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THE USE OF SHORT STORY “JAKA TARUB” IN TEACHING

PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH VOWEL SOUNDS
(A Case Study at the First Semester of the Year Eight Students of SMPN 15
Semarang in the Academic Year of 2008/2009)

A Final Project
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
in English

by
Risqa Noviana
2201404002

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
LANGUAGES AND ARTS FACULTY
SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY
2009

PERNYATAAN
Dengan ini saya:
Nama

: Risqa Noviana

NIM

: 2201404002

Prodi / Jur

: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris / Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris

Menyatakan dengan sesungguhnya bahwa skripsi / tugas akhir / final project yang
berjudul:
“THE USE OF SHORT STORY “JAKA TARUB” IN TEACHING
PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH VOWEL SOUNDS” (An Experimental
Study on the Year Eight Students of SMP Negeri 15 Semarang in the Academic
year of 2008/2009).
Saya tulis dalam rangka memenuhi salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar
sarjana pendidikan ini benar-benar merupakan karya saya sendiri, yang saya hasilkan
setelah melalui penelitian, bimbingan, diskusi, dan pemaparan atau semua ujian.
Semua kutipan, baik yang langsung maupun tidak langsung, dan baik yang diperoleh
dari sumber lainnya, telah disertai keterangan mengenai identitas sumbernya dengan
cara sebagaimana lazimnya dalam penulisan karya ilmiah. Dengan demikian
walaupun tim penguji dan pembimbing penulisan skripsi / tugas akhir / final project
ini membubuhkan tanda tangan keabsahannya, seluruh karya ilmiah ini tetap menjadi
tanggung jawab saya sendiri.
Demikian, harap pernyataan ini dapat digunakan seperlunya.

Semarang,
Yang membuat pernyataan,

Risqa Noviana
2201404002

”Do not work hard but work smart.”

To:
¾ My beloved parents,
¾ My dearest brother,
¾ My lovely one, and
¾ My truly friends.

iii

PPL and KKN.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost. The writer would like to extend her sincerest gratitude to Drs. The writer would like to express her deep indebted to the first examiner. Surya Widikdo. the writer thanks to all her friends in 8A regular. the writer would like to deliver her everlasting gatitude to the Almighly God Allah SWT. The writer’s great gratitude also goes to the chairperson of examination. who help her to do the research. And also to her little brother. advice. iv . Ngatimin Basyer and Yunaji. and encouragement. especially Mrs.M. Amir Sisbiyanto. Without their help. M. Sulistyowati. suggestions. so that the writer could finish this final project. who has carefully read this final project and also given valuable guidance. she would never have been able to complete this final project. The writer’s thanks also goes to the headmaster of SMP Negeri 15 Semarang. alm. The writer’s honor goes to all her lecturers at the English Department of UNNES for all the guidance and lectures during her study at UNNES. Last but not least. Her sincerest respect is addressed to Dr. for their valuable tim and help during the examination. for his/her valuable suggestion for the final project. Kawulo Alit’s community. and encouragement to her from the beginning until its completion with great patience and kidness. Pd as the second advisor. and Eva thanks for your help and our beatiful friendship. all teachers. Dee-ana. Finally. the writer would say more thanks to her truly friends: Olonk’s Community. for their never ending support and prayers. the writer thanks alot for his care. who has carefully read the paper for its improvement and has encouraged her to finish it. Garintria’s community.. Dwi Anggani LB. for the blessing. and the secretary of examination. The write’s endless love and gratitude are addressed to her parents. strength. Hum as her first advisor. support and help. Elyn. and all students of the eighth grade in the academic year of 2008/2009 of SMP Negeri 15 Semarang.

The number of students was 40. Teaching pronunciation to the junior high school students is not an easy task for teacher. it is taught to the Junior high School students as a local content subject in Indonesia.M.00. there was a try out test. 20 students were chosen as the experimental group and 20 as the control group. pronunciation. and spelling. Teaching word Pronounciation. Then the writer conducted the pre-test and treatment. The result of the analysis showed that the mean score of the experimental group is 81. Dr. The result of pre-test in experimental group is 73. The teaching of English covers four language components. Dwi Anggani LB. It means that the students’ achievement in learning word pronunciation taught using Short story “Jaka Tarub”. while the mean score of the control group was 72. the writer used experimental research. By using this method.Pd. And at the end of the experiment the writer gave post-test. included vowel sounds is one of media that can be used in teaching word pronunciation. v . Drs. Key word: Short story “Jaka Tarub” of vowel sounds.67.00 and the result in control group is 67. the writer suggests that English teacher should be able to create their own way to amuse their students’ interst in following English classes. vocabulary. The t-value obtained was higher than the critical value. In order to achieve the objective of the study. They are structure. The experimental group was taught using short story “Jaka Tarub” and the control group was not using Short story “Jaka Tarub”. Most of junior high school students face difficulties in English pronunciation. The use of Short story “Jaka Tarub” in Teaching Pronunciation of English Vowel Sounds to the Year Eight Students of SMPN 15 Semarang. Amir Sisbiyanto. (An Experimental Study on the Year Eight Students of SMPN 15 Semarang in the academic year of 2008/2009). II. Semarang State univearsity. Supervisor: I.Hum.33 . the writer hopes the students will find it easier to understand and pronounce vowel sounds in words correctly. That English is very important to learn. English Education. Junior high School. In line with the result. Final Project. Risqa 2009. Faculty of Languages and Arts. M. Before the experiment was conducted. The population of the study was the eighth grade Students of SMPN 15 Semarang. The purpose of this study is to describe the effctiveness of using Short story “Jaka Tarub” in teaching words pronunciation to the Eighth grade Students of SMPN 15 Semarang and to describe the differences of words pronunciation achievement between the students who have been taught using Short story “Jaka Tarub” and those who have been taught not using Short story “Jaka Tarub” among the eighth grade Students of SMPN 15 Semarang.ABSTRACT Noviana. It means that the use of Short story “Jaka Tarub” of vowel sounds is more effective than not use Short story of “Jaka Tarub” in teaching words pronunciation.

.11 2.6 II....…..………………………….xi CHAPTER I..……….. INTRODUCTION 1..…..……7 2.…………..5 Significances of the Study…………………………………………………………..1 Definition of Coursebook………………………………………………………..2 The Role of Coursebook……………………….….6 Outline of the Study…………………………………….2 Reason for Choosing the Topic…………………………………………………….….11 2.20 2..15 2..viii LIST OF APPENDICES……………………………………………………………...v ACKNOWLEGMENT...4 Coursebook………..1 Linguistics………………... REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 2.18 2..2 Pronunciation.4 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT………….4 The Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………….4.…………………………..2.5 1.…………………………………………………….14 2..………..………………………..vi TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….………………………………..……………….………………………………………..2 The Organ of Speech Sound……………………………………………………..…………….2......…………..3 Suprasegmental and Segmental Features…….………………………..4 1...…………..4.……22 viii .....1 Pronunciation Point……………………………………………………..18 2..1 1.3 The Statements of the Problem…………………………………………………….1 Background of the Study………………………………………………………….....5 Cousebook Let’s Express It In English…………………….…….. ……………………………………………………....5 1.….……………………………………………………..…..

THE RESULT OF INVESTIGATION 4.8 Speaking Based on the School Based Curriculum………………………….45 3.1 Mapping of the Speaking Materials of the Coursebook………………………..………23 2..…………………………………………………………...7 Procedures of Analyzing Data………………….6.46 IV..…………….6.…....1 Research Design…………………………………………………………………….……………………………….23 2...31 2...5 Procedures of Data Collection……..2 Object of the Study…………………………………..2 The Development of Education Curriculum in Indonesia……………………….2 Types of Syllabus……………………………………………………………….………...………………………………………………..….43 3...26 2.6 Curriculum…………………..4 Type of Data………….………………………………….1 Definition of Syllabus..2.. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION 3.31 2.3 School Based Curriculum………………………………………………………..43 3.45 3...……………………………………………………...33 2.28 2.9 Speech Functional Expressions Based on Syllabus 2006……….……………….37 III.6....……………...…………………………………………………………….1 General Concept of Curriculum…………………………………………………...48 4...7.7.2 Mapping of the Speaking Materials of the School Based Curriculum………………50 4..3 Comparing the Speech Functional Expressions of the Coursebook and School Based Curriculum…………………………………………………………………………...…44 3.………………………….3 Role of the Researcher…….7 Syllabus……………………………………………………………………………...6 Procedures of Collecting the References…………………………….44 3..36 2.55 ix .

.……………………………………………..2 Suggestions…………………………………………………………………………...81 LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX x .…………………………73 V.4 Evaluating the Compatibility of the Speech Functional Expressions of the Coursebook with the School Based Curriculum…………...1 Conclusions ………………………..4.76 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………....………………………………...75 5.………………………………..78 APPENDICES…………………………………….….. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.

The Speech Functional Expressions of the Coursebook Second Semester………..... The Syllabus for speaking of School Based Curriculum………………………….154 xi .. The Speech Functional Expressions of the Coursebook First Semester….1.81 2....121 3.……….

Now. since they have been speaking their mother tongue since their childhood. As a means of communication. it has also been introduced to Elementary school students. Considering those function of language.1 General Background English is one of the most widely used international languages. English is considered difficult to learn by Indonesian students. As the first foreign language. Consequently. Besides. In Indonesia.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. as one of the main subjects should be learned. 1 . It is just because many counties have English as their mother tongue and as the official language. it is obviously proved that English is mostly used as a means of communication in international contact. research and science both spoken and written. Language is not only used for daily conversation but also used in education. English is used as a means daily communication of their citizens. while the written from is secondary since it is just a representation of what is actually spoken. English is taught as the first foreign language from Junior high school students up to University. people study language both formal and informal. English like any other languages is primarily spoken. It has been spread all over the world and it plays an important role in global communication.

has its own features in pronunciation. they have been speaking their own mother tongue. they face some problems when they want to communicate with people from other group that speak a different language. Language means that you can both create communication that has meaning that we choose and interpret the meaning of others when they communicate (Mary Elizabeth. people speak different languages. culture. they must understand the language of the people they want to communicate with in order to understand each other. 2003:15) From John Carrol as quoted by Warsono (2005: 10-16) said that the definitions of language are: 1) Arbitrary It means that it is based social agreement . which may be different from those in other language. Accordingly. or sound systems. which are only used to communicate with their own respective group. vocabulary. However. English. which are different from those of the learner’s own language. Since their childhood. in this case.2 Because of the different areas with various conditions. Therefore. which has been deeply implanted in them as part of their habits. it is not easy for them to learn the pronunciation problems faced by the learners may be easily understood. and social background. Every language has its own characteristics such as structures. Learners should know how to pronounce English words naturally.

like the instinct of an animal. which in values at least two people. Nevertheless. Grammatical system c. It is not automatically acquired. which differs in some respects from. 5) Social It is only use in a social group. Indonesian sound pattern. 3) Vocal (spoken) This means that the people always have a way of communicating ideas by manipulating sounds that are produced by their vocal organ. Grammatical device 2) Human Language is a special characteristic of human being speaks a language. Meaning of word b. say. English has it’s own sound pattern. should be developed in a social group. the ability to speak a language.3 The arbitrariness of language: a. the speaker and the learner. Language has to be learned and used in a social community without which the existence of language is beyond understanding. though innate nature. . 4) Systematic (sound system) Sounds are also arranged to form words in accordance with the patterning of the individual language.

The teachers are no longer expected to dominate all the activities in the classroom. They set up condition and activities that will make it possible for the students to achieve the outcome of the tasks. Gimson (1989: 4) says that language is a system of conventional signals used for communication by a whole community. Language is a mother of convention. 1. Language is also the mental faculty of power vocal communication.4 6) Symbol The language is used to talk about objects that are not found in the immediately environment.2 Reason for Choosing The Topic The purpose of English teaching in Indonesia is to give the students reading. other that it was inherent in nature. SMPN 15 Semarang was chooses as the subject of the research besides that the writer had a little background. writing. listening. and speaking skill in English. .org/wiki/language).wikipedia. The teacher’s success is therefore closely related to their ability to stimulate the students’ interesting the subject. especially English sound (sound system in English). 7) Communication Language is complete in it and can be used as an effective means of communication. And the speaking skill is the most important one. (http://en.

5 Definition of The Key Term To avoid misunderstanding of the term in this study and also to make the topic clearer. 1.5 Some reasons that are worth mentioning in this topic are as follow: 1) Finding out whether teaching pronunciation by using Short story is effective or not for the students of Junior high school. 1.3 Statement of The Problem In this thesis the writer limits the discussion by starting the following problem: Is teaching pronunciation by using the vowel sounds in short story “Jaka Tarub” effective to students of junior high school especially for students of SMPN 15 Semarang? 1. the key terms of the topic are clarified as follows: .4 Objective of The Study The main objective of this study is to find out whether teaching pronunciation by using the vowel sounds in short story ”Jaka Tarub” is effective or not for the year eight students state of junior high school. 2) Pronouncing the English sound well is an important thing in learning English especially in speaking skill.

the result will be useful for teacher to improve their teaching quality. 3) The readers The readers can take the lesson of this final project to improve their mastery of the English pronunciation. 2) The students The result of the research will be useful for the students to improve their own ability in pronouncing the English sounds and be able to understand the English Short story and practice them in reading and speaking skill. 2) Sound A sound can be defined as the shortest speech unit in which a charge produces a charge in meaning.6 1) Pronunciation It is the act of expressing the sound and accents of words so that they conform to the accepted standards to aid understanding.6 Significance of The Study Based on the objectives of the study. 1. Hopefully. the writer would like to mention the significance of the study for both the teacher and the students. 1) The teacher By studying the use of short story “Jaka Tarub” in teaching pronunciation of English consonants sounds teacher will knows the general description of pronunciations. . Appropriate pronunciation influences how audience judges a speaker.

Statement of the problem. Objective of the study. The fourth chapter presents the result and analysis of the study. Consist of background of the study. Introduction. and data collection. And the last chapter describes the conclusion and suggestion. The third chapter is about the method of research covering subject. and Outline of the final project.7 Outline of The Final Project This study consists of five chapters.7 4) The writer The writer will have experience and capability in searching the good method how to read English short story by pronounce well. Definition of key terms. 1. Significance of the study. instrument. The first chapter. The second chapter concerns with the theoretical foundations of the study in pronouncing the English sound. Reason for choosing the topic. . variables.

8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. The spelling of th in they and think shows different pronunciation. often with reference to the correctness or acceptability of the speech sound. including articulation. and intonation. 8 . accent. The letters th in they are pronounced as [θ]. English spelling is only a poor reflection of pronunciation. So. it is different pronunciation.1 The Definition of Pronunciation Pronunciation has important role for human beings who use a certain language orally to communicate to each other to maintain the demand of being social creature. There is no one to one correspondence between sound uttered and the letter which appears in written word. It determines understanding between speakers and listeners who convey messages. although it should be admitted that there is much regularity between sound and symbol. ideas. We cannot only pronounce an English word correctly from its spelling. Pronunciation is the act of producing the sound of speech. The ordinary spelling of an English word sometimes has little apparent relation to its sound. inflection. vowel formation. and thoughts. Pronunciation is one of the basic skills people must possess when learning a language especially on speaking. whereas the letters th in think are pronounced as [ ].

2. however. Encyclopedia Americana defines pronunciation simpler that is “the term used for the way words are spoken. It is not at all necessary for students to sound like native speakers. It is a matter of speech sound of how we produce sound in English.1. It refers to both to the oral rendition of written words to dialectical variations. we use speech sounds to convoy information.” (1963: 655) Nunan (2005: 65) says that one key to success in learning to speak foreign language is having good pronunciation. to be comprehensible. appear and are arranged in patterns of pitch. It is important. the segmental phones or speech sounds.9 Talking about pronunciation can not be separated from phonetic. According to Nunan (2005: 65) In order to help learners improve their pronunciation. loudness and duration” (Encyclopedia Britannica 1965: 621) On the other hand.1 The Organ of Speech Sound In the form of spoken language. Speech sounds are produced when the vocal organs obstruct the outgoing air from the lungs. it is important to understand some important information about how the sounds of English are produced. Speech sounds are sound produced by speech organ (articulators). The word ‘pronunciation’ is “the from in which the elementary symbols of language. According to Sahulata (1988: 8) as quoted by Septiani (2006: 18) the organs of speech are contained in three areas as follows: .

the tongue. the soft palate. the uvula. The unmovable articulators are the teeth. because all sounds are produced with air flowing from the lungs. the hard palate. the front. which acts as a resonating chamber for the sound produced by vibration of the vocal cord. the teeth ridge.10 1) The Chest In the chest there are lungs. The organ s of articulation in the upper part of the mouth. The moveable articulators are the lips. There are movable and unmovable articulators based on their flexibility. and the upper lip. and the apex (tip). and the vocal cords. which is located just inside the Adam’s apple in a man and in the corresponding area in a woman. are the uvula. Above the voice box is the pharynx or pharyngeal cavity. Articulators are the speech organs that are used to obstruct the out going air in the production of speech sounds. The tongue is divided into three parts: the back. 3) The Head In the head there are organs of articulation and two cavities: oral (mouth) and nasal (nose) cavity. the alveolar ridge (the gums behind the upper front teeth). and the hard palate . which are very important in speaking. 2) The Throat In the throat there is the larynx or voice box. the upper teeth.

e. the diagram of speech organs is as follow: The process of shaping words with our attitudes and emotions though our voices is called intonation.g “good heaven”.11 To make it clearer.2 The Elements of Pronunciation Ramelan (1985: 22) declares that when a speaker produces an utterance. . or just segmental which refer to sound unit arranged in a segmental order. two features can be distinguished: (1) Segmental features. 2.

English has its own characteristics in it sound system. intonation.12 (2) Suprasegmental features. In terms of its way of production. Suprasegmental features. and other features that always accompany the production of segmental. length. and have to be comparatively or relatively described as well. pitch. Segmental features include vowels and consonant can be studied in isolation. the sound is generated by “putting the back of the tongue completely against the velum to obstruct the out-going air.3 Suprasegmental and Segmental Features Like many other languages. whereas. as they cannot be studied in isolation. English learners should pay attention to two important features of speech when they are producing English utterances. . they need reference to the segmental features they accompany. which differ from those of other languages. 2. Those features of speech are segmental and suprasegmental features. while the vocal cords are made to vibrate” (Ramelan 1985: 23). Meanwhile. the classification of speech sounds into vowels and consonants is “based on the differences in their functions in an utterance and in their ways of production” (Ramelan 1985: 49). the sudden release of which causes a plosive sound to be heard. or just suprasegmental which refer to such features as stress. It means they can be segmented or chopped up into isolated features. on the other said. suprasegmental cannot.

u. or a combination. and maybe single (like /e/. Those features are segmental and suprasegmental. the sound produced in the larynx is known as ‘voice’. consisting of 12 sound • Diphthongs. which refer to the second units arranged in sequential order.1 Segmental Features According to Ramelan (1994: 23) there are two features in English pronunciation. English segmental features. they are: a. involving a movement from one vowel sound to another (like /eI/. Vowel sounds are all voiced. Harmer (2000: 2) states that. i. especially those in mouth cavity. However.13 2.1 Vowel According to Ramelan (1994: 52). o. which are situated in the larynx. consisting of 24 sounds 2. But in English they are more than that because the voiced sound is then modified by the various shape and sizes of the speech organ above the larynx.3. In Indonesian there are more or less 6 sounds.” The elements of segmental features are: • Vowels.1. these do not necessarily correspond to the vowels and consonants we are familiar with in the alphabet. that All vowel sounds are principally produced by the vibration of the vocal cords. . as in let).3. such combinations are known as Diphthongs. “The set of phonemes consists of two categories: Vowel sounds and Consonant sounds. consisting of 9 sounds • Consonants. consist of consonants and vowels. e. as in late). In phonetics.

vowel sounds are. These sounds are known as “voiced” in phonetics.14 The term ”vowels” are “speech sounds made without stopping of the breath by the tongue. those are: 1) [ i:] Æ 2) [I ] Æ hit 3) [ ] Æ book 4) [u:] Æ food 5) [e ] Æ left 6) [ə ] Æ about 7) [ ] Æ shirt 8) [ :] Æ call 9) [æ] Æ hat 10) [^] Æ run 11) [a: ] Æ far 12) [ ] Æ dog bead According to Ramelan (1977: 52). etc. therefore. Ramelan (1985: 12-13) explains that there are 12 (twelve) vowels altogether in English. lips. how high in the mouth some part of the tongue is raised (the degree of the raising the tongue) . classified and described on the basis of the following variables: 1). All vowels sound principally produced by the vibration of the vocal cord. which situated in the larynx. which part of the tongue is raised 2). (Hornby and Ruse 2005:462).

it may even be neutral d. . The jaws are slightly a part from each other e. The organs of speech are relatively forties or tense. whether the two lips are rounded or unrounded.15 3). the position of the two lips. The lip position is unrounded or spread. which can be felt by putting the fingertips on the muscles bellow the jaws. The following is a vowel diagram and the description of each of the English vowel as Ramelan (2003: 56) presents them: (1) [i:] Articulatory definition: [i:] is an ungrounded close front vowel Ariculatory description: a. It is raised almost to the close position c. that is. In producing [i:] the front of the tongue is raised b.

the tongue position is clearly lower than that for [i:] c.16 List of word: (2) He [hi:] See [si:] Bee [bi:] Key [ki:] Eve [i:v] [I] Articulatory definition: [I] is an unrounded half close to close front vowel Articulatory definition: a. The tongue is raised to a point slightly above the half close position. but in between a front and a central vowel b. The lips are spread or neutral d. In producing [I] the front of the tongue is raised. The jaws are a bit winder than for [i:] . the raising is somewhat retracted so that it is not really a front vowel.

a bit wider than for [I] List of word : (4) Head [hεt] Fell [fεl] Set [sεt] Bet [bεd] [æ] Articulatory definition [æ] is an ungrounded open front vowel . The lips position is spread or neutral d. The opening between the jaws is medium.17 List of words: (3) Sin [sIn] Sit [sIt] Fill [fIl] Bid [bId] Live [lIv] [ε] Articulatory definition: [ε] is an ungrounded half close to half open front vowel Articulatory description: a. In producing [ε] the front of the tongue is raised b. The front of the tongue is raised to a point half way between the half open and half close position c.

In producing [æ] the front of the tongue is raised b. The jaws are fairly wide a part . List of word: (5) Band [band] Land [land] Bad [bad] Bat [bat] [a:] Aticulatory definition [a:] is an ungrounded open back vowel Articulatory description a. the lips for the production of [a:] are not rounded. The front of the tongue is raised a little bit to a point midway between the open and the half open position c. but they are neutral e. The raising of the tongue is only slight so that the tongue can be said to be very low in the mouth. Though classed as a back vowel. In producing [a:] the back of the tongue is raised b. The jaws are rather widely opened. The lip position is spread or neutral d. The raising is somewhat advanced from the real back position c. and is then at the fully open position d.18 Articulatory description: a.

The lips are slightly rounded. The jaws are rather wide a part. thus the tongue is very low in the mouth c. The raising of the back of the tongue is so slight that is almost near the fully open position. For the production of [ ] the back of the tongue is slightly raised b. List of words: (7) Hot [h t] Cot [k t] Pot [p t] Lost [l s] [ :] Articulatory definition [ :] is a rounded half open back vowel .19 List of words : (6) Harm [ha:m] Hard [ha:d] Heart [ha:t] Barn [ba:n] [ ] Articulatory definition: [ ] is a rounded open back vowel Articulatory description: a. but not protruded d.

The lips are fairly closely rounded and slightly protruded. with no tension of the muscles d. In producing [ :] the back of the tongue is raised b. The jaws are fairly wide a part from each other List of words: (8) Caught [k :t] Dawn [d :n] Stalk [st :k] Port [p :t] [ ] Articulatory definition: [ ] is a rounded half close to close back vowel Articulatory description: a. in producing [ ] the back of the tongue is raised. that is in between open lip rounding d. This raising almost reaches the half open position c. it is raised to the point slightly above the half-close position c. The lips are more closely rounded than for [ :]. The jaws are little bit a part from each other . this raising is advanced from the true back position b.20 Articulatory description a.

. (or an unrounded open to half open Centro back vowel). In producing [u:] the back of the tongue is raised b.21 List of word: (9) Could [c d] Put [p t] Cook [k k] Fully [f ll] [u:] Articulatory definition: [u:] is a rounded close back vowel Articulatory description: a. The lips are closely rounded with little protusion d. The jaws are only slightly separated List of word : Fool [fu:l] Pool [pu:l] Food [fu:d] (10) [Λ] Articulatory definition: [Λ] is an unrounded half open centro back vowel. It is raised to a point very near the close position c.

In [Λ] some part between the front and the back of the tongue. List of words: Bud [bΛd] Tusk [tΛsk] Lust [lΛst] Cud [kΛd] (11) [ :] Articulatory definition: [ :] is an unrounded half clos to half open central vowel Articulatory description: a. (thus centro back vowel) b. c. The jaws are wide a part. or slightly to appoint between the half open an open position.22 Articulatory description: a. The jaws are slightly separated from each other . it is raised to half open position. The lip position is unrounded or neutral d. The lips ar rounded or neutral as for [I] d. It is raised to a point between half close and half open position c. is raised. In producing [ :] h central part of the tongue is raised. b. the central part of the tongue is that part of the tongue between the front and the back. almost the central part of the tongue.

The lip position is spread or neutral d. The opening between the jaws is medium List of word: Statement [steitm nt] Sofa [souf ] Colder [kould ] Doctor [dokt ] . In producing [ ] the cntral part of the tongue is raised b.23 List of word: Lurk [l :k] Curt [k :t] Hurt [h :t] Burn [b :n] (12) [ ] Articulatory definition: [ ] is an unrounded half open to half close central vowel Articulatory description: a. It is raised to the half position. or even lower c.

The English Consonants are twenty-four in number (Gimson.24 2. (Harmer.2 Diphthong A diphthong is a kind of vowel sounds with a special feature. and which is produce in one syllable’.1. The word consonant is phonemics. that is there is a deliberate glide made from one vowel position to another vowels position.3.3. which are essentially the same except for the element of voicing (for example /f/. 1994: 81). (Ramelan.1. It is possible to identify many pairs of consonants. and /v/. as in van). The following is the list of diphthong sounds as well as its example. 1989: 150). “Consonant sounds may be voiced or voiceless. The chart of the English consonants below .3 Consonant Harmer (2000: 2) states that. 2000: 2): 1) [eI] Æ cake 2) [ I] Æ toy 3) [aI] Æ high 4) [Iə] Æ beer 5) [uə] Æ fewer 6) [eə] Æ where 7) [əu] Æ go 8) [au] Æ house 2. as in fan.

The chart is followed by an example on each consonant.25 arranges the consonants according to types and points of articulation. 1989: 15) Stop Affricative vl p t k vd b d g vl f θ s ƒ vd v δ z 3 Nasals vd Lateral vd Vibrant vd Semi vowel vd m h n l r w j Note: vl means voiceless (vocal cords not vibrating) vd means voiced (vocal cords vibrating) Glottal Velar palatal Alveopalatal Retroflek Alveolar Interdental Labiodental Bilabial Types of articulation . Chart of the English consonants (Gimson.

[m] Æ more 7) [t ] Æ church 19. /b/ 2).26 The following is the list of consonant sounds as well as its examples (Harmer 2000: 2) 1) [p] Æ pin 13. with special reference to the sounds of English. [s] Æ sue 2) [b] Æ bin 14. [ŋ] Æ sing 9) [f ] Æ fan 21. [l ] Æ live 10) [v] Æ van 22. Bilabial When the point of articulation is the two lips are the primary articulators Example: /p/. [ ] Æ she 4) [d] Æ do 16. [n] Æ no 8) [d3] Æ judge 20. [h] Æ hello 6) [g] Æ got 18. [w] Æ wood According to Gimson (1989: 31) says that the chief points of articulation. [z] Æ zoo 3) [t ] Æ to 15. [r ] Æ red 11) [θ] Æ think 23. [3] Æ measure 5) [k] Æ cot 17. /v/ . [j ] Æ yes 12) [ ] Æ the 24. /m/. Example: /f/. are the following: 1). Labio-dental When the point of articulation is the lower lip articulates with the upper teeth.

/n/. /d/. /d/ 5). Velar The point of articulation is at the tongue back and uvula. Interdental The point of articulation is the tongue tip between the upper and lower teeth. Example: /θ/. Alveolar When the point of articulation is the blade. /l/. Alveo palatal The point of articulation is at the tongue in front (or middle) and the hard palate. Example: /j/ 9). of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge. /δ/ 4). Example: /t/. Dental When the point of articulation is the tongue tip and rims articulate with the upper teeth. /ƒ/ 8). Example: /3/. Palatal The point of articulation is at the tongue middle and the palate. Example: /t/. Retroflex At the tongue when it is turned back into the mouth under the palate Example: American English /r/ 7). .27 3). /s/. /z/ 6). or tip and blade.

The degree of stress can be observed in English. pitch.3.3. Example: /q/ 11). length. and other features that always accompany the production of segmental.28 Example: /k/. intonation. A dictionary is the best teacher to consult to consult if the English learners are in doubt. which should be learn together with its meaning.2 Suprasegmental Feature According to Ramelan (1994: 22) “Suprasegmental features refer to such features as stress. /g/ 10). • Strong or primary stress • Medium or secondary stress • Weak stress In English. . Each word has its own stress pattern.1 Stress Stress is meant ‘the degree of force or loudness with which a syllable is pronounced so as to give it prominence’. the distribution of stress is unpredictable.2. Glottal The point of articulation is at the glottis (in the throat) Example: /h/ 2. Uvular The point of articulation is at the tongue back and uvula.” 2.

pulling them taut.3.2.” 2.2 Pitch One of the ways we recognize people is by the pitch of their voice.2.29 2. According to Harmer (2001: 28) states that “Intonation is a way of modifying the strength of intention of what we are saying.4 Intonation Intonation is the going to up and down of pitch over different syllables in an utterance.2.3. for high-pitched tones. When the length of a sound is measured comparatively in relation to the other sounds in the same utterance for instance the sound /a:/ is longer than /Λ/ in mother 2. Intonation as a feature of Suprasegmental is very important in the production of speech besides the other parts of speech. We use intonation to . According to Ramelan (1994: 29) length refers to the period of time during which a sound is produced in a given utterance. and shorten the cords.3. While the most of us have a pitch range that we normally operate at. in times of tension (Harmer 2001: 28).3 Length Length refers to the period of time during which a sound is produced in a given utterance. According to Harmer (2000: 4) states that “The pitch of the sound (how high or low) is controlled by muscles which slacken and lengthen the cords for low tones.

4 The Effective Teaching Technique for Pronunciation Cameron (2001: 161) stated that the structure of typical stories was analyses by Propp (1958) and many of the same features have been found in analyses of how people tell stories in their conversation (Labov 1972). It is not true if people imagine that intonation is the same for all languages. Prototypical features of stories.g.” Each language has its own intonation and so does English. we must learn the shapes of English intonation and these may be quite different from the intonation of our own language. 2. They are: • An opening: often formulaic in fairy tales (e.’) • Introduction of character • Description of setting • Introduction of a problem • A series of events • The resolution of the problem • A closing: often formulaic in fairy tales • A moral: Which many or may not be explicitly stated .30 show how certain we are about what we are saying and to indicate what response we expect. ‘Once upon a time…. When we are learning spoken English. English intonation is not the same as the intonation of any other languages. which will be found in the most version of LRRH (Little Red Riding Hood).

2 Short story Harmer (2001: 134) states “Media or teaching aids is used by language teachers to explain language meaning and construction.5.yourdictionary.wiktionary. engage students in topic or as the basis of whole activity.31 2. 2. Short stories tend to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such as novellas (in the modern sense of this term) and novels.5. characteristically developing a single central theme and limited in scope and number of characters (http:www. .org/wiki/short-story) is shorter than a novel.1 Concept of Short story A Short story is a form of short fictional narrative prose.” A kind of story shorter than the novel or novelette. teacher should use many kinds of media besides short story changeably to vary the teaching-learning situation. they will learn the words through contexts. Short story as considered.Wikipedia. However.org/wiki/short_story) Since the Short stories provide many words include unusual word that the students can learn. as interesting media for the students has been familiar with them. (http: //en.5 Teaching Pronunciation by Using Short Story 2.com/short-story) A work of fiction that (http://en.

(http://en.com/peter21ma/glossary of liteararyTerms-MADOE.32 A short story is a literary genre. It is usually fictional narrative prose and tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction.doc) A genre or from of a prose fiction.wikipedia.orang/wiki/short-story) A brief fictional work that usually contains one major conflict and at least one main character. and normally dealing with fewer characters and less action (http: www. (http://hl.uk/tt_seceng/resources/glosauth.ripway. such as novels. shorter than a novel.co.longman.htm) .

Brown (1993: 2) States research that uses the case study approach centers on one or a few individuals. 2000: 109). In trying to solve a problem. English as their foreign language is learned at school. the writer uses the Students of SMP Negeri 15 Semarang as the subject of the study. From the sample or representatives. The case study approached. they always try to solve them. SMP Negeri 15 Semarang is located eastern part of Semarang who most of the students use Indonesia language as their native language.33 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD People who live in the world may have many problems. When people encounter problems. we can generalize the result for the whole population (Arikunto. 3.1 Subject of The Study In this study. 33 . The study is conducted at the first semester of the academic year 2008/2009. scientists have a well-known way.2 Population and Sampling Sampling is technique of choosing representatives of the population. 3. that can be a helpful and productive one for the language-teaching field. It is called research method.

2).34 According to Arikunto (1998: 117). the researcher can take 50% of the population as the sample. If the population is 101 up to 500 respondents. and 4). If the population is less than 100 respondents. the researcher can take 1520% of the population as the sample The proper size of sample can be seen in the table below: Table 3. If the population is more than 1000 respondents. the reseacher can take 30%50% of the population as the sample 3). In determining the size of a sample. “Sample is a part of a population and a good sample is one that represents the population from which it is selected”. If the population is 501 up to 1000 respondents.1 Size of sample Population Sample Less than 100 50% 101-500 30%-50% 501-1000 20%-30% More than 1000 15%-20% . the researcher can take 2030% of the population as the sample. Saleh (2001: 34) says that: 1).

The questionnaire in my research here is non-numerical data. 2) The writer uses two classes consist of 38 students each class. The writer took 20 students as sample in experimental group. which provides numerical data where obtained from pronunciation test result. It is purposed to find how far the students’ knowledge of the English pronunciation. which are chooses two classes at random to decide the experimental group and the control one. . as sample of conducting this research is 40 students only. and 20 students as sample in control group. in which there are approximately 38 students in each class.3 Type of Data They are two types of data that is qualitative and quantitative data.35 Based on the formula above. 3. there are steps for choosing the sample of cluster random sampling based on the experiment of the writer: 1) The population consisted of eight classes of the year eight students of SMP Negeri 15 Semarang. The writer chose randomly because the writer considers that it is represent the whole population. Qualitative data in the shape of questionnaire and interview result provide nonnumerical data while quantitative data.

She gave English pronunciation lesson two times a week. the writer took the eighth grades of SMPN 15 Semarang. she conducted pronunciation pre-test. There are: 1) Before conducting the data collection. Then.5 Method of Data Collection Data are very important in every research. the writer gave a treatment to the students. the recording was conducted. The material was taken from vocabulary related to short story “Jaka Tarub” (the topic of the story). and 3) Then. 3. the research instrument and equipment were prepared. There were several steps taken to collect the field data that were required to answer the research problems stated before.4 Procedure of Experiment In this experiment. the writer conducted a pronunciation post-test. The pronunciation pre-test consisted of 15 items. At the end of experiment. because they will determine the finding that comes from the interpretation of the data collected. To collect the data. After giving a try-out test. The pre-test and post-test items are in appendix 5. the writer held a field research. The try-out test item is in appendix 1.36 3. . 2) The respondents were asked to read pronunciation material aloud.

37

3.5.1 The Instrument
In gathering data about the ability of students in pronouncing English words,
a set of pronunciation test can be used as an instrument.
Actually there are many types of test that can be used in measuring the
students’ pronunciation. In this study, the writer used one type of test, namely
reading aloud a certain material. The material to be read was a list of English
words related to the topic of study. All the words were taken from the vocabulary
list in the Short story ”Jaka Tarub”.
In employing the instrument, some equipment is needed:
1)

A tape recorder and the blank cassette to record the students’ pronunciation.

2)

A dictionary (Oxford Dictionary) to be used as the standard in determining
whether the students’ pronunciation is wrong or correct.

3.5.2 Try-out
A try-out is very important to measure the test’s validity, reliability and
practicality. According to Arikunto (1998: 61), “To make sure that the measuring
has such characteristics as validity and reliability, the writer should hold a try-out
test before using the instrument”. For the try-out test, the writer took the year
eight students of SMPN 15 Semarang. The number of students was 20. The list of
try-out students can be seen in appendix 3. The number of try-out test items was
20 items.

38

3.5.2.1 Validity of the Test
Related to the validity of the test, Harris (1969: 21) says, “Validity is
distinguished into three kinds. They are content validity, empirical validity, and
face validity.
In this study, the writer used content validity. “Content validity is the extent
to which a test measures a representative sample of subject matter content and the
behavioral changes under consideration (Harris 1969: 19). A test is said to have
high content validity if the test item used to collect data has relevance to
established criteria or objective and covers representative material. Therefore, to
find out whether the test has content validity the test using the materials dealing
with the English pronunciation composed items.
“A test then, is said to have empirical validity if it can show the evidence
that the test scores have a high correlation to some criterion such as the mark the
students got” (Harris, 1969: 19). Empirical validity depends in large part on the
reliability of both test and criterion measure.
According to Harris (1969: 21), “Face validity is the way a test looks to
examiners, test administrators, educators, and the like”.
In order to know whether the test items are valid or not, the writer used
Pearson-Product Moment Formula as Suggested by Arikunto (2002: 146)
The Formula is as follows:

r xy =

N Σ XY – (ΣX) (ΣY)
√ {N ΣX² - (ΣX)²}{N ΣY² - (ΣY)²}

39

Where,
rxy

= validity of item

N

= total number of the respondent

ΣX

= the sum of item score

ΣY

= the sum of total item

ΣXY = the sum of the item score multiplying with the total score
ΣX²

= the sum of square of the item score

ΣY²

= the sum of square of the total score

The test can be said to be valid if the result of the computation is higher than
its critical value.

3.5.2.2 Reliability of the Test
Reliability of the test shows the stability or consistency of the test scores
when the test is used. There are several ways in estimating the reliability of the
test.
The formula is as follows:

⎛ k ⎞⎛ M (k − M ) ⎞
r11 = ⎜
⎟⎜1 −

kVt ⎠
⎝ k − 1 ⎠⎝
Explanations:
k

= the number of items

M

= the means of the scores

Vt

= the total of variants

The test can be said to be reliable if the result of the computation is higher
than its critical value.

5. an analysis was made to find out the discriminating power (DP) of each item.e a half of the top and the other half of the bottom). In order to find the DP of each items the writer selected 50% of the upper group and 50% of the lower group of the students’ result. c) Subtract the number of the correct answers in the lower group the number of the correct answers in the upper group. “For a small group all the test groups are divided into 50% as the upper group and 50% as the lower group”. According to Arikunto (2001: 212). who answered the items. The procedure of calculating the DP explained above can be expressed by the following formula: D = BA JA - BB B JB . The Discriminating Power (DP) of an item can be calculated by applying the following procedure recommended by Heaton (1975: 174). d) Divide the difference by the number of the students in one group.40 3.3. b) Count the number of the students in the upper and lower group.5.3 Condition of the Test 3.1 Discriminating Power (DP) Based on the result. a) Arrange the students’ result in rank order of total score and divided them into two group of equal size (i.

B (Arikunto.00 = very poor b.20 = poor c.41 Where. 0. 0. The discriminating power classification is as follows: a. who answer the item correctly.00 < D < 0. 2001: 213-214) To know the level of discriminating power (DP) of the items. a good test.5. the writer consulted the classification of D. 0.70 < D < 1. which is not too difficult.70 = satisfactory d.3.00 = excellent (Arikunto. 2001: 218) 3.2 The Difficulty level Arikunto (2001: 207) stated that difficulty level is a figure that shows how easy or difficult an item is. D = Index of discriminating power JA = number of upper group students JB = number of lower group students BA = number of upper group students. who answer the item correctly B BB = number of lower group students. D < 0.20 < D < 0. To compute this difficulty level this research used this formula: B P= JS .

70 is a medium item c. the mean was then calculated by dividing the sum of all respondent’s scores with the total number of the respondents. JS = the number of the students in a class Arikunto (2001: 210) Classifies the difficulty level of an item as follow: a. 2) A score of 5 was given to each word that was pronounced correctly and 0 to wrong ones. In the data analysis. P = the difficulty level B = the number of the students who answered the item correctly.42 Where.00-0.300-0.70-1. 3) After knowing the respondent’s scores were found. item with P 0. The formula applied was as follows: The mean = sum of scores The total number of respondents .00 is an easy item 3. the following steps were taken: 1) The respondent’s pronunciation was determined to be correct and wrong by referring to the dictionary. item with P 0. item with P 0.30 is a difficulty item b.6 Method of Data Analysis The data obtained from the investigation were in the form of recording.

the respondents’ qualification was then stated using the criterion modified from Tinambunan (1988: 129). Criterion is as follows: Table 3.6 Respondent’s Level of Ability The percentage of Correct Level of Ability Pronunciation 5) 90-100 percent correct Excellent 80-85 percent correct Good 70-75 percent correct Satisfactory 60-65 percent correct Low Below 60 percent correct Very Low Using a statistical analysis to determine whether there is significant difference between the mean of the experimental group and control group.43 4) Using the percentage obtained from the calculation above. the T-test formula is used: t test = Me − Mc ⎛ ∑ Xe 2 + ∑ Xc 2 ⎜ ⎜ Ne + Nc − 2 ⎝ ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟⎜ + ⎟⎝ Ne Nc ⎟⎠ ⎠ .

2002: 280) It will be significant if the t-value is higher than t-critical value. Me = the mean of the experimental group Σe = the sum of the experimental group score Ne = the number of the subject in the experimental group Mc = the sum of the control Σc = the sum of the control group score Nc = the number of the subject in the control group (Arikunto.44 Where. .

In this chapter. Then she will analyze is teaching pronunciation by using the vowel sounds in short story “Jaka Tarub” valid to students of Junior high school especially for students of SMPN 15 Semarang. The results were analyzed based on the pronunciation test and the discussion or the interpretation was derived from the result of the analysis or the findings. The discussion and the results here will be objective. The writer tried to discuss the results by using clear explanation so that the results and the solutions would be achieved and shown. It means that the discussion and the results are about the topic only.45 CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents the result of the study and discussion. without any self-interest of the writer. 4. the writer is trying to show the ability of students of SMPN 15 Semarang in pronouncing English vowel sounds. to get a good instrument used for collecting data.1 Analysis of the Try-out Test As stated in chapter three. The result of try-out test was analyzed to know the validity and reliability of the instrument. the writer has done the try-out first. 45 . The analysis of each item was also done in order to know the effectiveness of the test items.

They were number 2. 11. They were said invalid because the result of the rxy value was lower than the r table. . They were said to be valid since the result of rxy value obtained was higher than r table. the writer used the Pearson Product Moment formula: rxy = N Σ XY – (ΣX) (ΣY) √ {N ΣX² . rxy = validity of item N = total number of the respondent ΣX = the sum of item score ΣY = the sum of total item ΣXY = the sum of the item score multiplying with the total score ΣX² = the sum of square of the item score ΣY² = the sum of square of the total score It was found out that from 20 test items.(ΣX)²}{N ΣY² . The computation of the validity of each item can be seen in appendix 4.1. 7. The number of invalid test items was 5 items. 4. and 17.1 Validity of Instrument To know the validity of the instrument.46 4.(ΣY)²} Where. there were 15 test items which were valid.

47 The following is the example analysis of validity for the item number 1.(ΣY)²} = 20 (152) – (10) (260) √ {20 (10) – (10)²} {20 (3752) – (260)²} = 3040-2600 √ {(100)} {(75040) – (67600)} = 440 √ {(744000)} = 0. and the other items were computed using the same formula: Where: N = 20 ∑XY = 152 ∑X = 10 ∑Y = 260 ∑X² = 10 ∑Y² = 3752 (The table can be seen in appendix 4) The result: r xy = N Σ XY – (ΣX) (ΣY) √ {N ΣX² .510 .(ΣX)²}{N ΣY² .

the r table was 0.510) > r table (0.600 260 = 13.00 20 By using formula we get: ⎛ k ⎞⎛ M (k − M ) ⎞ r 11= ⎜ ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ kVt ⎝ k − 1 ⎠⎝ ⎠ .444. it was consulted to a critical value of r table Product Moment.444).1.510. The following is the computation of reliability of the test: Where: ∑Y² = 3752 N = 20 ∑Y = 260 (can be seen in appendix 4) The result: 2 ( 260) 3752 − 20 Vt = 20 M = ΣY N = = 18. Since the r xy value of item number 1 was higher than r table (0.2 Reliability of the Test The test is reliable if r11 > r table. The computation of other items can be seen in appendix 4. 4. item number 1 is valid. For α = 5% and the number of students 20.48 After obtaining the r xy table value item number 1 r xy = 0.

796.600 ⎠ ⎝ 20 − 1 ⎠⎝ = 0. level of difficulty and discriminating power. It can be concluded that the instrument used in the research is reliable. .600 (can be seen in appendix 4) The result : ⎛ 20 ⎞⎛ 13. 4.00) ⎞ r11 = ⎜ ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ 20 × 18.00 Vt = 18.49 Explanations: k = the number of items M = the means of the scores Vt = the total of variants Where: k = 20 M = 13.444. whereas the number of students was 20 and the critical value for r with significant level 5% is 0.00(20 − 13. it was found that r (the total of reliability test) was 0.795 From the computation above.2 Item Analysis of the Instrument This item analysis focused on two vital features. Thus the value resulted from the computation is higher than its critical value.

the level of difficulty was computed by using the formula proposed by Arikunto.50 .1 The Level of Difficulty As mention in Chapter three.2. JS = the number of the students in a class Where: B = Sum of upper group + Sum of lower group =8+2 Js = 20 (the table can be seen in appendix 4) B =8 + Js = 20 2 = 10 The result: P = B JS P = 10 20 = 0. P = the difficulty level B = the number of the students who answered the item correctly. The Following was the computation of the level of difficulty for item number 1 and the other items were computed using the same formula: P= B JS Where.50 4.

who answer the item correctly BB = number of lower group students. because the calculation result of item number 1 was in the interval 0. The following was the computation of the discriminating power for item number 1. To do this analysis.2. the number of try-out subject was divided into two groups.30 < P < 0.2 The Discriminating Power The index of discriminating power tells us whether those students who performed well on the whole test tended to do well or badly on each item in the test. upper and lower groups. who answer the item correctly. The calculation of the Discriminating Power of the test for item number 1 was: BA =8 BB = 2 JA = 10 JB = 10 B . 4.70 (can be seen in appendix 4). D = Index of discriminating power JA = number of upper group students JB = number of lower group students BA = number of upper group students. and the other items were computed using the same formula: D = BA JA - BB JB Where.51 It was proper to say that the index difficulty of item number 1 above could be said to be the medium category.

. Then. First. The students’ pre-test result of the experimental group and control group is in appendix 9.52 The result: D = 8 10 - 2 10 = 0.60 According to the criteria. the writer computed the post-test result of pronunciation the experimental group and control group. the writer computed the pre-test result of pronunciation the experimental group and control group.3 The Significant Difference between the Two Mean In order to analyze the result of Pre-test and Post-test in the experimental group and control group. the writer used computation counting or statistical method.40 < D < 0. because the calculation result of item number 1 was in the interval 0.70 (can be seen in appendix 4) 4. The students’ post-test result of the experimental group and control group is in appendix 9. item number 1 above belongs to good category.

00 Ne = 20 ∑Xe² = 112133 ∑Xc = 1353.3. The formula: t test = Me − Mc ⎛ ∑ Xe 2 + ∑ Xc 2 ⎜ ⎜ Ne + Nc − 2 ⎝ ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟⎜ + ⎟⎝ Ne Nc ⎟⎠ ⎠ Where. Me = the mean of the experimental group ΣXe = the sum of the experimental group score Ne = the number of the subject in the experimental group Mc = the sum of the control ΣXc = the sum of the control group score Nc = the number of the subject in the control group Where: ∑Xe = 1460.1 The Pre-test result of the experimental group and control group.53 4.33 Nc = 20 ∑Xc² = 94000 (the table can be seen in appendix 10) .

33 ∑Xc² = 2424.33 Mc = ∑ Xc = 1353.4444 Where: Me = 73.33 = 67.44 Ne = 20 Nc = 20 (the table can be seen in appendix 10) .33)2 20 = 2424.67 20 nc (∑ Xc ) Xc − 2 ∑ Xc = ∑ = 94000 − nc (1353.00 20 ne (∑ Xe) ∑ Xe = ∑ Xe − 2 ne 2 ( 1460.54 t-test Me = ∑ Xe = 1460.00 Mc = 67.00 ) = 112133 − 20 = 5553.67 ∑Xe² = 5553.00 = 73.

33 + 2424. The Formula: t test = Me − Mc ⎛ ∑ Xe 2 + ∑ Xc 2 ⎜ ⎜ Ne + Nc − 2 ⎝ ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟⎜ + ⎟⎝ Ne Nc ⎟⎠ ⎠ Where.67 1 ⎞ ⎛ 5553. (can be seen in appendix 10). it means there is not a significant difference between experimental and control class on the pre-test. t(0.00 − 67.975)(38) = 2.55 The result : t test = = Me − Mc ⎛ ∑ Xe + ∑ Xc 2 ⎜ ⎜ Ne + Nc − 2 ⎝ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟⎜ + ⎟⎝ Ne Nc ⎟⎠ ⎠ 73.44 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎜ ⎟⎜ + ⎟ 38 ⎝ ⎠⎝ 20 20 ⎠ = 1.3.16 For α = 5% and df =20+20-2 = 38. 4.02 Since t table < t value < t table. Me = the mean of the experimental group .2 The Post-test result of the experimental group and control group.

7 ) = 135111 − 20 = 2808.00 = Νc 20 .89 Mc = ΣΧc 1440.56 ΣXe= the sum of the experimental group score Ne = the number of the subject in the experimental group Mc = the sum of the control ΣXc= the sum of the control group score Nc = the number of the subject in the control group Where: ∑Xe = 1626.33 ne 20 (∑ Xe) Xe − 2 ∑ Xe 2 =∑ ne 2 ( 1626.67 Ne = 20 ∑Xe² = 135111 ∑Xc = 1440.67 = 81.00 Nc = 20 ∑Xc² = 106222 (can be seen in appendix 10) t-test Me = ∑ Xe = 1626.00 =72.

the experimental is higher than the control one. especially in Indonesia. If in a given utterance. there are many pronunciation errors.975)(38) = 2.02 Since t value > t table. which demands special treatments.00 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2808. it means there is a significant difference between experimental and control class on the post-test.89 + 2542. at least strange to a native speaker.57 ΣΧc 2 = ΣΧc 2 − (ΣΧc) 2 Νc = 106222 − (1440. 4. if not unintelligible.4 Discussion Error in pronunciation is of course something very serious.22 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎜ ⎟⎜ + ⎟ 38 ⎝ ⎠⎝ 20 20 ⎠ = 2. for example. have problems in teaching studying spoken English is linguistically understandable. It might lead to misunderstanding.49 For α = 5% and df =20+20-2 = 26. As foreign adults they have been . the speech will be.33 − 72.2222 The result: t test = = Me − Mc ⎛ ∑ Xe 2 + ∑ Xc 2 ⎜ ⎜ Ne + Nc − 2 ⎝ ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟⎜ + ⎟⎝ Ne Nc ⎟⎠ ⎠ 81. t(0. The students.0)2 20 = 2542.

and impedes the learning of the new language because it is so firmly seated as the first language. which are unimportant in that other tongue. listening and repeating and also learning English by joining the English course to develop our knowledge about how to spell and pronounce words or sentences correctly. begin to read a storybook in English. although some are widely spread. . watching TV cartoon or movies in English. Brown (1997: 168) said that errors made in pronouncing a foreign language vary to a certain extent from one mother tongue to another. This variant of the mother tongue can serve as a basic for language growth and development as nothing else can. makes it hard for the learners to hear and make differences of sound. Listening and speaking habit. the mother tongue is so much a part of our mental lives and of our unreflecting consciousness as well as of our automatic responses to experience that usually we are not aware of language when we speak or listen or write. The mother tongue acts as a block in all the learners’ language reactions. We should learn to listen to the sound system systematically.58 accustomed to the set of sounds existing in their mother tongue. Indeed. which is formed during the process of acquiring the mother tongue. To learn a new language means to introduce new habits of detecting and pronouncing a different set of sounds to the speech organs. The mother tongue is so deeply embedded in and out mental lives and learners’ consciousness that learning a second language requires at first a different reaction to language.

2). 59 . The result shows that the mean score of experimental group whose students taught using the treatment of vowels sounds was higher than the mean score of control group whose students were not using the treatment of vowel sounds. 5. There is a significant difference on the pronunciation mastery between the students who have been using the treatment of vowel sounds and those who have not using the treatment of vowel sounds. These conclusions and suggestions hopefully will give more advantages for improving the students’ mastery of English sounds. The significant difference of the pronunciation mastery of both groups was known based on the result of the post-test analysis in which the t-value obtained was higher than the critical value.1 Conclusions 1). . The use of Short story “Jaka Tarub” is more effective in teaching word pronunciation to the eighth grades of junior high school.59 CHAPTER V CONCLUCIONS AND SUGGESTION This chapter presents information about the conclusions and suggestion based on the research and the data analysis discussed in the previous chapter.

5. he or she should be able to master English sound system well and in relation to the problems made by the students. Teachers should provide many exercises about how to speak English or to pronounce English vowel sounds properly. the readers. the writer would like to offer some suggestions to be considered by the English teacher.60 Therefore. The English teacher is expected to be creative in presenting the new idea in teaching pronunciation. 5. the writer understands the importance of pronouncing the English sounds correctly for those who study English with good pronunciation. b.2. . the use of short story “Jaka Tarub” in teaching English vowel sounds helped the students improve their word pronunciation and made the students eases to understand and pronounce English vowel sounds well.1 For English Teacher a.2 Suggestion By conducting the research. The suggestions are. the students. and by the school. A good and creative teacher is much needed in the future.

Therefore. b. 5. Students have to practice their English pronunciation in daily conversation. They should try to communicate orally with their teacher. . especially in pronouncing certain English vowel sounds. they will understand them well and pronounce them correctly. Students have to improve their pronunciation. friends or family members at home because it can help them to improve their pronunciation. and laboratory needed in the teaching and learning process.3 For school Schools should provide facilities involving books.2.2 For students a.61 5.2. 5.4 For readers Readers are supposed to be able to take the advantages especially of knowing about the validity of the teaching in vowels sounds from this final project.2.

62

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64

APPENDIXES

56

65 APPENDIX 1 The Try-Out Test Items .

Again 19. Appeared 17. Answer 6. Animal 4. Her 20. Indeed 2. Heaven 10. Lose 16. Cook 15. Secret 14. Still 13. Wanted 9.66 The Try-Out Test Items Bacalah kata-kata dibawah ini dengan benar! 1. Called 3. Lost . Everyday 18. Arranged 8. Hungry 5. Result 12. Often 7. Believe 11.

67 APPENDIX 2 The answer Key of Try-Out Test .

Cook = /k k/ 15. Everyday = /’evrIdeI/ 18. Still = /stIl/ 13. Appeared = /ə’pIəred/ 17. Her = /hз(r)/ 20.68 The answer Key of Try-Out Test 1 Believe = /bI’li:f/ 11. Animal = /’‫و‬nIml/ 4. Indeed = /In’di:d/ 2. Hungry = /’h ^ ŋgrI/ 5. Lost /l st/ = = . Secret = /si:krIt/ 14. Wanted = /w nted/ 9. Heaven = /’hevn/ 10. Again = / ‘geIn/ 19. Called = /k :led/ 3. Answer = /’ :ns r/ 6. Result = /rIz^lt/ 12. Often /’ ftən/ 7. Lose = /lu:z/ 16. Arranged = /ə’reIndз(ed)/ 8.

69 APPENDIX 3 LIST OF TRY-OUT STUDENTS .

T-16 17. T-12 13. T-6 7. T-1 2. T-15 16. T-5 6. T-8 9. T-7 8.70 LIST OF TRY-OUT STUDENTS No Students’ Code 1. T-18 19. T-14 15. T-17 18. T-19 . T-2 3. T-11 12. T-3 4. T-13 14. T-4 5. T-10 11. T-9 10.

T-20 APPENDIX 4 The Analysis of Try-Out Test Item .71 20.

72 APPENDIX 5 The Pre-Test and Post-Test Item .

Her 15. Answer 4. Lost 8. Lose 12. Believe 9. Hungry 3. Heaven 7. Wanted 6. Everyday 13. Again 14. Called . Often 5. Animal 2. Still 10. Cook 11.73 The Pre-Test and Post-Test Item Bacalah kata-kata dibawah ini dengan benar! 1.

74 APPENDIX 6 The Answer Key of Pre-Test and Post-Test .

Still = /stIl/ 10. Her = /hз(r)/ 15. Believe = /bI’li:f/ 9. Again = / ‘geIn/ 14. Cook = /k k/ 11. Animal = 2.75 The Answer Key of Pre-Test and Post-Test 1. Often /’ ftən/ 5. Called = /k :led/ = = /’‫و‬nIml/ . Lose = /lu:z/ 12. Heaven = /’hevn/ 7. Everyday = /’evrIdeI/ 13. Answer = /’ :ns r/ 4. Hungry = /’h ^ ŋgrI/ 3. Lost /l st/ 8. Wanted = /w nted/ 6.

76 APPENDIX 7 List of Students in Control Group .

77 .

C-16 17. C-3 4. C-6 7. C-15 16. C-9 10. C-8 9. C-2 3. C-19 . C-5 6. C-7 8. C-17 18. C-11 12.78 LIST OF STUDENTS IN CONTROL GROUP No Students’ Code 1. C-12 13. C-13 14. C-4 5. C-1 2. C-14 15. C-18 19. C10 11.

79 20. C-20 APPENDIX 8 List of Students in Experimental group .

80 .

E-2 3. E-4 5. E-9 10. E-5 6. E-14 15. E-17 18. E-15 16. E-12 13. E-13 14. E-3 4. E-16 17. E-10 11. E-6 7. E-1 2. E-8 9. E-18 19. E-7 8.81 LIST OF STUDENTS IN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP No Students’ Code 1. E-19 . E-11 12.

E-20 APPENDIX 9 The Result of Pre-Test and Post-Test (Experimental Group and Control Group) .82 20.

83 APPENDIX 10 The T-Test Analysis .