are

other

hand,

it does

appear

as

humane
doubts
if

Intellectual

and

orrup
even

and had been confallacies,


taminated
they had indulged in pitiful
of
the
and
repetition
phrases
by
memory
deeds.
and
Quite possibly,such charges may not be
against the operationsof regular soldiers,but
proven
hovered
on
bloody guerillas
of every
the outskirts
they proclaimed their
army;
law to be that of retaliation ; they declared that all was
fair in war;
they created chaos and anarchy on every
in
if they finallysucceeded
as
side; it does appear
finding support for the doctrine that what elsewhere
be immoral, disgraceful,
other conditions would
under
but
and shocking was
then and there perhaps peculiar,
darkness
;
great, good, and grand. Their lightbecame

like

band

of demons

the

Moral
on

BALKANS

THE

220

their

humanity became
Perhaps the most

and

perverse
dreadful

criminal

ity.
brutal-

publicationin this
connection has been that of a translation made
by the
the rhapsodies of a
Greek
poet, Paul Nirvana, from
Bulgarian writer, Ivan Arkudoff, who, according to
some
favorably received in the
reports, is a person
highest Bulgarian circles. Here is a specimen :
"Before
the day-star marks
the
seventh
degree
above
the horizon
shall the sea
of blood, which
thy
sword
fathoms
unseals, flow seven
higher. Behold
the aged cripple,
who
drags along his wretched, senile
life to escape death and thy fury. Trample him under
foot with
iron heel; gouge
his dimming
out
eyes,
unworthy ever to mirror Bulgaria'sgrandeur.
"Why
Bulgarian? Forward, ever
linger,young
.

forward

"Softer

carpet

than

the

meads

of

is the

spring

of murdered
corpses
soul in the perfume

the

from

woven

flowery

women

of
thy
boys. Refresh
youth, and then, tipsywith passionand heroism,
and

flowers

the

upon

treading the

were

The

earth, and

march

velvet

of

translator

Greek

Pindar, poet
execration

and

scorn.

to

rugs

speaks

with

the court

While

forth

strew

if you

palace."
sneers

; denounces
as

as

their

garian
of this Bulhim

with

yet the Bulgarian


the world, and while

given entire to
its possiblecontent, considering the
shudders
at
one
charges of murder, rapine, and desperate brutality
alreadymade againstboth Greeks and Turks, yet what
this Bulgarian has written, he has written, and
no
primitive savagery, no desperate barbarism, no shred
of the wildest
has ever
of primitiveman
war-song
and
furnished anything comparable to it. The words
the spectacleare alike disheartening
and repellent.
retort

has

not

been

LATEST

THE

WAR

last stage of the

221

so
Bulgaria was
side that virtuallyall communicain on every
tion
hemmed
with the outside world
was
temporarily shut off.
treaties of peace signed and
No
however, were
sooner,
restored
than the Bulgarians became
communication
that they were
a
subject of reprobationto the
aware
entire civilized West.
They immediately organized a

During

service

the

of emissaries

to

fro in America

and

to

go

war

and

Europe in order to present their version of what had


actuallyoccurred in regard to the atrocities with which
they were
charged. A Bulgarian officer challenged
Frenchman
of letters,whose
the well-known
nym
pseudoof what
the
is Pierre
Loti, to a duel because
writer

had

said

and

published in reprobationof

garia's
Bul-

barbarism.

Sophia has likewise published


simile
circulated two pamphlets containingletters in facsoldiers of the Nineteenth
of Greek
Regiment,

The
and

at

government

from

written

various

intercepted between
Short

1913.

the

fairlyrepresent the
Philippos writes,on

of

two

substance
the

and

I4th

excerpts from

their

to

camps

of

ith of

homes

27th

of

and

July,

letters may
all. A certain

these

them

July :

"This

war

has

all the villages


have burned
painful. We
abandoned
by the Bulgarians. They burned the Greek
we
villagesand we the Bulgarian. They massacre,
And
massacre.
against all those of that dishonest

been

very

who

nation
done

fell into

its work.

Of

our

the

hands
twelve

the Mannlicher
hundred

rifle has

prisonerswe
in the prisons,

Nigrita only forty-one remain


left a
been
have
have
and
not
we
everywhere we
Another
soldier,
common
single root of this race."
of
I2th
the
Karka, on
July, 1913, indited these
of the king we
all the Buiburned
words
: "By order
took

at

BALKANS

THE

222

the Bulgarians burned


the
garian villagesbecause
of Seres, Nigrita,and
beautiful
several Greek
town
have
behaved
much
more
cruellythan
villages.We
have violated all the young
the Bulgarians,because
we
women

seized."

have

we

Other

which

sentences

occur

in various

follows : "We
are
as
epistles
which
have only taken a few prisoners,
have killed ;
we
I took five Bulgarians and a girl
such are
orders.
our
from
Seres.
killed and the Bulgarians
The
girlwas
also suffered.
We
picked out their eyes while they
still alive."
Still a third: "It is impossibleto
were
describe what
knows
where
this will
happens. God
end.
The
for us
time has come
to start
eating one
another."
As a supplement to the text, there are given
here

and

there

declarations
who

from

describe

miraculous,

the inhabitants

their
and

from

escape

also

Greek
of

photographs

unskilled

As, of
have

been

the

more

was

to

stigmatizedby

Where

been

as

victims

them

by the
comparable

the shambles

butchers.

course,

certainlyas

Seres,

atrocities

inflicted upon
showing ghastly wounds
Greek
soldiery. These
photographs are
only to such as might have been taken in
of

of

of the town

the truth

yet
severe

most

even

in

be

expected, these

the

Greeks

as

lies it is hard

narratives

awkward
to

discern, but

dispassionatejudges

meting

out

geries.
for-

have

just reprobation to

The
substance
of the Bulgarian
Bulgaria than to Greece.
plea, official and unofficial,is for a suspension
of judgment in view
of anterior
provocation. King
Nicholas
of Montenegro, it is declared by the pleaders,
accompanied by the Greek, Servian, and Bulgarian
ministers
at his court, visited the hospitals
in Tzetique,
in one
and found
of them, lyingbeside a patient,
a bag
which
examination
on
cut
proved to contain noses

BALKANS

THE

224

of the Balkan
in the renewal
the aggressor
wars.
colleagueadmits that quitepossiblyBulgaria had

wisely in
although her cause

acted

exacted

have

not

Such

national

the

renewal

letter of

parallelbetween
No

temper.

hostilities!

just,quite possiblyshe

was

the

of

two

her

not

That

should

bond!

apologistsindicates
for

dreams

one

His

the
that

moment

exception, utter savages.


Bulgarians are, without
What
has previouslybeen said sufficiently
how
proves
been
the development of the people
marvelous
has
the

leaders

under
after

all,in

elements
the
may

every

in the

behavior
have

educated

the

arts

nation, the foremost

population, feel

of the

been

in

nation

the sins of

of

But,

peace.
men,

the best

their

in
responsibility
as
a
whole, and whatever
others, there is a profound

impression throughout the Western


the most
Bulgarian outrages were
with the exception of those

world

that

the

frightfulperpetrated,
committed
by the
Turkish
Bashi-bazooks
that during the conflict
; and
these outrages were
well known
at headquarters, and
not reprobated sufficiently
were
to mitigatethem.
even
Professor
cluded
Stephanove calls the secret
treaty conin May, 1913, between
Turkey and Greece, a
conspiracy. Bulgaria at the height of victorywas not
no
an
inspiringspectacle. She permitted substantially
the outside world, and the little which
to reach
news
did percolatethrough various
channels
to foreign ears
led to the general belief that her conduct
of the war
ruthless and that her victories were
was
largelywon
by brutality. Add to that fact the further profound
conviction
that her guerillabands
were
quite the most
active and
more,
desperate; furtherapparently the most
that as time went
by she manifestlyintended to
she had not sown,
as, for instance,in the
reap where

THE

of Salonica.

case

via, and

Greece

checked,

to

there

Can

in her

saw

become

to

curb

to

be

WAR

wonder

we

dominant

fallacyin

any

better

LATEST

the

225

that

Ser-

Rumania,

power

destined, unless

in the

Balkans?

reasoning that

Was

it would

be

that

than
selves
at once
permit thempower
annihilated
In any
in the near
future?

able
honorreached, whether
understanding was
dishonorable, whereby Greece promised armed
or
assistance
to Turkey for the reoccupationof Adrianeastern
ople in return for Turkish aid in the seizure of southThrace
then that Rumania
It was
by Greece.
intervened,attacked Bulgaria in the rear, compelled a
cessation of hostilities and eventuallythe disarmament
of her southern
neighbor.
In 'the effort,therefore,to judge the situation dispassiona
to the dishearteningconclusion
we
come
that dishonor, atrocious
brutality,and entire absence
of chivalry have
of the war
marked
the conduct
by
We
most, if not all,of the combatants.
might have
been disposedto think Servia the most
innocent, were
it not
that the commission
of the Carnegie Peace
an

case,

Foundation

in

efforts

its

to

enlighten public opinion

far

with

final

authoritative
rumors,

at

the

hands

if

not

with

met

of

the

such

choice

similar

behavior.

of Professor

near,

and

judgments

the

to

stamp

less
number-

scanty courtesy in Belgrade

Servians,

unwillingto give evidence


very

and

and

truth

the

secure

sufficient
We

cannot

Milyukoff to

seemed

who

head

to

utterly
of

acquit them
think

that

the

that commission

entirelywise. It is true, indeed, that he is a man


of high quality,
thoroughly familiar with south Slavic
less
conditions, and a genuine liberal. But he is nevertheand, therefore, subject to the suspicion,
a Russian
however
unmerited, of sympathy with Bulgaria. The
was

226

THE

commission

his

under

passed on

it found

where

BALKANS

leadershipto Salonica,

consideration

more

at the

hands

of the

Greeks.
Sir

Edward

Parliament

that

witnessed

of

before
if

ever,

distressingspectaclethan the progressive


of these wars.
events
Beginning on the plea
liberation,
they became a strugglefor conquest and

ended

as

more

of

war

"extermination,"
the

and
itself,
as

Grey emphatically declared


not
often,
Europe had

British

This

hesitates

statesman

But

alas!

latest

in southeastern

the

more

word,

Europe
accept it

to

the

know

we

feel that all the conflicts have

we

than

first used

was

true.
literally

more

extermination.

been

better

no

be over,
must
conflagration.The wars
for there is no physicalstrengthor available property,
real or personal,which
has not been exhaustivelyused
in the struggle.
Corroborative
evidence
of this fact has just been
Bartlett, whose
published in a report from Ashmead
human

is

name

the

and
"I

guarantee, both

advanced

the

war.

his

has

the

am

visited these

I have

just

with

Both

Greeks

expose

in their eyes
their wrongs
to

before

the

them

tears

in the

Powers

so

of the Maritza

The

to

the

Mussulmans

have

that

something
The

surviving
beg me
them, to
cause

for
be done
may
of these districts

I visited defies all

which

country looks

state

been

through

go

something for
Europe, and to lay their
do

to

future.
.

west

and

says:
Turkish

eyewitness
the outbreak

sights and

wish
through experienceswhich I never
had
again. I have
deputations of
inhabitants.

He

beyond the
first independent

parts since

seen

ver
obser-

an

as

descriptions.

fifty kilometers

posts, and
who

of

of

accuracy

been

have

for his keenness

as

if it had

been

tion.
descrip-

swept by

THE

terrible

earthquake, or

as

Attila had

modern

some

LATEST

in their onward

WAR

if

made

227
of

horde

a
a

clean

progress.

Huns

under

of thing
everyAgain I can

sweep

be sent out
only repeat, let an impartial commission
the truth of the charges I am
to investigate
obligedto
possible
imIt is almost
make
against the Bulgarian army.
is living in the twentieth
to believe
tury
cenone
of man's
with such evidences
ferocityall around.
like reading some
The
chapter of
experience is more
of the
ancient history describingthe sweeping away
from
empire by hordes of barbarians
decaying Roman
the North; but in a telegram it is impossibleto do
justiceto what I have seen."
and all
of justicethat every
It is a maxim
person
peoples have a rightto be judged from the standpoint
The
of their own
more
closely
positionand culture.
peoples in different stages of development have been
tion,
brought in contact with each other and under observatherefore,by critical travelers alike of the upper

the

lower

the

and

more

faults

has

severe

each

become

the

of

vices

and

from

strata

which

manners

centuries

atrocious

conduct

distresses

us

is

tened

regard

to

of
to

styled in

the

the

elements

further
It
recent

Balkan

mention, from
our

Western

Balkan

historical laboratory.

influences

work

of the

there
and

mingled,
com-

similar

west

three

is, therefore,
infernal

and

it
peoples, which
the point of view

world

humane

fare.
war-

that
it is manifest
observer
dispassionate
people,totteringas are their footsteps,unchastheir passions,childish as is their discias
are
To

these

even

an

still dominant.

are

ago

at

were

utterly unjust

of what

identical

the

The

foreigners.

the

nations,

condemnation

peninsulahas been properly called


of race
Not only are
scores
but

all the

and

the

BALKANS

THE

228

along the
pline,are nevertheless struggling forward
their faults
dare not condone
We
path of progress.
nor
mitigateany outraged estimate of their behavior,
offer them
should
and
must
but we
a
helping hand.
It is

bounden

our

duty

correction, and, above

moral

type of example which


either
Powers

and

the

The

of
a

the

of

offer

for

civilization

the

should

dawning

rod

far transcends

in its influence

indignationor attempted tutelage.


of

alliance
a

course,

Treaty

them

upon

all,we

nevertheless

but

this crude

The

lay

to

time,

the

was,
powers
but
it
worked
expedient;

temporary

mere

deserved

and

Slavic

South

respect from

more

Peace

those

of
for
who

manifest
in the shocking
partiesto it than was
outburst
before
the boundary
of greed exhibited
even
been fixed by
line of European Turkey had tentatively
the European conference, and the treaty of peace
as
between
alliance
the
Turkey and
signed by the
the
between
concert
plenipotentiaries.The
great
all
themselves
When
was
loyallymaintained.
powers
were

the considerations, historic,economic,


which
it is

account,
divided

have

into two

in the balance,

hung

amazing

that

Triple Entente, should,


have

peace,
at

least

something
Retribution

treaty.
certain
defiant

as

in the

violations

first thirtyyears
as

the

pass unnoticed
There
was
a
the

been
more
as

case

of

the

for

and

singlereason

of

the

able
than

to

truce,

nations

regards

after it had

The

of

Treaty
been

what

arrange

so

gious,
reliinto

sharply

TripleAlliance

of individuals.
the

taken

are

of statesmen,

body

by

groups

racial,and

the
serving
prewas

temporary

is almost

as

repeated and

Berlin

within

the

carefullypromulgated

public charter for all Europe did not


States.
in Turkey
in the Balkan
or
talked
least about
at
men
day when

of
inviolability

treaties.

For

two

generations

THE

the

past

only

LATEST

treaties

great

have
for

prizefightersspar

as

WAR

229

been

made

wind

and

apparently
gain time by

feints.

Nevertheless, the
evaded

the

from

difficult of

most

victorious

the

Allies

the

divide

would

trusted, that this would

world

for mutual

matter

their very

be

and

found

eyes,

all

as

be

to

friendlyagreement between
them,
Immediately before
had been, in the meeting of

and

parties concerned."
under

selves
themamong
of them
has

conquered territory. One


that they "trusted, as all Europe

declared

London

questions arising
question, to wit, of

the

the

at

all the

discomfiture:

Turkish

how

assembled

statesmen

the
and
the

in
from
concerned
the various
states
plenipotentiaries
the war,
diplomacy,
a
perfect example of Oriental
ambassadors
and
were
guile. The
procrastination,
the more
trustful body, and their trust was
indeed
a
responsiblefor
simple in that they, they alone, were
dron
having injected into the already seething,boilingcaltation
absolute novelty ; the delimiof Balkan
an
politics
Albania

of
should

or

could

should

be

that

little

settlement

the

self -governed, and

be

of

protectorate, and
has

Enough

and

been

said

how

far

it

of

how

far

it

whom.

Bulgaria to
it appeared

about

felt when

surprise was

of

indicate
that

she

proposed for herself the lion's share of the prey,


which, as consideringherself the lion in the onslaught,
for the time being at
hers by right. This
was
was,
iation.
of her deepest humilleast,her undoing and the cause
She

independence
taxed

never

since

herself

found

in

the
a

and

plight so

and to the very


powers,
forces of Turkey, which
was

it was

in

panting

of

declaration

all her

the main
war;

has

exhaustion

sorry.

utmost,
her

to

task

her
It
meet

in the

that her troops

Bulgaria1!
Mistake

THE

230

reallyable

least

incapacity,at

the storm

Through
in-Chief

Savoff

the

would

troops

would

vision

been

for

and
of

led

Great

years

to

Bulgaria.

it is hard

Daneff

by

realized her

have

moment

Minister

to

cern
dis-

Commander-

and

represented public feelingor

somehow

constitutional

have

measures

must

mad

restrained

secured

recuperation. As

in the

for

her

of

hands

yielded
assumed
public pressure, when
they
offensive
their
allies and
recent
against
the case, great
bloody strife. Whatever

arrogant

men

Macedonia

in the

irresistible

an

reopened

Autonomy

been

recrimination

of

far Prime

how

the

at

she

she

real the

make

to

come,

for

and

statesmen,

commander-in-chief,

wise

an

Had

Adrianople.

entered

to

BALKANS

it was,

the

it is

Bulgaria could

venture

the

mob

and

delay

necessary

now

by
that

manifest

gain nothing

and

lose much.

Balkan

statesmen,

so

called,are

charged with being

utterlydisingenuous; and in support of the charge it is


and
pointed out that Bulgaria's demand
policy as
is what
is known
as
regards Macedonia
flyinga kite.
She naturallyexpects to cast off her sackcloth
and
ashes; she still hopes for pity and protectionfrom a
Western
world
which
her as a patient,
so
long admired
powerful people,developinghigh qualitiesunder firstclass statesmanship; what
she still desires is exhibited
in the proposals she has vainly struggled to enforce
for
seems

would

the

complete autonomy

no

doubt

what

Rumelia.

capacitythan
government,
iteration of

Macedonia.

that, having secured

so

There

much,

she

efforts to

exert

Macedonia

of

bring about with an autonomous


mous
previouslyhappened with an autonoHaving shown, on the whole, a higher

states
any of the conterminous
she obtained
a
hearing for the

for selfincessant

truth; that the districts of Monastir

and

quated

interval

if the

as

the

was

The

be

could

there

which

to

their

exhaustion

admitted
Great

Britain
he

was

have

must

decency,
civilized

peoples,

utterlyunsuited
their veins
Enter
Rumania

This
^he

was

like
the

power.
peace/' but

"Peace,

until all the

peace

exhaustion

An

that

ently
appar-

partiesto

this

English
He

relations

dared

compel

among

these

with

stormed

by
state,

peace,
semi-

ideas,

Western

them,
chimerical.
poison, was
juncture where Rumania
to

not

to

which

and

statesman

intervention

considered, that
intoxicated

and

armed

impossible.

amicable

and

centuries, so

two

Bulgarian

lasted.

Parliament

in

been

negotiated
some
patchwork containing provisions
they would pay regard only as long

themselves

among

no

of

their utter

quarrel admitted

but

had

crumbling
perpetualcry was

swift

as

BALKANS

THE

232

through

entered

upon
nation

a
a
Bulgaria. Were
with
personality,its neighbors might charge Rumania
a
policyof cold, calculatingselfishness. While wars
were
strengtheningher
raging to the south, she was
dating
consoliand
finances,perfecting her militarypower,

invaded

and

scene

public opinion
leaders

within

her

borders.

Her

wily

viewing the
southern
ing
horizon, keenly eager to seize the swiftlycomopportunity for aggrandizement regulatingthe
balance
of Balkan
they called it by swooping
power,
were

on

the

Balkan

watch

tower,

"

"

what
they intended
upon
booty, in the capture of which
down

to

be

their share

of

they had not in the least


assisted.
The
tendency, however, to speak of nations
the
if they were
has become
human
as
personalities,
feel
subtle fallacyof modern
life. Nations
most
can
emotions
human
collectively
only in so far as they have

common

common

worldly and material interests. Devotion


form
in the
of Christianity
is universal

to

Bal-

THE

kans, but

LATEST

WAR

233

it has

in international

produced no Christian virtues


relations; quite the awful contrary.
aesthetic community of interest
nor
spiritual

material

Neither

allay

can

rivalries.

It is the

duty

is

in the

truth that a statesman's


plain,unvarnished
safeguard the material interests of his nation

to

first

instance; to remember

grow

is dead

those

whose

peace

and

dying;

or

interests

he

National

necessary
the concern

for

provoke

them.

statesmen

or

has

been

degree of worldly wisdom


accepted as a fact, though
that

at

time

any

she

not

of
the

comfortable
are

sorrow,

it is not

but

princes deliberatelyto
from
this
standpoint,
marked
by the highest

and

yet there
have

is

joined

no

proof,

hands

with

; in other

frontier"

common

It is

sense.

common

as

would
their

"correct

Bulgaria to

from

come

Viewed

conduct

does

higher welfare
represents is a sequel to

like human
afflictions,
reproof and chastisement,

of

Rumania's

what

the

which

contentment

living.

that

that

Bulgaria an important cession of


Bulgarian
heaped upon
territory. Reproaches are
that they did not accept such an opportunity,
statesmen
the desired
piece of shore line on
yield to Rumania
the Euxine, by her aid hold
more
firmly the much
from
valuable lands won
Turkey, and then force upon
settlement
Servia
both
Greece
and
equable to all,
a
forever
laid the devilish
have
would
which
spirits
words,

which

from

secure

held

have

Whether

or

not

Macedonia

as

the Rumanians

about

the behavior

the wild
not

therefore

called

into

soldiers,their
tacticians,is of course
is

there

either of them

Vlachs, amid

the horrors

activityand

we

himself.

fine

are

and
generals great strategists

uncertain, and

fief of Satan

nothing

to

be

said

or

of their kinsfolk,

of

war.

know

They
nothing of

were

their

THE

BALKANS

possiblebehavior ; we
the komitadjistheir

only know

234

related

suffered little molestation

that

tribes

and

in Macedonia

remained

have

of

the hands

at

have

strangely

passive.
turbulence
at any
before, Albanian
may
of Balkan
if not disrupt,
time menace,
the bonds
peace.
the
civil war
In October, 1913,
was
raging among
nation.
The
clansmen
of the new
provisionalminister
As

of

once

Mufid,

war,

for

emissaries

that
government, convinced
former
foes, was
preparing to

this

the

work

the

strategicpoints she

events

observers
least

in Albania,

believe

of

that
been

have

to

great powers
tenure

Western

Europe.

recurringever since.
far the most
strikingphenomenon
Balkan
historyis not the awakening

porary
consciousness

at

of

but

held

once

doned
aban-

Similar

been

have

Thus

and

of

behest

the

Servian

Servian

The

was

ing
appeal-

were

compatriots within

boundaries.

at

Greecc

their

to

support

reoccupy

Servia

Albanian

standard.

thizers
sympaunfurls the

Essad, who

againstthe rebels under


Austrian

Turkish

the

marshaling

was

of

many
feeling,if

its eastern

of national

cool

Most

actuallycreated,
promoted by the two
artificially
Adriatic

the

claim.

as

of contem-

in order

to

feeble and

by

shore

not

the

secure

quarreling

little nations.

Nor, it

must

be confessed, has

promise of her
her
fought gallantly,

early history:

the

have

women

but her achievement

militarystrength

Montenegro

and

was,

stolid

endurance, and

showy boastfulness

rather

low

by

uncomplainingly,
all,slight.What

after

personal courage

about

that made

have

men

slaved

the capture of Scutari, was,

brought
part by

her

fulfilled

could

not

it is to be feared,

conspiracy in part;
was

the

complish,
ac-

concluded

performance

with

in
a

theatri-

THE

cal and

The

tawdry.

Servia

komitadjis
other

revival

of

the Servian

were

vicious

as

or

time

no

moral

the

of

those

as

the

the reactionary effect of komitadji

and

in Greece.

less than

was

been

At

numerous

as

powers,

brutalities

Greece.

and

235

ing
central, outstanding,command-

fact of the conflict has


both

WAR

LATEST

Moreover, the

ple
peo-

than
vastly less impressionableand mercurial
Slav blood
and having no
the Greeks, being of pure
of Mediterranean
ity
intermixture
and vivacexcitability
in their stock.
They have not developed great
statesmanship,and the blot of conspiracystill deprives
their royal house of any luster ; nor have they developed
extraordinarymilitaryleadership. But they have
any
of organization,
admirable
shown
cooperation,
powers
and
self-restraint;they have
fought stubbornly and
liant,
and their military leaders, if not brileven
gallantly;
are

have
be

must

final

the

gallingeconomic

"Great

from

Servia

awful

warning

pursuit of

mad

of what
the

happened

to

the

tial
substan-

neighbors, a

conduct
is the
before

Servia, but she has

of the Great

Idea"

the

in the

of her

all this

and a sobrietyin the


territory,
affairs.
Her
temptation, of course,

her

her

of

emancipation

tyranny

result of

The

of

increase
of

safe.

least been

at

Bulgaria

corresponding "Great

garia"
Bul-

idea.
be

It is difficult to
in

existence

but

have

there

her

her

degree

There

world.

life when

to

measure

in still higher

Western

like

conduct

been

Greece.

just to
the
to

have
was

spiritof
the

She

owes

her

people,
philhellenismof the
her

own

epochs in her newer


altogether creditable,but
been

longer epochs

where

she

has

behaved

child, squandering
naughty and irresponsible
the nations,
fortunes, jeopardizingher repute among
a

boastingan

which
enterprise

she did

not

possess,

THE

236

generallyperplexing the

and
land
of

BALKANS

be

felt to

lovers

and

of

historyof thought,

of art.

twinklingof

if in the

they formed
grave;
they made immense
passed through

eye her peoplesbecame


cherished
solemn
a
purpose;

and

an

and
sacrifices,

accumulate

to

in the

consecrated

culture,and
As

friends

that without

substantial

constitutional

vation,
obser-

fund;

war

revolution

they

fomented

or
by militarycircles without civil war
anarchy; they
the sternest
to
subjected themselves
disciplineafter
its completion; they restored
free government
and
knitted
a
strong and working national organism.
up
proporti
disThoroughly prepared and equipped in a measure
alike by land
to their slender
resources,
and sea, they advanced
of war
the outbreak
to the
on
fulfillment of the obligations
when
they had assumed

the

Balkan

alliance

ancestors, they have


their

new

navy,

was

formed.

Like

their

remote

always been a seafaringfolk,and


tiny in comparison with others,

effectually
policeda great extent of waters, and won
victories which, though materiallyslight,
were
many
morally all-important.The base assassination of their
more
king inspiredthem with a determination
even
grim.
There

came

throughout

to the

his

life with

an

the

best traditions

excellent ruler, familiar

qualitiesof

his

people,

royaltyby his parents


his consort, and
and
pacity
exhibiting substantial caThe
alike for statesmanshipand
for warfare.
so-called militaryrevolution,a movement
for producing
in both army
and navy, inspired
greater efficiency
by the officers of both, originatedin 1909 and was
it actually
For
concluded
in 1910.
a time
successfully
Neither
Consuspended constitutional
government.
educated

in the

throne

of

THE

stantine
learn

lessons

the
is

king

his

nor

soldier.

still,the hour
of

WAR

237

brother
was
pleasure-loving
it so thoroughly taught.

devoted

LATEST

But, what

was

the

produced

controlling,constructive

man

slow
The

the

From

power.

new

esting
inter-

more
"

to

man
states-

among

a
brought to Athens
inferior to none
statesman
now
livingand superior to
of
It appeared as if the strength and wisdom
most.
Venezelos
had
taken
possession of all the millions,
the kingGreek within and without
dom
speaking modern

of

Greeks

the

of

Crete

there

was

In

the

the Hellenes.

ministerial

Cabinet, in

and in the formation


diplomatists,
international
of national
and
opinion alike, his has
been
a
commanding figure. The regular troops of
selves
have
Greece
distinguishedthemthroughout the war
and undaunted
The blot
by discipline
courage.
of the nation
created
the good name
not
was
upon
by national temper or impulse.
The
Greek
komitadjis have
always been savage
inaccessible
frontier
cliffs,
banditti, lurking amid
and
confiscation,and, in short,
existingby murder
yieldingin savagery to no others. That they have had
individuals
in the
some
pecuniary assistance from
the deliberations

civilized

more

of

parts of

Greece, from

Greeks

abroad,

quitepossiblyfrom agents of the Western


powers,
is the suspicionof great numbers.
They have likewise
sentimentalists
enjoyed the sympathy of many
among
could not possibly
other peoples,who
their own
and
and

been

have
reasons

their
effect

wonder
to

and

emanate

of

aware

their

romantic
in

Greece

for
from

terrible

daring

has

itself.

It

reflection

some

Greek

dispatchescallingthe

sources

attention

deeds.
had
was

when

For
some

matter

these
active
retro-

for

there

began
long telegraphic

of the civilized world

THE

238

BALKANS

permittedby Bulgaria. The question


been
had
the Greeks
practicingthe guile for
was,
of old they were
which
renowned, and taking a leaf
from the Bulgarian book ? The agents they dispatched
the shameful
with much
deeds
publicityto investigate
which
there was
of others about
no
question, might
possibly have been better employed in investigating
their own
kinsfolk and ending forever the activities of
both the Greek
and the Turkish
komitadjis along the
the atrocities

to

frontiers
But

Summary

of the northeast.

whatever

sadness

those

without, there

alike

have

have

become

the

seen

Balkans

Rumania's
in

light,cherish

new

to

either

intervention

compelling

foremost

frontier

no

powerful

great eminence,
the

is

must

be felt in this regard by


may
doubt that Greece and Servia

rivals

Bulgaria
in

the

statesman,

Servia

post, Bulgaria claims

recuperation. Turkey has


force in Europe, except
political

Constantinopleand

new

the

or

hopes, and
hegemony of

Rumania.

role of

her

holds

the
been
in

so

That

arbiter,especially

gives her a
peace,
be unquestioned ; but

of

of

for

position of
Greece

the most

has

critical

strongest powers
eliminated
far

as

as

her tenure

spiritual
leadershipof the
Moslem
world
must
ever
keep her in wardship to the
balance
of power
in Western
porary,
Europe. May the temif not final,
readjustment of relations on the
Balkan
peninsula be sufficiently
spective
enduring for the reto
states
indulge in a long period of selfthe
examination; may
they recall at every moment
hideousness
of the struggle in which
they have been
elements
of humanity, some
engaged, and may
some
of duty, some
sacrifice of ambition
sense
to simple
expediency enter into their publicpoliciesand permeate
the privatelives of their inhabitants.

IX

THE

"Le

SIX

POWERS

moment

AND

THE

je parle est deja

ou

said of the swift movements

WARS

loin de

in events

in

John Quincy Adams,

June, 1813.

moi,"

was

by
highly

century ago

It

seems

historymay
essay in contemporary
it
is
before
In
the
antiquated
printed.
perspective

probable
be

BALKAN

of

that

few

our

hence, however,

years

great powers

will

in this

epoch

exhibited

certainlybe

marked

the
to

seen

change

from

of

temper
have

the

undergone

that which

in the

it had

previous one.
Already many
with discoveringreasons
why their
relations one
to another
and
to the
rest
collectively
of the world
marked
were
by so high a degree of selfSome
restraint.
insist that they were
unready for
at least that they had
not
or
completed their
war,
writers

themselves

occupy

for

arrangements

the

increase

of their

proportionatedegree. Another
due
dispassionateattitude was

opinion

not

to allow

of
them
"

it is true

and

the

were

in

the

course

far

as

the

new

among

to

one

of the Balkan

acquire strength

consideration

to

While

any

them

that

as

the

their
powers

is that their

fixed
or

sufficient to

resolve
tion
federaentitle

seventh

so-called

great power.
balance of power

the great nations


prevailingbetween
peace
condition
of
unstable
a
equilibrium,yet
very
of

conviction
justifiesour
that, as
of
concerned,
Europe was
public opinion
humane
spiritwhich is everywhere manifest
events

the

the

and
intellectual,
intelligent,
241

to

in

armaments

thoughtful

Attitude and

Temper
"The

of

Powers"

BALKANS

THE

242

powerful to compel recognisufficiently


tion,
of the struggle,
the horrors
as
especially
growing
more
shocking, served as an awful example to
ever
the militaryand bellicose minority everywhere.
the highestauthority
have heard
In any case, we
on
don,
the beginning the Foreign Offices of Lonthat from
and
Berlin, Saint Petersburg, Vienna, Rome,
classes

was

were

one

different

the two

vital

generalpublic that

of
what

one

or

heartilyagreed.

had

passed
that

for axiomatic

should

war

was

break

out

would

of the great powers

more

the

convince

to

was

course,

utterly fallacious,namely,
in the Balkans,

the

to

as

of Allies

sets

first care,

Their

Agreements

of

mind

question of
In this, throughout the long sesthe war.
sions
localizing
in Saint James's Palace,
of their ambassadors
Paris

necessitybe involved in it,and that the peace of


all Europe might be endangered. This accomplished,
lieved
beissues were
they turned their attention to what
of

be

to

of

could
and
of

one

no

them

its territorial
To

both

importance

should

make

possessionsin

of the

inevitable

part of

any

uncertain

no

to

understand

Asiatic
iThe

from

does

tones

that

Turkey

world

that

From

move.

displayed

at

were

of

The
Berlin

they

which

reader
in 1878.

the

gave

agreement

increase

world.1

to

be

will note

new

the
the

minor

^Egean
warring

involved
in this

among

frequently been

has

Constantinople,the
not

to

questions,questions without

was

In

effort

any

impossible,reference
made, namely, to the creation of
of
Albania, and to the disposition

all six

all.

there

satisfactorysettlement

them

to

emerged the fact that unity of


nance,
be secured
only by a self-denyingordiall that
and
accordingly they agreed one

their discussions
action

vital

temper

state,
Islands.

powers
Straits, and
in the

field

utterly different

SIX

of

AND

POWERS

operations;in
of

the

other
and

war,

BALKAN

WARS

243

words, that whatever


diminished

however

the outcome
her

pean
Euro-

possessionsmight be, there was to be at the close


a
Turkey in Europe that should be the seat of power
for the head
of Islam
rulingas caliphin the spiritual
secular
affairs of all Mohammedans,
and
as
prince
the lands of Asia where
over
a majority of the population
Turks.

were

extremely difficult to bring into being a nation- Creating a


Nation
not
existed, and would
alitywhich
probably never
pean
be in existence except for the exigenciesof Euronow
of
politics.It was, therefore, the main work
to secure
the negotiatorsat London
unanimity as to
Albania
which
the boundary lines of an
to be
was
istrative
not
merely a geographicalexpression,but an adminwithout
ence
refermuch
district sharplydelimited
what
to
nationalitycomposed its
types of
this question was
population. Perplexing in itself,
further
complicated by that of emancipating Servia
from
the economic
ing
tyranny of her neighbors by securIt is

to her

agreement
as

free

commerce

in
finally,

was

follows

Albanian

access

to

outline

the Adriatic.
at

This

tially
least, substan-

boundaries

to

were

be fixed

partlyby

the

partlyby an international
graphic
of inquirystudying on the spot the ethnocommission
This work
frontiers.
has been accomplished,
for that portion of
and
a
suggestion has been made
ambassadors

their

labors

themselves

relates

which

frontier,where
square
to

be

divided

state, when

eighthundred

miles

to

the

Albania

and

and

south

district of about

is,according to

between

eastern
south-

sand
fifteen thou-

their
Greece.

proposition,
The

new

by surveyors, will have about


Its area
fortythousand inhabitants.

delimited
and

and

THE

244

BALKANS

the Ottoman

under

empire, was divided


in ten
administrative
districts,

kazas, or

of any

semblance

was

no

The

wild clansmen

laws, kept

the

else in

anywhere

as

at

whatsoever.

regarded
disposed,and
shocking than

taxes,

more

As

soon

as

international
take

there

the

daries
boun-

commission

temporarily at
control of this strange people,heterogeneous
of a constabulary
and
religion,by means

habits

officers

under

extent

world.

established

once

least,the
in

an

fixed, another

were
was

the

paid no
they were

thirty-one

of which

control

of these last

peace
practicedthe vendetta to
no

Turkish

into

Sweden,
of course,

be

to

far their

from

chosen

Belgium,

or

to

neutral

some

Holland.

determined

over,

Their

power,

as

procedure had,

by circumstances,

and

so

in the
the real power
slight,
Albanian
Yet
valleysbeing apparentlythat of Essad.
is fondly believed
which
truce
a
they hope to renew
the tribes ; to pay all the bloodalready to exist among
considered
due by the various
parties; to close
money

each

tribal

may

at

all

has

success

area

the

to

been

the males
be

moment

existing feuds,

to

shall

have

any other tribe which


blood" ; thus to terminate

"owing
and

for the restoration


necessary
Such
a
system is far from

autonomy

of

provide the funds


of agriculture
and trade.
a
giving even
complete

then

to

Albania, but it is intended

been

his throne

restored, the

that when

order

shall

great powers

fix

gate
prince they have selected,promuland inaugurate a government ; this
a constitution,
would
is likely,
sidering
conprovide a semi-autonomy which
the feelingof the population,to have a closer
relation to the monarchy
to
at Constantinople than

upon

any

other.
Such

not

the

an

artificial

state-making,considered
impressive spectacle,but whatever

in

itself,is

the

future

SIX

in store, for the time

has
and

this

the

glory

BALKAN

AND

POWERS

being

have

procedure

at

WARS

least,this agreement

the

had

245

dignity yes, even


of Europe outside
"

of

preservingthe peace
the Balkan
peninsula.
As regards the ^Egean Islands, the situation is,in
some
respects, quite as perplexing. Their inhabitants
in overwhelming majority Romaic
that is,Greek,
are
"

"

in the

current

which
nationality,
until
their

of

use

the word.

has been

the whole

heart

fate, they would,

into the

of

elsewhere

stated, are

If

doctrine

the

of

proclaimed from

the housetop

is sick, were

determine

and

one

to

all,be

incorporated

of them
some
kingdom
the most
are
important strategicpositionsof the East,
to the Straits.
commanding, as they do, the entrance
A Turkey which
could
control the Straits would
not
be an
absurdity. Others of the islands,as we have

Minor
and

Hellenes; but

the

close

so

to

that to all intents and


not

would

power

in pawn
with
war

Certain

of these

by

rule

them

that somehow

dreamed

might
By

of Italians

be

the treaty

and

restored

as

soon

at

where

islands
as

are

Turkish

to

time

some

it

once

be

held

from

the

in the Levant, who

negotiatedat Lausanne,

Italy,these

control

and

resident

on

during their
of negotiation,

Turkey, ostensiblyfor purposes


however, under pressure
quite possibly,

great numbers

another

islands,again,are

seized

by the Italians,who

Asia

Asiatic,

are

of Turkish

existence

the

menace

the mainland.

they
purposes
possessionof them

The

European.

of

shores

the

Italian

dominant.

was

between

restored

military power

ence
influ-

to

Turkey
Turkish

disappears

Cyrenaica. Thus far, either of set purpose or


for lack of transportation,
the Cyrenaica has not been
completely and literallyevacuated, and consequently
the islands held by Italyhave not been restored,
though
from

the

The

JEgean

Elands

BALKANS

THE

246
has

Turkey

placed
Tripoli.

remaining in
spite of all the

officers
In

difficulties thus

nevertheless

has

agreement

been

cadres"

the

indicated,

an

reached

the fate of all the

solemnly accepted that

the

among
formulated

been

principlehas

The

great powers.

"hors

and

disavowed

and

even
islands,

not
temporarily occupied by Italy,is a matter
that the
of dual but general international
concern;
and
settle the question eventually,
must
great powers

those

that

no

of

one

itself.

for

that

and

Time

but

of

and

islands
of

be done
Dividing
Treaties
London
Bucharest

It

the

Spoil, or

momentous

so

Albania, is

the

their

European

present the
ultimate

concert.

clusion
con-

of

proof

among
determine
will
the

for

islands

these

good
Six

all the

strength of
guardianship

the
disposal are
Justice is likelyto

in the end.

be denied

cannot

exists.
of

the

of

one

agreement

alone

this agreement,

affairs

not

concerning

harmonious

Powers.

the

retain

This, although

as

faith

is to

them

The

laid down

that

certain

nervousness

was

supposed

treaty of London
the broad

lines for

the

still
to

distribution

have

of

the

and

territorial

huge
had
of

from

wrested

its determinations

boundary

of

known

the

few

as

the

the

ple.

weeks

it

each

behind

her

compensation

was

federation

important

most

fixingthe
the

federation

engaged

Turkey,

in

which

western

what

was

of

space
was

solved,
dis-

desperate
had

the Chataldja lines,was

been
vancing
ad-

city,Adrianoinvading Bulgaria in order to


of her

frontier," that
in the

the

Within

the

were

other, and

Balkan

it selected

line.

most,

the reconquest

Rumania

"correct

at

of

Europe;

Enos-Midia

defensive
to

in

parties to

with

that

was

Turkey

days,

warfare
on

the
booty which
Turkey. Quite

Balkan

sacred

is,

to

settlement

some

secure

for

the

gains

BALKAN

THE

STATES
BOUNDARIES

SHOWING
FINALLY

ADOPTED
SCALE

2'0

40

o5

OF
80

MILES
100

120

HO

IliO

_S..\

Longitude

2a

East

op^s^^aHftr^
PHiligp

24

from

Greenwich

SIX

of

the

three

by

BALKAN

very

Thrace

extinction
who

powers

247

Macedonia

powers.
blood, and

the

to

those

WARS

Christian
with

almost

devastated

been

other

soaked

again

was

AND

POWERS

of

was

her

claimed

sources,
re-

have

to

came

ination
Recrimfightingfor the regeneration of both.
is perfectlyfutile;how
the treaty of London
be violated
is unimportant. Hostilities were
to

now

over

and
in

negotiated

second

August,

treaty, that

of

Bucharest,

concluded

was

the

among
fras been

Balkan

kingdoms, while still a third


tiated
negobetween
The
Bulgaria and Turkey.
original
intentions
have
expressed in the treaty of London
been largely set aside in order
that what
the Balkan
consider

powers
at

most

be

more

is

best

only

an

enduring

London

or

even

substance
Turkish
Midia

than

upon

be

may
armed
one

the

to

for

Perhaps

truce.

what
it will

the treaty of
upon
The
treaty of Bucharest.
based

of the present agreement

boundary

basis

the

the north

and

is

shiftingof

west

the

of the Enos-

line and

that
giving it such a spinalcurvature
it retains for Turkey Adrianople and
Kirk-Kilisseh;
Bulgaria,which, in the pride of conquest, had occupied
and hoped to retain by far the largest portion of the
angle
conquered territory,is permitted to retain a little trifive
of about
the Black
on
Sea, and an area
thousand
to

square

the ^Egean.

miles
The

in western

first

Bulgaria has
were

the

scenes

is

people

are

not

with

the

by
the

access

gains, gains of
expansion of power

substantive

importance in
have been made
territory,
in
facilitywith which

very

Thrace

Servia
very

and
latest

Greece.

the
and
The

negotiations

yielded one by one all the towns


of her military glory to Turkish
indeed.
dangerous symptom
very
to discouragement, nor
are
a prey

which
tensions
pre-

Her

they

BALKANS

THE

248
the

by

dazed

the

to

misfortune.

perhaps, but sure


strugglenot only

hour, distant
return

of

strokes

They

abide

strike, when

to

for

national

the

they

dizement
aggran-

but

Nationality
in the
or

Treaty,

in the

Balkans

for revenge.
treaty of Bucharest

criticized

sharply and
because
it paid littleor no
declared
to be unworkable
doctrine of nationality.
attention to the much
vaunted
Should
the reader have an opportunityto consult Kieof the Balkans,
pert's or any good ethnographic map
The

he

will

nationalities

lines of
are

so

is such

contorted

is my

traditions,are

on

the spot

we

believe

firm

whose

interest

still greater
carried

under

throughout
line.

that

have

It has

and

leave

which

been

years
one

and
have
to

agitations

reiterated

until

Most

populationof Thrace is
that under
Bulgarian rule
more

even

control.
from

town,

eastern

and

been

Turkish

to

last few

divide

the Christian

recentlypublished
town

sible.
imposnational

that

it is to

skill with

on.

entirelyGreek,

were

like reasonable

differences, even

campaigns of the
skillfullyconducted,

it,that

cruelties

continuous,

are

question and

conviction

institutional

lie

entirelyartificial in the Balkans


paid agents faithfully
ties
serving dynas-

of

are

the

Midia

anything
of the

one

another; that the

they

press

very
imagine the

from

make
out

own

governments

been

almost

where

of

groups

of

so-called

of

almost

the work

The

to

as

assertiveness, that

rule.

scattered

even

that basis

on

It

or

that

demarcation,

frontiers

and

distribution

the

fairlysolid background

upon

that

perceive

was

than

letter has

they
been

trustworthy witness, riding


from
and
village to village
a

Thrace
of

But

horrid

but

westward

of the Enos-

villagesare smoldering
in
them
heaps of embers, the Turks
having burned
their retreat.
The
surviving Christians he found
these

SIX

assembled

in

lodged

BALKAN

Demotika,

with

Greeks.

WARS

249

Kirk-Kilisseh, Lule-Burgas,

similar

Hissar, and

Bunar
he

AND

POWERS

For

places.

He

heard

the

most

part

complaints

no

and

The
sign of ill-treatment.
populations
lived
Greeks, Armenians,
Bulgarians, and
Jews
The
Greek
peacefullytogether on the best of terms.
shopkeepers charged exorbitant prices for their wares,
but they were
honestlypaid by the Bulgarian troops.
Racial and religioustolerance
characterized
the occupation
There
were
by Bulgarians of the country.
no

saw

"

"

left behind

even

whatever

cause

few

for

Turks

who

seemed

to

have

no

complaint.

States is, as
"nationality"in the Balkan
almost
there used, a word
meaningless to us, and the
In earlier
word
"ethnographic" is scarcelyless so.
at some
were
pains to describe the processes
pages we
of
almost
trituration, commingling, and
hydraulic
ished
whereby the oldest nationalities had vanpressure,
The

term

under

Turkish

patrioticGreeks

bear

rule.
Slavic

At

this

hour

the

most

but

language, as
not
know, is no criterion,for the Bulgars are
we
Slavs.
Another
careful
traveler, a long resident in
the Balkans, published an
King
indignant letter when
Ferdinand
to be a
proclaimed the city of Monastir
Bulgaria. Basing his indignation
part of unredeemed
that
statistics taken by himself,he strove -to show
upon
tively
construceven
barely one half of the population were
connection
have
we
Bulgarians. In another
exhibit
endeavored
the best of testimony the
to
on
which
renders
of things in Macedonia
state
as
one
absurd
and ridiculous any claim throughout that land
to any
nationality,except that to the sorelydegraded
one

names;

of Macedonian.

Every

visitor

to

the Balkan

States

would

admit

that

at

BALKANS

THE

250

there

them

surround

districts which

in the

respectivecapitalsand

the

sufficient differences

are

to

stitute
con-

recognizablenationality: such
fest
be perfectlymanidifferences as, for instance, would
Stuttgart to
to a traveler,passing by rail from
and
of
Germans
the
Wurtemberg
Bern, between
like

something

The

Switzerland.

of

German

the

is not
Munich

Munich,

of

Stuttgart,nor

of

Bern; but they

In the

of

the

nor

manifest

Alsatian

of

even,

shows

case

pride

the

in

Bernese,

the

man
Ger-

the

man
Ger-

all alike

are

there

is

nationalitywhich

In

Italian.

French, and

German,

the

same

perfectly
is alike
a

the

way

Strassburg,German
by blood, in language
to
a
high degree, in institutions and laws,
effect of

influence.

and

Berlin

of

German

of

Germans.

and

Such

the

rule

French

of

considerations, although all

halt, nevertheless
distinctions which

centuries

two

throw

be

can

the

light upon

some

observed

parisons
com-

between

as

negro,
Monte-

Bulgaria. Did there exist in those


countries a large middle
or
burgher class, it is quite
in speech,
them
possible that the differences between
blood, and character,almost insignificant
as
they are,
could
be further
emphasized and enlarged so as to
Servia, and

inchoate

create

the

but

nationalities,as

we

use

that

in

word

overwhelming majority of the people


in all three, wherever
they reside, are peasants;
stirs them
to
patriotism which
frenzy is recent
mony
of the bits of testihighly artificial and, as one

West;

the
and

we

them

have

the

cited

together under
of

when

avers,

conditions

common

little difference

Such

confusions

are

the

with

even

different

more

they

are

scious
con-

tively
themselves, instinc-

between

feelingtheir brotherhood
Rumanians
speaking widely

throw

circumstances

Greeks

and

languages.

remarkable

because

AND

POWERS

SIX

the climatic variations


such

as

them

one

WARS

throughout

the Balkans

easily transform
with

all types of
rest

United

BALKAN

or

the other.

humanity
One

States.

The

from

within

influences
Turkish

are

influences.

Balkans, and
lands

strengthened and

the

which

Exactly
disuniting

with

promoted

once

were
an

iron

unyielding purpose, which is the motive


all the recent
commotions.
that reallyunderlies
power
these
Whether
incipientstates are viable or not,
time alone
determine.
As
can
yet they have all the
of turbulent
marks
youth, even of petulant childhood :
of
their eruptive diseases
loathsome.
Not
are
one
will

them

and

assimilating

willingness,even
population yield to what

the Christian

within

confound

is the

reason

in the

is true

reverse

of

not

out
year to year withboundaries
of the

the

which
its
with
eagerness,
be called broadly American
may
the

are

and

process

on

goes

cessation

stocks

race

251

an

hitherto

has

higher

than

exhibited
that

the treaty of
and

an

of

the

London

agreement

moral

standard

others.

They

and

between

ably
noticehave

regarded
dis-

charest,
treaty of Bu-

the

Rumania

Saint

and

garia
Bul-

alliance
Petersburg,and their own
which
under
they fought side by side
disregarded
all with an absence
of principlemost
them
ing
disheartenand
confess
shame
that
to our
distressing. We
the higher civilizations of the West
have
on
many
occasions
bad
set them
a
example, but bad example
is no
for utter
dissoluteness; especiallywhen,
excuse
is the case
with all these peoples,they professwith
as
fanaticism
in Central and Western
unknown
a
Europe
form
of Christianity,
the precepts of which
a
ently
apparmake
behavior.
Greek
no
impression upon
like orthodox
Christianity,
Judaism, is very largely
.affair of ritualism, and
it is greatly to be feared
an
made

at

"

BALKANS

THE

252

of
repetitions

the

that

book, the complicated


crossings,genuflections,
as
public matters
go,

prayer

elaborate

and

functions

their

anointings are, as far


utterlyvain.
experiencesas a traveler, I repeat, were
My own
the
endear
unsophisticated
mainly such as would
of these countries to any sympathetic observer
masses
The
of mankind.
simple lives of the peasantry, their
their picturesque
plain living,their frank manners,
ful
customs, their occupation in the fields,their wonderfruit orchards, and, in Bulgaria, their boundless
Attar, the sleek
rose
gardens which yieldthe priceless
comfortabe
and
cattle, the smiling valleys all this
combines
into a most
pleasingcomposite impression.
On
the other
the slightestacquaintance
hand, even
with city life appears
such folk into an
to transform
elsewhere be seen.
unrecognizableproduct that cannot
There
is no organized societyin our
of the term.
sense
The
influence of woman
is utterlyinsignificant;
one
and

"

strains
is

the

vision

recklessness

personal, a greed
of

walk

friction

and
and

to

chivalric

note

in many
matters, both
for place and office,
an

conversation,

There

manners.

private and
aimlessness

lounging indolence,

human

home
not
seems
a
creaking; the town
short, a perplexing melting-pot of unbridled
felt that nothing but war
was
passion. You

needed

to

but, in

exhibit

great stage of the world

the

on

barbaric, unripe genius of


which

they were
settinga boy to

do

warfare

work,

is the

the

work

not

amateurs,
From

of

what

trained.

not
a

man's

who

men

people playing
work

sad

in

not

and

and

sorry
are

It is

but professionalsand
we

have

said

it

seems

sad

correct
to

state

be
of

the

role to

business,
modern
sure,

but

pupilage,

expert.
to

be

manifest

BALKANS

THE

254

has,

she

substantial

and

apparently

with

territories

Paris

between
France

and

Russia

and

nevertheless
the

moral

the

been

strugglehas
over

Athens

and

familiar

of

Hungary

at

of

Paris

have

war, the
vied with

mutual

and

much

tations
feliciof

newspapers
each

they

in

other

congratulationsas

in the intercourse

reiteration

and
the

distance

frontier

the

in the

and

are

of Mediterranean
is difficult for

mean

understand.

to

Iteration

Austria-

Then,

Russia, yet
throughout

France

Greece

given to

peoples. Exactly how


others

of

support

event

usual

and

her

to

assent.

rival of

avowed

the

compliments

such

Russia's

curious

is the

leadership,Greece

addition

crossingof purposes
Saint Petersburg, firm allies as
In pretension to Byzantine
are.

is

there

furthermore,

valuable

are

fact of extreme

line between

Slavs

and

to enforce
necessary
tension all along the

Germans.

Even

the

thoughtful
German
if he
peoples
believe
themselves
in the widest
sense
engaged in a
of a higher
never-ending struggle for the supremacy
lower
civilization.
The
German
over
a
empire is on
the whole
so
loyalto its various state governments, so
in its apprehension of historical problems,
intelligent
that its
and so enormously powerful in its armaments
feelingin regard to its eastern
neighbor is, though
of calm
somewhat
ance.
assurapprehensive, generallyone
avowed

be considerate
pacifistwould
realized that Germany
and the

The
of
is the
to

staunch

may

otherwise

Austria-Hungary.

the house

union

is far

case

of

Its

and

with

the

dual

only

bond

of

archy
mon-

union

loyalty of strangely divergent peoples


In order that this personal
Hapsburg.

find

some

expression and create


has
monarchy
Hapsburg
style indicates, dual. The

outward

politicalefficiency,the
already become, what its

SIX

BALKAN

AND

POWERS

WARS

255

Hungary, and the


otherwise
two
independent states
minimized
almost
to the point of breaking. The
are
figuresof the Slavic populationsin this dual monarchy
been given. They are
have
elsewhere
proportionately
for
is now
heard
so
large that an imperious demand
within
the limits of the
federate
Slavic monarchy
a
omous
existingmonarchy, at least as independent and autonand
united
with
Austria
the Hungarian
as
Hungary only by a common
sovereignand a common
control
of finance
and
military service in so far as
Austro-Hunthey affect foreign relations. These
in Croatia and Dalmaitia, have
garian Slavs, especially
shown
a very
disturbingsympathy with the aspirations
The
of Servia.
reigning house of the monarchy is
The most
German.
populous city,Vienna, is German.
of the
The
powerful aristocracywhich is the bulwark
Hapsburg throne is in the main German, although the
whit less loyal,
of Hungary are
not one
nor
magnates
of Austria
emperor
of these
relations

is the

king

of

"

inferior

in

wealth

Whether

or

not

can

maintain

the

German

itself is

long periods paramount


humiliated
other

at

least into

elements, and

diminishing.
Austro-German

many

Within
men

strangelyreticent.

of

those

to

German
in the

power

Austria.

monarchy

question. For
and
haughty, it has been
an
equalitywith that of the
think its force is steadily
very

serious

their
of

Without

boundaries

own

power

and
in

influence

the
are

traveling,they
of the most
without
a
sense
reserve
profound
express
discouragement. It is no exaggeration to say that
Austrians
of German
desire incorporation
millions
with the German
empire.
it not
for the moral
Were
support of Germany,
be forced to play a very inAustria-Hungary would
them,

BALKANS

THE

256

ferior role in the affairs of the Hither


made

has

she

secured

and

to

war

enough
face

her

save

relations

The

German

bold

empire
chilly.

stand, exhibited

throughout
of

the

enhance

and

the

for

were

East.

dual

time

With

brave

front,
of

conduct

somewhat

her

monarchy

with

less

the
tige.
presthe

usual,

than

warm

it,

The

Austro-Hungarians
expected
Adriatic
politics.But the
stronger support
friendshiphas again improved, as the results grow
even

in their

Albania

discernible.

more

Croatian

and

discontents

has been

created, Dalmatian

been

have

suppressed,and

the

Slavic movement

generallyappears to have made losses


since the finest branch
rather than gains,especially
of
the Slav
such
Austrians,the Bohemians, have made
of the finances intrusted
to their charge,
sorry work
and have bankrupted their so-called kingdom in part,
and its great capitalof Prague almost
completely.
Whence

Servia

of

has

remains

Servia

publiclythe

moral

have

Of

far

so

years

from

of

recklessness
as

and

which

throws

of the

people.

the government

state.

The

burgher

There

It has

finds

banking is
has
recently

resident

very

strange

is concerned,

Servian

therefore,not

peoples
personally and

Servian

with

conversant

in them,
long participation
item

one

most

Servia

all the Slavic

been

improvident.
little more
than
pawnbroking.
been
published by a Frenchman,
in

financial support

and

mysterious.

Servians

the

the

come

for

Servian

many
affairs

valuable

study,

light upon

degenerated, as

the
far

largelyinto a police
his chief occupation,

in

in commercial
dustrial
inand
not
politics,
but in discountingthe
enterprisesof stability,
future. The writer gives the singleinstance of a bank
in the important city of Nisch
which
founded
was
some

five years

ago

by

two

partners with

capitalof

SIX

six

dollars.

hundred

about
doors

to

AND

POWERS

half

dollars.

treasury
The

bank

business

his

more

per

institution

these

half

and

at

one

half

shares

257

are

hundred

sand
thou-

retained

in the

been

have

bought by the public.


handsome
a
owns
countinghouse,and its
rower
expands by leaps and bounds.
Every bor-

that
gave

Of

much

WARS

rowed
securitythey borand
opened their
discount.
cent
They

that

at twelve

the
capitalized

soon

With

as

lend money

BALKAN

desired

has

loan

of

properly indorsed

note,

hundred

one

by

dollars

friend,

some

as

security. He then received seventy dollars in cash


and thirtydollars in stock, the par value of the shares
being ten dollars. As our author remarks, this is far
from
a
solitaryinstance; the passion for borrowing
is a cancer
which
slowly eats out the vitals of the
Servian
organism. These and similar charges have
been denied, and with such a temper and such
never
slack habits of finance it is quite possiblethat some
portion of the national loans were
easilynegotiated
themselves.
Servians
among
could be so raised
so, what
and

there

in other

have

must

which

lands

has

But

even

would

be

been
not

if this

cient,
utterly insuffi-

system

been

were

of

ing
borrow-

generallyknown

public. Every wild guess has been made : that


there
was
actuallya secret
understanding between
of Constantinople and Belgrade, that the
the bankers
Russia
munition
secretlyprovided funds, that amever-vigilant
to

the

and

guns

too
nothing seems
journalism.

and

can

achievements.

secured

were

monstrous

The

express

Long

for the

hence

it will
Turks
from

"

in

short,

of yellow
gullibility

plainfact is that
only amazement

Turkey and the Young


fishingin troubled waters
that

credit

on

we

know
at

doubtless

ing
noth-

Servians
appear

diplomatically
beginning to end at
were

well

Belgrade, as
the bread

in other

as

Whoever

strugglesproduced

of

Servia

commercial

has

advanced

not

she is

how

the

to

access

of

of Servia, it .assuredly
was

Austria-Hungary.

to

yet uncertain

even

desperate efforts
empire. Even

suspect that these

the backer

was

hostile

frontier

their

effect in Rumania.

some

one

capitals,
eating

of the Turkish

the semblance

observers
superficial

no

Balkan

humilitysecretlyin

of

retain

to

BALKANS

THE

258

That

important
by

portion
Austria-Hungary and Italy. Italy too, as we
still occupiesthe islands in the ^gean, which
held

as

of

from
skirmishes

to

between

important

more

Servia

warfare

Albania

and

alike

; or

yielded to

not

were

of

the

merely

African

shore

nationalityand
to

as

her.

and

at

In

the

command

general belligerency
much.

It is not

substantial

lands.

attempt
districts

Bucharest, but which

gained
a

into

if Servia, stimulated

even

last years
Italy has
that she has secured

the north
her

London

at

she has

develop

should
by Turkey's successful recalcitrancy,
to secure
a
boundary includingcertain small
it claimed

recall,

gives Italy an advantageous position


if the border
negotiate,especially

course,

which

is still controlled

for the treaty of Lausanne.

guarantee

This,

Italy

the

it is

and

given the promised

Adriatic.

Mediterranean

western

inch

an

be

to

The

She

has

portion of
consolidated

exhibited

respect

its power
in such a way
from
the other
five great

powers.

The

Germany

German
to

sea.

this

the

mously
empire has seized the occasion enorstrengthen its military forces by land and

Probably the whole


policy in consequence
Germany herself has
fact that

the

most

world

better

of

Balkan

the

secured

serious

menace

understands
wars;

clear
to

her

vision

tainly
cer-

of

civiliza-

SIX

tion

lies

warlord
be

her

along
in the

warlike

has

the

sake

German

of

for

been

We

German

for

lands

welfare;

and

defend

to

majestic organism ; and

have

reason

no

ciprocal
re-

of

believe that

to

in this

impressivepolicy.
baric
more
probable in proportion as the baratrocious
of Slavs
have
excesses
exposed
change

any

glaringexactness
be

to

in

not

and

German

self-denyingordinance
of the

Six

Germany

was,

resources

must

be

uncertain

conditions

nature

been

she

the

when

first met

as

desire

absolutelyloyal to

passed

Powers

they

the

with
what
as
engage,
it necessarily
be.
must

they

has

empire

what

much

so

which

temperament

If

expand

to

German

consolidate

; to create

won

world.

and

The

It is

the great
place of Germany among
influences
forces,the powerful interacting

seems

their

world.

the

has

warfare

Hohenzollerns

the

effort to

has been

the modern

in

is

seeking a quarrel. The great


himself
for twenty-fiveyears
to

populations

there

she

expansion,but it has been throughout the


not
entirelyinglorioushistoryof the family

their unbroken

assert

that

of

and

This

Not

259

of

proven

the tradition

to

WARS

frontier.

eastern

sense

not

what

BALKAN

great peacelord of the European

the

long

AND

POWERS

husbanded

well
as

tives
representa-

London.

at

was,

the

that

aware

bulwark

her

France

against

the
to
impending menace
men
eastward, France, with the brilliant galaxy of statespressed
now
controllingher destinies, was
equally imwith her own
task in reducing Morocco
enormous
to even
partialsubjectionand consolidatinga
colonial
empire which, in the forty-odd years since
the
be
the

and

Franco-Prussian

unwieldy, being
home

scanty

government

returns

War,
a

has
of

source

and

become
enormous

producing, at

for the national

so

vast

as

expense
least as

to
to

yet,

treasury. She, too, has

BALKANS

THE

26o

in

concerned
hesitated

to

victories

and

the

tradition

and

of

progress
that
on

cheer

Greece,

nation,

of self-restrained power

but,

deeply

sympathy
she

has

not

rejoice in its

to

great satisfaction

take

to

earliest engagements;

her

entirelyloyal to
believingherself by
been

in the evidences

which

it has

most

majestic organization

furnished

to

the

world.
Great

all, the

after

But,

Britain

throughout the

events

It

Britain.

of Great

conference,

and

and

it

Sir

minister

of

likewise

Grey,

Balkan

plenipotentiaries;
having as foreign

in

of

man

sound

standing,
under-

strong convictions, of

edge,
thorough knowlcapacity, who, throughout his

versatile

guidance of those difficult negotiationscarried


London, enjoyed not only the undivided
support
own

party, but

also

the

on

and

of

part of

that likewise

part in
which

him

gave

Egypt.

in

was

the

had

expense

only

for action.
of the

rather

the

by
from
This

all

structio
ob-

It may
and

approval
seized

of

accounts

had

the

Cyprus
of

any

other

determinations

at

admirable

dizement
aggran-

people.

They
and

land
Eng-

occupied

and

territorial

weighty.

for the

England
the

not

was

of the government

ambassador

strange but

The

Europe.

confidence

fixed

British

of his

and

thought

no

doubly

were

characterized

the

of

the utterances

reason

in

empire undivided;
the leading
high degree his was

1878

on

from

Conservatives.

the confidence

unstinted

There
at

arise

in

the

nation

councils

the

which

that

British

the

abstinence

generous

be said that he commanded

backing

that

of the ambassadors'

the

fortunate

was

Edward

of
of

the host

was

been

considering has

are

we

For

minster
at Westhave

been

sobriety which
and

readiness

ence
ever-growing influConstantinople,for
attitude

of

Berlin

protectionof, and
European policy so as to

undertake

can

we

regulate

our

Mussulman

the

we

to the

occasions

Will

Europe
and

Hear

Heed?

have

armed

to

to

go

these

for

war

is not

the

sake

of

contradiction

brief

claim

a
jects
re-

which

has

several

on

that

any

impossible,
preventing war

in terms.

and

weighty utterances, yet they


distrust.
entirely dispelled nervousness
or

not

are

Procrastination
The

that

"

to

with

power

remark
trenchant
very
intervention
be
would

absurdityand

an

All

Wild

the

made

that

and

it

to

side

Mussulman

question of intervention,he

than

other

given

bound

are

admit."

can

As

that

when

power

the advice

is

BALKANS

THE

262

lapse of
of

is the
time

essential

creates

feeling.

vice

of

interests

new

Orient.

the

and

rents
cur-

new

Wild

Europe has long heard the


Europe given with great show
of
importance and
emphasis to Turkey.
empty
Throughout generations these instructions have been
utterly disregarded and
When,
secretly ridiculed.
admonition

now,

the

of civilized

admonitions

of

the

great

powers

are

dressed
ad-

but to professing
longer to Mohammedans,
Christians, the
question naturally rises, Do
they
than
before?
the
more
signifyanything
new
Already
of the Balkan
masters
have
ample
peninsula
given an exno

of their intolerance
of

western

and

missionaries

fanaticism
at

in the treatment

Avlona.

America

is far away,
distance is reckoned, from
all the scenes
as
of Balkan
-horrors.
for the
American
travelers
are
most

part
and

temper

not, therefore, from


hitherto

of

the
lack

the effect upon

industrial,or
religious,
of

tions,
language, instituhave
Balkan
peoples. We
ered
of data, profoundly consid-

utterly ignorant

the Turks

and

the

of

the

American

interests,either

commercial,
annihilation

of

of

the

Turkish

expulsion
rule in

SIX

AND

POWERS

BALKAN

WARS

263

considered,
parts of the world, but, dispassionately

those

every

one

of

Peering

into

the

is

them

endangered

more

every

hour.

with

helpless,the

sightsof

mutilated

for

of

would

be

rash

Yet

America

which

molested

have

physical,of European nations.


War
all was
changed. While
yet, judging from

history of Mexico,
possible for
final
for

the

in the

us,

our

have

seen

warfare

western

in

outcome

there

conflicts.

and

in those

lands

have

We

for

death
both

the

once

by
have

seen

more

the

small

great

behind

the

Finally,we

seen

of

also

conditions

as

tween
be-

ordered

an

guerilla^

then

measurably
lands, already ravaged,

to

solitude,

desert

bayonets and

and

ghoulish
in

we

and

abandoned

huddled

the

the

enfranchisement

one

seen

fortifications thrown
have

from

conflict of life and

of

bullets

arms

gerous,
dan-

are

of conquest, and

delivered

districts

surviving inhabitants

of

war

have

with

Spanish

probable and
Europe only one

began

quarter,

We

devastated, and

plowed

or

strip. Already

war

extermination

combatants.

the

brutal, reckless, and

into

struggle without

canal

those

States; perhaps

what

seen

were

be

intolerable

the

into

quicklytransformed
into

of

frontier

degenerate

of

Balkan

settlement

with

to

powers

the

like

any

had

long

comparisons
conflict,and

appears

would

who

health, moral

But

that

awful

experiences

safety and

the

the

disfigured

has

to

cendiarism
in-

of

the

and

indeed

frontiers; her

own

of

cries

crippled and

generation utterly foreign

the

by

wounded,

corpses,

man

her

upon

the

prediction.

upon

peace

of

smoke

the

through

blunted

senses

moans

survivors, the
venture

future

banditti.
and

squalor
up

barbarous

to

rowed
harWe

their
and

defend

few

famine
towns.

perpetrators

of

BALKANS

THE

264
all these

high

in

holding

their

hands

out

hearts

are

and

wrung

charities

our

could

secure

seems

exhaustion

an

deeds

will be

All

and
be

can

In

the

long

of abso-

short

is not

which

our

opened

whatever

nothing

and

assistance

for

temporary.
if

seen

far distant,

ing
for such shockof any efficiency
in hand, the wild peoples of
Hat

America

and

Europe

have

we

remedy

social diseases.
both

as

mad

their

but

thirst

helpless
passions

wrought.

have

purses

but

be

and

prayers

abundant,

can

here, it

run, there as
lue exhaustion,

our

be

will

in this way

done

with

misery they

alleviate the

to

weak

hand

place denying

malefactors

the

and

other

the

On

their leaders.

were

ambitions

vain

the

combat

to

and

hunger,

who

their victims, those

among

of

the

famine,

the

misery,

the

shamelesslyconfessing

frankly and

outrages

will have

make

to

piteous

Utterly incapableof
peaceful intervention.
self-restraint and
of self-government,they will have
ers;
of order under
to ask for the restoration
foreignleadofficers
for a well-organizedconstabulary under
for

plea

who

can

of control
and

until the rod

made

the

Balkans

According

in the

to

left in the

Balkans

is reckoned

that

Bulgaria been
there

would
half

one

city
it

is

of
a

somewhat

of

memory

the

able
have

Bosnia
curious

least
to

of

is

punishment

its work

wholesome,

passionate excess.

million
a

make

been

million

degree

some

done

has

latest authorities, there


two

at

exercise

and

of correction

preventive for

permanent
Islam

obedience

command

Moslems,

million

within
these

her

At

conglomeration

impressive German
town.
half-regeneratedTurkish

Had

earliest claims,
about

boundary
The

"aliens."

Sarayevo.

the
of

it

whom

Turks.

are

her

good

of

still

are

present

hour

modern

city along
There

principal

are

and
with

impor-

SIX

AND

POWERS

WARS

BALKAN

265

statelyGreek
of mosques,
of which, the
church, and a number
one
Husref-Bey, is large and impressive,dating from the
sixteenth
with
It was
the utmost
difficulty
century.
that I got into anything like friendly relations with
its chief administrator, who
suspected that, after all
tant

Roman

Catholic

asseverations
Austrian

very

contrary, his visitor

the

to

but

was

an

tion
emissary. Some pertinacity,and the exhibia
slight familiaritywith the Koran, finally,

of

him

rendered

however,
the

churches,

communicative.

of Bosnia

Moslems

were,

on

the

said

He

that

whole, fairlycontent

; that their

religiouslife,and traditions
institutions,
received
from
Austrian
the
kindly consideration
authorities. It may
be well to interject
here that the onetime
Turkish
provinces of the Herzegovina and Bosnia
a
joint possession,belonging neither to Hungary
are
nor

to

Austria, but administered


of both

"

from

in the interests

imperial domain

undivided

an

Vienna

of

the

the
tolerant
Under
monarchy.
Austro-Hungarian
rule which
they enjoy, these Slavic Mohammedans
have
local government,
a
libertyof the press and of
no
complaints
speech, fair representation,and make
form.
of
restriction
undue
or
persecution of any
Their
is, of
kindly treatment
by Austria-Hungary
in Europe, and
well known
all Moslems
to
course,

probably

for

that

of

boundaries

the

the final settlement


similar

likewise
with

native
a

"modus

those

live within

who

Christian

states

vivendi"

the

expect

in

for themselves

coreligionists
enjoy in the
Christian
rule.
Montenegro
already under
ing
practicesa broad and kindly tolerance in dealmedan
Albanian
her few
subjects of the Moham-

to

districts

reason

that which

their

faith.
There

is

nothing

about

which

Europeans

differ

BALKANS

THE

266

about

few

Turks

still
the

and

remaining to
Straits. Many
while

encomiums,

their

describe

ness.

Apparently,'this is
the

second

; in the

in terms
men

immured
who

in

many

the

result

of

many

believed

these

Christian

the character
mingled
inter-

have

and

temperament

various

An

eyewitness in

have

numbers

ish
possess the Turkfamilies which, male and

of
a

types of Turks
the

of vast

to

tations
the devas-

escape

soldierycenturies ago,
the conquering hordes.

admixtures
to

who,

women,

and

in order

with

the

river

Turks

Turkish

moreover,

the

the

the mothers

Moslems

female, became

by

they

of Christian

"

were

themselves

The

of

millions

harems,

consider

type.

and

observer.

the

think

some

"

ties
locali-

of certain

whom

place,to

the
first,

Probably the numbers


Turks
in existence might be measured
now
ants
the descendof five figures
; the rest are
carried away
who
as
bers
captivesgreat num-

dispositionof
of reallypure
of

causes

Turks

in

worthless-

and

two

ured
unmeas-

language

no

Christians

with

Christians

the

find

porus
Bos-

the

in

indulge

to

so-called

intermingledwith

have
of

due

of

west

backwardness

to

in which

comparatively

the

the

others

which

degree

of

character

the

than

more

determinative

blood

Asia

assured

me

The
is

by

character

in different

found

valley of

Pactolus, has

Christian

married,
inter-

Minor
that

in

places.
watered

the

sands
thou-

fugitivesfrom Europe taking refuge in that


trious,
district are
people of a delightfulcharacter, indusand
to
thrifty,responsive to kind treatment
them
mutilations
inflicted upon
discipline
; the horrible
in Europe
by the soldieryof the Christian powers
with
By their
they endure
patience and fortitude.
frank, pleasant,democratic
spiritof mutual self-help
themselves
most
they recommend
highly to Euroof

They

peans.

American
in the

AND

POWERS

SIX

excellent

are

moods,

Littmann,

of

even

of

accounts

in Thrace

speak

discovered

considerable

portion
pro-

Turkish

and

lined

The

repair.

streets

reek

the
are
scavengers
their
usefulness,
license.

half-wild

enjoy

themselves

with

wood,

wares

cities
"

for

commodities
from

exhibition

the

time

of
and
mend
com-

in Western

knickknacks, and
of life.

support
to

would

as

in

only

because

dwellers

only
cheap fabrics,worthless

kept

immunity

the humblest

to

most

The

dogs who,

Islam

their

to

are

filth.

with

deal in such

bazaars

The

force

strange

settle-

Turkish

houses, for the

The

in Asia.

homes

part frame, covered

few

gentle

Professor

Macedonia.

and

and

towns

her

Among
man
most
distinguishedGer-

descriptionsalready given of
in Europe
apply with double

ments

splendid

language fairlypure,
to
are
sufficiently
give thrilling
intelligent
of their sufferings
of komitadjis
at the hands

who

some

in

nature

them

Strassburg, a

who

of

poetry.

Orientalist,has

no

in the

excavators

running waters,

and

The

267

enterpriseat Sardis, they are indispensable


harvest fields,
they are fond of their little gardens,

of

and

WARS

BALKAN

time, and

is

There

spasmodically,

almost
enterprise,but it is shown
and
European
Jews, or a few
entirelyby Greeks
Slavs.
Their
agriculture is in a deplorable state of
been
their
forests
have
so
backwardness,
ravaged
of

and

energy

that

the

supply

is

rainfall
for

raising of

the

their

and

untrustworthy
stock

for

or

water

irrigation

insufficient.

railway lines in
owned
by Germans, running from
(the
Constantinople,on to Konia
There

which

are

Asia

few

is in the

process

of

Minor

"

one,

Scutari, opposite
ancient

extension

to

Iconium),
Bagdad and

in Asia

268

BALKANS

THE

From

possibly further.

its

of

one

stations, about

length of the line, there


branch, built and controlled
by the French,
a
is also a railway from
There
to Smyrna.
runs
half

the total

on

way

Pandora,

to

English
Smyrna

the
from

with

connect

on

built

have

through

Marmora,

and

manage
Ephesus, which

German

the

cf

Sea

the

will

The

system.

which

nesia
Mag-

finally

and

line

starts

eastward

eventually

best

ties
authori-

railways have in no way changed


of the districts through which
the character
they run ;
revival of enterpriseor trade and no
that there is no
of them.
The
increase of population in consequence
almost
manufacture
of opium has come
to a standstill
affirm

that these

because

of

known,

considerable

Asiatic

Greeks

in

recent

in

which

Asia, in
have

they

stations

of

them

on

slightdegree,

the

scattered

their

The
to

of

purpose

indicate

and

there

been

were

and

were

drafted

said, proved
Because

are.

into

Quite contrary
which
imagines
in Asia
There
Asia

from
is

from
and

about

remarks

the Turkish

why

has

such

broken

of the

they

the

facts

is the

the

which

existence

of

had

rance
igno-

Minor

Turkish

is

much

they

widespread

efficient recruits

who

error

populations

can

which

the

along

the

Thracian

or

and

endurance.

no

of

source

make

which

the
supply among
armies
fightingabout

no

and

of those

character

ranks

sion
mis-

which

reed

their

to

Asia

armies, about

the

own

enterprise

headway against the dullness, apathy,


of the populations round
about.

some

have

American

here.

here

States

United

exhibit

awakened

is well

As

Turks, Syrians, and

and

seats

some

had

are

of

emigrated to the
small
proportion

their native

to

its sale.

upon

numbers

have

years.

returned
shores

restrictions

the

Macedonian

be

drawn.

Turks

in

nople
Constanticoasts

the

BALKANS

THE

270

Turks

of

been

utterly

they

held

Maritza

dispelled;

it.

after

the

gained

ago
even

and

Adrianople
valley

restore

generation

the
the

disarmament

Plevna

at

tenacity
smart

with
return

of

Bulgaria

has
which
to

the

not
can-

HOPES

AND

871

FEARS

AND

HOPES

THE
dimensions
been
far

so

difficulties
To

all

them

become

flutter

the

on

all

of

wings

of

amity

nations

been

have

find

of

those

The

personality.
and
it has

organized

been

extended

activities.
a

national

there

goal,
must
rare

We

is
for

personal
all

which

strive.

ever

in

natural

of

It

one.

men

Yet

the

of

is

will

good

the

and,

virtue

field
that

even

and

in

ciplined
disviduals
indithat

social

of

is'

there
in

sense

of

far

attractive

brilliant

so

between

so

same

the

sternly

and

persuaded

in

for

which

entire

the

cover

almost

persons,

into

Many

to

are

is

their

denounce

They

analogy

society

conscience
a

trained

highly

questionable
un-

workrooms,

and

virtues

the

have

funds,

safeguard

other

in

than

courts.

by

ample

delivery.

no

national
inter-

to

Moved

justiciable.

mail

every

matized
stig-

relations

countinghouses

our

and

armaments

reference

with

gone

moral

of

which

shining

and

high principle
self-restraint

them,

easily

is
generates
de-

pusillanimity.
our

worthy

pacifists
273

have

suffered

Peace

Propaganda

uncivilized

settlement
of

supplied

has

have

utterly

as

The

have

become

international

and

and

into

but

that

of

They

every

except

legal
zeal

tracts

and

questions

alike

themselves

brutal

force

of

would

Indeed,

combatants.

wordy
merely

not

display

have

assumed

years
ago

utterly Utopian.

and

as

recent

century

its advocates

that

challengers

all

half

which

considered

in

has

movement

peace

FEARS

pro-

BALKANS

THE

274

Encouraging

found

Facts

of

Eastern
for

when
half

in

discouragement
but

Europe,

the

there

are,

great encouragement,
the

course

must

be

consider

we

We

century.

history

contemporary
not

nevertheless,reasons
to say for elation,

of

during

events

struck

by

the

fact

that

flicts
conforty years there have been no armed
the reallyadvanced
between
nations, and that
throughout a period of nearly two
years, rife with
for disagreement; yes, even
for considering
possiblereasons
honor
and offensively
of
the
point
upholding
made
between
have
not
them, they
merely
ing
self-deny-

for

over

but

agreements,

faithfulness

conscientious

likewise observed

have

hitherto

them

dealings. They have shown


but they have exhibited
a fine self-restraint,
which
has
regarding their unruly wards
alike

themselves,

wars

Origins
Balkans

has

Enough

Common
in the

indicate

how

the

Balkan

day

and

to

been

said

uncertain
States.

nation

in the

is

what

we

ask

we

are

afforded
Balkan

to

nationalityof
in

ourselves

this

tion
the constitu-

requisitefor

sorely puzzled

find

to

that all the

know

previous chapters

so-called

is the

patience

posterity.

-to our

When

generation

of

and

us,

merely

not

in the

the contestants

to

in

unknown

international

superb example

with

old

any
ideas

We
satisfactoryanswer.
been
have
of memory.
relegated to the chambers
There
are
powerful and, in a sense,
homogeneous
zens
citistates
which
have
no
singlenessof origin,whose
not

are

who

have

passion

no

for

nations
unrelated

descended

expansion
are

parts, all

central governments.
of

speech,

for

has

the

ancestry, and

common

unity of

common

which

from

tradition.

ous
produced strong and vigormost
amazing congeries of

livingharmoniously
In these nations

struggles

Indeed, the

to

secure

under

there is
the

use

single
no

of

unity
one

HOPES

FEARS

all their citizens

language by
friction and

AND

difficulty;
or,

disunion

even

knowledge

and

Nor

does

less

or

is in

facts, there
which

lives any true


the administration

more

divided

stationed

the

With

undisputed

great

temporary
con-

equalityin

such

consciousness

is nevertheless

in

of the laws.

Europe

some

possess

of dangerous

cause

unity or
of

of

source

is there

imperfect

Eastern

worse,

national
institutions

be

to

prove

revolt.

and

275

stock

race

of

common

hopelesslyinto the
Having made
great sections of north and south Slavs.
careful inquiriesfrom
the most
the
intelligent
sources,
is convinced
writer
that there is a unity of language
all Slavs
unsuspected by the great majority,
among
of scholars.
Russian
A
even
diplomat long in the
origin and

service, and
lands

outside

of

for

and

with

be

part

Slav

other

any

peoples who call themselves


Aside
those
who
are
styled Latins.
origin,tradition,and speech, the Slavs

unity in the matter


organization.
observer

further, he
great
any

race

of

must

beholds

stock,more

other, embittered

religiousfaith
feel
the

south
unified

Slav

Teutons
from
have

can,

stand
underof

true

the
of

or

unity
a

of

further

ecclesiastical

and

of

sense

dismay when,
portion of this

in these

against the

stock

any

is not

Slavic
that

Slav, both

born

which

understood,

of

different

The

in

Russia, vigorously asserted

patient,slow-speaking,born
in conversation

most

Elements

Disunion

respects than

Slavic

north;

and

organizations,
hopelesslyshattered into petty political
than
rather
to
emphasize differences
eager
for
to
correspondences. It is customary
preserve
those who
attach a somewhat
sacrosanct
meaning to
the word
"republic"to declare these evils the result
of dynastic conspiracies. Such
talk is not
merely
itself

of

BALKANS

THE

276
untrue,

it is

Balkan

that every
and

Our

stupid.

readers

observed

that of little Montenegro

dynasty, except

Obrenovitches

blood-stained

the

will have

of

Servia,

the great foreign


reigns because of agreements among
is tolerated
of Europe, and
nations
by its subjects
terests
just in proportion as it identifies itself with their inwhat
and
they call their patriotism. It will
be only in the next
generation of reigning Balkan
themselves
so
sovereigns, if the dynasties maintain
peoples will feel
long, that the respective Balkan
themselves
The

quarrels

of

little states

these

they have
unsuspected degree they

those

who
the

great

of

local

merely petty

reason

The

which

large agglomerations
of the

tracts

Balkan

of that

Servia

sits

within

which

his

on

local

itself with

the

limited control.

something like
not

of like-minded

perception of

to

There

local units.

still the

that the

are

nor

even

people ;

where

are

in

still others
of

real government,

hundreds
there
but

can

by

king

of

degree

cerns
con-

its

live under
there

where

which

welfare

that

It is

districts

other

some

of all who

perception

tens

of

There

welfare

are

tude,
fascinate the multi-

primitive man

government

There
a

exceptions

peninsulawhere

throne.

be

may

is that of the vendetta.


of

curse

who

men

rare

giftswhich

the

possess

sort, for

some

leaders.

institution
controlling

common

stage of

history, except in an inchoate form; with


of personal like or dislike
patriotism is a matter
siasm
leader, an affair of reciprocalinterests, of enthufor chieftains

are

an

their

them
for

clan

To

politicalconsiderations

It is not

government.

still in the

are

to

tion
civiliza-

lies deeper,

which

mold

due

are

namely, the stage of


respectivelyreached.

which

cause

rulers.

native

have

to

but

to

be noted

where,

as

is
is

millions
a

hazy

yet, this

THE

278

that

will

district

stern

Even

more

fixed

no

other

than

Armed

hour

sanction

than

within

is heralded
that such

convenient

pressure

Balkans

from
that

applicationof foreign force.


if it be freely admitted
as
a

the
as

state

administrative
without
of

fact

and

unbending
that elsewhere

perpetuallyflying
throughout
long period,and
that within
three generations there has been
two
or
comparative peace within their increasingbordefs, yet
been
have
tions
we
eyewitnesses of the fact that the relabetween
those larger communities
better
are
no
than
between
ordered
the smaller.
Wild
they were
be wild
to
Europe has continued
Europe, with the
single difference that the contestants
were
brigands of
a larger growth.
The
increase
in military strength on
the
enormous
of
the south Slavs, however
divided
selves
thempart
among
be, accompanied by a similar steady
they may
the north
growth of military strength among
Slavs,
has produced the conviction
in Germanic
Europe that
its eastern
frontier
is possible,except
no
on
peace
armed
enforced
an
a
by sheer brute
peace,
peace
manifests
strength against a lower civilization which
its growing pains in such fierce strife as that of the
last year.
Americans
ation
can
easilyrealize the situvery
of both Germany
and
Austria
if they
German
similar neighbor upon
figureto themselves
a
ous
contigubut
territoryin a like state of semicivilization,
able to call within a few days a well-armed, equipped,
and drilled army
numbered
thousand
by the hundred
at

An

for what

petty local communities

Peace

present

hardly believe

can

kept together by

with

ruled
and

be

ever

the

presented at

arbitraryboundaries
coming state. We

of the

laboratories

ineffective human

in the
than

BALKANS

each

other's

throats

were

FEARS

AND

HOPES

279

Throughout our history we have felt,


have
civilized Europe has, and
proved by action,
as
have
the European powers
latterlydone, that our
as
be permitted
neighbors to the south must, if possible,
their own
to fightout
quarrels; but we have also felt
be brought to book
by
they must
that, if necessary,
and
force
tions,
armed
military sanccompelled, under
murder
from
and
to
rapine,to exercise
cease
tions
self -discipline
that
much
least so
at
orderly relaAs
have
with them.
we
might be maintained
of
in another
remarked
connection, the armaments
increased
been
world
to
have
an
the
European
of the
solely and entirelybecause
appalling extent
is believed
which
to exist in the possibleand
menace
in
even
probable exercise of the force accumulated
into

the field.

the

Balkans

for

the

purpose

of

latest

these

wars.

shake
neighbors,nothing
conviction
that the only peace
an
possiblewas
our
word
have previouslyused their own
We
armed
one.
How
"extermination."
an
near
approach to that
is displayedin the figures
dreadful goal has been made
of
in the first weeks
taken
of a Bulgarian census
In the conquered territories assigned
January, 1914.

Were

to

them

the

outbreak
alive

are,

of

adult

of

only

The

of

wars

occupy

the

remained

!
of

many
there

all 'the Six

of hostilities and
of the

before

702,000

hostilities;at their close there

relations

these

numbered

males

300,501

of course,

unity

close

their

we

could

other
to each
European powers
sided.
Throughout the duration

Great

confine

combatants.

But

relations

which

the strained

as

was,

repeatedly noted,

Powers

to

Relations

real

delimit the field

fightingto
they had other
occupied and
the

Delicate

the territories
and

very

continue

attention of their statesmen.

portant
imto

The

ow"

of

Entente

Triple

wooing Spain; the


policy for those

was

Mediterranean

common

of

shores

the

control

have

matter

from

the

Great

dwelling on
itself .in
terranean
Medi-

forum

of

lic
pub-

Britain

in

that

widely different
Spain, Italy, Greece, and
and

changed

of

those

of

question of

into
of

interests

not

whole

the
thrown

was

The

debate.

and

way,

notion

manifested

Mediterranean

the

imperious

an

BALKANS

THE

28o

France,

are

Russia.
the

Meanwhile,

the

complacency
union
was

between

the

Scandinavian

three

successfullycultivatingtheir

efforts

made

to

promote

feelingbetween
little short

exertions

Great

as

The

better

Britain

The

will.

milder

Germany
have

and

powers,

good

and

and

There

been

of

state

been

have

important
the

entirelyproportionateto

not

yet

made.

sides

of Herculean.

results,but
both

Triple Alliance was


regarding with
better
closer
understanding and

most

hystericaland

that

be

can

said

is that

on

is

unreasoning bitterness

no

longer manifested, and that the wisest and calmest


public opinion in both nations regards with interest
and
some
degree of
approval every effort to create
about
at this distance
cordiality. We hear very much
porary
the proposal for a naval holiday,that is, for a temcessation
involved

Yet, in

the

and

waste

extravagance

in the

rivalry for overwhelming


enthusiasm
for a suspension of

our
we

important
the
her

very

into

the

made

of

the

should
way

Balkan

be

reminded

that

Greece, having been

in

sea

power.

war
a

rations,
prepa-

small

successful

but
ing
dur-

policy, has seen


existence
nation
once
as
a
again thrown
balance
nought,
by Turkey's purchase of a dreadthat
her
prime minister, Venezelos, has
round
of the European Cabinets
asking that
wars

in

her

naval

HOPES

they forbid
by land or

AND

FEARS

281

the renewal

by Turkey of hostilities either


that a sop may
be
and, incidentally,
sea;
thrown
of his fellow
to the unreasoning exaltation
by leaving,at least for a time, Greek
countrymen
within
the lines desigtowns
garrisons in the Greek
nated
frontier
the
of
Albania.
as
Now,
nothing
could be easier than to command
by sea between
peace
Greece
and
Turkey ; but who shall issue the mandate,
and who
shall profitby commanding
such a cessation
of arms
? Italyand Austria-Hungary, without attracting
much
attention,are steadilyincreasing their naval
with a view to just such an emergency
the
power
; and
increase of existing naval power
direction dein any
mands
a general readjustment and
produces a nervous
uneasiness

in

in that

supreme

Close

nations

the

hitherto

accustomed

be

to

regard.

examination

of the relations

between

the

kan
Bal-

Triple Alliance reveals sources


of
disturbance
which, though momentarily sealed,
might easily be reopened. When
Austria-Hungary
revision by the Six Powers
demanded
of the treaty
a
of Bucharest
which
distributed
the spoils and
was
signed by representativesof all the Balkan
States,
her trusted
except Turkey, on August 10, 1913, it was
the plan
ally and bulwark, Germany, which thwarted
and
announced
its emphatic approval of the treaty.
This
due
to
was
a
widespread and firm conviction
that Emperor
William
had
given to his brother-infor moderation
law, King Constantine, convincing reasons
powers

in the
had

enforced

zollern
It
to

was

the

and

the

demands
similar

relative,the

of

Greece

on

considerations

the
with

one

his

side

and

Hohen-

king of Rumania, on the other.


without
that in reply
question highly significant
emperor's congratulatory dispatch King Carol

282

THE

of

Rumania

In

order

it

was

BALKANS

expressed thanks for services rendered.


soothe
Austro-Hungarian susceptibilities

to

at

necessary

later

for the

date

to

emperor

loyal friendshipfor his faithful ally,


Austria-Hungary.
Italy supported Austria-Hungary in her demand
that Scutari be included in Albania, and this was
an
of tremendous
act
the muchsignificance,because
loved consort
of King Victor Emmanuel
is the daughter
of King Nicholas
of Montenegro, and
mentally
temperadevoted
a
patriot a fine, public-spirited
alike as regards the land of her birth and that
woman
of
her
adoption. Naturally enough, some
slight
jealousy of Austro-Hungarian influence in the new
Albania
has been
felt throughout every
rank
of the
Italian people. This
uneasiness
further
was
ened
heightprotest

anew

"

it

when

known

was

that

excitable and

the

curial
mer-

of the
population of Triest, the new
queen
Adriatic, the metropolis of "Italia Irridenta," had
taken
this opportunity to make
anti-Italian
strations
demonbefore

temper

thus

Italian

the

is

created

consulate.
influence

likelyto

far

How

the

Italy'scourse

regarding the ^Egean Islands she had seized from


be known
at
cannot
Turkey and still holds in pawn
the present writing, but what
felt in
is thought and
the nervous,
pean
hypersensitivechancelleries of the Euroin a British note
to the
capitals is manifested
Powers

of

issued

Albanian
which

In

of

1914.

to soothe
Ostensiblythis note was
both
Italy and
Austria-Hungary

south

30,

in the first weeks

1913,

frontier
to

was

but had

reality,it

been

have
been

appears

and

the work

regarding

for

if its

more

the

sion
of the commis-

completed

delayed
as

the exasperation

on

than

November
a

month.

weightiestparagraphs

HOPES

AND

FEARS

283

those

dealing with the question of the ^Egean


Islands
held respectively
and
by Greece
Italy. The
note
suggests the retention by Greece of all the islands
it had
of the
occupied,except the two at the mouth
and
Dardanelles, Imbros
Tenedos, always with the
of them
make
nor
understandingthat she fortifynone
base.
naval
It further
one
a
emphasizes and
any
assurances
repeats the categorical
given by the Italian
were

that

government
it would
attention

the conclusion

on

the islands

evacuate

the

to

from

fact that while

cadres"

officers

the

had

Lausanne

islands
to

had

form

of

suggestion of

the

not

ported
trans-

of its army,
placed "hors

remaining, and that the


thus acquired full validity.
When
ripe for settlement.
to Turkey they should, according

restored

are

and

had

there

time, therefore, is

these

remnant

every
disavowed

it

The

Turkey

Tripolitansoil

nevertheless

treaty of

of peace with Turkey


it had seized. It calls

autonomous

the

receive

note,
This

government.

some

proposition

is

manifestlyintended to placate all the Mediterranean


Italians
including Turkey and Italy. The
powers,
have
been, during the period of their occupation,untiring
in the improvement of their temporary
sions,
possesdeveloping the
especiallyin organizing and
still
but considerable, which
long untouched
resources,
exist in those Elysian spots, notably in Rhodes.
Inasmuch

as

the

threefold

respectivemembers

in each

of

the

understandings, by
whichever
name
fully
they are known, sedulously and carewatch
each
other in regard to the strength of
their available militaryarmaments
by land or by sea,
two

it is manifest
be

that these
from

renewed

situation

arrangements

were

time

or

semi federal
to

time

as

unions

they

fairlysatisfactoryto

are

all.

would

not

unless

the

Of

course

BALKANS

THE

284

have

of

politicsin

internal

readjustments of

the

each

all

and

foreign affairs. By means


elaborate
diplomatic system, however, each
the situation as regards
thoroughly understands
of publicknowledge
other ; not merely in matters

much
an

power

every

their

with

do

to

their

but, oftentimes, through

confessed

of

system

We
intended
to be kept secret.
espionage, in matters
the
reasonably conclude, therefore, that, on
may
factory.
whole, the existingsituation is considered fairlysatisThe
that
The

"United
States

Europe

has

of

existed

for

habit

good

of

jias ]Deen

crystallizedso
future.

the

force

is not

to

or

far

as

any

without

arbitration

give great promise

to

as

of

deliberations

of

good

of

courts

habit

The

difficulties to the cool

stable

as

peaceful negotiation

either

to

quite

generations.

two

recourse

for

is

equilibrium

referring acute
international

an

so

well

established, although promising

beginnings have

been

made.

court

the
While
the

such

far

the

as

"United

Six

of peace

Powers

of

idea

ought

connoted
realize

to

concerned,

are

cussed
long disEurope."

realization

from
the

to

have

States

is far

generally

yet lovers

words,

federation

attached

sense

those
as

of
possibility

Idealists

in

by
that,
has

much

been

toward
accomplished during these recent
years
furnishinga practicaland strikingexample of what a
able
do
for the
would
be
to
more
perfect union

visionarythat
become

Europe

continent.

alike

It

seems

initial unstable

an

stable

more

in

the
like

civilization

higher
for possible conflict

the

the

It is not

is confronted

exists

which

that

such
and

more

Western

mankind.

of

advancement

of

equilibriummay

and
with

dream

trustworthy
the

as

ation
difficult situ-

portion of that
categoricalimperative

eastern
a

should
and

for

unite
the

all its

forces,

peaceful uplift

BALKANS

THE

286

be tried for their


may
formed
two
fairlystable

utterlyimpossiblethat

of the two

one

in

Balkan

should

so

tually
even-

other

no

be

be

not

way.

have

powers

of

four

that

fact

the

and

out

strength the

the

there

it would
federations,

be consummated

arise that could

Considering

Should

purposes.

them

hibited,
ex-

proved

the

for so short a time, it


even
efficiencyof federation
that only by closer and
be finallyrevealed to them
must
present a respectable
longer federation can they finally
the right
Central
toward
front
Europe and assert
which

claim

they

for

determine

to

their

themselves

final destinies ?
Each
its

of these

possiblyexert
Joseph

has

to

exhaust

frontiers

own

is the

of

effective demand,
dual

to

organized into
the
can

the
than

those

to

in his

division

an

question

similar

monarchy;

tripleone, having

Hungary
gathered to his
be

now

livelybut uncertain
enlargethe kingdom so
greater frontiers

be

the

rule

of

the

crown

When
that

the worst

from

without.
statesmen

It must,
to

curb

aspirationsof their people to


that it will comprise within still
claim

number
the

to

something of that sort, because


will be more
of disintegration

all who

great

even

tion
popula-

maintains.

fathers

therefore, be the task of Rumanian


the

not

its Slav

relations

with

state

centrifugalforces
counteracted
by pressure

under

could

they

tion
believe, for its transforma-

we

as

which

aged ruler is
happen would

the

effort

within

do

While Francis
thirtyyears to come.
sovereign of Austria-Hungary there can

no

every

to

for

be

from

quite enough

states

Dual

to

be Rumanians,

cluding
in-

inhabiting Transylvania
Monarchy.

Nor

will it

entirelyeasy to pacify her new


subjectswithin the
strategicfrontier to the south, which she has recently
acquired. Most of them are Turks and Moslems, while

HOPES

FEARS

287

patrioticBulgarians. It will be a matter


to
frontier,to
fortify this new
expense

are

many

AND

enormous

of
tablish
es-

and

Sea
enlarge her Black
commerce,
and
strengthen her already redoubtable
army,
better relations
with
her powerful neighbor

to
secure

the

on

north.
The

burdens

come

of

to

Servia

heavier.

even

are

extent

which

her

She

greater part of

lot it has

long

the

and

human

of

process

there,but

annihilatingall
The

physical.
in the

they

in the

south

Novi-Bazar

social

and

of

assimilation

the

Bulgarized Serbs, who,


will

in

Servians.
the

In

komitadjis

bands
the

ten

to

trial

exhausted
Servian

than

all

lines

are

numbers

as

difficult

claims, of

Servia

of Macedonia

ing,
train-

her

to

enthusiastic

become
has

are

first to

outlaw

of those cruel
bring the members
and punishment ; she has to lay before
tween
bethe choice
villagersof Macedonia
and
Bulgarian nationality,and more

lines.

Salonica

she

whose

and

else,she

is

Moslems

if left undisturbed
years

still

are

Bulgarians.

them

Bulgarians

meanwhile

the

economic

system

Servian

Albanians.

fifteen

or

resources,

Mohammedan

by

organizationmake

as

her

Christian

by

are

that the so-called

course,

held

are

whose

completed

rich pasture lands

north

Albanians, and
The people of
station

almost

the
fallen

Macedonia,

tribulations,already described, have

to

years

nearly doubled
her

to

for

carry

has

territory,and
the

regenerate

must

lay the foundations


of
prosperity,by means

has

She

for

to

expects, when

finallyconnected

the

Greek

of Larissa
way
her
north, and when

of

put

into

satisfactory condition,

of tourists

from

her natural beauties from

railway

by

that

the west
car

manent
per-

portation
trans-

new

with

the

that

and
own

great

will at least behold

windows,

and

particu-

288

BALKANS

THE

Rumanian

larlythat
line for
thus

easier

by

traffic she

will

In

the

to

access

substantial

will

commerce

of

of

trunk

new

Mediterranean,

growth

and

that

freight and

increase

enormously

the

use

passenger
material
perity.
pros-

her

union

with

Montenegro
have
direct access
she would
to the Adriatic
through
Antivari
and Dulcigno. The
donia
neglected fields of Macealso be restored
to
must
tillage,what are still
once
again be rebuilt for human
smoking ruins must
than
habitation, and a more
vigorous administration
she has hitherto practiced must
be created
and set in
be a moral
operation. In short, there must
tion
regeneraof her people on the civic side equal to that which
it has undergone on the military. These
labors of
are
Hercules.
We
be percan
only hope that they can
formed
by those to whom
they are intrusted.
The
task of Bulgaria is equally severe.
all
Above
else, her

case

that
is

of

Her

possiblythe

of

of

Austria-Hungary

and

embittered

friendship of
against further
in spiteof the
the

settlement
to

these

is accused
on

other

the
are

one

states

creation
made

of

the

win

To

one

will

side with

her
and

ruthless

keep

the

only resource
Dual
Monarchy,

The

Albania, is dissatisfied with


and

the

new

of

and

of

secretly supporting

of

the

as

What

her

seems

solidification
of

on

with

other

Bucharest

at

quarantine
made

the

depredations.

prevent

complete

very
than

of all her endeavors

Turkey.

enemy

her

combatants.

recent

on

and

more

helpful relations

It is afraid
It

the

is

distasteful

most

be the cultivation

and

resuscitated

exhaustion

other

any

be

must

courage

life restored.

customs

Servian

ditions.
existing conlarger Servia.

Albanian

frontiers,while

regulations and

exasperating as

mined
deter-

seems

their

turbers
dison

the

ment
enforce-

possible. It

like-

HOPES

wise

claims

AND

specialrate

FEARS

for the

transportationof

What
is worst
goods to Salonica.
a protectorate over
likelyto demand
dwelling in Servia similar to that
exercise

Roman

over

frontiers.

Whether

Greece, with
able

to

it

Catholics

assistance

some

keep

the

for

Roman
which

from
be

seems

Catholics

the

may

of

matter

to

Albanian

Rumania,
a

its

it claims

within

would

peace

all, it

of

Servia, Montenegro,

not

or

289

and
be

doubt

ria,
prostrationof Turkey and Bulgaand
both of which, though still warlike, are
prone
be for long years
panting and cannot
dangerous
very
antagonistseither by sea or by land.
Necessity laughs at theory : how far the antiquated
based
creed and language,
on
principleof nationality,
from
The
the map.
has been
disregarded appears
delimitation
contemplated in the secret treaty scouted
The
boundaries
it entirely,as the sketch line shows.
attention
to it,
more
tentativelyfixed pay somewhat
frontier between
but still very little. The
Turkey and
were

not

the

Bulgaria begins north of Iniada on the Black Sea and


Adrianofrom
miles or more
ten
curve
by a westward
River, which it follows to the
ple reaches the Maritza
portions of this segment the
^Egean: in the northern
inhabitants
they are
are
Bulgarians; in the southern
fession
Greeks, almost exclusivelyso on the ^Egean. By conwhelmingly
of the people are
Moslems, indeed overmost
so.

The

valley

slight gain
of

in the

main.

the annexation

^gean

coast

of the Mesta

Galadschio

the

Agathopoli :

Bulgaria

of

the

on

River

the

Euxine

with

the

is the

port

of

populationis Bulgarian and Christian


substantial
The
enlargement by
more
Thrace

of western
from
; and

the

by

mouth

the

of

to

the

the south
Maritza

also
acquisition

of the
to

that

of the inland

BALKANS

THE

290

valleysof

of Strumnitza
these

presents

limits

Christians

and

Greeks

the

Pomaks,
most
serious; their fanaticism
years
on

their Christian

four
of
is

they perpetratedthe

ago

and

kinsfolk.

the town

Turks:

some

Macedonia

problem of the
Moslem
Bulgarians

But

with

problem. Within

Bulgarians

are

with

amalgamate

to

eager

serious

very

northeastern

people of

the

numerous

are

Rivers

Struma

and

the Mesta

their

hundred

folk.
kins-

thousand
is

Thrace,

western

excessive, and

thirty

most

frightfulatrocities

They

stand

now

an

solved
un-

enigma, and might, under contingencies easily


imagined, largelyneutralize the advantage gained by
Bulgaria in securingan outlet to the ^Egean.
consider
that Greece
Many
requires a period of
that essential both
as
recuperation quite as extended
her
to
Bulgaria and Turkey. She has to maintain
preeminence by sea; she has to fortifyand garrison
the long and
unscientific
frontier
recently acquired.
In

Salonica

^Egean;

she

than

more

probable

livingelsewhere

its

inhabitants

be Hellenized

possibleto

of

; and

financial

than

hundred

one
are

were

of

harbor

coveted

most

half

thousand

and

the

has

and

Spanish Jews
it

enty-five
sev-

not

for the sible


poskinsfolk
her

not

assistance

the

of

in the

enlarged Hellas, the possibility


of assimilation would
desperate.
appear
On
the mainland
she has southern
Epirus, but is
forced to leave within the Servian
frontier large numbers
of her compatriots and
withdraw
her garrisons
from
their towns.
This
is likelyto prove
of
a
cause
to arouse
unceasing turmoil and an exasperation sure
intermittent

outbreaks

of

violence.

She

hand-shaped peninsula of Chalcidice


shore.

the

Her

boundary begins

Vozintza

and
east

watershed,the

secures

the
of

the

nian
Macedo-

cludes
Corfu, in-

entire Wistritza

HOPES

the inland

valley,and
of
but

these

there

substantial

the

By

number

Christians,

Vlachs

of

both

She

the ^Lgean.

key

to

she

already possesses

thrace, and

Albanians

will add

is such

that

to the

menace

of

found

be

in

have

and

will

their

take
of

is weary

for

Samo-

maintain

under

The

tension

with

of the troubles

key
Tur-

standing
existing

power.

is

dreary outline, however,

helplessnessof the
have
boys who
fought it

kan
Bal-

very

mutual

wounds,

the

will

the

islands

is still another

great

respect

though

long to heal.
its increasing

which

had, makes

this

wholesome

other, and

Hellenic

the

Like

powers.

has

Egyptian
momentarily quenched,

peaceful solution

reverse

she

the many

to

remains

in it there

expansion of

The

they

Turks.

and

Crete

Samos

perhaps.

Thasos

and

In

ever.

Italian aspirationsare
sway.
but they are
annihilated.
not

to

uplands,
communities, and

Chios, Mitylene,Lemnos,

Tenedos,

its autonomy

in the

the

on

in various

greater than

extent

an

largelyGreek

itants
inhab-

contemplated disposalof the ^Lgean islands she


insular and of necessitya maritime
an
power

becomes
to

The

are

Moslems

291

of Monastir.

Moslem

many

Greek

FEARS

south

districts

are

numerous

AND

All

rest

of

the

Europe

The

armaments.

powers

for

mortal, ache

not

the

one

out,

have

so

rience
expe-

recently

better

them
and
acquaintance among
their peoples; for a higher degree of self-respect,
and
of the general equilibrium,which,
for the continuation
exists.
nice in its adjustment, nevertheless
however
The
problem of Turkey in Europe is largelysolved.
of a warfare
To permit any renewal
likelyto disturb
the
demand
on
or
destroy the existing solution would

part of all other


and

of

nations

intolerable

still further

extravagance

burden

of

for armies

tion
taxa-

and

THE

292

be

this

that

cannot

fires

Balkan

the

come;

precision,

alembics

they

as

the

limbo

their
of

nationality,
foundations

inept

be

not

be

matter

evoked

for
the

politics
In

have

been

particular
and

efficiency

an

to

age

the

of

racked

and

witches'

dron
caul-

relegated
the

consanguinity
has

The

instruments

are

by

to

seems

permitted.

banked

considered,

ghosts

political

whole

shattered,

were

ecclesiasticism,
of

to

are

extinction.

the
will

and

likely

are

untrustworthy,
of

of

conclusion

The

fleets.

BALKANS

been

to

the
that

dogma
are

discredited.

the

APPENDIX

TraitS

d'Amitie

Entre

le

Et
S.

M.

Ferdinand

de

Serbie,

et

de

la

peuples

les

le Royaume

similitude

mener

de

royaume

sent

mutuellement

leur

territoire,

restriction

sont

la

avec

leur

totalite

de

serait

royaumes

le

et

deux

parties

mutuellement

d'une

dans

un

par

Tune

ou

de

provisoirement,

meme

la

domination
fait

turque,

contraire

ses

si

paix

deux

parties

et

des

convention

vitaux

1'cxecution

du

present

traite

et

de

sans

secours,

Tun

deux

des

Etats.

de

de

et

tenterait
avec

au

de

cas

s'an-

troupes,

ses

territoires

des

actuellement

la

sous

estime

contractantes

constituant

porter

se

forces,

quelle partie

un

ce

belli.

casus

entente

ne

la

conclure

prealable.

sera

conclue

d'une

maniere

295

meme

leurs

s'engagent

apres

mihtaire

1'integrite

ou

cas

plusieurs

parties

ART.

Une

garantis-

reciproquement

possession

contractantes

conjointement

que

se

absolue

trouvant

ART.

Les

Serbie

puissances

se

interets

suit:

maniere

totalite

n'importe

Tune

de

prendre

Balkans

des

peninsule

de

ou

s'efforcer

et

tout

ou

grandes

des

d'occuper,

ou

nexer,

de

quelconque

deux

solidaire-

politique

s'engagent
la

avec

de

porte

se

contractantes

secours,

et

qui

ce

des

et

defendre

royaume

ART.
Les

Etats

PREMIER

forces,

attaque

leurs

IOT, roi

d'interets

communaute

de

independance

leurs

la

Pierre

M.

interets

ces

convenus

sorte

S.

et

decides

et

s'engageant

d'aucune

Serbie

de

communes,

3"lgarie

en

de

de

serbe,

et

ARTICLE

Le

Bulgarie

Bulgares,

destinees

fin,

bonne

de

conviction

des

forces

des

avec

des

la

de

freres, bulgare

ment,

Royaume

Ier, roi

penetres

d 'Alliance

et

1'effet

complete

d'assurer
et

le

plus

APPENDIX

2g6
oonforme
bien

tout

des
de

paix,
La

hauts
la

preparation

le delai

mobilisation
devra

la

devra

signature

suivant

du

deux

de

fera

du

traite

present
de

jour
Us

ment.

deux

parties

parties

situation

ou

la

present

la
en

resultant

de

rediges

tous

souverains

les

par

deux

Etats.

rediges
les
tiaires

les

la

ministres

militaires

et

des

en

present

publics

prealable des

inclusive-

qu'apres
des

avoir

sans

le traite

choses

la

deux

liquide
la

et

vention
con-

de

signature

amene

de

jour

au

militaire, les
ou

deux

serbe

la

la guerre.

par

exemplaires uniformes,
et

des

serbe,

affaires

bulgare.
affaires

sera

II

des

etrangeres
deux

en

signee

etrangeres

signe

sera

et

par

les

plaires
exem-

les

verains,
sou-

plenipoten-

speciaux.

traite

et

la

deux

convention

communiques

ou

vigueur

en

ART.
Le

ou

militaire,egalement

bulgare

en

dans

en

delai

ce

cas

guerre,

ministres

convention

La

quinze

sanctionnee,

au

guerre

langue

en

et

tard

1920

de

convention

1'etat de

etabli

sera

les deux

dela

vigueur jusqu'a

en

liquidation de

traite

decembre

31
au

ART.
Le

present

terminee

etre

expressement

etre

maintenus

seront

paix

de

et

trouveraient

se

la

encore

traite

du

plus

et

le temps

la guerre.

militaire seront

Toutefois,

contractantes.

1'expiration du

de

ports
rap-

proroges

complementaire,

entente

une

les

mois.

etre

pourront

ne

conduite

traite

present

signature jusqu'au

leur

1'organisation

troupes,

au

aussi

d'autre

et

etabli,des

etre

commencer

la convention

et

part

partie integrante

ART.
Le

de

des

la bonne

et

militaire

elaboration

apres

la

stipulera

trait

qui, ayant

ce

et

convention

d'entreprendre

commandements,

pour

Son

jours

tout

dislocation

convention

traite.

lieu

aura

que

guerre,

militaire, la

Cette

poursuivi.

qu'il y

ce

de

cas

en

but

au

parties

militaire

d'autres

contractantes,

Etats
et

ne

pourront

qu'apres
ce

etre

entente

conjointement

et

simultanement.
Une
sion

entente

d'un

Fait

prealable

tiers Etat

Sofia, le

29

dans

sera

de

meme

1'alliance.

fevrier

1912

necessaire

pour

1'admis-

APPENDIX

Annexe

secrete

traite d'amitie

au

de

Bulgarie

cas

interets

les

Tune

de

le royaume

et

nationaux

verrait
dans

quo

prises

aux

la

action

militaire doit

etre

proposition motivee,
mediatement

dans

d'accord

pas

la

1'autre

avec

celle

de

ce

de

deux

la

ou

du

statu

parties

conviction

s'adressera,par

sera

d'entrer

tenue

si elle

et

lui

donner

tractantes
con-

qu'une

fait

vues,

alliee, de

son

cas

maintien

des

partie qui

echange

un

le

premiere

engagee

au

ou

des

lesquelles la Turquie

cause

Balkans,

danger

en

contractantes

comme

avec

en

mettre

parties

Turquie,

en

des

aboutirait

qui

des

mettraient

peninsule

Serbie

nature

exterieures

ou

le royaume

e-ntre

PREMIER

d'Etat

ou

interieures

de

interieurs,de

d'elles,survenaient

difficultes
se

troubles

des

ou

d'alliance

et

ARTICLE
Au

297

une

im-

tombe

ne

une

reponse

motivee.
Si

entente

une

devra

s'y opposerait

Tentente

etablie

solidarite
soit

"

la

de

et

si

appel

dans

Au

1'entente

action

la

Russie

Russie

la

s'abstenant

parties

dans

de

se

si

un

tiers Etat

porter,

une

du

action
traite

tombent

commune

sous

contraire
feront

Etats

sera,

prononcera,

de

donner

si et

dans

obligatoire

les limites
avec

toutes

prenait

le

de

dans
1'article

la domination

par

de

la

sens

premier
commune

elle

est

seule
une

au

la convention
secours

de

et

meme
une

pour
et

ses

neutralite
une

militaire

alliee,

son

Turquie.

territoriaux
le

forces,

parti

pouvant,

proceder sur-le-champ

prevues
ses

ne

d'observer

alliee,de

son

opinion

son

parties qui

deux

tenue

sera

accroissements

et

cas

deux

contractantes

ART.
les

de

sentiments

se

derniere

cette

partie

vis-a-vis de

et

Tous

les

"

sance
puis-

conformement

le

Dans

entente

cette

ou

des

tout

pas

obtenue, celle des

1'autre

mobilisation

cas

engagee,

d'interets.

d'engager

decide

amicale

sera

au

Russie, laquelle opinion

les deux

entre

risques,

et

s'inspirant en

laquelle

cela, etre

apres

Russie,

n'intervient
la

intervient,cette

parties.

ou

cas

action

1'action

pas,

en

entente

les deux

la

communaute

une

mesure

pour

et

1'opinion de

d'une

vue

communiquee

etre
ne

en

des
de

qui seraient realises


articles

premier

la presente

annexe

(condominium)

par

second

et

secrete,
des

deux

APPENDIX

298
Leur

allies.

etats

delai maximum
et

La
a

des

suivantes

reconnait

Serbie

Test

trois mois

de

les bases

sur

liquidation

Rhodope

le droit

de

le retablissement

apres

Bulgarie le droit

la

la riviere

de

Serbie

la

retard, dans

sans

de

un

paix,

la

et

lieu

aura

sur

Strouma;
situes

ceux

la

Bulgarie

nord

au

territoires

les

sur

et

nait
recon-

1'ouest

Char-Planina.

du

Quant

territoires

aux

la

mer

la

conviction

Egee

tincte
nalites

bulgare

terieur

ou

ce

exterieur, il

Serbie

qui

sur

s'engage
ci-annexee

carte

Palanka)

suit la

d'Ochrida, en
Metejevo

i.ooo

la

nord

au

Planina),

le

sommet

des

partage

te,

vers

le

des

eaux

entre

et

Sopot

cretes

par

le

vers

la

le

ligne

villages de
villages

sommet

de

de

des

et

et

et

Krouchka-Tepessi,

Tzerske,

jusqu'au

Planina),
1.330

Belitza, par
la

de

Dratch
le

et
met
som-

entre

la

partage
1.217

et

de

elle

les

entre

eaux

les

les

entre

les

1.200,

entre

les

mont

Tchesma
Baba-

montagnes

villages

sommet

suit

Petropole,

de

Protoyska-Planina,
des

Vetersko

montagne

des

partage

par

montagne

sommet

eaux

Gorich-

sommet

Vardar,

la

Brejani, jusqu'au

ligne de
jusqu'au sommet
par

des

partage

sommet

de

ligne

jusqu'au

Drenovo,

Planina

de

la

cette

jusqu'au

la

ligne

le

de

eaux

Barbaras

Yakryenovo

villages de
i.ooo
(Lissetz-

Loghintzi,

et

jusqu'a

et

2.550

(1.254), par

village de

ensuite

Traversant

partage

Krapa

jusqu'au

villages Ivankovtzi
Vardar.

sommet

village Kichali, la ligne principale

suivant

1.023,

lac

village Ne-

Jivalevo,

et

Kr.

les

villages

Gradichte-Planina

eaux

les

les

de

jusqu'au

Ostritch

sommet

la

villages de

du

entre

Talichmantzi

i.ooo, le

sommet

sur

de

les

Test

eaux

tracee

jusqu'au

entre
a

des

entre

1.050

1.050, le sommet

Kitka;

en

depart

sud-ouest

Baschtevo,

le

par

villages

les

par

de

ligne

nord

(au

du

partage

village

du

Petarlitza,

et

de

la

point de

son

le sommet

par

de

Golem

le mont

par

ligne

ayant

generale

Podarji-Kon,

et

Liubentzi

de

conforme-

revendication

dela

au

mont

au

direction

passant

suivant

Opila,

in-

d'ordre

territoires

aucune

situes

qui,

et

turco-bulgare,

en

raisons

ces

formuler

ne

frontiere

rav,

de

dispose

sera

natio-

des

communs

d'autres

pour

les territoires

concerne

la

ou

interets

dis-

autonome

stipulations ci-dessous:

aux

La

serbe

et

des

vue

Rhodope,

parties acquierent

province

en

les

Char,

si les deux

organisation
en

le

entre

d'Ochrida,

leur

que

impossible

est

ment

le lac

et

compris

Salp
a

1.200

passant

par

villagesde

Test

et

du

(Ilinskale

met
som-

Livoichta

APPENDIX

Gorentzi

et

lac

jusqu'au

299

d'Ochrida

du

pres

de

monastere

Gabovtzi.
La

Bulgaria s'engage
de

pereur

Russie, qui

question,

cette

II

de

va

accepter

soi

se

de

les

que

dans

Russie,
le

corresponds

plus

definitive
les

limites

droits

aux

et

de

conjointement

au

prie

sera

traite

du

de

bienveillance

S.

M.

les attributions

designees

les clauses

par

d'en

de

deux

ces

d'une
secrete

annexe

definitive

decision

parties
des

de

et

la

de

pourparlers

des

Fait

Sofia, le

deux

des

clauses

Conformement

Serbie

le

succes
a

en

et

vue,

entre

afin de

mieux

la

preuve

de

prier

approuver

gouvernement,

son

militaire
lors

des

Russie,

de

sera

et

la

Texe-

presente

soumis

entente

une

la

des

Tune

que

impossible

deux
par

5
la

realisation

les deux

presente

secrete

annexe

autre

un

parties et

Vassentiment

Etat

sans

ne
une

la Russie.

de

1912

Militaire

de

Royaume
sur

Bulgarie

de

Royaume

1'espritet

d'alliance
et

et

et

traite, de

du

convention

fevrier

29

et le

de

faire

Interpretation

communiquee

ou

Entre

et

Russie, qui

de

accepter
et

nique
commu-

sera

Convention

d'amitie

parties.

actes.

dispositions

prealable

entente

1'em-

directs.

publiee

etre

pourra

trouvee

deux

de

acte,

personne

ART.
Aucune

des

imperial

qu'elle estime

declare

aura

la

M.

aurait

secrete

annexe

daigner

sa

des

quelconque

que

interets

qui surgirait touchant

differend

cution

S.

ligne

qu'ilspoursuivent,

ART.

Tout

la

prendre

de

pour

en

s'engagent

gouvernement

Russie

de

1'empereur

supreme

ligne.

cette

1'egard des buts

1'arbitre

1'em-

contractantes

aux

la presente

temps

meme

en

si S. M.

susindiquees,

et

ART.

Copie

de

parties

deux

frontiere

d'etre

faveur

en

frontiere

cette

sollicite

sera

prononce

comme

pereur

accepter

Serbie

la base
de

le royaume
assurer

de

Bulgarie

la conduite

plus complete

parties contractantes

1'article 3

des

de
buts

conviennent

du

traite

le royaume

et

la guerre
que

des

avec

1'alliance

stipula-

APPENDIX

300
ci-dessous, qui

tions

dispositions du

les

auront

tout

en

les

dans
et

de

Bulgaria

prevus

par

royaume
cas

1'article

par

mutuellement
devra
Serbie

de

prendre

part

bien

s'engagent,

traite d'alliance

traite, a
force

une

porter

se

qui

armee

combattants

mille

combattre

du

hors

la

battants,
com-

frontiere

la

ne

et

cinquante mille

cent

de

du

2
ce

cent

moins

Serbie

operations militaires

des

avec

deux

aussi

mesure

en

et

secrete

d'au

force

une

avec

articles

Bulgarie

inferieure

etre

pas

de

le royaume

et

les

la

secours,

que

PREMIER

1'annexe

de

et valeur

lui-meme.

traite

ARTICLE

Le

force

meme

que

territoire

national.
Dans

nombre

ce

formations

de

ou

territoriales

dela

direction

considereront

conforme
a

Tissue

favorable

dans

et

leurs

les

limites

troupes

partir

de

le

sur

la

de

la

declaration

bataille

de

de

la

guerre

ART.
Si

la

Roumanie

lui

declarer

ses

forces, d'au
Au

penetrer

cent

mille

et

le

deux
est

contribuer

peut

partiellement
concentration,

la

septieme jour

la

de

ou

ou

si cela

et

"

meme

des

survenance

du

est

de

la

combattants
du

avec

la

de

diriger

combattants,

d'operations

de

la

soit

sur

tenue

centre

elle

le moyen

Dobroudja.

Turquie attaquerait la Bulgarie, la Serbie s'engage


Turquie

Serbie

Serbie

la

et

guerre

mille

cent

Bulgarie,

la

le theatre

sur

en

d'operations
Si

moins

la

ou

cas

la

attaque

immediatement

soit

Danube,

ment

delai, les

ce

de

et

"

fcederis s'est pro-

d'alliee

devoir

la guerre

de

casus

mobilisation

champ

de la

fcederis.

casus

la

d'envoyer,

"

la

operations militaires

operations militaires

la guerre

dans

"

et le but

declaration

la

leur

des
de

serbe,

la frontiere

causes

1'expiration de

comme

la nature

les

des

allie que

avant

meme

ban

territoire national

son

apres

1'Etat

de

Toutefois,

parties

jour

rendu

etre

dirige suivant

etre

le 21"

la communication
duit.

de

d'apres le developpement

tard

plus

devra

combattants

il devra

troisieme

du

ceux

les combattants

bulgares.

frontieres

des

ou

et

guerre,
au

de

contingent
au

ni

ni

compris

etre

surnumeraires,

ni les troupes

Ce

sauraient

ne

et
au

distraire

moins

pour

de

ses

les

troupes

diriger

mobilisees,

sur

le theatre

ou

conjointe-

Vardar.
se

trouve

etre

Bulgarie, deja

a
en

ce

moment

guerre

avec

seule
un

tiers Etat, elle

APPENDIX

302

deliee des obligations


partie contractante, cette derniere sera
1'article premier de la presente convention, mais
a
prevues

I'autre

retard

sans

vis-a-vis

amicale

tralite

la

d'observer, pendant

tenue

sera

qui

sera

des

mouvements,

de

concentree

de

moins

maniere

ne

de

cas

heures,

sans

I'autre

des

aucune

parties

d'armistice

prealable

entente

prealable

entente

des

que

traite

de

et

et

la

liberte

contractantes

plus long

24

que

de

le consentement

sans

la

de

duree

contractantes

des

Lorsque
Etats

commun

etre

et

engages

un

sera

differente

leurs

pour

ancien

en

plus

le chef

par

un

grade,

le

plus

et

de

leurs

aux

tions
opera-

des

commandement

unites

point

au

des

armees

importance,

meme

pour

ancien

des

commandements.

objectif,le

unites

chacune

toutes

et

appartenant

meme

des

de

troupes

propres

troupes

centre

pris,

les

commandees

de

corps

guerre,

seront

opereront

le

la

dirigees par

seront

le chef

necessaire

meme

paix signe.

Pendant

parties

de

sera

paix puissent

de

pourparlers

ecrit

par

ART.

deux

mieux

au

1'ennemi

avec

une

combattants

partie.

Une
pour

conjointe,

conclure

pourra

assurer

mobiliser

alliee.

son

guerre

mille

neu-

une

de

que

cinquante

ART.
En

la guerre

alliee,ainsi

son

d'au

force

une

de

de

duree

par

d'importance

de

du

vue

mandement
com-

exerce.

Lorsqu'une
des

parties contractantes

partie, elles
soumis

seront

de
En

la

Serbie

si elle
ce

est

sur

theatre

troupes

et

conformement

bulgares,
a

la

leurs
des

strategique
de

1'armee

le

sera

contre

plus

la

forte

Turquie,

principale

les

que

1'article 4

de

serbe

numeriquement

commandement

Bulgarie.

une

I'autre
propres

operations,
la

tion
disposi-

mises.

si 1'armee

lorsqu'elley

appartiendra

de

le commandement

d'operations du Vardar
principale serbe opere
sur

numeriquement

disposition de

ordres

chef

en

appartenant

le theatre

si 1'armee

Toutefois
theatre

sont

la

les

conduite

conjointe

guerre

chef

la

commandant

au

de

cas

mises

sous

pour

laquelle elles

en

sur

qui,

distinctes

armees

seront

trouveront

se

commandants

plusieurs

ou

en

appartiendra
theatre

ce

bulgares

troupes

la presente

n'opere

pas

tion.
convensur

plus faible que


chef

sur

et

ce

ce

les

theatre

APPENDIX

303

ART.

Au

cas

les

ou

trouveraient
les

tous

placees

ordres

conduite

et

deux

sous

ordres

toutes

les

prescriptions

le

general,
et

malades

de

guerre

parties
le

I'inhumation

et

de

troupes

poor

son

dans

et

especes

subsistances

le transport

le transport

autorites

appui

aux

toutes

les

compte

aux

des

les

par

blesses
materiel
des

facilites

et

precedes

que

lois

aux

doivent,

sur

et

dans

le

alliees.

troupes

subsistances

prix

en

chacune

memes

locales

regie

sera

de

locaux,

exceptionnels

cas

du

de

droits

memes

et

des

partie, conformement

les

leur

de

payement

partie

partie

Toutes

but, preter

meme

morts,

des

derniere

cette

locales.

regies
Le

Tautre

seront

serbe.

en

les

et

medical,

des

jouira

contractantes

la

communes

objets similaires,1'armee

autres

de

rapportant

se

ravitaillement

le service

logement,

territoire

les

le

se

commandant,

"

concerne

ou

contractantes

meme

operations tactiques
langues en bulgare et

les deux

qui

ce

d'un

des

ART.
En

parties

les

strategique

redigees dans

des

troupes

chaque

par

preference

delivres

bons

centre

en

specialement.
Le

subsistances
relatifs

et

objets

transport

la

ART.

10

charge
a

le

le

sur

ou

cas

la

prise

proportionnellement
directement

auront

dans

deux

aux

liens

entre

les

qui

le

territoire

aura

pris.

combat

1'effet d'un

lieu par

de

forces

des

com-

en

partageront

armees

les

phees
tro-

qui

combattants

ii

chaque partie

la guerre,

des

sur

et

guerre,

frais

les

participe.

1'etat-major du

mandements

partie

1'armee

ART.
Durant

fer

de

de

lieu.

terrain, les

meme

chemin

en

materiel

le

tout

de

trophees appartiennent

Dans
mun

la

de

et

troupes

autres

seront

laquelle ce

Les

des

transport

commandement

armees,

les deux

contractante

armees

en

chef

lesquels delegues
sous

tous

les

aura
ou

dans

un

delegue
les

entretiendront

rapports.

com-

les

APPENDIX

304

ART.

operations strategiques

Les
ainsi
d'un

contestations

les

que

accord

commun

12

les

et

les deux

par

la

sur

la

conclusion

distribution

des

troupes

de

premier

convention

cette

concentration

de

devront

qui

dans

etre

rapide

de

chef.

en

la

la

la

dans

nouveau

frontiere

de

vue

en

les

et

zone

les routes

ci-dessus, sur
de

1'article

d'apres

groupement

construites

sur

convention,

presente

mobilisees

exposes

ou

reparees

concentration

la

cas

regies

seront

alliees s'entendront,

armees

leur

et

les

prevus,

13

apres

immediatement

pas

commandements

etats-majors des

des

chefs

sont

ne

qui pourraient surgir

ART.
Les

qui

cas

operations

ulterieures.

ART.
La

convention

presente

signature

sa

d'alliance

durera

et

entre

Conformement

delegues designes

de

Bulgarie

les

deux

plans d'operations respectifs,convenu


Au
et

la

d'une

cas

de

Turquie

Dans

dans

la

i" Une

Dagh,

sur

traite

jour

de

d'amitie

et

partie integrante.

Bulgarie

la

convention

et

le royaume

et

Serbie

de

et

exist-

militaire
de

parties ont, sur


de ce
qui

Bulgarie

la

ou

principale

alliees destinees

Vardar

Serbie,

les

base

des

d'une

part

la
suit:

la Serbie

de

Cette

Uskub.

agir

formera

armee

con-

Kratovo, Kotchani,
le theatre

sur

tions
d'opera-

suit:

divisions

deux

serait

turque

armee

reparties comme

seront

serbe

armee

le

region d'Uskub, Koumanovo,

Veles, les troupes


du

partir du

I'autre:

1'hypothese

centree

la

entre

guerre

de

etats-majors

de
par

force

titre de

1'article 13

le royaume

entre

annexee

les

vigueur

en

qu'aura

tant

elle est

auquel

Arrangement

ant

sera

14

marchera,

le Kara-

par

1'aile droite

des

troupes

alliees;
2" Une
division
et

cavalerie

de la Ptchinia,

constituera
de

de

front

sur

le centre
centre

de

serbe

armee

cinq

avancera,

le front
des

par

la

alliees

d'infanterie

vallee

Koumanovo-Kratovo.

troupes

1'ennemi;

divisions

avec

de

la

et

Moravitza

Cette
la mission

une

armee

d'operer

APPENDIX

3" Une
des

les derrieres

sur

la

demontre

le

serbes

operer,

seront, si la situation
1'aile

5"

Pour

le

si cette

et

ensemble

reconnaissance
dans

masses

deux

Kara-Dagh,

le permet,

alliees

la

divisions

Uskub,

contre

employees

renforcer

concentrees

seront

6" Le

serbe

effet

cet

mise

de

des

convenance

sa

ban.

Tarmee

etat

en

chef

alliees,le

troupes

disposera

de

d'etat-major

la prompte

des

deuxieme

du

restantes

chef

droit

flanc

Tarmee

de

divisions

pour

reconnaitront

de

le

par

generate

troupes

couvrir

d'etat-major
trois

Kustendil-

Kustendil.

de

pres

des

gauche

de

Kustendil-Tzarevo-Selo-'Kotchani.

et

possibilited'employer

destinees

gauche

1'aile droite

contre

grandes
les
Kustendil-Egri-Palanka-Uskub,

direction

1'aile

les directions

d'etat-major general
Kustendil
et Vrania, et

entre

formera

d'operer

chefs

deux

region

divisions

de Tennemi, dans

Egri-Palanka-Uskub
4" Les

trois

la mission

alliees,avec

troupes

et

de

bulgare

armee

305

bulgare s'engage

la route

de

agir

a.

Bossilegrad

Vlas-

sina.

7"

Si

la

situation

du

d'operations
sont

ne

la

de

alliees

troupes

de

maintien

toutes

les

troupes

de

trans-

de

celui

Vardar
les

pour

theatre

celui

sur

la
des

et

si

le

operations

indispensable, les

pas

ce

seront

sur

du

designees

n'est

enumerees

le renforcement

exige

d'operations

transporters

seront

d'operations

theatre

la Maritza

de

le theatre

necessaires

le

sur

le theatre

ci-dessus

necessaires

la situation

bulgares

troupes

si, pour

et

troupes

unites

theatre

1'inverse,si

Maritza.

dernier

ce

Maritza

les

toutes

point indispensables, les

portees

sur

Vardar,

des

renforcement

le

d'operations de

le theatre

sur

exige

du

unites

Vardar.

ANNEXE
Les

a)

echanger

tous

generaux

leurs

s'engagent:

renseignements

sur

les

des

armees

limitrophes ;

pays

")
de

etats-majors

deux

procurer

se

les

tous

d'exemplaires

voulu

le nombre

mutuellement

reglements, instructions, cartes,

etc., tant

officiels

secrets;

que

c)

d'officiers
d'en

etudier

charges
la

dans

chacun

envoyer

de

langue,

se

alliee

Tawnee

familiariser

conformement

avec
a

un

son

certain

nombre

organisation

1'art. II de

et

la convention

militaire.

J)

Les

chefs

d'etat-major

des

armees

serbe

et

bulgare

se

APPENDIX

3o6
chaque

rencontreront

situation

generate

conclus
de

juin

/p

Considerant
de

la

traites

des

bons

rapports

1'entente
Le

des

accord

donner

paix

Sa

choses

des

defensif
de

et

avoir

apres

roi

resolu

leus

pour

necessaires

dans

royaumes,

et

corroborer

des

Bulgares

de

conclure

echange
ARTICLE

PREMIER

leur

ance
alli-

une

ci-des-

les termes

dans

le

et

promettant

se

plenipotentiaires.
.

leurs

leurs

de

meme

agressive quelconque

ayant

droits

nationalites

Hellenes,

protection reciproque
nomme

des

base

Turquie;

en

des

et

deux

faciliter

le roi

la

sur

aux

1'interet

Majeste

tendance

la coexistence

Orient;

en

dans

ce

conditions

des

peuvent,
besoin:

le respect

et

concedes

le

Majeste

pleins pouvoirs,

arrete

ont

suit:

Si, contrairement
contractantes,
evitant

veritable

nature,

une

indiques, ont
qui

et

et

Turquie,

en

la

fermement

d'idees, que

constituent

de

Sa

FITCHEFF.

repondre

1'empire ottoman, a
elements
et bulgare
grec
de

Lesquels,

tout

1'empire
la

ordre

1'etat de

de

General

POUTNIK,

peninsule balkanique

autrement

ou

est

purement
de

ce

la

avec

gouvernement
pas

change-

R.

desirent

qu'une cooperation

gouvernement

ne

les

par

la Grece

et

nationalites

de

enfin

indique,

sens

arrangements

General

solide, mieux

rempire,

de

Considerant
le

les

royaumes

meme

ce

la consolidation

pour

sous

dans

egalite politique reelle

chretiennes

de

paix

differentes

des

decoulant

dans

la

de

courant

Defensive

Bulgarie

la

deux

dans

Considerant,

a" Alliance

defensive

alliance

d'une

au

necessaires

rendues

les

que

conservation

pacifique

mettrc

1912

Entre

une

se

introduire

pour

Trait

par

pour

situation.

la

Varna,

et

modifications

les

ments

automne

et

1'un

fondamentaux

aux

soit

dans
droits

du

droit

des

desir

d'une

d'agression

ottoman,

tematique

depit

en

acte

Turquie,

sincere

au

et

deux

des

attitude
toute

Etats

de

decoulant
des

gens,

des
les

leur

venait

vis-a-vis

par

traites
deux

etre

une
ou

hautes

parties

gouvernement

provocation

territoire,soit

son

hautes

deux

attaque
atteinte

des

de
par

sys-

principes

parties

con-

APPENDIX

tractantes

sont

la totalite

de

paix

tenues

leurs

forces

conjointement

que

reciproquement

preter

se

307

et

armees

deux
d'un

ment,

congeneres

de

de

traites

de

preter

se

concedes

autrement

ou

reciproque
du

gouver-

aurait

decoulant

droits

nationalites

aux

et

grecque

1'egalitepolitique et des garanties

bulgare, 1'applicationde

de

population

aupres

des

la

puissances, qui

grandes

la realisation

d'assurer

ou

la

assistance

une

leurs

sincerement

action,

toute

de

aupres

constituant

des

aupres

ou

d'obtenir

but

elements

cote

morale

qu'ils contribuent

d'accord, dans

ottoman

pour

des

1'autre

marcher

nement

afin

mutuelle-

promettent

se

influence

leur

des

pacifique

1'empire, et

de

Turquie

en

coexistence

et

d'user

cote

la

conclure

ne

parties contractantes

hautes

avec

d'accord.

et

ART.
Les

suite

par

secours

con-

stitutionnelles.
ART.
Le

traite

present

signature

sa

et

doit

ART.
traite

present

divulgue
hautes
Le

tierce

une

parties
present

foi

En

Fait

ou

en

moins

au

partir de

six

gnature
si-

la

II

secret.

qu'avec

tout

ratifie le

sera

ne

etre

pourra

soit

nique
commu-

partie,ni

en

des

le consentement

deux

les

appose

double

en

plus

tot

que

faire

pourra.

se

echangees a Sofia (ou a Athenes).


plenipotentiairesrespectifs ont signe

seront

quoi,

Sofia,

contractantes.

traite et y ont

present

annee

puissance soit integralement,

traite

de

garde

sera

partie

en

ratifications

Les

notifiee

sauf

annee

une

de

traite.

du

Le

partir du jour

pour

etre

la troisieme

1'expirationde

avant

ans

tacitement

denonciation

Sa

de trois

duree

une

renouvele

sera

denonciation.
mois

aura

le

cachets.

leurs

expedition, le
I. E.

mai

16

1912

D.

GUECHOFF,

PANAS.

DECLARATION
L'article
guerre

de

ier

viendrait

Tadmission

ne

se
a

dans

rapporte

eclater

entre

le Parlement

la volonte

du

n'est

qu'a garder vis-a-vis

tenue

gouvernement

notamment

pas

la Grece
grec

ottoman;
de

et

des

ou

cas

Turquie

par

deputes cretois

dans

la Grece

la

au

ce
une

cas,

la

une

suite
centre

Bulgarie

neutralite bien-

APPENDIX

3o8
Et

veillante.

la

comme

des

d'Orient, nee

dans

solider

Bulgarie

la

1'equilibredans

troubler

sans

de

1'interet

la

eventuelle

de

ne

situation

la

des

de

traite) promet

la

I. E.

le roi des

S. M.

completer

conclu
le

et

Sofia le 16 mai

Sa

Sa

trouves

M.

Exc.

D.

s'etre

apres

bonne

en

Iv. Ev.

le roi

Majeste
Son

Lesquels

M.

Exc.

et

des

le roi

Majeste
Son

due

des

Dans

le

traite

cas

la

contre

action

une

cette

D.

tion.
ques-

PANAS.

Hellenes,

traite

but,

ce

desirant
fensive
de-

d'alliance

le royaume

dans

garie
Bul-

de

nomme

pour

deux

et

la

forme,

dans

Etats, bulgare

secours,

soit

vingt

moins

mille

trois

aussi

bien
a

des

la

et

mille
en

operations

national.

une

grec,

sont

leurs

pouvoirs

pleins
de

convenus

qui

ce

suit:

PREMIER

obligations decoulant

aux

Sofia

dans

et

une

campagne

militaires

sur
en

la

dehors

bien

ou

un

avec

devront

frontiere
des

la
les

mutuellement

atteignant

forces

ces

entre

1912

tnilitairement

preter

se

Bulgarie

hommes;

mai

du

turco-grecque,

guerre

effectif
la

16

bulgaro-turque,

s'engagent
un

le

interviendrait

guerre

avec

hommes,

entrer

Hellenes:

Grece

la

Turquie

Grece

cent

Guechoff, etc., etc.

conclu

Grece,

la

contre

Bulgares:

communique

defensive

Turquie

Bulgarie

toire

le

entre

1912

conformement

ou,

d'alliance

Bulgarie

part

le

Panas, etc., etc.

ARTICLE

cent

con-

plenipotentiaires:

leurs

la

de

GUECHOFF,

le roi des

Grece, ont,

de

royaume

par

fac,on

solution

militaire

convention

une

par

nature,

Militaire

et S. M.

Bulgares

de

assumes

d'aucune

gener

Convention

la question

internationale, la

engagements

qui tendrait

la Grece

affaires

des

peninsule balkanique,

paix

(independamment

present

crise

1908, aussi quant


general, et est meme

1'interet

la

de

evenements

cretoise, correspond

de

liquidation

au

minimum

effectif d'au
etre

aptes

qu'a prendre

lirnites du

terri-

APPENDIX

3io

Les

dans

sont

aussi

cas

ce

derniers

deux

de

dispositions

la

cas

guerre

prealable
dernier
mais
de

des

1'un

ou

Etat

un

et

delie

est

des

la guerre,

de

cas

conjointe,

guerre

conclure

d'armistice

res,

une

sans

d'une

1'article

ce

premier,
la

toute

duree

allie.

son

des

aucun

Etats

superieure

et

allies

vingt-quatre

le consentement

sans

pourra

ne

heu-

1'autre

de

allie.

Etat

L'entente

puisse

deux

des

de

parties

de

sera

engager

traite

un

des

ecrit,

accord

necessaire

meme

negotiations

en

Dans
forces

le

cas

Bulgarie

et

ou

etant

entrees

en

de

Tile

serait
a

de

premier

devront

chefs
se

cela

pour

porter

se

renseigner

outre

faire

connaitre

du

fait de

presente

tous

vigueur pendant

par

son

les

toute

les

ans

des

voeux

lations
popu-

la

Turquie,

la

bulgare

armees

guerre.

grecque

opportun

temps

en

et

Us

modifications

sur

devront

en

apportees

nouvelles.

obligatoire

deviendra

sitot apres

verrait

se

conformement

secours,

et

d'une

cas

circonstances

convention

parties contractantes

attaquee

des

ART.
La

les

mutuellement
en

la Grece

suivant

leurs

mobilise

d'etat-major general

plans d'operations

plans

conclure

ou

convention.

la presente

leurs

ces

paix

ayant

campagne,

regler la question cretoise


et

Grece

la

de

ART.
Les

la

d'elles

la

ou

Bulgarie s'engage
1'article

de

1'une

que

un

paix.

armees

obligee

pour

vue

dans

contenu

contractantes,

ART.

en

gouvernement,

1'egard de

entente

une

duree

prealable

entente

1'autre

exposees

amicale

ART.
En

sans

d'observer, pendant

tenu

neutralite

une

Turquie,
de

obligations

declarerait

contractants

la

que

consentement

neanmoins

reste

gouvernements
autre

le

sans

applicables.
ART.

Au

1'article

de

paragraphes

avoir

la duree

du

etc

pour

les

deux

signee; elle demeurera

traite

d'alliance

defensive

APPENDIX
311

16

du

auquel

mai

elle

1912,

est

titre

incorporee

de

integrante.

Sofia,

Fait

double

I.

General

E.

exemplaire,

septembre

le

1912

22

en

GUECHOFF,

FITCHEFF.

D.

J.

PANAS,

P.

METAXES,

capitaine.

partie

INDEX

313

INDEX

Abdul

refused

29;

recognition

millions, 29;
accomplished
politics, 43;
bitterness

85

cited,

toward

46;
prisoner

to

Abdul

by,

Medjid,
John

Adams,

in

and

Salonica,

despotism
147

cited, 120
Quincy,
quoted,

in

166; keeping
Turkish

rule,

of

in, ipi;
relative

to,

Italy, 282
Albanians,

247

held

no

essential

asserted

Alexander
chosen
;

by,

Bulair,

theoretical

34;

of, 36;

33

upon,

ethnic
of

massacre

stocks

Christians

lines

railway

views

two

Bosnia

in,

annexation

and

by,

of,

in, 267
of, 112

Austria-Hungary,
of

term

cruelties

the,

Jew,

Minor,

157;

signing

40

inflicted

Athens,

tive
rela-

govina
Herze-

the

189;

discussed,

254

190

Servia, consort
by, 141;
assassinated,
penalties
paid by murderers

Bajazet

of

of,

Russia,
10

; death

Great,

effect

defeat

and

exile

of,

thronement
en-

of,

Balkan

Alliance,
; believed

of

his

Balkan

of,
55;
315

described,

3 ;

formation
to

once

186;

the
quered,
conon
triumphs
58
Alexander
mation
proclaYpsilanti,
issued
by, 105

of

II, reign

10

183
the

I,

Bajazet

106
Alexander

defined,

3;

35
the

I of

of, 143
Alexander

of

Ashkenazi

Asia

by

176

reconstruction
to

unilin-

figures

some

of, 174
Aryans,
cited,

by

question
as
a
unity, 42;
riddle,
generally
cepted
ac75;
of
hypothesis
origin
of
gion
reliof, 77; independent
in
conduct,
personal
and
mental
78;
physical
characteristics
guage
of, 78; lanter
characand
original
retained
ality
by, 101 ; nationtheir

defeated

Armistice

situation

245;

made
being
homogeneous,

and

to,

inhabitants

perplexing

gual

172;

among

Anastasius,
Slavs, 65
Armament,

der
un-

peoples
tance
impor-

100;

Greek

of

179,

different

^Egean
Isles,
the,
occupying

garians,
Bul-

by

ceed
suc-

Greece,

of,
possession
the, 173

discord

America,
invested

to

Algeciras Conference,
cited, 85
of
Ali, just succession
vented,
pre46
Ali
Turkish
Saib, celebrated
general,
defeated, 95
Allies, success
of, 165 ; war
cry
in Euof, 169; all Turkey
rope

45;

241

Adrianople,

141

Prince, chosen
of
Otto
King

109

Great

unseated

practiced

an

of,

Oriental

43;

cares

Alfred,

by

opportunist

of

Britain,
sent

life of,

secluded

Hamid,

of,
be

military

possible,
imrangements
ar-

of, 202
peninsula, composition
in the,
prehistoric man

earliest

traceable

immi-

INDEX

called
Bulgars, Asiatic
race
57;
kin
the
to
nearest
into,
migration
the,
important
40;
an
of
founders
the
of
invasion
Turks, 66;
by
a
64;
mighty empire, 67; attached
tionality
Avars, 65; principle of naGreek
Catholic
to
Church,
in, 183
of
velopment
deambitions
control
the
to
Balkan
71 ;
peoples, stage
Balkan
reached
peninsula, 71 ; origby, in ;
inally
Altaic
of
an
horde,
diplomacy
72;
twenty
years
physique Described, 72; regarded
mon
186; united by comamong,
ment
as
dangerous elea
suffering, 192
in Macedonia, 200
habited,
inBalkan
States, by whom
of
Byron,
Lord, amazing
verse
to-day, story
4;
of, 106; death of, 106
of, 14; revival of trade in,
88; populations of, 151; apportionment

gration of settlers into,

surrendered

of
territories

an

in, 175;
in,

264;

the

acute

question

term

ality"
"nationof

nationality
274;

in

Islam

249;

the,

tain,
uncer-

of

elements

union
dis-

vance
possible adof in nationality,277;
armed
in, 278
peace
quoted, 226
Bartlett,Ashmead,
of,
Belgrade, palace scandals

in, 275;

142

Berlin

Exchange, panic
Bouchier, quoted, 203;
209,

on,

177

cited,

219

Bryce, James,
suggestion of,
183
with
"Bulgar,"
synonymous
"vulgar," 103
guage
Bulgaria, only permitted lanin

in, 102;
burned,

church

literary

103;
made

and

of, 130;
court
people discussed,
advantage
131,
132;
sessed
posby, 150; independence
declared
by, 155; task faced
of
by, 288; final abdication
Alexander

as

of

ruler

control
in

127

of

Greek

of

Union

and

of, 161
ger
Conflagration, European, danof, 163
Congress of Vienna, cited, 104
of
Constantine
Greece, King,
cited,281
Constantine
the
Great, cited,
4

man
OttoConstantinople, under
rule, 3; nationalities in,
fall of, 15; class of officials
4;
an
ruling at, and
ample,
ex-

triarchate
pa-

Constantinople,

taken

Progress,
accomplishments
of, 153; attempt to destroy
of, 157; composition
power

of, 130;

offered

and
to
rulership
declined by Prince Waldemar
of Denmark,
130
Bulgarian Church, secession of

from

37
Committee

nand
Ferdi-

and

step

by,
of, 107
Capitulations, cited, 17
Peace
Carnegie
Foundation,
cited, 225
Carol, King, cited, 281
Cavour, cited, 84
gro,
Cettigne, capital of Montenedescribed, 95; language
spoken in, 96
of
Charles
Hohenzollern-Sigchosen
maringen,
Prince,
king of Rumania, 121
lished
estabChieftains, government
and
maintained
by,
58
57; overthrown,
Christians, Byzantine type of,

of

ruler

decisive

106 ; death

school

remains

Prince

Canning,

30;
never

in

sure

conquerors

of

Christian

their

of

position
world,
102;

INDEX

of

pendence
Powers,
.

107;

hereditary

declared
declared

of

story

by

monarchy

108 ;

Conference,

London

by

of,

consolidation

lonians, cited, 55
Italy, Tripoli, and
Cyrenaica
occupied by, 159; fears of,
160
Ivan

the

Terrible, cited, 16

and

good
108; present peace
ence
influin, 112; German
seen
in, 113; plight of
in 1908, 150
Greek
Assembly,
the, first
106;
of,
king
meeting
selected by, 107
tions
Greek
Church, the, ramificaorder

of

order,

its

Janissaries, described, 12
Japhetites, cited,34
Javanes, cited, 34
Jews, the, cited, 13; those
Ashkenazi

branch

by Greeks,

of Sephar79; those
branch
spected,
generally re-

dim

80
extension

Justinian,

101

from
loss

independence of the,
in
assisted
by Albania
59;
for
liberty, 99;
struggle
wholesale
dress of, 99;
sacres
masof

in island

of

Chios,

106; persecuted by Bulgaria,

fortifications

of

whom
of political

of

under,

power

Greeks, modern,
descended, 38;

of
and

feared,

ecclesiastical

13 ; created

hated

5;

man
Rotem
sys-

rated
inaugu-

by, 65
Kanaris, victory of, 106
aries
Kapp d'Istrias, plenipotentito Greek
won
by,
cause
belief
concerning,
104 ;
107 ;
assassinated
ots,
by fellow patri-

188

107

Gregory X, cited, 16
cited, 174;
Grey, Sir Edward,
declaration
of, 226
Gueshoff, policy of, 194
madic,
Gypsies, the, generally no-

assassination

Karageorge,

of,

137

Alexander,
Servia, 138

Karageorgevich,
chosen

of

ruler

deposed,

139

79
of

Leopold
Hapsburgs,
Hellenes,

cited, 16
cherished

as

idea

of,

104

of, 16
Holy League, purpose
of into
Hungarians, entrance
Slavic
able
remarkterritory,67;
civilization
developed
by, 67
from
Hungary,
emancipated
Turkish
rule, 133
Hunyadi, victories of, 9

19
International

of, cited,

Commission

of
180

Control, composition of,


Invaders, Turkish, in Asia,
Ionian

Isles, ceded

by Great

to

Britain, 109

Greece

king

Coburg,
of

Greece

lected
se-

and

declines, 107
Levant, the, destiny of, 51
Lewis
I, King, cited, 108
Littmann, Professor, cited,267
London
Conference, action of
relative

Macedonia,
and

to

Greece,
woes

and

108

sorrows

geneous
cruelties in, 41 ; hetero-

population of, 41 ;
ities
in,43 ; atrocwork
of
in mainly the
an
Christians, 49; demands
of rapine and
end
murder,
for
88; program
tion
regeneraof, 148; futile efforts
for reform
in, 188; harmony
Christian
in,
races
among

lines of

Ignatieff,campaigns

Saxe

division

INDEX

murders

191 ;

Christian

of

of
revolt
ness
lawlessBulgarians in, 199;
in, 214;
description of
leaders

in,

refugees
in

from,

omy
auton-

215 ;

opposed

by

Greece,

pire
emII, East Roman
further
by, 10;
victories
and
death
of, 10
Marshall
Bieberstein,
von

Mahomet

crushed

influence

nullified

of

for

Sultan,
weary

III,

system,

of,

of

own
Admiral,
destroyed by, 107
Milan, king of Servia, war
by, 129
Milan
IV, reign of 140;

fleet

Miaulis,

94 ; victories

Nicholas

of, 95

I of

Russia, hostile
Austrian
leadership, 106
Nicholas
Ypsilanti, army
destroyed, 105
Obrenovich,

to

of

augurate
Milosh, revolt intion
abdicaby, 137;
to
138; recalled

139

Oghusians, cited, 8
Omar, Turkish
general, cited,
94

clared
de-

cited, 9
Othman,

Orchan,
Osman,

cation
abdi-

founder

of, 141
Milyukoff, Professor, cited,225
modified
Mohammedanism,
by
Occidental
influences,
14 ;
spiritof equality in, 269

of
Otto
Greece

of

possessed
Montenegrins,
primitive virtues, 70
physical features
Montenegro,
and
aim
aspiration
of, 89;
will
of
tant
imporof, 91 ; good
and
to Turkey, 94 ; area
industries
population of, 97;
of, 98;
in, 97; army
system
of, 234
slightachievements
cited, 85
Morocco,
Moslem
law, protection from
of,
injurious administration
17
influence

of

of,
9

his

declared

throne

Ottoman,

or

line, cited,8
of
crown
Bavaria,
offered to, 108; his
of

vacant

while

absent, 109
tion
empire, administraintegral
part
the, 13;
of
state
system,
European
17; ignorance of conditions
prevalent in twenty
years

Ottoman

of

ago,

24

Pan-Slavism,

folly of

trated,
illus-

208

Parthians, cited, 56
Pasha
Kara-Mahmoud,
of by Peter
I, 92

Paul,

murder

Petersburg

Miiller, William,
106
in Germany,
Murad
I, cited, 9; death
Murad
II, victories
of,

41

ing
Montenegro, revivambition
of, 89; task
by, 94; peace
acquired

of,

in, 84

of,

of

throne,

transformations

cow,
Mos-

discernment

postponed,

Nicholas

Europe

106

to

of
Napoleonic epoch, condition
118
Turkey during,
Nationality, Slavic ideas of, 50
Navarino, battle of, 107
New
restoration
Byzantium,

106

Metternich

of

120

by,

I, plan
tition
parof Turkey, 16
Mazzini, cited, 84
ence
AH
of Egypt, existMehemet
of
threatened
Turkey
by, 18; help of sought by
Maximilian

Mexico,

Napoleon

faced

Charles, cited, 15

march

118

by,

153

Martel,

Napoleon,

194;

231

British

319

Peace

of

of,

in

Saint

referred

movement,
assumed
by, 273

Peace,

defeat

to, 10
dimensions

partial accomplishment
172

INDEX

320

Pelasgians, a fabulous people,


cited, 64
ject
subPeoples, European, once
to Turkey, 34
of
Peter
thronement
Servia, King, enof,
Peter

of

II

amazing
Phanar,

Montenegro,

19;

San

tinople,
Constan-

offered

by,

and

to

Stefano, treaty

Savoff, General, cited, 164, 230


Scander
rule

clined
de-

temper

of,

of, 242;

delicate

241

Secret

cited, 77

second, cited,

in

tionalities
na-

of, 37
Reformation, the, cited, 16

Selim

solved

29

I, cited, 10
II, cited, n

Serbo-Bulgarian
of,

nomic
eco-

treaty,

vision
pro-

201

Serbo-Croats, general tion


designaof
Slavs, 69; physical
qualitiesnoted, 69; improvement
of

garian

scribed,
capital city of de-

questions

of,

nature

con-

of
Turks, settlement
in Asia
Minor, 4; discussed,

united
88; provinces
form, 103; brilliant chapter
in history of, 123;
at
and

Seljuke

Ristitch, Servian
statesman,
suggestion of, 184
Roman
empire, rise of the, 59
Rumania,
of,
kingdom
present
of
for
41 ; plan
ment,
aggrandize-

social

word

the
called

treaty,

spiracy, 224
Selamlik, the,
Selim

Rayahs, little interested

matians,
Dal-

over

174

what
Scythians,
designates, 56

of,

125;

91

59

agreements
relations

59

124;

of,

of by King
Scutari, entrance
Nicholas, 171 ; taken
session
posby the Six Powers,

279

Prenk-Bib-Doda,
Punic
the
War,

war,

Beg, cited, 9; a national


intolerable
hero, 77;

Scipio, L. victory of

121

Philip II of Macedon,
strong
will of, 58
by, 66
Pliny, Slavs mentioned
and
the, attitude
"Powers,"

to

of, cited,

19

cited, 37
Phanariotes, qualities of, 37
of
Philip of Flanders, throne
Rumania

fluence
Palestine, 18; politicalinof
in the
Balkans,
the
tered
persistently embitfoe of Turkey, 105

an

93

of

quarter

of
torate
protecGreek
Christians

assumption
over

in

142

personage,

his

under

rule, 70;

Austro-Hunin

Albanian

Alps, 77

Servian

Church,

subordinated

nople,
Constantipatriarchate
recognized as
102;
gence
Rumanian,
garb of, 55; diverindependent, 135
of opinion as to ethnic
tional
Servia, rise of, 133, 134; faccharacter
of the, 61 ; physifeat
cal
quarrels in, 136; dedifferences noted, 62
of
by Bulgaria, 140;
Rumelia,
portion of Bulgaria
corruption in public life in,
known
statesmen
as, 43
produced by,
142;
Russia, aims
of, 17;
wants
184; principal industry of,
Constantinople, 17 ; Napoburdens
leon's
to be borne
by,
200;
seizure
of Egypt
horrent
ab287
Shiite
18; forced
to
to,
Persians, the, aversion
of to Sunnite
support
Turkey, 18; Czar of,
orthodox, 46
126

by,

to

at

INDEX

Sigismund II, cited, 16


Sixtus V, cited, 16
Sobieski, John, cited, 5
Soleiman
II, military successes
death
of, ii ;
of, n
Soleiman
Khan, cited,8
renowned
Turkish
Soleiman,
general, repulsed, 95
Stambuloff, rise of, 130; assassination
of, 130
Stephanove, Professor, quoted,

321

of

largely set aside, 247


Treaty of Paris, restorations
of, 119
Treaty of peace, the, 228
Tricoupis, Greek
statesman,
hope of, 185
Triple Alliance, cited, 152, 158,
228, 280, 281
Triple Entente, cited, 158, 228
Turanians, cited, 36
watchful
foe
Turkey, Russia
a
from
age
bondof, 17; released
by Crimean
War,
19;
in
former
daries
bounEurope,
of, 23; subject populations
and
decline
of, 33;
fall of, 128; declaration
of
war
by, 163
Turkification, process
of, 159;
of begun in
cited, 209; work

tions

224

Stephen,

guerilla warfare

of,

9i

Stone, Miss, capture of, 214


Stratford
de
Redclyffe, Lord,
cited, 46
Sturdza, improvements
sought
by, 119
Sublime
Porte, the, sobriquet
by,
of, 15; promises made

Macedonia,
forced

42

Sultan

Abdul

Turks,

by, 94
Sultans, concessions
from, 17

fighters,7; supplant Byzantine

and

secured

where

from, 213
rule, survival of, 32
explorers
courageous

Turkish

Aziz, boundary

settled

212

desist

to

administrators
in
retained
virtues
8;
^

Teutons, the conquering, 28


Thracians, the, described, 55
Trajan, death of, cited,63
Transylvania, cited, 286
Treaties

made

with

the

Porte,

divorce
of

of

Berlin, made
only
of
be violated, 19;
to
parts
Albania
las,
Nichoceded
to
by
96; cited, 147, 148, 155,
160, 184, 185, 203, 211
of
Treaty of Bucharest, terms
settlement
of, 178; cited,
criticism
of, 248
247;
Treaty of Constantinople, line
established
by, 179
Treaty of Kutschuk-Kainardje,
what
it established, 117
Treaty of Lausanne,
signing
of, 161; dispositionof ^gean
Isles
full validity
by, 245;
acquired by, 283
tions
Treaty of London, determinaof, 246; original inten-

by, 27;

of, 28;

the in
68; racial
of

United

27 ; treatment
childish

among,

beggars

behavior

17

Treaty

"

Europe,
ited
by, 25 ; fine qualities exhibby, 26; characteristics
of, 27;
of, 26; women-folk

appearance

peninsula,
qualitiesof, 68
Balkan

States,

of

process

all

types

of

similating
as-

manity
hu-

in, 251
of
States

Europe," a,
suggested by idealists,284
liancy
brilAthens,
University of
of the, 60
"United

good judgment of,


proposition submitted

Venezelos,
*93

"

by" J95;

efforts

of

for

peace,

280

Victoria, Queen, cited, 109


donia,
Vlachs, a contingent in Mace42;

called

also

Wai-

INDEX

322

lachs

Kutzovlachs,

and

characteristics

of,
dress

of,

73

Frederick

William

bond
vaga-

physical

of,

tendencies

tinctive
dis-

35;

of

cause

second

in

of,

stage

Italy

in,

fore
be-

atrocities

of,

Duke

negotiated
Westphalia,

of,

Turks,

Young
of,

of,

ment
agree-

86;

of,

order

familiar

of

Young

113

of

many,
Ger-

159;

of

by,
Revolution,
; no

155

by,

200

nesty
am-

lution
revo-

chimera,

on

suppression

regarded,
wrought

156;

of,

by,

based

Turk

of

plan

elaborate

perpetrated

to,

110

Emperor,

85

reverses

cited,

effort

hopeless

by,

188;

cited,

pendent
de-

mobilization

78;

granted

17

William,

what
17

upon,

106

by,

treaty

social

Hellenes,

movement,

armies

217-223

West,

World

196;

conditions

209;

Wellington,

Denmark,

the

tics
characteris-

207;

the,

of

king

tonomous
au-

109

tween
be-

170;

Turkey,

and

national

latest,

Balkans,

the

of
180

of

Prince,

chosen

War,

ruler

Albania,
William,

74

Wied,

of

chosen

Prince,

real

ties
atroci209

how

change