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Running head: LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS

PART 4
VOCABULARY
Glossary(110)islistinalphabeticalorderwithquestionstohelpyouwriteabout
authorschoicesandtheireffects.SyntacticStructures(1011)arelistedtowardsthe
end.
Instructions:FindexamplesoraddnotesforeachofthesetermsfromMacbethand/or
DeathofaSalesman.UsethislistandyournotestoprepareforyourIOC.

ALLUSION:Areferencetoanothercommontext(usuallytowardsaverycommon
pieceofliteratureliketheBibleastorywhereajealousbrotherkillshisother
brotheralludestotheBiblestoryaboutCainandAbel).Givesanadditionallayerof
meaningtoatextorenlargesitsframeofreference.
ANTAGONIST:character(s)inoppositionofprotagonist(ifevil=villain).
ANTICLIMAX:Deliberatedropfromtheseriousandelevatedsenseofcatharsisto
thetrivialandlowlyinordertoachieveanintendedcomicorsatiriceffect(sometimes
referredtoasbathos).
"Hehasseentheravagesofwar,hehasknownnaturalcatastrophes,hehasbeento
singlesbars."(WoodyAllen,"MySpeechtotheGraduates")
APOSTROPHE:Anexclamatorypassagewherethespeakerorwriterbreaksoffin
theflowofanarrativeorpoemtoaddressadeadorabsentperson,aparticular
audience,orobject(oftenpersonified).GaevinChekhovsCherryOrchardaddresses
abookcaseatlength,symbolofhispastandthefamilyhome.OrShakespeares
RichardIIIOcowardconscience,howdostthouafflictme!(5.3.198).Orisa
figureofspeechinwhichanimateorinanimateobjectsareaddressedinthesecond
person(thou,you)asthoughpresent.e.g.Riseyouruggedrocksanddobattleinmy
cause/Theanswer,myfriend,isblowinginthewind.
ASIDE:Stagedeviceinwhichacharacterexpressesthoughtsdirectlytotheaudience
bybreakingthefourthwallandisinaudibletotheothercharactersonstage
ATMOSPHERE:Themood,feeling,orqualityoflifeinastoryasconveyedbythe
author'schoiceoflanguageandorganizationindescribingthesettinginwhichthe
speechandactivityofthecharacterstakesplace.Theatmosphereinwhichanauthor
makescharactersappearandeventsoccurisoftenimportantindeterminingthetone
oftheparticularwork.

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4

BATHOS:Theeffectresultingfromanunsuccessfulefforttoachievedignityor
pathosorelevationofstyle;anunintentionalanticlimax,droppingfromthesublime
totheridiculous.Ifanovelorplaytriestomakeareaderorspectatorweepand
succeedsonlyinmakinghimorherlaugh,thentheresultisbathos.
CACOPHONY:Harshsounds.
CATHARSIS:typicallyadramaticterm:theaudiencesemotionevokedbythe
performance(tragedyarousestheemotionofpitybecauseatragicherosmisfortune
isgreaterthanhedeservesandfearbecausewerecognizesimilarpossibilitiesin
ourselvestheaudience).
CHARACTER:personspresentedinadramaticornarrativework,whoare
interpretedbythereaderasbeingendowedwithmoral,dispositional,andemotional
qualitiesexpressedinwhattheysayanddo(dialogueandaction)
(SeeDynamic,Static,Flat,Round,stock/stereotype).
Doesthecharactergrowordeteriorate?Whyorwhynot?Howcomplexisthe
character?Howimportantaretheminorcharacters?Arethecharacterswordsand
actionsconsistent?Isthecharacterintelligent?Likeable?Insightful?Responsible?
Happy?Believable?Howdoyouknow?
CIRCUMLOCUTION:Useoftoomanywordstoexpressanideawiththeeffectof
evasioninspeech(excessivelanguage,surpluswordstodirectattentionawayfrom
thecruxofthemessageorcreateagrander,yethighlyineffective,effect).
CLIMAX:(Aristotlestermcrisis)turningpoint,momentofgreatesttensionthatfixes
theoutcome
COLLOQUIALISM:Specificjargon/phrasesforthetime(snap!)typicallyinformal,
butthedeliberateuseofwhichcanbequitestriking.

CONFLICT:strugglebetweenopposingforces,usuallyresolvedbytheendof
thestory(betweenindividuals,protagonistagainstfate,againstthe
circumstancesstandingbetweenprotagonistandgoal,orbetweenopposing
desiresorvaluesintheprotagonistsowntemperament)
external/internal
protagonistvs.
o nature,society,another,orself

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


CONNOTATION(ANT.DENOTATION):Theassociated/emotionalmeaningofa
word(homehasawarmerfeelthanhouse)Veryusefulwhendiscussingdiction.
CONTRAST:Thedissimilaritybetweentwoormoresubjects/objectsbeing
compared.
COUPLET:Twoconsecutiverhyminglinesofversetypicallyclinchingor
emphasisinganidea.(InShakespeare,itoftendenotestheendofascene.)
DENOTATION(ANT.CONNOTATION):Thedictionarymeaningofaword
(house=n.Abuildinginwhichoneresides)
DICTION:Thewriterschoiceofwordsorvocabulary.
DIRECT(ANT.INDIRECT):authorintervenesauthoritativelyinordertodescribe
andoftenevaluatethemotivesanddispositionalqualitiesofcharacter
Howdoestheauthorcharacterizeorrevealthecharacters?Whatdotheauthors
descriptionandPOVcontributetoyourunderstandingofthem?
DYNAMIC(ANT.STATIC):undergoaradicalchange,eitherthroughagradual
processofmotivationanddevelopmentortheresultofacrisis
Towhatextentdoesyourresponsetothecharacterschange?Ifitdoes,identify
whereandwhythechangeoccurs?
EMPHASIZE:Words/phrases/objectswhichseemtostandoutincomparisontoother
thingsaroundit/them
EPIGRAM:Aconcise,pointed,wittystatementinproseorpoetry(typicallywhatthe
internetreferstoasnotablequoteswhichisanuglywordsinceitstheabbreviation
ofquotation)ThetruthisrarelypureandneversimpleOscarWilde
EPIPHANY:A"showingforth"orsuddenrevelationofthetruenatureofacharacter
orsituationthroughaspecificeventaword,gesture,orotheractionthatcauses
thereadertoseethesignificanceofthatcharacterorsituationinanewlight.James
Joycefirstpopularizedtheterminmodernliterature.
EQUIVOCATION:Usingwordsthathaveatleasttwodifferentdefinitions(puns
perhaps)forexplanationorargumenttocreateambiguity.

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


ETHOS(SEEALSOPATHOS,LOGOSANDBATHOS):Overall
disposition/character,thesociologyofthecharacter
EUPHEMISM:Afigurativeexpressionmeaningtobelessoffensive(heisgonenow
asopposedtodied)
EUPHONY(ANT.CACOPHONY):Pleasantsounds
EXPOSITION:providesessentialpriormatters,describessetting,introducesmajor
characters,setsmood(describesapersonsframeofmind/state/feelingandindicate
theemotionalresponsetheauthorhopestoevokeinthemindofthereader).
Flashbacksareinterpolatednarratives(justifiedornaturalizedasmemory,reverie,
orconfession)representingeventsthathappenbeforethetimeatwhichthework
opened(antecedentactionisasignificantprecedingactiontotheopeningofthe
story,likelyincludingmotivationfortheconflictsituation).Foreshadowingisof
coursetheoppositeandrevealstheendingthroughindirect,subtleclues
FALLINGACTION:eventsaftertheclimax
FLASHBACK:SeeExposition
FLAT(ANT.ROUND):Builtaroundasingleideaorqualityandpresentedwithout
individualdetail
Whatisthefunctionofanyminorcharactersinthestory?
FOIL:bysharpcontrastthistypeservestostressandhighlightthedistinctive
temperamentoftheprotagonist(originatedfromathingoldleafwouldbeplaced
underajeweltoenhanceitsbrilliance)
GENERALIZATIONS:Hastygeneralizationsmakeassertionsorconclusionsdrawn
oninsufficientevidence;jumpingtoconclusions.
HAMARTIA:Inatragedy,thetragicherowillmosteffectivelyevokepityandterror
ifheisaroundcharacter,hashigherthanordinarymoralworth(noble),andsuffersa
changeinfortunefromhappinesstomiserybecauseofamistakenactledbyhis
hamartia(akatragicflaw).Hubrisorprideoranoverwhelmingselfconfidenceleads
thetragicherotodisregardadivinewarningortoviolateanimportantmorallaw.
HUBRIS:SeeHamartia

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


HYPERBOLE:Exaggeratedstatement(Icouldjustdieoflaughter)forvariouseffects
andemphasis
IMAGERY:Beingabletopicturewhatisdescribedbywords,involvesfigurative
languagetobetrueimagery.However,isstilloftenusedtosignifyalltheobjectsand
qualitiesofsenseperceptioninanypieceofliterature:concreteorabstract.Theuse
ofwordsorfiguresofspeechtocreateamentalpicture.Imageryexploitsallfive
sensestoproduceasinglepowerfulimpressionortocreateaclusterofimpressions
thatconveyadominantmood.
Auditoryimageryappealstothesenseofhearing.
Gustatoryimageryappealstothesenseoftaste.
Kineticimageryconveysasenseofmotion.SometimescalledKINAESTHETIC
IMAGERY.
Olfactoryimageryappealstothesenseofsmell.
Tactileimageryappealstothesenseoftouch.SometimescalledHAPTICIMAGERY.
Verbalimageryiscreatedwithwords(oftenwithavisualanaloguea"mental
picture"isacommonlyusedmetaphorfortheoperationofverbalimagery).
Visualimageryiscreatedwithpictures(oftenwithaverbalanaloguemanyvisual
imagesarepicturesofthingsrepresentingwellknownsayingsorphrases).
INDIRECT(ANT.DIRECT):showing(thedramaticmethod)orpresentingthe
charactersthroughactionanddialogue,sothereaderislefttoinfermotivationsand
dispositions
Dotheirnamesconveyanythingaboutthecharacter?Arethecharacterspartofan
allegory?Whatdothecharactersspeechandbehaviorrevealaboutthem?
INITIALINCIDENT:(akaincitingincident,pointofattack)firstincidentwhich
happensinthestoryonwhichtherestofthestorydependsintroducingthemain
conflict
IRONY:oftenusedforsatire,humour,contrast,movestheaudience,exposes
hypocrisyandlackofawareness(gapormismatchbetweenwhatisbeingsaid,and
whatisintended)
Verbal:meaningdiffersfromwhatisexpressed(sarcasmisthecrudeversionofpraise
fordispraise)
Dramatic:theaudience/readerandauthorareprivytoinformationwhichacharacter
isignorant(canbecomic/tragic)
Situational:theoutcomeisincongruousnotjustoppositewiththeexpectationssetup
previously(dontconfusewithoppositeexpectationsbecausesetupisimportant.E.g.
TheonlythingironicaboutAlanisMorisettessong:Ironicisthatnoneofthe
examplesareironic.)

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


Cosmicgoesbeyondbeingunfairandismorallytragic.Oftensoseverethatitcauses
characterstoquestionGodandseetheuniverseashostile.Suchironysuggests
peoplearepawnstocruelforces.
JUXTAPOSITION:Strongcontrastingsituationsorcharacterswhenplacedsideby
sideallowtheobservertoconnectthecontrastsinordertodevelopapoint
METAPHOR:Adirectcomparisonbetweentwounlikethings(Youaretheappleof
myeye.)Toseesuchstrikingsimilaritybetweentwonormallyunlikethingscanbe
anindicatoroforiginality,richnessofsensation,depthinmeaningandunderstanding
ImplicitMetaphor(unspecifiedcomparisonlikeThatreedwastoofrailtosurvivethe
stormofitssorrowsreferstosomeonesdeathperhapsifthetermreedindicatesa
person,stormisthemetaphorfordeath
Mixedmetaphorshowslayersofcomparisonswithintext
Deadmetaphorhasbecomesocommonthatweceasetobeawareofthecomparison
MONOLOGUE:Lengthyspeechinaplayutteredbyasinglepersonatacritical
moment,butaddressesandinteractswithoneormorepeopleonstage(dramatic
monologue:indicativeofentirepoemaddressinganother)
Interiormonologue:Thecharacterinanovelthinkstohis/herselfinlanguageand
words,ands/heisconsciousofthosethoughts
StreamofconsciousnessRepresentsafree,randomsuccessionofthoughtsand
sensationsinacharactersmindespeciallywhenaloneinanovelandfirstpersonI
isnotused.
MOTIF:conspicuouselementoccurringfrequently,notassignificantasthemes,but
haveacumulativeeffectlikearefrain(repetitioninawork),andcanassumesymbolic
importance
Aleitmotif(guiding/leadingmotif)isthefrequentrepetitionwithinasingleworkofa
significantelementpointingtowardsacertaintheme
MOTIVATION:groundsinthecharacterstemperament,desires,andmoralnature
fortheirspeechandactions
OUTCOME,DENOUEMENT,RESOLUTION:(Aristotlestermcatastrophe
typicallyappliedtotragedywheretheherodiesasaresultofhis/heractions)
DenouementisFrenchforunknottingwhichendsinsuccessorfailureandalltheplot
complicationsaresorted(anotherwordcommonlyusedisresolution)
OXYMORON:Twocontradictorytermsusedtogether(thesceneisbriefyettedious;
jumboshrimpforsale)SeealsoParadox

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


PARADOX:Seeminglycontradictory,butonreflection,itmakessense,containsits
ownresolutionortruthrecognizingcomplexityinexperience.(Onewholosesherlife
shallfinditorNaturesfirstgreenisgold:RobertFrost.Greencantbegold,but
theearliestsignsoflifeinspringarepreciouslikegold.)
Antithesis:Contrastingideasbybalancingwordsofoppositemeaningandidea(And
wretcheshang,thatjurymenmaydine:AlexanderPopeAlsoseeAntithesisunder
SyntacticStuctures)
Contradiction:Statingorimplyingtheoppositeofwhathasbeensaidorsuggested.
Oxymoron:Twowordsofoppositemeaningarejoinedopensecretsuggesting
somethingquitecomplexorprovocative.
PATHETICFALLACY:Attachmentofhumantraits(especiallyemotions,thoughts,
sensations,feelings)toinanimateobjectsornature.Oftenitemphasizesorexpresses
thetensionandemotionsofthemaincharactersandevents(natureinreversein
Macbethreflectsthemainplot).
PATHOS:Passions,sufferingordeepfeelingsofacharacterwhicharousethe
audiencetoreact
PERSONIFICATION:Atypeofmetaphorgivinganinanimateobjectespecially
naturalphenomena(orabstractidea)humanqualities(Thehousestaredominously
overthevalley.)
(Eitherofthepersonificationofsomenonhumanbeingoridea,orofthe
representationofanimaginary,dead,orabsentpersonasaliveandcapableofspeech
andhearing.)
PLAUSIBLE:expectationofconsistencythecharactershouldntbreakoffandact
inawaythatsunreliabletowhattheauthorspresentedsofar
Towhatextentdoyouidentifywithanyofthecharacters?Towhatextentdoyou
sympathizewiththemorjudgethemharshly?Why?Inthecontextofthestory,are
theiractionsbelievable?Whyorwhynot?
PLOTANDSTUCTURE:
Arrangementofeventsmakingupanarrative(unityofaction)
Effectiveplotsincludeasequence(oftenchronological,sometimesflashbacks,
orframingdevicesareusedwithparallelopeningsandendings,orepisodic
structureorsubplotsareincluded,sheddinglightonthemainplot)ofincidents
bearingasignificantandcausalrelationshiptoeachother(onethinghappens
asaresultofsomethingelsea.k.a.causeandeffecttypically).
Plotsaredeliberateandchosentocreateparticulareffectsandwont
necessarilybeinchronologicalorder.(Storiesaretypicallyeventsofa

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


narrativeinchronologicalorderorderinwhichtheyoccurredfollowing
realistictime.)
Towhatextentistheplotunified?Howisthestoryshaped,organized,ordesigned?
Whateffectdoesthatcreate?Whatpatternscanyoudiscerninthestorysactions?
Towhatextentarerepetition,balance,andcontrastimportant?Why?

POINTOFVIEW:(theanglefromwhichthenarrativeisseenortoldandcanshift
withinawork)
Doesthepointofviewshift?Ifso,where,why,andwithwhatimplicationsfor
meaning?Isthenarratorreliableorfallible?Whyorwhynot?Howdoyouknow?
POVFIRSTPERSON:
Descriptionisthroughtheeyesofthecharacterintheactiona.k.a.participant;
pronouns:we,us,I,andme.
Createsimmediacyorrealism.(canbeamajororminorcharacter)
Innocent1stperson,throughthemindofacharacterwhodoesntfully
comprehendthesituation(child,ignorant,naive,etc.)
Oftencreatesanironiceffectbecauseofthecontrastbetweenwhatthenarrator
perceivesandwhatthereaderfeels.
PREVARICATE:Evadethetruththroughomission.(similartoequivocation)
PROTAGONIST(ANT.ANTAGONIST):Chiefcharacterinawork,onwhomour
interestcenters
PURPOSE:Whattheauthorattemptstoaccomplishthroughhis/hertext
RESOLUTION:SeeOutcome
RHYTHM:Stressedandunstressedsyllablesusedinaconsistentpatternthroughouta
poem(iambicpentameteristypicallyusedbyShakespeare5stressedthen
unstressedsyllablesineachline)However,canbedistinguishedfromthetechnical,
identifiablemetreandrefermoregenerallytotheflowofsoundcreatedbythe
syllables(steady/irregular?)
RISINGACTION:(Aristotlestermcomplication)seriesofintensificationsofthe
conflictleadingtothemomentofgreatesttensionwhichareusuallyquitesuspenseful

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


ROUND(ANT.FLAT):Complexintemperamentandmotivationandrepresented
withsubtleparticularity;difficulttodescribewithanyadequacyasapersoninreal
life
SETTING:Generallocale,historicaltime,andsocialcircumstancesinwhichaction
occurs(generalandparticularsettings)whichcanbeimportantelementsingenerating
atmosphereandofteninterconnectswithplotandcharactervaryingincomplexityand
importance.Themisenscenedenoteseverythingasawholecreatingtheatmosphere
forthetextorfosteringtheexpectationsastothecourseofevents.
Settingmayserveasapassivebackground;itmayfunctionasantagonist;itmaybe
thesourceofanintricatewebofallusions.Itisoftenkeytocharacterization
Atmosphere:nottobeconfusedwithmoodrefersspecificallytoplace,settingor
surroundings.(TherewasaChristmasatmosphereintown.)
Whereandwhenistheactionofthestoryset?Towhatextentareaspectsofthe
settingsymbolic?Howdoyouknowandwhatsthereasonforit?Canyouimagine
thestorysetinanotherplaceortime?Whyorwhynot?Areyoufamiliarwith
culturalcontext?Doessettingilluminatethecharactersandevents?How?
SIMILE:Acomparisonbetweentwounlikethingsusinglikeoraswithinthe
comparison
SOLILOQUY:Stagedeviceinwhichacharacter,aloneonstage,revealsthoughts
aloud;usedtoconvenientlyconveycharactermotive,stateofmind,guidejudgments
andresponsesfromtheaudience
STATIC(ANT.DYNAMIC):characterswhoremainessentiallystable,or
unchangedinoutlookanddispositionfrombeginningtoendofawork
STYLE:Difficulttopinpoint,butfollowsdistinctivetraitsinanauthorswork
concerningtheme,attitude,speaker,tone,diction(emotional/abstract/poeticincluding
wordlength,languagestyle,sound),syntax(sentencestructure,juxtapositions,
parallelism,repetition),figurativelanguage(aimedatgainingspecialeffects),sound,
organizationofdetails(notedeliberateshifts),andsupportivedetail(dataorimages
usedtosupportattitudewhichcouldbefactual/opinionated,rational/irrational)
SUBPLOT:(ordoubleplotswhicharefamiliarinElizabethandrama)asecondary
storyshouldservetobroadenourperspectiveonthemainplotandenhancerather
thandiffusetheoveralleffectofthenarrative

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4


SUBTEXT:especiallyindrama,theinferencesmadethroughactionandexpression
ofcharacter
SYMBOL:Anythingwhichsignifies/represents/evokesaconceptorideaofwider,
abstractsignificance;arangeofreferencebeyondtheliteralunderstandingofthe
object/subject(conventionalordeterminedthroughoutthetext:rosesrepresentlove,
wallsdivisions)
THEGREATCHAINOFBEING:GroundedinideasaboutthenatureofGodand
fromtheGreekphilosophersanddevelopedbythinkersintheageofthe
EnlightenmentspecificallywiththeElizabethanpictureoftheworldasagradationof
existingspeciesinanhierarchyofstatusextendingfromthelowliestconditiontoGod
(AlexanderPopecompressestheconceptsinEpistleIofhisEssayonMan)
THEME:Ageneralconcept,implicitorasserted,whichatextisdesignedto
incorporateandmakepersuasivetothereaderrevealingsometruth/understanding
about/observationoflife.Alloftheelementsappeartodeliberatelypointtowards
theme(s).(Narrativesmayhavemultiple,singleornothemes.Dontconfusewitha
moralorjustideainthestory.Themesarentnecessarilystatementsaboutwhatone
shouldorshouldntdo.Alsoinliterature,themesarenotoneword,butstatements
aboutlife).
Isthestoryoptimisticorpessimistic?Whatuniversalsituationsandgeneralvalues
areinvolved?Doesthenarrator/maincharacterarriveatanyinsights?Whyorwhy
not?How?Doesthestoryleaveyouwithanyinsights?
TONE:Theauthorsattitude(reflectsposition/emotionsregardingthematter)towards
thesubject(sarcastic,matteroffact,sardonic,playful,formal,intimate,ironic,
condescending,etc.)largelycreatedbydictionandchoiceofdetail.Suggestinga
toneofvoicefromtheauthorwhichmaynotbethesameasanarratorsvoice.
Toneistheauthorsemotionalmeaningandnottobeconfusedwithspeaker(invented
narratororpersona).
Ambiguity:Languageandtoneare(deliberately)unclearandmayhavetwoormore
interpretationsormeanings.
Ambivalence:Thewritersattitudeto,forexample,acharacteroreventisnotclear
cut,butmayseemtoholdatleasttworesponses(MarlowsattitudetoKurtzin
ConradsHeartofDarknessunderstandingandcriticalperhaps?)
Didactic:Describesthetoneorintentiontopreachsuchthingsasmorals,politics,
religiousperspectives.Tendencyfallstowardsthenegativeconnotation.
VERISIMILITUDE:achievementofanillusionofrealityintheaudience(typically
dramaticterm)

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4

SYNTACTICSTRUCTURES
ANACOLUTHON:Lackofgrammaticalsequence;achangeinthegrammatical
constructionwithinthesame
sentence,leavingthefirstpartbrokenorunfinished.
Andthenthedeeprumblefromtheexplosionbegantoshaketheverybones
ofnoonehadeverfeltanythinglikeit.
Becarefulwiththesetwodevicesbecauseimproperlyusedtheycanwell,I
havecautionedyouenough.
ANAPHORA:Therepetitionofawordorphraseatthebeginningofsuccessive
phrases,clausesorlines.
ANTISTROPHE:Repetitionofthesamewordorphraseattheendofsuccessive
clauses.
ANTITHESIS:istheplacementofideasinsharpcontrast;thedirectcontrastof
structurallyparallelwordgroupings.Thusanantitheticsentenceisa
balancedsentenceinwhichideasorwordsareinopposition,morestrikinglyso
becauseofthebalance.e.g.Toerrishuman,toforgivedivine;sinkorswim;standor
fall
POLYSYNDETON:Therepetitionofconjunctionsinaseriesofcoordinatewords,
phrases,orclauses.Therhetoricaleffectofpolysyndeton,however,oftenshareswith
thatofasyndetonafeelingofmultiplicity,energeticenumeration,andbuildingup.
Themultipleconjunctionsofthepolysyndeticstructurecallattentiontothemselves
andthereforeaddtheeffectofpersistenceorintensityoremphasistotheothereffect
ofmultiplicity.Therepeateduseof"nor"or"or"emphasizesalternatives;repeated
useof"but"or"yet"stressesqualifications.

References
Abrams,M.H.AGlossaryofLiteraryTerms6thEd.HarcourtBraceCollege
Publishers:1988.
Corrigan,TimothyandPatriciaWhite.TheFilmExperience:AnIntroduction2ndEd.
Bedford/St.Martins:2009.
Stephen,Elizabeth.IBLanguageA1(English)(includingWorldLiteratureandOral
Assessment)HigherandStandardLevelInternationalBaccalaureateStudy
andRevisionguide.OxfordStudyCourses:2003.

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE LIST OF LITERAY TERMS PART 4