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CE BIO 1993

1.

(a)

(i)

correct choices of axes (A) and correct labelling of axes (L) -------------------------------------- 1,1
correct plotting and joining of 8 points 9straight-lined / smooth curve ) (P) ---------------------- 1
(axes without scale, P = 0) (not on graph paper, P=0)

A graph showing the volume of gas collected against time

(ii)

(1)

0 - 2 minutes
(for straight-lined curve) ---------- 1

Volume of gas collected (cm )

(2)

20 - 30 minutes
(for straight-lined curve) ---------- 1

(iii)

As the reaction processed,


the reaction rate decreased ----------- 1
because the substrate

concentration was decreasing -------- 1


thereby reducing the chance of

collision between the substrate


and enzyme molecules ----------------- 1
1

when all the substrate was


used up, the reaction stopped -------- 1

10

15

20

25

30

Time (min)

(iv) The curve is to the left of that


plotted in (i)

--------------------------- 1

The curve levels off at 5 cm3


of gas collected --------------------------- 1
N.B. Refer to the example shown in the graph above. Deduct 1 mark if neither curve is labelled.
1.

(a)

Total : 11 marks
Most candidates demonstrated mastery at the plotting of the graph. They were able to
choose and label the axes correctly and plot the points accurately. A small number of
candidates, however, plotted their graphs in their answer books instead of on the graph
paper.
(ii) Some candidates failed to state the complete time interval for the highest or lowest reaction
rate. Some left out the unit (i.e. minutes) for the time interval,
(iii) The answer to this part was satisfactory in general, but the following errors were frequently
made by candidates:
1.
Some candidates did not understand that the slope of the curve represented the
reaction rate. They equated the volume of gas collected with the reaction rate.
consequently, they wrongly stated that the reaction rate increased with time as more
and more gas was collected.
2.
Some candidates were able to state that the reaction rate decreased with time, but
gave the wrong explanation, e.g. that the decrease in reaction rate was due to a drop
in the amount of catalase. This reflected the fact that they held the serious
misconception that enzyme molecules were used up during a reaction.
3.
Most candidates could not relate the decrease in reaction rate to the reduced chance
of collision between the substrate and enzyme molecules as the concentration of the
substrate molecules decreased .
4.
Some candidates made the incorrect deduction that, because the volume of gas
collected did not change with time, the reaction rate became constant instead of
making the correct deduction, that it became zero.
(iv) This question discriminated well between stronger and weaker candidates. Some
candidates sketched the curve perfectly well- Some correctly sketched the curve to the left
of the plotted curve, but levelled off at a higher position. This suggested that some were
have wrongly believed that more enzyme would result in more products. Some were
completely wrong in sketching the curve to the right of the plotted curve. A few careless
candidates did not label the two curves.
(i)

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1.

(b)

(i)

The six-toed allele is dominant ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


individuals 1 and 2 are six-toed / of the same phenotype and ------------------------------------- 1
produce offspring who are of two phenotypes --------------------------------------------------------- 1
indicating both parents are heterozygous --------------------------------------------------------------- 1
only the dominant allele expresses itself /
recessive allele is masked in heterozygous state ----------------------------------------------------- 1
OR
Both individuals 1 and 2 are six-toed therefore each of
them must process at least one six-toed allele -------------------------------------------------------- 1
some of their children (individuals 3 and 6) are five-toed that means at least one of the
parents must also possess at least one five-toed allele -------------------------------------- 1
at least one of the parents is heterozygous in a -------------------------------------------------------- 1
heterozygous condition, the dominant allele will be expressed ------------------------------------ 1
therefore the six-toed allele is the dominant allele ---------------------------------------------------- 1
individual 7
individual 8 ------------------------------------------------- 0.5

tt

Tt

(mark for genotypes) --------------------- 0.5

(marks for G and genotypes)---- 0.5 , 0.5

P1

Tt
six-toed

tt
normal

(marks for F1 and genotypes) --- 0.5 , 0.5

the chance of individual 11 being six-toed =  --------------------------------------------------- 1


N.B. Deduct marks for undefined symbols (UDS).
Deduct 1 mark for defined symbols (DS).
Marks deducted should not exceed marks gained in genetic diagram.
(iii)

Her idea cannot work ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


It is because the gene cannot be removed by this surgical
operation / six-toed character is inheritable ------------------------------------------------------------ 1
Total : 11 marks

1.

(b)

(i)

(ii)
(iii)

This question demanded clarity of genetic concepts and good communicative skills. While a
small number of candidates gave good answers, most failed to provide an accurate and
logical explanation. This may be due to the fact that some candidates did not express their
deduction logically while others might have learned to use genetic diagrams in a
stereotyped manner without understanding the principles involved. This weakness in making
deductions from genetic crosses has been detected consistently throughout the years. It is
necessary for candidates to strengthen their ability in this respect in the course of their
study.
Most candidates presented the genetic diagram correctly, although some failed to indicate
the identity of the parents in their diagrams.
Most candidates answered this question correctly, indicating that they had a good

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understanding of the relationship between phenotype and genotype in inheritance .

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1.

(c)

(i)

Patient A should take less fat ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


Gall bladder stores bile juice which is released
when fatty food is present in small intestine ------------------------------------------------------------ 1
* Bile juice contains bile salts for emulsification of fat ------------------------------------------------ 1
* to provide a large surface area for action of lipases / enzymes --------------------------------- 1

* Award only 1 mark for simple answer such as : bile juice / salts facilitate(s) digestion of fat.

(ii)

Patient B should take less sweat (sticky) food / less


candy, chocolate, biscuit / starchy food, etc. ----------------------------------------------------------- 1
Bacteria (in the tooth plaque) break down the food debris left between teeth ----------------- 1
into acids -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
which erodes / dissolves enamel / dentine of the teeth ---------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 8 marks

1.

(c)

(i)&(ii)

Most candidates could apply what they had learned to


principles involved. However,

explain the biological

many stated wrongly that the gall bladder was

responsible for producing bile instead of strong bile, and some confused the gall
bladder for the urinary

bladder. A considerable number of candidates failed to point

out that the importance of emulsification of fat is to provide a large surface area for the
action of lipase.

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2.

(a)

(i)

(ii)

(1)

simple sugar / glucose -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(2)

oil / fat ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

the route :
lymph vessel Q (anterior) vena cava heart pulmonary arteries -----------0.5 8=4
lungs pulmonary veins heart aorta hepatic artery organ M
N.B.  mark for each correct spelling or the organs / vessels in the correct
sequence.
Deduct 1 mark for showing no arrow sign.

(iii)

Lymphocytes / white blood cells produce antibodies to act ----------------------------------------- 1


against antigens / germs ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
phagocytes / white blood cells engulf germs ----------------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 9 marks

2.

(a)

(i)

Many candidates held the misconception that fatty acids and glycerol, the products of fat
digestion, enter the Lymph vessel as is. In fact, fatty acid and glycerol recombine in the
epithelium of the villus to form fat which then enters the lacteal as fine fat droplets.

(ii)

Most candidates were able to construct a flowchart to indicate the route of transport of food
substances, although the pulmonary circulation was sometimes left out.

(iii)

Most candidates were able to describe the two different roles of the white blood cells in the
bodys defense, i.e. ingesting germs and producing antibodies.

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2.

(b)

(i)

(1)

4000 g (N.B. No unit, deduct 1 mark) ------------------------------------------------------2 or 0


(if answer is wrong, but working steps are correct, 1 mark)
[=(5500+300+600+300)-(500+200+400+1500)]

(2)

It was because much water had to be lost through sweating ------------------------------- 1


such that heat generated during vigorous exercise ------------------------------------------- 1
can be removed from his body by the evaporation of sweat -------------------------------- 1
The breathing rate / ventilation rate increased during vigorous exercise ---------------- 1
therefore more water vapour is lost through the exhaled air -------------------------------- 1

(ii)

Increased sweating would reduce the water potential /


content (increase the concentration) of the blood / body fluid ------------------------------------- 1
A Larger proportion of water would be reabsorbed from the kidney / glomerular filtrate ---- 1
to raise the water potential of the body / body fluid to normal -------------------------------------- 1
* Do not accept larger amount of water.
Total : 10 marks

2.

(b)

(i)

(1)

Some candidates had difficulty in calculating the excess water loss on the second day.
Some missed out the unit for the mass of water loss.

(2)

Only a small number of candidates could give an accurate and complete explanation.
The candidates should note carefully the marks allocated to this question, which gave
some indication of the depth of treatment required. Many candidates did not mention
the importance of evaporation of water in sweat in promoting heat loss from the body.
Many also failed to relate the increased water loss to the higher ventilation rate during
exercise. Some mixed up respiratory rate with breathing rate.

(ii)

Most candidates answered this question wrongly by stating that a larger volume of water
was reabsorbed by the kidney. When a person is in a state of dehydration, the volume of
glomerular filtrate formed is less than normal, so that the total amount of water reabsorbed
in the kidney is not likely to be greater than normal. Water conservation in this situation is
achieved by reabsorbing a greater proportion of water from the glomerular filtrate, leading
to the formation of a relatively small volume of hypertonic urine. Thus, through the excretion
of a hypertonic urine, water is conserved in the body and the water potential of blood is
raised to the normal level. On the other hand, after a person has taken in a large amount of
water, the kidney will reabsorb a smaller proportion (not a smaller volume) of water from
she glomerular filtrate than normal. This effectively lowers the water potential of blood to
normal. Similar remarks were made in previous annual reports (1988 Q.1 (c)(iii)(1)).

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2.

(c)

(i)

(1)

Water is necessary for seed germination -------------------------------------------------------- 1


only the seeds in B germinate ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
B differs from A by the supply of water ----------------------------------------------------------- 1

(2)

(ii)

no conclusion can be draw -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


- since C differs for B by the absence of oxygen and light

- the 2 set - ups differ in more than one variable

) any ONE ----------------- 1

- to soften seed coat to facilitate emergence of the radicle --------------------------------------- 1,1


- to swell the seed to rupture seed coat --------------------------------------------------------------- 1,1
- to activate enzymes to hydrolyse (digest) stored food / speed up cellular activity -------- 1,1
- as a medium for transport of food --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,1
- to hydrolyse stored food for transport ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1,1
any TWO pairs

(iii)

the stored food is oxidized / respired --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


to release energy for growth ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 11 marks

2.

(c)

(i)

Most candidates arrived at a logical conclusion when comparing set-ups A and B which
differed in one condition only. Many candidates pointed out that set ups B and C differed in
two conditions, but they did not conclude corrective that no definite conclusion can be
made because there were two variables. Instead, they concluded wrongly that light and
oxygen were necessary for seed germination. This showed that they had not developed a
genuine understanding on the concept of controlling variables, which is an essential skill in
experimental design.

(ii)

A common error was stating that water was needed for photosynthesis

during

seed

germination.
(iii)

This part was poorly answered, indicating that many candidates had a poor understanding
of the concept of dry mass. They stated wrongly that the decrease in dry mass during
germination was due to the evaporation of water. Some answered that the stored food was
used up for growth instead of stating precisely that stored food was oxidized to release
energy for growth.

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3.

(a)

(i)

Reception of stimulus (skin pierced by the sharp nail) by pain receptors / nerve endings 0.5
in the skin ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.5
Generation of a nerve impulse --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.5
Which is transmitted to the muscles of the leg via the following pathway :
receptor sensory neurone relay neurone motor
neurone muscles cells of the leg --------------------------------------------0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5
Concentration of the muscles cells resulting in the withdrawal of the leg --------------------- 0.5
If flowchart is used, deduct 1 marks
nerve impulse
e.g. pain receptor in skin
sensory neurone relay neurone motor

neurone muscle cells of leg contraction of muscle cells


(ii)

An increase in blood glucose level stimulates the pancrease to ---------------------------------- 1


release more insulin into the blood stream ; ------------------------------------------------------------ 1
insulin stimulates liver cells --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
to convert more blood glucose into liver glycogen / to increase carbohydrate oxidation ; -- 1
resulting in a reduction of blood glucose level.
(If flowchart is used, deduct 1 mark.)

(iii)

It is because nervous impulses are transmitted along nerve cells / nerve fibres at a very high
speed, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
while it takes time for hormones to be transported to target cells via the blood circulation - 1

(iv) Temperature regulation / osmoregulation --------------------------------------------------------------- 1


to maintain a constant internal environment for the
normal functioning of the life processes ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 12 marks

3.

(a)

(i)& (ii)

Most candidates could give a satisfactory description of the sequence of events


involved in Patterns A and B. Some candidates wrongly stated that the brain was
involved in the withdrawal reflex. Others wrongly indicated that the increased blood
glucose level stimulated the pancreas through the brain or the pituitary. In fact, the high
glucose level stimulates the pancreas directly to release an increased amount of
insulin. Many candidates failed to appreciate that insulin is released from the pancreas
constantly but its level varies according to the level of blood glucose. Some
candidates stated wrongly that insulin was

produced in the liver. Others wrongly

believed that insulin was an enzyme and that it directly catalyzed the conversion of
glucose into glycogen in the liver. In fact insulin is a hormone and it only stimulates the
change of glucose into glycogen via the activities of other enzymes .
(iii)

Many candidates could not grasp the basic concept that the difference in speed of response
in nervous and hormonal coordination is related to the different nature of the transmission of
messages. Some stated that the withdrawal response was faster than the hormonal
response because it was involuntary and did not involve the brain.

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3.

(b)

(i)

Weight the whole set-up at the beginning of the experiment --------------------------------------- 1


Over a period of time, weight the set-up again
to find the difference in weight ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
The loss in weight divided by the time elapsed equals to
the rate of water loss by the leafy shoot ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

To prevent water evaporating from the water surface ------------------------------------------------ 1

(iii)

(1)

In a humid condition, the diffusion gradient of water vapour between the spaces in the
leaf and the atmosphere is smaller than that in a dry condition------------------------------ 1
Water vapour diffuses slowly to the atmosphere ----------------------------------------------- 1

(2)

Comparing (B and (C), the rate of water loss


in light (sunny) condition is higher than that in dark condition ----------------------------- 1
- It is because the stomata open in the presence of light-- )
facilitating the diffusion of water vapour through---------- )
the stomatal pores ---------------------------------------------- ) ----------- any ONE set 1+1
- Leaf temperature is increased in the presence of light - )
so the water evaporates faster ------------------------------ )
Total : 9 marks

3.

(b)

(i)

A small number of candidates mistook the given set-up as a bubble potometer, revealing a
lack of understanding of the principles involved in the measurement of transpiration and
water absorption. Some suggested correctly that water loss could be found by measuring
the decrease in mass of the set-up in a given period, but failed to work out the rate of water
loss.

(ii)

Some candidates stated that the oil layer was to prevent oxygen from diffusing into the
water, as in the set-up for studying anaerobic respiration. This failure to carefully consider
the experimental context is an example of the consequence of rote learning without
understanding.

(iii)

(1)

Many candidates failed to relate the higher rate of water loss in the dry condition to the
greater vapour pressure gradient between the leaf and the atmosphere, and the
subsequent faster diffusion of water vapour from the leaf.

(2)

A common error was stating that light enhanced water loss because light promoted
photosynthesis which used a lot of water.

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3.

(c)

(i)

April 23 ( 3 days) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


because it was mostly likely that ovulation occurred on April 23 ---------------------------------- 1

(ii)

April 10 to April 14 / 15 (and May 8) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


The uterine wall broke down / decreased in thickness ---------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

to repair the uterine wall / to prepare for the implantation of the embryo ------------------------ 1

(iv) The oviducts are tied or cut --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


no effect on secondary sexual characteristics --------------------------------------------------------- 1
because sex hormones can still be produced by ovaries ------------------------------------------- 1
and being transported by blood to the target organs to exert their effects ---------------------- 1
Total : 9 marks

3.

(c)

(i)

Many candidates could not relate the probable date of fertilization to the time of ovulation in
the menstrual cycle.

(ii)

A considerable number of candidates did not include the complete period of menstruation,
although they did relate the decrease in the thickness of the uterine wall to the occurrence
of menstruation.

(iv) This part was well answered, but many candidates could not point out that the sex
hormones were transported by blood so that tying the oviduct would not affect their release.

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4.

(a)

(i)

to relay nerve impulses between the brain and other body parts --------------------------------- 1
responsible for reflex actions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(ii)

to push food bolus towards stomach --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


by peristalsis / contraction of the circular muscle ----------------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

- to protect the spinal cord

- to ARTICULATE with the ribs to effect breathing movements

) any TWO -------------- 1,1

- to support the body

(iv) - numerous air sacs

- to provide a large surface area

- for diffusion of gases

OR

- wall of air sac is very thin (thin epithelial layer)

- to provide a short distance

) any ONE set ----1+1+1

- for diffusion of gases

OR

- numerous capillaries to provide


a rich blood supply to transport gases
- to and form respiratory surface

)
)
)

- to maintain a steep concentration gradient / for gaseous diffusion ------------------------------ )


(v)

* pulmonary artery -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


same blood oxygen content when compared with that in the vena cava ------------------------ 1
Total : 11 marks

4.

(a)

(v)

Some candidates had difficulty in visualizing that organ C and chamber D were joined by
the pulmonary artery. This is probably due to the fact that they could not identify chamber D
as the right ventricle.

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4.

(b)

(i)

1800 hour and 0600 hour --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.5

(ii)

(1)

rate of respiration = 12 mg (of CO2 released) per hour (N.B. No unit, no mark) ---- 1

(2)

The rate amount of CO2 released = rate x time


= 12 x 11 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
= 132 mg (N.B. No unit, no mark for the answer) ------------------------------------------- 1

(iii)

The highest rate of photosynthesis


= highest net uptake of carbon dioxide + net released of carbon dioxide in the dark
= 76 + 12 = 88 mg of CO2 per hour ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
(N.B. no unit, no mark)

(iv) The total area of A could be taken as the net food production by the plant --------------------- 1
The total area of B could be taken as the net food consumption by the plant ----------------- 1
The total area of a is greater than that of B -------------------------------------------------------------- 1
indicating there is an overall gain in food --------------------------------------------------------------- 1
production which is a characteristic feature of an actively growing plant
Total : 9 marks

4.

(b)

(ii)

(1)

Many candidates could not read the value correctly from the graph.

(2)

Only a small number of candidates performed the correct calculation. Many candidates
worked out the answer wrongly by calculating the whole area of B. They should
multiply the rate of respiration by the duration of the dark period as:
12 x 11 = 132mg.

(iii)

Most errors were caused by reading values wrongly from the graph.

(iv) This part was poorly answered. Most candidates failed to equate area A with the net food
production/net amount of photosynthesis, and Area B with the net food consumption/net
respiration in specific periods. Many also wrongly stated that the marked areas (A and B)
represented the rates rather than the amounts of photosynthesis and respiration.

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4.

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(1)

landfill ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

(2)

Destruction of habitats / creates pollution / formation of toxic substance ---------------- 1

saprophytic bacteria / fungi / decomposers ------------------------------------------------------------- 1


decompose organic matter into minerals / plant nutrients ------------------------------------------ 1

(iii)

- animal waste is rich in organic matter

- which promotes the growth of bacteria in water

- aerobic respiration of bacteria consumes

much of the dissolved oxygen


- causing suffocation of aquatic organisms /
aquatic organisms die due to lack of oxygen
- toxic substances produced kill the organisms

) any FOUR --------------------- 1,1,1,1


)
)
)

(iv) power station / burning of coal ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1


blocking breathing tract causing respiratory ailments /
radioactivity in fuel ash can induce cancer ------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Total : 10 marks

4.

(c)

(i)

Some candidates stated wrongly that "construction waste" instead of "landfill" was the main
disposal method of wastes.

(iii)

Some candidates did not point out that animal waste was rich in organic matter which
provided food for the growth of the bacteria.

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