Anda di halaman 1dari 9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

INSTRUMENTATION TOOLS

Basic Electrical Engineering Questions &


Answers
ElectricalBasics January23,2016

Q:Whatisvaccumcurrcuitbreaker.definewithcauseandwherebeuseit
Device?
A:Abreakerisnormallyusedtobreakacircuit.Whilebreakingthecircuit,the
contact terminals will be separated. At the time of separation an air gap is
formedinbetweentheterminals.Duetoexistingcurrentflowtheairinthegap
isionizedandresultsinthearc.Variousmediumsareusedtoquenchthisarc
inrespectiveCBs.ButinVCBthemediumisvaccumgas.Sincetheairinthe
CB is having vaccum pressure the arc formation is interrupted. VCBs can be
usedupto11kv.
Q:WhatisSF6CircuitBreaker?
A:SF6isSulpherHexaFlouridegas..thisgasisusedasarcquenchingmedium
inaCircuitbreakermeansSF6CB.
Q:WhatisthedifferencebetweenMCB&MCCB,Whereitcanbeused?
A:MCBisminiaturecircuitbreakerwhichisthermaloperatedanduseforshort
circuit protection in small current rating circuit. MCCB molded case circuit
breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and magnetic operation
forinstanttripinshortcircuitcondition.Undervoltageandunderfrequencymay
beinbuilt.Normallyitisusedwherenormalcurrentismorethan100A.
Q:WhyELCBcantworkifNinputofELCBdonotconnecttoground?
A:ELCBisusedtodetectearthleakagefault.Oncethephaseandneutralare
connected in an ELCB, the current will flow through phase and that much
currentwillhavetoreturnneutralsoresultantcurrentiszero.Oncethereisa
groundfaultintheloadside,currentfromphasewilldirectlypassthroughearth
http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

1/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

and it will not return through neutral through ELCB. That means once side
current is going and not returning and hence because of this difference in
currentELCBwilltripanditwillsafeguardtheothercircuitsfromfaultyloads.If
the neutral is not grounded, fault current will definitely high and that full fault
currentwillcomebackthroughELCB,andtherewillbenodifferenceincurrent.
Q:WhatisuseoflockoutrelayinHTvoltage?
A:Alockoutrelayisgenerallyplacedinlinebeforeoraftertheestopswitchso
thepowercanbeshutoffatonecentrallocation.Thisrelayispoweredbythe
same electrical source as the control power and is operated by a key lock
switch. The relay itself may have up to 24 contact points within the unit itself.
Thisallowsthecontrolpowerformultiplemachinestobelockedoutbytheturn
ofasinglekeyswitch.
Q:Whatisreversepowerrelay?
A: Reverse Power flow relay are used in generating stations protection. A
generatingstationissupposedtofeedpowertothegridandincasegenerating
unitsareoff,thereisnogenerationintheplantthenplantmaytakepowerfrom
grid. To stop the flow of power from grid to generator we use reverse power
relay.
Q:Whatisdifferencebetweenfuseandbreaker?
A:Fusesareburnedatthetimeofovercurrentflowsinthecircuitbutbreakers
arejustopen(notburn)atthetimeofovercurrentflow.Fusesareusedinonly
onetimebutbreakersareusedbymultiplenumbersoftimes.
Q:Howtubelightcircuitisconnectedandhowitworks?
A:Achokeisconnectedinoneendofthetubelightandastarterisinseries
with the circuit. When supply is provided, the starter will interrupt the supply
cycle of AC. Due to the sudden change of supply the chock will generate
around1000volts.Thisvoltwillcapableoftobreaktheelectronsinsidethetube
to make electron flow. Once the current passes through the tube the starter
circuit will be out of part. Now there is no change of supply causes choke
voltagenormalizedandactasminimizethecurrent.
Q:Whywhenbirdssitontransmissionlinesorcurrentwiresdoesntget
shock?
A:Itstruethatifbirdstouchthesingleoneline(phaseorneutral)theydontget
electrical shock if birds touch 2 lines than the circuit is closed and they get
http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

2/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

electricalshock.soifahumantouchsingleoneline(phase)thenhedoesntget
shockifheisintheair(nottouchingstandingonthegroundifheisstanding
on the ground then touching the line (phase) he will get a shock because the
ground on what we standing is like line (ground bed like neutral) and in the
most of electric lines the neutral is grounded. so that means that human who
touchthelineclosesthecircuitbetweenphaseandneutral.
Q: Which type of A.C motor is used in the fan (ceiling fan, exhaust fan,
pedestalfan,bracketfanetc)whicharefindinthehouses?
A: Its Single Phase induction motor which mostly squirrel cage rotor and are
capacitorstartcapacitorrun.
Q:Whatisanexciterandhowdoesitwork?
A:Therearetwotypesofexciters,staticexciterandrotaryexciter.Purposeof
exciter is to supply the excitation dc voltage to the fixed poles of
generator.Rotoryexciterisanadditionalsmallgeneratormountedontheshaft
of main generator. If it is dc generator, it will supply dc to the rotory poles
throughslipringandbrushes(conventionalalternator).ifitisanacexciter,out
put of ac exciter is rectified by rotating diodes and supply dc to main fixed
poles.AC exciter is the ac generator whose field winding are stationary and
armature rotates. Initial voltage is built up by residual magnetism. It gives the
startingtorquetothegenerator.
Q:Whathappensifweconnectacapacitortoageneratorload?
A:Connectingacapacitoracrossageneratoralwaysimprovespowerfactor,but
itwillhelpdependsupontheenginecapacityofthealternator,otherwisethe
alternator will be over loaded due to the extra watts consumed due to the
improvement on pf. Secondly, dont connect a capacitor across an alternator
whileitispickinguporwithoutanyotherload.
Q:Explaintheworkingprincipalofthecircuitbreaker?
A:CircuitBreakerisonewhichmakesorbreaksthecircuit.Ithastwocontacts
namely fixed contact & moving contact. Under normal condition the moving
contactcomesincontactwithfixedcontacttherebyformingtheclosedcontact
for the flow of current. During abnormal & faulty conditions (when current
exceeds the rated value) an arc is produced between the fixed & moving
contacts & thereby it forms the open circuit Arc is extinguished by the Arc
Quenchingmedialikeair,oil,vaccumetc.

http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

3/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

Q:WhatisCTandPT?Whereitisused?
A:ThetermC.Tmeanscurrenttransformer,andthetermP.Tmeanspotential
transformer.Incircuitwheremeasurementsofhighvoltageandhighcurrentis
involved they are used there. Particularly when a measuring device like
voltmeter or ammeter is not able to measure such high value of quantity
because of large value of torque due to such high value it can damage the
measuringdevice.SoCTandPTareintroducedinthecircuits.Theyworkon
thesameprincipleoftransformer,whichisbasedonlinkageofelectromagnetic
flux produced by primary with secondary. They work on the ratio to they are
designed.E.gifCTsofratio5000\5Aandithastomeasuresecondarycurrent
of 8000A.then ANS=8000*5\5000=8Aand this result will be given to ammeter
andaftermeasuring8Awecancalculatetheprimarycurrent.Samesystemof
theoperationfollowedinPTbutitisformeasuringvoltage.
Q:whatismeantbyinsulationvoltageincables?Explainit?
A:Itisthepropertyofacablebyvirtueofitcanwithstandtheappliedvoltage
withoutrupturingitisknownasinsulationlevelofthecable.
Q:Whereshouldthelightingarrestorbeplacedindistributionlines?
A: Near distribution transformers and out going feeders of 11kv and incoming
feederof33kvandnearpowertransformersinsubstations.
Q:WhyDeltaStarTransformersareusedforLightingLoads?
A:Forlightingloads,neutralconductorismustandhencethesecondarymust
bestarwinding.Thelightingloadisalwaysunbalancedinallthreephases.To
minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta winding in the
primary.Sodelta/startransformerisusedforlightingloads.
Q:HowelectricalpowerisgeneratedbyanA.CGenerator?
A:For the generation of elect power we need a prime mover which supplies
mechanical power input to the alternator, can be steam turbines or hydro
turbines.Whenpolesoftherotormovesunderthearmatureconductorswhich
areplacedonthestator,fieldfluxcutthearmatureconductor,thereforevoltage
is generated and is of sinusoidal in naturedue to polarity change of rotor
poles(i.e.)NSNS.
Q: When voltage increases then current also increases then what is the
needofovervoltagerelayandovercurrentrelay?Canwemeasureover
voltageandovercurrentbymeasuringcurrentonly?
http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

4/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

A: No, We cant sense the over voltage by just measuring the current only
because the current increases not only for over voltages but also for under
voltage (As most of the loads are nonlinear in nature).So, the over voltage
protection&overcurrentprotectionarecompletelydifferent.Overvoltagerelay
meant for sensing over voltages & protect the system from insulation break
downandfiring.Overcurrentrelaymeansforsensinganyinternalshortcircuit,
overloadcondition,earthfaulttherebyreducingthesystemfailure&riskoffire.
Soforthebetterprotectionofsystem.Itshouldhavebothovervoltage&over
currentrelay.
Q:Whatisthepowerfactorofanalternatoratnoload?
A: At no load Synchronous Impedance of the alternator is responsible for
creatingangledifference.Soitshouldbezerolagginglikeinductor.
Q: In three pin plug 6 Amp. 220v AC rating. Why earth pin diameter is
higherthanothertwopin?Whatitspurpose?
A: Because Current flow in the conductor is inversely proportional to the
conductor diameter. So if any short circuits occur in the system first high
currents bypassed in the Earth link terminal. ( R=Pl/a area of the conductor
increasesresistancevaluedecreases)
Q:Whyshouldbethefrequency50Hz60Hzonlywhynototherslike42,
90,58,35 or any thing, why should we maintain the frequency constant if
sowhyitisonly50Hz60Hz?
A:Wecanhavethefrequencyatanyfrequencyyoulike,butthanyoumustalso
makeyourownmotors,highvoltagetransformersoranyotherequipmentyou
wanttouse.Wemaintainthefrequencyat50Hzor60Hzbecausetheworld
maintainsastandardat50/60Hzandtheequipmentsaremadetooperateat
thesefrequency
Q:WhyweuseACsysteminIndiawhynotDC?
A:Theoutputofpowerstationscomesfromarotaryturbine,whichbyitsnature
isACandthereforerequiresnopowerelectronicstoconverttoDC.Secondlyit
is much easier to change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and
distribution. Thirdly the cost of plant associated with AC transmission (Circuit
breakers, transformers etc) is much lower than the equivalent of DC
transmission AC transmission provides a number of technical advantages.
When a fault on the network occurs, a large fault current occurs. In an AC
system this becomes much easier to interrupt, as the sine wave current will
http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

5/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

naturallytendtozeroatsomepointmakingthecurrenteasiertointerrupt.
Q: In a Tap changing transformer where is the tap connected, is it
connectedintheprimarysideorsecondaryside?
A:Tapingsareconnectedtohighvoltagewindingside,becauseoflowcurrent.
If we connect tapings to low voltage side, sparks will produce while tap
changingoperationduetohighcurrent.
Q:Capacitorisloadfreecomponentbutwhyamperemetershowscurrent
whencapacitorbanksbreakersclose?
A: As we know that Electrical is having two type of load, Active and Reactive
.Capacitor is a reactive load which is not considering as a load & its factor is
Isin@ .Meter is design based on Current RMS value because of it meter is
showingthecurrentRMSvalue.
Q:Whatarethetypesofpowerinelectricalpower?
A: There are normally three types of power are counted in electrical power.
Theyare,
Apparentpower
Activepower
Reactivepower

Q:Whylinkisprovidedinneutralofanaccircuitandfuseinphaseofac
circuit?
A:LinkisprovidedataNeutralcommonpointinthecircuitfromwhichvarious
connectionsaretakenfortheindividualcontrolcircuitandsoitisgiveninalink
formtowithstandhighAmps.ButinthecaseofFuseinthePhaseofACcircuit
itisdesignedsuchthatthefuseratingiscalculatedfortheparticularcircuit(i.e.
load) only. So if any malfunction happen the fuse connected in the particular
controlcircuitalonewillblowoff.
Q: Why use the VCB at High Transmission System? Why cant we use
ACB?
A:Actuallythethingisvaccumhashigharcquenchingpropertycomparetoair
becauseinVCB,thedieelectricstrengthsequalto8timesofair.Thatyalways
vaccumusedasinHTbreakerandairusedasinLT.
Q:Whatarethepowerlossesinrotatingelectricalmachines?
http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

6/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

A:PowerlossesinrotatingelectricalmachinesareCopperlosses,corelosses,
mechanicallossesandstraylosses.
Q:Whatisthedifferencebetweendeltadelta,deltastartransformer?
A:Deltadeltatransformerisusedatgeneratingstationorareceivingstationfor
ChangeofVoltage(i.e.)generallyitisusedwheretheVoltageishigh&Current
islow.Deltastarisadistributionkindoftransformerwherefromsecondarystar
neutral is taken as a return path and this configuration is used for Step down
voltagephenomena
Q:Whatisthedifferencebetweengeneratorandalternator?
A:Generatorandalternatoraretwodevices,whichconvertsmechanicalenergy
into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic
induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists
stationarymagneticfieldandrotatingconductorwhichrollsonthearmaturewith
slipringsandbrushesridingagainsteachother,henceitconvertstheinduced
emf into DC current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary
armatureandrotatingmagneticfieldforhighvoltagesbutforlowvoltageoutput
rotatingarmatureandstationarymagneticfieldisused.
Q:WhytransformerratingsareinKVA?
A: Since the power factor of transformer is dependent on load we only define
VA rating and does not include power factor .In case of motors, power factor
dependonconstructionandhenceratingofmotorsisinKiloWattsandinclude
powerfactor.
Q:Whichtypeofmotorisusedintrains,whatistheratingofsupplyused
explainWorkingprincipal?
A:DCseriesisinthetrainstogethighstartingtorquewhilestartingofthetrains
andoperatingvoltageis1500vdc.
Q:Whataretheadvantagesofstardeltastarterwithinductionmotor?
A:1)themainadvantageofusingthestardeltastarterisreductionofcurrent
during the starting of the motor. Starting current is reduced to 34 times of
currentofDirectonlinestarting.(2).Hencethestartingcurrentisreducedthe
voltagedropsduringthestartingofmotorinsystemsarereduced.
Q:Whatarethetransformerlosses?

http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

7/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

A: Transformer losses have two sourcescopper loss and magnetic loss.


Copperlossesarecausedbytheresistanceofthewire(I2R).Magneticlosses
are caused by eddy currents and hysterics in the core. Copper loss is a
constant after the coil has been wound and therefore a measurable loss.
Hystericslossisconstantforaparticularvoltageandcurrent.Eddycurrentloss,
however,isdifferentforeachfrequencypassedthroughthetransformer.
Q:whatispowerfactor?Whetheritshouldbehighorlow?Why?
A:Powerfactorshouldbehighinordertogetsmoothoperationofthesystem.
Low power factor means losses will be more. It is the ratio of true power to
apparentpower.Ithastobeideally1.ifitistoolowthencableoverheating&
equipment overloading will occur. if it is greater than 1 then load will act as
capacitorandstartsfeedingthesourceandwillcausetripping.(ifpfispoorex:
0.17tomeetactualpowerloadhastodrawmorecurrent(Vconstant),resultin
morelossesifpfisgoodex:0.95tomeetactualpowerloadhastodrawless
current(Vconstant),resultinlesslosses).
Q:Howmanytypesofcoolingsystemittransformers?
A:1.ONAN(oilnatural,airnatural)
2.ONAF(oilnatural,airforced)
3.OFAF(oilforced,airforced)
4.ODWF(oildirect,waterforced)
5.OFAN(oilforced,airforced)

Q:Whatisthedifferencebetweensurgearrestorandlightningarrestor?
A:LightingArrestorisinstalledoutsideandtheeffectoflightningisgrounded,
where as surge arrestor installed inside panels comprising of resistors which
consumestheenergyandnullifytheeffectofsurge.
Q:WhatisAutomaticVoltageRegulator(AVR)?
A:AVRisanabbreviationforAutomaticVoltageRegulator.Itisimportantpart
in Synchronous Generators it controls the output voltage of the generator by
controllingitsexcitationcurrent.ThusitcancontroltheoutputReactivePower
oftheGenerator.
Q:WhichmotorhashighStartingTorqueandStaringcurrentDCmotor,
InductionmotororSynchronousmotor?
A:DCSeriesmotorhashighstartingtorque.WecanstarttheInductionmotor
http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

8/9

2/25/2016

BasicElectricalEngineeringQuestions&Answers|InstrumentationTools

andSynchronousmotorsonload,butcannotstarttheDCseriesmotorwithout
load.
AlsoRead:VFDDrivesWorkingPrinciple
InstrumentationSearchterms:
basicquestionsandanswersrelatedtomeasuringtoolsforelectricalenguneering

POSTED BY S BHARADWAJ REDDY


InstrumentationProfessionalWorkinginareputedOil&Gas
Company.

http://instrumentationtools.com/basicelectricalengineersquestionsanswers/

9/9