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Vol. XXIII

No. 8

rial

solar Energy and

August 2015

its Wonderful Applications

Corporate Office :
Plot 99, sector 44 Institutional area,
gurgaon -122 003 (HR). tel : 0124-4951200
e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

he use of solar energy to produce electricity is not new to India.


In Jammu, in the rest-house complex of Mata Vaishno Devi temple,

Regd. Office
406, taj Apartment, Near safdarjung Hospital,
Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029.

Managing Editor
Editor

:
:

the need for electricity is completely met by solar energy. A large open
terrace is completely filled with solar panels and are used for charging

Mahabir singh
Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)

batteries which in turn is serving all the needs of the complex.


In the city of Coimbatore, many housing complexes and individual

contents
Physics Musing (Problem Set-25)

houses are tapping solar energy for the purpose of producing electricity.

Thought Provoking Problems

10

J & K CET

16

Solved Paper 2015


Ace Your Way CBSE XII

Companies distributing hydroelectricity are also supplementing by a


large use of wind-energy to convert it to electrical energy for turning
transformers.
Andre Borschberg, in his solar Impulse 2, an airplane, powered by the sun,
has flown for three consecutive days from Japan to Hawaii. the actual

23

Series 3

time of flight was more than 100 hours.


Borschbergs collaborator monitoring from the ground was happy that this

JEE Accelerated Learning Series

31

was done without any other fuel and was able to fly on its own a longer

Brain Map

46

distance than any jet plane, without refuelling. the wings of the carbon

AMU Engg.

57

Solved Paper 2015


Exam Prep

68

Physics Musing (Solution Set-24)

75

Core Concept

77

You Ask We Answer

84

Crossword

85

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disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction only.
Editor : Anil Ahlawat
Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

fibre aircraft have move than 17,000 solar cells. the plane flies up to
28, 000 feet during the day to recharge the solar cells and descends to
under 10,000 feet at night to minimise the power consumption.
Anil Ahlawat
Editor

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Physics for you | August 15

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is
to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The
detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those
who send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive
exams.

Set 25
subjective type

1. A plane mirror of circular shape with radius


r = 20 cm is fixed to the ceiling. A bulb is to be
placed on the axis of the mirror. A circular area
of radius R = 1 m on the floor is to be illuminated
after reflection of light from the mirror. The height
of the room is 3 m. What is the maximum distance
between the centre of the mirror and the bulb so
that the required area is illuminated ?

C
2. Some gas P = 1.25 follows V
B
C
C

A
the cycle ABCDA shown in the
D
figure. Determine the ratio of
T
the energy given out by the gas
to its surroundings during the isochore section of
the cycle to the expansion work done during the
isobaric section of the cycle.
3. An equilateral prism provides the least deflection
angle 45 in air. Find the refractive index of an
unknown liquid in which same prism gives least
deflection angle of 30.
4. The final image I of the object O shown in the figure
is formed at a point 20 cm below a thin biconcave
lens, which is at a depth of 65 cm from principal
axis. From the given geometry, calculate the radius
of curvature in cm of lens kept at A.

glasses have refractive index 1.5. Now they jump


into a swimming pool and look at each other. B
appears to be present at distance 2 m (from A) to A.
A appears to be present at distance 1 m (from B) to
B. If the refractive index of water in the swimming
X
pool is
then find the value of X.
10
6. A planet revolves about the sun in elliptical orbit
of semi-major axis 2 1012 m. The areal velocity
of the planet when it is nearest to the sun is
4.4 1016 m s1. The least distance between planet
and the sun is 1.8 1012 m. Find the minimum
speed of the planet in km s1.
7. We would like to increase the length of a 15 cm long
copper rod of cross-section 4 mm2 by 1 mm. The
energy absorbed by the rod if it is heated is E1. The
energy absorbed by the rod if it is stretched slowly
E
is E2. Then find 1 .
E2
[Various parameters of Copper are :
Density = 9 103 kg m3; Thermal co-efficient of
linear expansion = 16 106 K1, Youngs modulus
= 135 109 Pa, Specific heat = 400 J kg1 K1]
Contd. on page 30

Solution Senders of Physics Musing

f = 30 cm

set-24
1. Sameer Joshi (Jharkhand)

45

O
36 cm

2. Anjali Saxena (New Delhi)


65 cm

1m
A
20 cm

= 3/2
I

5. Two persons A and B wear glasses of optical powers


(in air) P1 = + 2 D and P2 = + 1 D respectively. The

3. Shikha Vats (MP)


4. Rihan Saifi (UP)
set-23
1. Akansha Arora (Punjab)
2. Varsha Jain (Haryana)

By Akhil Tewari, author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & advanced, senior Professor Physics, RaO IIt aCaDEMY, Mumbai.

physics for you | august 15

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

1. An electron accelerated through a potential


difference of 2.5 kV, moves horizontally into a region
of space in which there is a downward electric field
of magnitude 10 kV m1.
(a) In what direction must a magnetic field be
applied so that the electron moves undeflected?
What is the magnitude of the smallest magnetic
field?
(b) What happens if the charge is a proton that
passes through the same combination of fields?
2. A particle of mass m and charge
+q enters a region of magnetic
field with a uniform velocity v
as shown in figure.
(a) Find the angle subtended by
the circular arc described
by it in the magnetic field.
(b) How long does the particle stay inside the
magnetic field?
(c) If the particle enters at A, what is the intercept AB?
3. A charged particle of mass m and charge q is
projected on a rough horizontal x-y plane surface
with z-axis in the vertically upward direction. Both
electric and magnetic fields are acting in the region

^
^
and given by E = E0 k and B = B0 k respectively.
z
The particle enters
B0
into the field at
E0
y
(a0, 0, 0) with

^
velocity v = v0 j .
^
v0 j
The particle starts (a0, 0, 0)
x
moving into a
circular path on
the plane. If the coefficient of friction between particle

and the plane is m. Then calculate the


(a) time when the particle will come to rest.
(b) time when the particle will hit the centre.
(c) distance travelled by the particle when it comes
to rest.
4. Charge Q is uniformly
distributed over the same
surface of a right circular
cone of semi-vertical
angle q and height h. The
cone is uniformly rotated
about its axis at angular
velocity w.
Calculate the associated magnetic dipole moment.
5. A long horizontal wire AB which is free to move in a
vertical plane and carries a steady current of 20 A, is in
equilibrium at a height of 0.01 m over another parallel
long wire CD, which is fixed in horizontal plane and
carries a steady current of 30 A as shown in figure.
B

0.01 m
D

y
x

Show that when AB is slightly depressed and released, it


executes S.H.M. Find the time period of oscillations.
6. A wire loop carrying a current is placed in the x-y
plane as shown in figure. If a particle with charge
q and mass m is placed at the centre P and given
a velocity v along NP. Find its instantaneous
acceleration. If an external uniform magnetic
^
induction B = B i is applied, find the force and
torque acting on the loop.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

10

physics for you | AUGUST 15

y
M

120

60

soLuTioNs

1. (a)
experienced by the electron is
The Lorentz
force

F = e[E + (v B)]
Since the net force is zero as the electron moves
undeflected,
E
...(i)
E = vB sin q or B =
v sin q
The magnetic field is to be smallest
E
\ q = 90, then B =
v

(b) The length of arc traced by the particle,


l = R(180 2q) = R(p 2q)
Time spent in the field,
l R(p 2q)
t= =
v
v
mv (p 2q) m(p 2q)
mv
=
=
Using R =

Bq
v
Bq
Bq

2pm
T
As time period T =
,t=
(p 2q)
Bq
2p
(c) Intercept AB = 2Rcosq (from figure)
3. (a) Normal by the surface on the particle,
N = mg + qE0
Centrifugal force on the particle,
qvB0 =

mv 2
R

...(i)
...(ii)

dv
= mN
dt
From equation (ii),
mv
R=
B0q

...(iii)

...(iv)

From equations (i) and (iii), we get


dv
m
= m(mg + qE0 )
dt
K.E. of electron = eV = 2.5 KeV,
1
or mv 2 = eV
2
2 2.5 103 1.6 1019
2eV
\ v=
=
m
9.1 1031
= 2.96 107 m s 1
3
E 10 10
\ B= =
= 3.37 104 T
v 2.96 107
(b) Proton also moves undeflected through the
given E and B as eE = evB.
2. (a) The particle circulates under the influence of
magnetic field. As the field is uniform the charge
comes out symmetrically. The angle subtended at
the centre is (180 2q).

dt

v0

m dv = m(mg + qE0 ) dt

mv0
t =
m(mg + qE0 )
(b) From equation (iv),
m(mg + qE0 )dt
m dv
dR =
=
B0q
qB0
0
m(mg + qE 0 ) t
dR
=

dt
qB0
Ri

Ri =

qB0
mv0
\ t=
m(mg + qE0 )

(c) m

B Path of particle

O (180 2)
FB

12

physics for you | AUGUST 15

mv0
Using Ri =

B0q

dv
dv
= mv = m(mg + qE0 )
dt
dl

v0

or m v dv = m(mg + qE0 ) dl
\

m(mg + qE 0 )

mv02
l=
2m0 (mg + qE0 )

4. Charge q rotating along a ring of radius r with


angular velocity w is equivalent to a dipole of
magnetic moment

Compare (iii) with equation of S.H.M.


a = w2y, we get
d
g 2p
\ T = 2p
w=
=
g
d T

w
A
2p
Dipole moment of differential ring,
Q
dx w
dm =
2pr
pr 2
cos q 2p
pRl
m = IA = qA = q

Here, d = 0.01 m, g = 10 m s2
0.01
= 2 p 103 = 0.199 s 0.2 s
\ T = 2p
10

6. The magnetic field at P due to arc


m I 2p / 3 ^
B1 = 0
(k)
2a
2p
The magnetic field at P due to straight segment MN
m I
I
^
B2 = 0
(sin 60 + sin 60)( k)
4p a cos 60
The resultant magnetic field at P due to the given loop,


m I
p ^
BR = B1 + B2 = 0 3 ( k)

2pa
3

h
O

From similar triangles,


R
h
we have, =
r hx
3
h x
Q cos q dx
wp
R
\ dm =

h
pRh cos q
Integrating both sides, we get
4 0

QwR
h
Qw 2
QwR (h x)
h tan2 q

=
4
4

4
4
4
h
h
h
dF m0 I1I2
=
5. Since
2pd
dl
m=

120

FB

mg

I2

I1

x
y

(d y)
C

For antiparallel currents, force is repulsive.


In equilibrium position,
mg ^ m0 I1I2 ^
( j) +
( j) = 0
2pd
L
m0 I1I2 mg
=
or
...(i)
2pd
L
If upper wire is displaced slightly from its equilibrium
position, the resultant force per unit length on it

m0 I1I2 ^ mg ^
...(ii)
j
j
FR =
L
2p (d y)

m II 1
y
1 ^ m I I
^
j
FR = 0 1 2
j= 0 1 2
2p d y d
2p (d y)d
[Using eqn (i)]
For small displacement y, y < < d,

m II ^
FR = 0 1 22 y j
2p d
m II L
From (i), m = 0 1 2
2p dg
F
g
Acceleration of wire, a = R = y
...(iii)
d
(m/L)
( y and a are in opposite directions)
14

physics for you | AUGUST 15

60

acos60

Velocity of charge at P, v = v cos 60 i + v sin 60 j


Force experienced by a moving charge in a magnetic
field is given by

F = qv B

v ^
3 ^ m0 I
p ^
F =q i +
v j
3 ( k)

2
2
2pa
3
m0qvI
p ^
^ ^
F=
3 (i + 3 j)( k)
4pa
3
p

m0qvI 3 3 ^
( j 3 ^i )
F=
4pa
So, acceleration of the charge particle
m qvI 3 p
0

F
3 ( ^j 3 ^i )
=
4pam
m
Net magnetic force on a current carrying coil of any
shape in an external magnetic field is zero.
Torque on the
loop

= m B = I ( A B)
1
Here, A = (area of circle) area of MNP
3
1
1 a
= pa2 3a = 0.614a2
3
2 2

B = Bi

\ = I (0.614a2 k Bi) = 0.614a2 IB j


nn

J & K CET

Jammu & Kashmir Common Entrance Test

1.

Which of the following is not an electromagnetic


wave?
(a) Sound wave
(b) Thermal radiation
(c) Microwave
(d) Gamma ray

2.

The 220 V a.c. line voltage that we receive in our


homes is
(a) rms value
(b) peak value
(c) average value
(d) none of the above

3.

A solid sphere is rolling down an inclined plane.


Then the ratio of its translational kinetic energy to
its rotational kinetic energy is
(a) 2.5
(b) 1.5
(c) 1
(d) 0.4

4.

The dimension of magnetic flux is


(a) MLT1A1
(b) ML1TA2
2
2
2
(c) ML T A
(d) ML2T2A1

5.

A bullet fired from a rifle loses 20% of its speed


while passing through a wooden plank. Then
minimum number of wooden planks required to
completely stop the bullet is
(a) 3
(b) 5
(c) 15
(d) 25

6.

The energy per mole per degree of freedom of an


ideal gas is
3
1
3
1
(a) kBT (b) kBT (c) RT (d) RT
2
2
2
2
Two copper spheres having same radii, one solid
and other hollow, are charged to the same potential.
Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Hollow sphere will hold more charge.
(b) Solid sphere will hold more charge.
(c) Solid sphere will have uniform volume charge
density.
(d) Both spheres will hold same charge.

7.

8.

16

The path of a charge particle after it enters a


region of a uniform electrostatic field with velocity
perpendicular to the field will be
(a) straight line
(b) circular
(c) helical
(d) parabolic
physics for you | august 15

9.

In a cyclic process, the change in the internal


energy of a system over one complete cycle
(a) depends on the path
(b) is always negative
(c) is always zero
(d) is always positive

10. Dimensions of Planck's constant are


(a) ML2T1
(b) ML2T3
1
(c) MLT
(d) ML3T3
11. Which of the following is not an example of
primary cell?
(a) Voltaic cell
(b) Lead-acid cell
(c) Daniel cell
(d) Leclanche cell
12. In a transformer the number of primary turns is
four times that of the secondary turns. Its primary
is connected to an a.c. source of voltage V. Then
(a) current through its secondar y is about
four times that of the current through its
primary.
(b) voltage across its secondary is about four times
that of the voltage across its primary.
(c) voltage across its secondary is about two times
that of the voltage across its primary.
1
(d) voltage across its secondary is about
2 2
times that of the voltage across its primary.
13. A magnet makes a single pass through a coil. Then
across the ends of the coil it produces
(a) d.c. voltage
(b) sinusoidal voltage
(c) single voltage pulse
(d) two voltage pulses
14. An observer standing near the sea-coast counts
48 waves per min. If the wavelength of the wave is
10 m, the velocity of the waves will be
(a) 8 m/s
(b) 12 m/s
(c) 16 m/s
(d) 20 m/s

15. In an n-p-n transistor, p is


(a) intrinsic semiconductor
(b) emitter
(c) collector
(d) base
16. The carbon resistor has the colour band sequence
of green, orange, blue and silver. The value of
resistance will be
(a) 64 107 20% W
(b) 53 106 20% W
(c) 64 107 10% W
(d) 53 106 10% W
17. A series LCR circuit is connected to an a.c. source
and is showing resonance. Then
(a) VR = 0
(b) VL = VR
(c) VC = VR
(d) VL = VC
18. The wave nature of electrons is demonstrated by
the
(a) photoelectric effect
(b) Rutherford's experiment
(c) Doppler's effect
(d) Davisson and Germer experiment
19. A ball is projected up at an angle q with horizontal
from the top of a tower with speed v. It hits ground
at point A after time tA with speed vA. Now this ball
is projected at same angle and speed from the base
of the tower (located at point P) and it hits ground
at point B after time tB with speed vB. Then
(a) PA = PB
(b) tA < tB
(c) vA > vB
(d) ball A hits the ground at an angle (q) with
horizontal
20. Consider the two cells having emf E1 and E2 (E1 > E2)
connected as shown in the figure. A potentiometer is
used to measure potential difference between P and
Q, and the balancing length of the potentiometer
wire is 0.8 m. Same potentiometer is then used to
measure potential difference between P and R, and
the balancing length is 0.2 m. Then the ratio E1/E2
is
Q
P

(a)

4
3

E1

(b)

5
4

E2

(c)

5
3

(d)

4
1

21. A particle is undergoing uniform circular motion


with angular momentum L. While moving on the
same path if its kinetic energy becomes four times,

then its angular momentum will be


L
L
(a)
(b)
(c) L
(d) 2L
2
4
22. Radius of Earth is 6400 km and that of Mars is
3200 km. Mass of Mars is 0.1 that of Earth's mass.
Then the acceleration due to gravity on Mars is
nearly
(a) 1 m/s2
(b) 2.5 m/s2
2
(c) 4 m/s
(d) 5 m/s2
23. A ball is dropped from the top of 80 m high
tower. If after 2 sec of fall the gravity (g = 10 m/s2)
disappears, then time taken to reach ground since
the gravity disappeared is
(a) 2 sec (b) 3 sec (c) 4 sec
(d) 5 sec
24. Assuming density d of a planet to be uniform, we
can say that the time period of its artificial satellite
is proportional to
1
1
(a) d
(b) d (c)
(d)
d
d
25. A charge particle having charge 1 1019 C revolves
in an orbit of radius 1 such that the frequency
of revolution is 1016 Hz. The resulting magnetic
moment in SI units will be
(a) 1.57 1021
(b) 3.14 1021
23
(c) 1.57 10
(d) 3.14 1023
26. Consider a bi-convex lens and a plano-convex lens
with radii of curvature of all the curved surfaces
being same. If f is focal length of bi-convex lens
then the focal length of the plano-convex lens is
(a) 4f
(b) 2f
(c) f
(d) 0.5f
27. Consider a ray of light travelling from a denser to
a rarer medium. If it is incident at the critical angle
then
(a) it will emerge out into the rarer medium
(b) it will undergo total internal reflection
(c) it will travel along the interface separating the
two media
(d) it will retrace its path
28. A concave mirror has focal length f. A convergent
beam of light is made incident on it. Then the
image distance v is
(a) zero
(b) less than f
(c) equal to f
(d) more than f
29. A 1 m long solenoid containing 1000 turns produces
a flux density of 3.14 103 T. The current in the
solenoid will be
(a) 2.0 A
(b) 2.5 A
(c) 3.0 A
(d) 3.5 A
physics for you | august 15

17

30. Values for Brewster's angle can be


(a) only less than 45
(b) only greater than 45
(c) any value in the range 0 to 90 except 45
(d) any value in the range 0 to 90 including
45

38. A person carrying a whistle emitting continuously


a note of 272 Hz is running towards a reflecting
surface with a speed of 18 km/h. If the speed of
sound is 345 m/s, the number of beats heard by
him are
(a) 4
(b) 6
(c) 8
(d) 10

31. The dielectric constant of a perfect conductor is


(a) +1
(b) 0
(c) infinite (d) 1

39. Bulk modulus is defined by


(a) increase in length per unit length per unit
applied stress
(b) increase in volume per unit volume per unit
applied stress
(c) lateral displacement per unit length per unit
applied stress
(d) change in cross-sectional area per unit area
per unit applied stress

32. Newton's law of cooling applies when a body is


losing heat to its surroundings by
(a) conduction
(b) convection
(c) radiation
(d) conduction as well as radiation
33. A block of mass m is placed on an inclined plane
having coefficient of friction m. The plane is making
an angle q with horizontal. The minimum value of
upward force acting along the incline that can just
move the block up is
(a) mgcosq
(b) mmgcosq
(c) mgsinq
(d) mmgsinq
34. Which of the following is incorrect about sky
waves?
(a) Sky waves are not used in long distance
communication.
(b) Their propagation takes place by total internal
reflection.
(c) Sky waves support the so-called AM band.
(d) The frequency of sky waves ranges typically
from 3 MHz to 30 MHz.
35. Consider boiling water converting into steam.
Under this condition, the specific heat of water is
(a) less than zero
(b) zero
(c) slightly greater than zero
(d) infinite
36. Consider an electric dipole placed in a region of
non-uniform electric field. Choose the correct
statement out of the following options.
(a) The dipole will experience only a force.
(b) The dipole will experience only a torque.
(c) The dipole will experience both force and the
torque.
(d) The dipole will neither experience a force nor
a torque.
37. Conductivity of semiconductors
(a) is maximum at 0 K
(b) decreases with increase in temperature
(c) increases with increase in temperature
(d) is maximum at 300 K
18

physics for you | august 15

40. Unpolarized light is travelling from a medium of


refractive index 2 to a medium of index 3. The
angle of incidence is 60. Then
(a) reflected light will be partially polarized.
(b) reflected light will be plane polarized in a plane
perpendicular to plane of incidence.
(c) refracted light will be plane polarized in a
plane perpendicular to plane of incidence.
(d) refracted light will be plane polarized in a
plane parallel to plane of incidence.
41. Which of the following is correct statement about
the magnitude of the acceleration a of the particle
executing simple harmonic motion?
(a) a will be maximum at the equilibrium
position.
(b) a will be maximum at the extreme position.
(c) a will be always constant.
(d) a will always be zero.
42. The ratio of mass defect of the nucleus to its mass
number is maximum for
(a) U238 (b) N14 (c) Si28
(d) Fe56
43. Consider a region of uniform magnetic field
directed along positive x-axis. Now a positive rest
charge Q, located at origin O (0, 0) inside the field
is released from rest position. The particle will
(a) remain stationary at origin O
(b) move along positive x-axis
(c) move along negative x-axis
(d) undergo a circular motion in the x-y plane.
44. If R is Rydberg's constant, the series limit of the
wavelength of Balmer series for hydrogen atom is
given by
1
4
16
9
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
R
R
R
R

45. A body is travelling east with a speed of 9 m/s and


with an acceleration of 2 m/s2 acting west on it. The
displacement of the body during the 5th second of
its motion is
(a) 0.25 m (b) 0.5 m (c) 0.75 m (d) zero
46. In the fringe pattern of a Young's double slit
experiment the ratio of intensities of maxima and
minima is 25 : 9. Then the ratio of the amplitudes
of interfering waves is
(a) 4 : 1
(b) 5 : 3 (c) 4 : 3
(d) 25 : 9
47. The combination of gates as shown in the figure
forms the
(a) AND gate
(b) OR gate
(c) NOR gate
(d) NOT gate
48. Metal alloys are used for making standard resistance
coils because
(a) they have high thermal conductivity.
(b) their resistance depend weakly on temperature.
(c) they have low thermal conductivity.
(d) their resistance depend strongly on temperature.
49. If the forward bias voltage in a p-n diode is
decreased, the length of depletion region will
(a) increase
(b) decrease
(c) not change
(d) initially increase and then decrease
50. A block of mass 3 kg starts from rest and slides
down a curved path in the shape of a quarter-circle
of radius 2 m and reaches the bottom of path with
a 4 m/s speed . If g is 10 m/s2, the amount of work
done against friction is
(a) 60 J
(b) 36 J (c) 24 J
(d) 12 J
51. The length of antenna to transmit waves of 1 MHz
will be
(a) 3 m
(b) 15 m (c) 30 m
(d) 300 m
52. In which of the following both transverse and
longitudinal waves propagate?
(a) Heat transfer
(b) Elastic wave motion in a solid
(c) Microwave communication
(d) X-ray motion
53. A person is standing on a weighing-scale and
observes that the reading is 60 kg. He then suddenly
jumps up and observes that reading goes to 70 kg.
Then his maximum upward acceleration is
(a) zero
(b) 1.4 m/s2
2
(c) 1.63 m/s
(d) 9.8 m/s2

54. What amount of original radioactive material is


left after 3 half-lives?
(a) 6.5% (b) 12.5% (c) 25.5% (d) 33.3%
55. An ideal gas is heated at constant volume until
its pressure doubles. Which one of the following
statements is correct?
(a) The mean speed of the molecules doubles.
(b) Root mean square speed of the molecules
doubles.
(c) Mean square speed of the molecules doubles.
(d) Mean square speed of the molecules remains
unchanged.
56. A parallel narrow-beam of light is falling normally
on a glass sphere. It will come to a focus
(a) inside the sphere (except at its center)
(b) on the surface of the sphere
(c) outside the sphere
(d) exactly at the center of the sphere
57. Smallest division on the main scale of given vernier
callipers is 0.5 mm. Vernier scale has 25 divisions
and these coincide with 24 main scale divisions.
The least count of vernier callipers is
(a) 0.001 cm
(b) 0.002 cm
(c) 0.01 cm
(d) 0.02 cm
58. The electric field of an electric dipole at a point on
its axis at a distance d from the centre of the dipole
varies as
1
1
1
1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) 3/2
d
d
d2
d3
59. Red, blue, green and violet colour lights are one
by one made incident on a photocathode. It is
observed that only one colour light produces
photoelectrons. That light is
(a) red
(b) blue (c) green (d) violet
60. Two pendula oscillate with a constant phase
difference of 45 and same amplitude. If the
maximum velocity of one of them is v and that of
other is v + x, then the value of x will be
v
v
(a) 0
(b)
(c)
(d) ( 2 )v
2
2
solutions
1. (a) : Among the given waves, sound wave is not
an electromagnetic wave whereas all others are
electromagnetic waves.
2. (a) : The 220 V a.c. line voltage that we receive in
our homes is an rms value.
3. (a)
physics for you | august 15

19

4. (d) : As magnetic flux = magnetic field area


\ [magnetic flux] = [MT2A1][L2]
= [ML2T2A1]
5. (a)
6. (d) : According to the law of equipartition of energy,
the energy per mole per degree of freedom of an
ideal gas

1
1
R
= kB N AT = RT
as kB =

2
2
N

\ v = s 1 (10 m) = 8 m/s
10

15. (d) : In an n-p-n transistor, p is base.


16. (d) : The number for green is 5, for orange is 3
and that for blue is 6. For silver, tolerance is
10%.

7. (d) : The capacitance of a spherical conductor is


C = 4pe0R, where R is its radius.
As both spheres have same radii, so their
capacitances will be same.
Further, when they are charged to the same
potential, both spheres will hold same charge (as
Q = CV).
8. (d) : After entering the region of a uniform
electrostatic field with velocity perpendicular to
the field, the path of the charged particle will be
parabolic.
9. (c) : The change in the internal energy of a system is
path independent and depends only on the initial
and final states of the system.
i.e. DU = Uf Ui
In a cyclic process, the system returns to its initial
state, so Uf = Ui
\ DU = Uf Ui = 0
10. (a) : As Planck's constant =
\ [h] =

[ML2 T2 ]
1

[T ]

energy
frequency

= [ML2 T1 ]

11. (b) : Lead-acid cell is an example of secondary cell


whereas all other given cells are the examples of
primary cell.
12. (a)
13. (d)
14. (a) : Standing near the sea-coast the observer counts
48 waves per min, so the frequency of the wave
is
48
48
8
u=
=
= s 1
1 min 60 s 10
The velocity v, wavelength l and frequency u of
the wave are related as
v = ul
8 1
Here, u =
s and l = 10 m
10
20

physics for you | august 15

Green
Orange

Blue

Silver

\ The resistance of the resistor shown in the


figure is
R = 53 106 10% W
17. (d) : At resonance,
voltage across inductor = voltage across capacitor
i.e.
VL = VC
18. (d) : The wave nature of electrons is demonstrated
by the Davisson and Germer experiment and was
first experimentally verified by C.J. Davisson and
L.H. Germer in 1927.
19. (c)
20. (a) :

Q
P

E1

E2

As emf balancing length of the potentiometer wire


\ When the potentiometer is connected between
P and Q,
E1 0.8
...(i)
and when it is connected between P and R,
E1 E2 0.2
...(ii)
(As E1 and E2 are in opposition and E1 > E2)
Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i), we get
E1 E2 0.2 1
E
or 1 2 = 1
=
=
E1
E1 4
0.8 4
E2
1 3
= 1 =
E1
4 4

or

E1 4
=
E2 3

21. (d) : The kinetic energy K and angular momentum


L of a particle undergoing uniform circular motion
are related as
K=

L2

or L = r 2mK
... (i)
2mr 2
where m is its mass and r is the radius of circle.
While moving on the same path, (i.e. r remains
the same) if its kinetic energy becomes four times,
then its new angular momentum will be

L = r 2m(4 K ) = 2(r 2mK )


= 2L

(using (i))

22. (c)
23. (b)
24. (c) : The time period of an artificial satellite
revolving very close to a planet's surface is
R3
... (i)
GM
where M is the mass of the planet and R its
radius.
Assuming the planet to be of uniform density d,
so its mass is
4
mass

M = pR3d
as density =

3
volume
T = 2p

\ T = 2p

1
3p
R3
or T
=
d
Gd
4

G pR3d
3

25. (d) : The current due to orbital motion of the


charged particle having charge q is
I = qu
where u is the frequency of revolution.
If r is the radius of the orbit, then the resulting
magnetic moment is
M = IA = qu(pr2) = pqur2
Here,
q = 1 1019 C, u = 1016 Hz,
r = 1 = 1010 m
\ M = (3.14)(1 1019 C)(1016 Hz)(1010 m)2
= 3.14 1023 Am2
26. (b)
27. (c) : When a ray of light
Rarer
travelling from a denser medium
medium to a rarer
medium is incident at
ic
Denser
the critical angle ic, then medium
it will travel along the
interface separating the two media as shown in
the figure.
28. (b)
29. (b) : The flux density produced by a long solenoid
m NI
Bl
or I =
is B = 0
l
m0 N
where N is the number of turns in the solenoid and
l its length and I is the current in the solenoid.
Here, B = 3.14 103 T, l = 1 m
m0 = 4p 107 Tm/A, N = 1000

\ I=

(3.14 103 T)(1 m)


(4 p 10

10
A = 2.5 A
Tm/A)(1000) 4
=

30. (b) : According to Brewster's law, the Brewster's


angle iB and refractive index m of a material are
related as
taniB = m or iB = tan1(m) As m > 1 \ iB > 45
Thus the values for Brewster's angle iB can be only
greater than 45.
31. (c) : The dielectric constant of a perfect conductor
is infinite.
32. (b, c) : Newton's law of cooling applies when a body
is losing heat to its surroundings by convection
and radiation.
33. (*) : The various forces acting on the block are
shown in the figure.
N

si
mg

mg

co
mg

When the block moves up the inclined plane,


the force of friction f acts down the plane. So the
minimum force required to just move the block
up the inclined plane is
F = mgsinq + f = mgsinq + mN
= mgsinq + mmgcosq
(Q N = mgcosq)
= mg(sinq + mcosq)
* None of the given options is correct.
34. (a) : S k y w av e s a re u s e d i n l on g d i s t an c e
communication. All other statements are correct
about sky waves.
Q
35. (d) : As specific heat, s =
mDT
Since boiling of water is an isothermal process,
so DT = 0
Q
\ s=
=
m0
36. (c) : When an electric dipole is placed in a region
of non-uniform electric field, it will experience
both force and the torque.
37. (c) : Conductivity of semiconductors increases with
increase in temperature and vice versa.
Semiconductors behave as insulators at 0 K.
physics for you | august 15

21

38. (c)
39. (*) : Bulk modulus B is defined as the ratio of
normal stress to the volumetric strain and is given
by
DP
B=
DV / V
ve sign shows that with increase in pressure the
volume decreases.
* None of the given options is correct.
40. (a) : As unpolarized light is travelling from the
medium 1 of refractive index m1 (= 2) to the
medium 2 of refractive index m2 (= 3), so the
refractive index of the medium 2 with respect to
the medium 1 is
m
3
1
m2 = 2 =
m1 2
According to Brewster's law, the polarizing angle
ip for given two media is
3
tani p = 1m2 =
2
3
i p = tan 1 = 56.3
2
But angle of incidence i = 60 (given)
i.e. i > ip
For i > ip, both reflected and refracted light will
be partially polarized.
41. (b) : The acceleration of the particle executing simple
harmonic motion at the displacement x from the
equilibrium position is
a = w2 x where w is the angular frequency.
Its magnitude will be minimum at the equilibrium
position (x = 0) and maximum at the extreme
position (x = A(amplitude)).
42. (d) : The ratio of mass defect of the nucleus to its
mass number is maximum for Fe56.
43. (a)
44. (b) : According to Rydberg formula, the wavelength l
of a spectral line in Balmer series is
1
1
1
= R ; n = 3, 4, 5,...
2
2 n2
l
For series limit, n =
1
1
1 R
\ = R
=
22 2 4
l

or l =

4
R

45. (d) : Taking west to east as positive, then


u = 9 m/s and a = 2 m/s2
As S

22

th

a
= u + (2n 1)
2

physics for you | august 15

+ve

\ S

5th

46. (a)
47. (a) :

2
= 9 (2 5 1) = 9 9 = 0
2

The Boolean expression of the given combination


of gates is
Y = A + B = A B (using de Morgan's theorem)
= AB
which is Boolean expression for AND gate.
Thus the given combination of gates forms AND
gate.
48. (b) : Metals are used for standard resistance
coils because their resistance depend weakly on
temperature.
49. (a) : In a p-n diode when the forward bias voltage
is decreased the length of depletion region will
increase and vice versa.
m

50. (b) : Here, mass of the block,


m = 3 kg
Initial speed of the block,
h
u = 0 (as it starts from rest)
Final speed of the block,
v
v = 4 m/s
Height, h (in this case the radius of quarter circle)
=2m
The change in kinetic energy of the block is
1
1
1
DK = mv 2 mu2 = mv 2 0
2
2
2
1
2
= (3 kg)(4 m/s) = 24 J
2
The work done by the gravitational force is
Wg = mgh = (3 kg)(10 m/s2)(2 m) = 60 J
If W f is the work done by the friction, then
according to work energy theorem,
Wg + Wf = DK
or Wf = DK Wg = 24 J 60 J = 36 J
As work done against friction is equal and opposite
to work done by the friction,
\ The amount of work done against friction is
36 J.
...contd. on page 83

Series 3
CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER : Electromagnetic Induction and
Alternating Currents | Electromagnetic Waves
Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.


(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section
E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

section-A
1. For circuits used for transporting electric power,

2.

3.

4.
5.

a low power factor implies large power loss in


transmission. Explain.
On the basis of electromagnetic theory, show how
does the refractive index of a material medium
depend on its relative permeability and dielectric
constant.
Consider a metallic pipe with an inner radius of
1 cm. If a cylindrical bar magnet of radius 0.8 cm
is dropped through the pipe, it takes more time to
come down than it takes for a similar unmagnetised
cylindrical iron bar dropped through the metallic
pipe. Explain.
Mention the two characteristic properties of the
material suitable for making core of a transformer.
Can the voltage drop across the inductor or the
capacitor in a series LCR circuit be greater than
the applied voltage of the AC source? Justify your
answer.
section-b

6. Two identical loops, one of copper and the other

of aluminium, are rotated with the same angular


speed in the same magnetic field. Compare:

7.

8.

9.

10.

(a) the induced emf, and


(b) the current produced in the two coils.
Justify your answer.
Electric field at a given point in space is oscillating
with an angular frequency of 9p 1012 rad s1 and
an amplitude of 7.5 V m1 along Y-axis. Write the
equation of electric field and magnetic field. Given
that the electromagnetic wave is propagating along
x-direction.
OR
How would you establish an instantaneous
displacement current of 1.0 A in the space between
the plates of 1 F capacitor?
Although there is no direct electric connection
between the two coils of a transformer, yet energy
is being transferred from primary coil to secondary
coil. How?
An 80 V, 800 W heater is to be operated on a 100 V,
50 Hz supply. Calculate the inductance of the choke
required.
Ordinary moving coil galvanometer used for
direct current cannot be used to measure an
alternating current even if its frequency is low.
Explain, why?
physics for you | august 15

23

section-c
11. (a) Obtain the expression for the magnetic energy

12.

13.
14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

24

stored in a solenoid in terms of magnetic field


B, area A and length l of the solenoid.
(b) How does this magnetic energy compare with
the electrostatic energy in a capacitor?
Name the constituent radiation of electromagnetic
spectrum which:
(a) is used in satellite communication,
(b) is used for studying crystal structure,
(c) is similar to the radiations emitted during decay
of radioactive nuclei,
(d) has its wavelength range between 390 nm and
700 nm,
(e) is absorbed from sunlight by ozone layer, and
(f) produces intense heating effect.
Describe the use of a series resonant circuit in the
tuning of a radio receiver.
A circuit contains two inductors in series with selfinductances L1 and L2 and mutual inductance M.
Obtain a formula for the equivalent inductance in
the circuit.
Show that in the free oscillations of an LC circuit,
the sum of energies stored in capacitor and the
inductor is constant in time.
Name the SI unit of magnetic flux and show that
it equals volt-second. Give three possible ways
of producing an induced emf in a coil giving an
example in each case.
OR
How does the mutual inductance of a pair of coils
change when:
(i) the distance between the coils is increased?
(ii) the number of turns in each coil is decreased?
(iii) a thin iron sheet is placed between the two coils,
other factors remaining the same.
Justify your answer in each case.
(i) The primary of a transformer has 400 turns
while the secondary has 2000 turns . If the power
output from the secondary at 1100 V is 12.1 kW,
calculate the primary voltage. (ii) If the resistance
of the primary is 0.2 W and that of the secondary is
2.0 W and the efficiency of the transformer is 90%,
calculate the heat losses in the primary and the
secondary coils.
Light with an energy flux of 18 W cm2 falls on a
non-reflecting surface at normal incidence. If the
surface has an area of 20 cm2, find the average force
exerted on the surface during a 30 minute time
span.
physics for you | august 15

19. Three students X, Y and Z performed an experiment

for studying the variation of alternating currents


with angular frequency in a series LCR circuit
and obtained the graphs shown in the figure. They
all used AC sources of the same rms value and
inductances of the same value.
I

X
Y

What can we (qualitatively) conclude about the:


(a) capacitance values, and
(b) resistance values used by them?
(c) In which case, will the quality factor be
maximum?
(d) What can be concluded about the nature of the
impedance of the set-up at frequency w0?
20. Derive an expression for the mutual inductance of
two long coaxial solenoids.
21. A coil of inductance 0.50 H and resistance 100 W is
connected to a 240 V, 50 Hz AC supply.
(a) What is the maximum current in the coil?
(b) What is the time lag between the voltage
maximum and the current maximum?
22. Prove that an ideal inductor connected to an AC
source does not dissipate any power.
section-D
23. One day Kapil requested his grandfather to show

him the working of his big size radio set. He was


amazed to observe that radio set was catching
the radio stations on tuning, by rotating the
knob.
His grandfather, who was a retired scientist,
explained the working of tuning circuits and also
explained how the similar circuits work in tuning
the TV for different channels and FM radio
installed in the car. Kapil was very happy to learn
that all these electronic equipments were working
on the fundamental concepts which he learned in
his physics class recently.
(a) What are the major components of tuning
circuit in a radio?
(b) Name the phenomena involved in tuning.
(c) What values can be associated with this?

section-e
24. (a) What are eddy currents? Write their two

applications.
(b) Figure shows a rectangular conducting loop
PQSR in which arm RS of length l is movable.
The loop is kept in a uniform magnetic field
B directed downward perpendicular to the
plane of the loop. The arm RS is moved with a
uniform speed v.

Deduce an expression for


(i) the emf induced across the arm RS,
(ii) the external force required to move the arm,
and
(iii) the power dissipated as heat.
OR
State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction
and explain three methods for producing induced
EMF.
25. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram, the
principle, construction and working of an AC
generator.
OR
Draw a schematic diagram of a step-up transformer.
Explain its working principle. Deduce the expression
for the secondary to primary voltage in terms of
the number of turns in the two coils. In an ideal
transformer, how is this ratio related to the currents
in the two coils?
How is the transformer used in large scale
transmission and distribution of electrical energy
over long distances?
26. Derive an expression for the impedance of a series
LCR circuit connected to an AC supply of variable
frequency.
Plot a graph showing variation of current with the
frequency of the applied voltage.
OR
Derive an expression of power in an LCR AC circuit.
What is wattless current?

solutions
1. We know that power in an AC circuit is given by the

relation, P = VrmsIrms cos f, where cos f is the power


factor. To supply a given power to an AC circuit at a
given voltage if power factor cos f is small, then we
have to increase the value of current accordingly.
However, increase in current means increased
power loss (power dissipation due to Joules heating)
being given by I2R. Thus, transmission line loss is
more.
2. As per electromagnetic theory, speed of light in a
given material medium,
...(i)
c = v mr K
and we know that refractive index n of a medium
is given by
c
...(ii)
n=
v
On putting the value of c in equation (ii), we get
v mr K
= mr K
v
Thus, refractive index of a medium is proportional
to square root of its relative permeability and
dielectric constant.
3. When the bar magnet is dropped into the metallic
pipe, eddy currents are produced in the pipe. As
these currents oppose the motion of the magnet,
its acceleration is less than that due to gravity (g).
Since no eddy currents are produced in the metallic
pipe when the unmagnetised bar is dropped into
the pipe, its acceleration is g. Obviously, the bar
magnet takes more time to come down through the
pipe than the time taken by the unmagnetised bar.
n=

4. The material used for making the core of a

transformer should have high value of magnetic


permeability but a low value of magnetic hysteresis
so that magnetic flux linked with each turn of
primary or secondary coil is large and energy loss
due to hysteresis phenomenon is the least possible.
5. Yes, the voltage drop across L or C in a series LCR
circuit can be greater than the applied voltage of the
AC source. This is due to the fact that these voltages
are not in phase and cannot be arithmetically added
up. In fact, VL and VC are in mutually opposite
phase and try to balance each other.
6. (a) When two identical loops, one of copper and
the other of aluminium, are rotated with same
angular speed w in the same magnetic field
B, the induced emf in both coils will be same
physics for you | august 15

25

because rate of change of magnetic flux of both


loops is exactly the same.
e
(b) Induced current, I =
R
where e is the induced emf and R is the
resistance offered by the loop. As copper is a
better conductor than aluminium, resistance
offered by copper loop is less and consequently,
more induced current is produced in the copper
loop.
7. As per question,
w = 9p 1012 rad s1 and E0 = 7.5 V m1
12
w 9p 10
\ k= =
= 3p 10 4 m 1
c
3 108
E
7. 5
and B0 = 0 =
= 2.5 10 8 T
c 3 108
Hence, equation of electric field,
Ey = E0 sin (wt kx)
= 7.5 sin (9p 1012t 3p 104 x) V m1
Similarly,
Bz = B0 sin (wt kx)
= 2.5 108 sin (9p 1012 t 3p 104 x) T
OR
As per question, ID = 1.0 A and C = 1 F = 106 F
We know that,
df
d
I D = e0
= e 0 (EA)
dt
dt
= e0

d V e 0 A dV
dV

=C
A =
dt d
d dt
dt

where A is the area of capacitor plate and d is the


distance between the plates.
dV I D
1. 0
=
=
= 106 V s 1

dt
C 1 10 6
Thus, to establish a displacement current of
1.0 A, the potential difference between the plates of
capacitor must change at a rate of 106 V s1.
8. Although there is no electrical connection between
the primary and secondary coils of a transformer,
still energy is transferred from the primary circuit to
secondary circuit. Owing to an AC voltage applied
across the primary coil an alternating current flows
in primary coil and an alternating magnetic flux
per unit turn is created. Through the iron core, this
alternating magnetic flux is also linked with each
turn of secondary coil, due to which, an induced
emf is set up in the secondary coil. In this manner,
electrical energy is continuously being transferred
from primary to secondary coil circuit.
26

physics for you | august 15

9. As P = VI

P 800
V 80
=
= 10 A and R = = = 8 W
V 80
I 10
As the choke is connected in series with the heater,
the current should remain same for the impedance
adjusted.
Veff
Veff
\ I eff =
=
2
2 2
2
R +w L
R + 4p 2u2L2
\ I=

100

or

10 =

or

64 + 10000 p2L2 = 100

or

L2 =

8 + 4p 2 502 L2
36
6
or L =
= 0.019 H
100 p
10000 p 2

10. Ordinary moving coil galvanometer cannot be used

to measure AC. Ordinary moving coil galvanometer


is based on magnetic effect of current which, in
turn, depends on direction of current. So it cannot
be used to measure AC. During one half cycle of AC,
its pointer moves in one direction and during next
half cycle, it will move in the opposite direction.
Now the average value of AC over a complete cycle
is zero. Even if we measure an alternating current
of low frequency, the pointer, will appear to be
stationary at the zero position due to persistence of
vision.
We can measure AC by using a hot-wire ammeter
which is based on heating effect of current and this
effect is independent of the direction of current.
To measure AC, we define the mean value of AC
over half a cycle or its root mean square value.
11. (a)
l

In a current carrying solenoid the energy is stored


in the form of magnetic field.
If current I is flowing in the solenoid, the magnetic
field energy associated is
1
UB = LI2
2
2
1 B
or UB = L
(Q B = m0nI)
2 m 0n
As coefficient of self induction L = m0 n2 Al
B2
1
1 2
\ UB = m0 n2 Al 2 2 =
B Al
2
m 0n 2 m 0

Let Leq be the equivalent inductance of the two


self-inductances L1 and L2 connected in series.
For the series combination, the emfs induced
in the two coils get added up. Thus
eeq = e1 + e2
...(i)
If the rate of change of current in the series
dI
circuit is
, then
dt
dI
dI
e1 = L1 M ,
...(ii)
dt
dt

(b) Magnetic field energy density in solenoid


U
B 2 Al
B2
uB = B =
=
2m 0 Al 2m 0
V
Electric field energy density in capacitor
1
uE = e0E2
2
So both energy density are proportional to square
of corresponding fields.
12. (a) Microwaves
are
used
in
satellite
communication.
(b) X-rays are used for studying crystal structure.
(c) Gamma rays are similar to the radiations
emitted during decay of radioactive nuclei.
(d) Visible light radiation has its wavelength range
between 390 nm and 700 nm.
(e) Ultraviolet radiations are mainly absorbed from
sunlight by ozone layer.
(f) Infrared rays produce intense heating effect
when fall on a material.
13. The tuning circuit of a radio or TV is an example
of LCR resonant circuit. Signals are transmitted
by different stations at different frequencies. These
frequencies are picked up by the antenna and
corresponding to these frequencies, a number
of voltages appear across the series LCR circuit.
But maximum current flows through the circuit
for that AC voltage which has frequency equal to
1
fr =
.
2p LC

e 2 = L2

dI
dI
M
dt
dt

...(iii)
dI
and e eq = Leq
...(iv)
dt
The negative sign throughout indicates that
both self and mutual induced emfs are opposing
the applied emf.
Using eqns. (ii), (iii) and (iv) in eqn. (i), we get
dI
dI
Leq = (L1 + M + L2 + M )
dt
dt
Leq = L1 + L2 + 2M

or

(ii) Let the series combination be such that the


current flows in opposite senses in the two
coils, as shown in figure.

L1

L2

Antenna
L

The emfs induced in the two coils will be


dI
dI
dI
dI
e1 = L1 + M , e 2 = L2 + M
dt
dt
dt
dt

To receiver

Series resonant circuit

If Q-value of the circuit is large, the signals of the


other stations will be very weak. By changing the
value of the adjustable capacitor C, the signal from
the desired station can be tuned in.
14. (i) Let the series connection be such that the
current flows in the same sense in the two coils
as shown in figure.

Here the mutual emfs act in the direction of


applied emf and hence positive. For this series
combination also, the emfs induced in the two
coils get added up.
Here, e eq = e1 + e 2 = [L1 M + L2 M] dI
dt
dI
But
e eq = Leq
dt
dI
dI
\ Leq = [L1+ L2 2M]
dt
dt
or
Leq = L1 + L2 2M.

15. Just as the sum of potential and kinetic energies

remains constant in SHM, the sum of energies


stored in the capacitor and inductor remains
constant during LC oscillations. Suppose at time
physics for you | august 15

27

t = 0, capacitor is fully charged with a battery of


voltage V0.
1
So, U E = CV02
2
It is connected with an inductor. So initial energy in
the inductor in zero.
1
Total initial energy of the LC circuit, U v = CV02
2
At any instant, the electrostatic energy stored in the
capacitor is
1 q2
UE =
2C
The magnetic energy stored in the inductor at any
instant is
1
U B = LI 2
2
If there is no (resistive) loss of energy, then the total
energy of the LC circuit at any instant will be
1 q2 1 2
+ LI
2C 2
dq
But q = q0 cos w 0t and I = dt = q0w 0 sin w 0t
1 2
1
\ U=
q cos 2 w 0t + Lw 20 q02 sin 2 w 0t
2C 0
2
U =UE +UB =

1 2
1 1 2 2
q cos 2 w 0t + L
q sin w 0t
2C 0
2 LC 0

1
1 q2
q02 [cos 2 w 0t + sin 2 w 0t] = 0
2C
2 C

1
= CV02 = Initial energy
2
16. SI unit of magnetic flux is weber (Wb).

By Faradays law
df
|e| =
dt
1 weber
\ 1 volt =
or1 weber = 1 volt second
1 second
Magnetic flux linked with a closed coil is given by
f = BA cos q.
Whenever f changes, emf is induced. Hence emf
may be produced by three methods:
(i) By changing the magnetic field B, e.g., by
changing the relative separation between a
closed coil and magnet.
(ii) By changing the area A of the closed coil, e.g., by
moving a closed loop into and out of a region of
magnetic field.
(iii) By changing the relative orientation q between a
closed coil and a magnetic field, e.g., by rotating

28

physics for you | august 15

a closed coil about an axis perpendicular to the


magnetic field.
OR
(i) The mutual inductance of two coils decreases
when the distance between them is increased.
This is because the flux passing from one coil
to another decreases.
mNN A
(ii) Mutual inductance, M = 0 1 2
l
i.e., M N1N2
Clearly, when the number of turns N1 and
N2 in the two coils is decreased, the mutual
inductance decreases.
(iii) When an iron sheet is placed between the two
coils the mutual inductance increases, because
M permeability ().
17. (i) Here, N1 = 400, N2 = 2000, e2 = 1100 V
N
400
e1 = e 2 1 = 1100
= 220 V .
N2
2000

(ii) Resistance of primary, R1 = 0.2 W


Resistance of secondary, R2 = 2.0 W
Output power = e2I2 = 12.1 kW = 12100 W
\ Current in the secondary,
e I 12100
I2 = 2 2 =
= 11 A
e2
1100
Output power
As Efficiency =
Input power
12100 W
90
=
100 Input power
or Input power
12100 100
= 13.44 103 W
e1I1 =
90
Current in the primary,
3

e1I1 13.44 10
=
= 61.1 A
e1
220
Power loss in the primary
= I12R1 = (61.1)2 0.2 = 746.64 W
Power loss in the secondary
= I22R2 = (11)2 2.0 = 242 W
18. Here, Energy flux = 18 W cm2 = 18 J s1 cm2
Area = 20 cm2, Time = 30 min = 1800 s
Total energy falling on the surface
U = Energy flux time area
= (18 J s1 cm2) 1800 s 20 cm2
= 6.48 105 J
The total momentum delivered to the surface,
I1 =

S1 but zero in the annular region between the two


solenoids. Hence
B1 = 0n1I1 where n1 = N1/l = the number of turns
per unit length of S1.
Total flux linked with the outer solenoid S2 is
f 2 = B1AN 2 = m 0n1I1 AN 2

6.48 105 J
U
=
= 2.16 103 kg m s1
c 3 108 m s 1
The average force exerted on the surface,
3
p 2.16 10
F= =
= 1.2 10 6 N
1800
t
p=

19. (a) As per question, resonant frequency w0 is same

for all three students X, Y and Z.


1
Since, w 0 =
LC
and
LX = LY = LZ
Hence, CX = CY = CZ
(b) At resonance condition,
V V
I= =
Z R
As per graph IX > IY > IZ, hence we conclude
that RX < RY < RZ.
(c) Q-factor = wL/R,
hence Q-factor is maximum for X and minimum
for Z. It means that QX > QY > QZ.
(d) At resonant frequency w0, impedance is purely
resistive in nature, i.e., Z = R.
20. As shown in figure, consider two long co-axial
solenoids S1 and S2, with S2 wound over S1.
I2

S2

r1

I1 S1

r2

I1

\ Mutual inductance of coil 2 with respect to


coil 1 is
f
mNN A
M 21 = 2 = 0 1 2
I1
l
Clearly M12 = M21 = M(say)
mNN A
\ M = 0 1 2 = m 0n1n2 Al = m 0n1n2pr12l
l
21. For an LR circuit, if V = V0 cos wt, then

I=

V0

R + w 2L2

where tan f =

cos (wt f),

wL
.
R

(a) Maximum current in the coil is


V0
V0
=
I0 =
2
2 2
2
R +w L
R + 4p 2u2L2
Given L = 0.50 H, R = 100 W, Veff = 240 V
and u = 50 Hz.

\ I0 =

2 240
(100)2 + 4p 2 (50)2 (0.50)2

V0

Veff = 2

Let l = length of each solenoid


r1, r2 = radii of the two solenoids
A = pr21 = area of cross-section of inner solenoid S1
N1, N2 = number of turns in the two solenoids.
Let a time varying current I2 pass through S2. The
magnetic field set up inside S2 due to I2 is
B2 = 0n2I2 where n2 = N2/l = the number of turns
per unit length of S2.
Total magnetic flux linked with the inner solenoid
S1 is f1 = B2AN1 = 0n2I2AN1
\ Mutual inductance of coil 1 with respect to
coil 2 is
mNN A
f
M12 = 1 = m 0n2 AN 1 = 0 1 2
I2
l
We now consider the flux linked with the outer
solenoid S2 due to the current I1 in the inner
solenoid S1. The field B1 due to I1 is constant inside

1.414 240

1.414 240
= 1.82 A
186.2
10000 + 24674
f
(b) V is maximum at t = 0, I is maximum at t =
w
(i.e., when wt f = 0). If f is positive, this
means current maximum lags behind voltage
maximum by time lag,
f
t =
w
2puL 2p 50 0.5
Now, tan f =
=
= 1.571
R
100
57.5 p
\ f = tan 1 (1.571) 57.5 =
rad
180
57.5 p
f
Time lag, t = =
s
w 180 2p 50
=

= 3.19 103 s 3.2 ms


physics for you | august 15

29

22. When AC is applied to an ideal inductor, current

lags behind the voltage in phase by p/2 radian. So


we can write the instantaneous values of voltage
and current as follows:
V = V0 sin wt
p
and I = I 0 sin wt
2

= I 0 sin wt = I 0 cos wt
2

Work done in small time dt is


dW = P dt = V0I0 sin wt cos wt dt
VI
= 0 0 sin 2 wt dt
2

Excel in Physics).

W 1
=
dW
T T
0

Physics).

V I cos 2wt
VI
= 0 0
=+ 0 0
2T 2w
4T w
0

4p

cos T t

V0I 0
VI
[cos 4p cos 0] = 0 0 [1 1]= 0
4T w
4T w
Thus the average power dissipated per cycle in an
inductor is zero.
=

PHYSICS

MUSING

Contd. from page 8

8. A direct-vision prism is made out of three prisms,

each with a refracting angle of 60, attached to each


other as shown in the figure. Light of a certain
wavelength is incident on the first prism. The angle
of incidence is 30 and the ray leaves the third prism
parallel to the direction of

incidence. The refractive

index of the glass of the


first and third prisms is
1.5. Find the refractive index of the material of the
middle prism. (Take 6 = 2.45)
9. A light ray parallel to the principal axis is incident
(as shown in the figure) on a thin planoconvex lens
with radius of curvature of its curved part equal to
10 cm. Assuming that the refractive index of the
material of the lens is 4/3 and medium on both
sides of the lens is air, the distance of the point from
the lens where this ray meets the principal axis is
30

physics for you | august 15

(b) Refer point 4.1(7(e)) page no. 248 (MTG Excel


in Physics).
OR
Refer point 4.1(5, 7(a, b, c)) page no. 247, 248 (MTG
Excel in Physics).
25. Refer point 4.8(2) page no. 275 (MTG Excel in

VI
= 0 0 sin 2 wt dt
2T
T

converts electromagnetic waves into electrical


signals and an LCR series resonant circuit
with variable capacitor whose value varies by
rotating the knob.
(b) Phenomena involved in tuning is resonance.
(c) Awareness,
scientific
thinking,
good
communication between old generation and
new generation is important to take advantage
of the hard earned learning by elders.

24. (a) Refer point 4.3(1, 4) page no. 252, 253 (MTG

The average power dissipated per cycle in the


inductor is
Pav =

23. (a) A tuning receiver circuit has antenna which

OR
Refer point 4.8(1) page no. 274 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
26. Refer point 4.6(6, 8) page no. 269, 270 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

OR
Refer point 4.6(9) page no. 271 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
nn

X
cm. Find the value of X.
7
6 cm

10. One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas undergoes

the cyclic process as shown in the figure . Find out


efficiency (in percent) of the cycle.
[Take ln 2 = 0.7]

nn

kInematICS

Kinematics is the branch of mechanics which describes


the motion of points, bodies and system of bodies
without consideration of the cause of motion.
Rest and motion

Rest or motion is relative term. An object is said to be


at rest if its position does not change with time with
respect to a reference point.
An object is said to be in motion if its position changes
with respect to its immediate surroundings.
For example : A car moving on a highway is in motion
with respect to surrounding (tree) but the same car is at
rest with respect to its driver.
Point object

If an object is small enough so that we can treat it


mentally similar to a point then we call such an object
a point object or point particle.
Position, path length and displacement

Position : Position of a particle is its location


with respect to reference point (origin of mutually
perpendicular axes).
Path length : Path length (distance) is a measure of
the length of the path taken during the change in
position of an object.
Displacement : The measure of change in position
of an object with time is known as displacement. It
is a vector quantity having both magnitude as well
as direction.
Displacement along x-axis, Dx = x x0

KEY POINT
The magnitude of displacement may or may not be
equal to the path length traversed by an object.
Uniform and non-Uniform motion

If an object moving along the straight line covers equal


distance in equal intervals of time, it is said to be a
uniform motion along a straight line.
If an object moving along the straight line covers equal
distances in unequal intervals of time or unequal
distance in equal intervals of time, it is said to be in
non-uniform motion along a straight line.
average Velocity and average Speed

The average velocity is defined as the ratio of the change


in position or displacement (Dx) of the object to the
time interval (Dt). The SI unit of the average velocity is
m s1 and it is a vector quantity.
Mathematically, the average velocity is expressed as
Displacement Dx x 2 x1
v avg =
.
=
=
Time interval Dt t 2 t1
Average speed is defined as the ratio of the distance
traveled by a particle to the time taken. The average
speed involved the total distance covered (for example,
the number of meters moved). It is independent of
direction and is given by
Total distance
savg =
.
Total time taken
Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
The velocity of an object at any given instant of time is
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

31

known as instantaneous velocity (or simply velocity)


v. The SI unit of instantaneous velocity is m s1 and it
is a vector quantity.
Mathematically, the instantaneous velocity is represented
as
Dx dx
v = lim
= .
dt
x Dt
Instantaneous speed or simply speed is the magnitude
of velocity.
KEY POINT
Average velocity of a body can be positive or
negative but average speed is always positive.

If a moving object reverses its direction then in


slow motion it would seem to stop and then begin
moving in the opposite direction. There is an
instant of reversal. If the velocity is positive before
this instant then after it, the velocity is negative. In
changing sign, it must pass through zero. At this
instant, the instantaneous velocity is zero.
Displacement-time graph

If the graph is a
straightline parallel to
time-axis, shown by
line AB, it means that
the body is at rest i.e.
velocity = zero.

Displacement

The acceleration of an object is defined as the ratio of


change of velocity of the object and time taken
Change in velocity

Time taken
Acceleration is a vector quantity. Acceleration is
positive, if the velocity is increasing and is negative
if velocity is decreasing. The negative acceleration is
called retardation or deceleration.
Uniform acceleration and variable acceleration :
If the velocity of an object changes by equal amounts
in equal intervals of time, it is said to be moving with a
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

(i) v = u + at
(iii) v 2 = u2 + 2as

1 2
(ii) s = ut + at
2
a
(iv) sn = u + (2n 1)
2

KEY POINT
When a body is accelerated with accelerations

a1 in time t1 and a2 in time t2, then the average


acceleration is given as

a t +a t

aavg = 1 1 2 2
t1 + t 2

The free-fall acceleration near the Earths surface


is a = g = 9.8 m s2, and the magnitude of the
acceleration is g = 9.8 m s2. Do not substitute
9.8 m s2 for g.

Time

acceleration

32

Formulae for uniformly accelerated motion along a


straight line

D C B
E

If the graph is a straight line inclined to time-axis


(such as OC) shows that body is moving with a
constant velocity.
If the graph obtained is a curve like OD whose slope
decreases with time, the velocity goes on decreasing,
i.e., motion is retarded.
If the graph obtained is a curve like OE whose slope
increases with time, the velocity goes on increasing,
i.e. motion is accelerated.

i.e., Acceleration =

uniform acceleration. If the velocity of an object changes


by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time, it is said
to be moving with a variable acceleration.
Instantaneous acceleration : The acceleration of an
object at a given instant or at a given point of motion is
called its instantaneous acceleration. It is defined as the
first time derivative of velocity at a given instant or it is
also equal to second time derivative of the position of
the object at a given instant i.e.,
Instantaneous acceleration,
Dv dv d 2 x
a = Lt
=
=
dt dt 2
Dt 0 Dt

SELF CHECK

1. From a tower of height H, a particle is thrown


vertically upwards with a speed u. The time taken
by the particle, to hit the ground, is n times that
taken by it to reach the highest point of its path. The
relation between H, u and n is
(a) gH = (n 2)u2
(b) 2 gH = n2u2
2
2
(c) gH = (n 2) u
(d) 2 gH = nu2(n 2)
(JEE Main 2014)
2. An object moving with a speed of 6.25 m s1, is
dv
decelerated at a rate given by
= 2.5 v , where
dt
v is the instantaneous speed. The time taken by the
object, to come to rest, would be
(a) 1 s
(b) 2 s
(c) 4 s
(d) 8 s
(AIEEE 2011)
Velocity-time graph

If the graph is a straight line parallel to time axis


shown by line AB, it means that the body is moving
with a constant velocity or zero acceleration.

(x1 x2)

Velocity

D C
E

If the graph is a straight line and inclined to the


time-axis with +ve slope (line OC) it means that the
body is moving with constant acceleration.
If the graph obtained is a curve like OD whose
slope decreases with time, the acceleration goes on
decreasing.
If the graph obtained is a curve like OE whose
slope increases with time, the acceleration goes on
increasing.
The area of velocity-time graph with time axis
represents the displacement of that body.

The velocity with which an object moves with respect


to another object is known as relative velocity of that
object.
The relative velocity of an object A with respect to object
B when both are in motion, is the time rate of change of
position of object A with respect to that of B.

v AB = v A v B
When vA and vB are inclined to an angle q,
v AB = v 2A + v 2B + 2v A v B cos q

If two objects are moving in same direction along


straight line, the magnitude of relative velocity of
one object with respect to the other object will be
equal to difference in magnitude of the velocities of
the two objects.
If two objects are moving in opposite direction along
straight line, the magnitude of relative velocity of
one object with respect to the other object will be
equal to the sum of the magnitude of the velocities
of the two objects.

SELF CHECK

3. A body is at rest at x = 0. At t = 0, it starts moving in


the positive x-direction with a constant acceleration.
At the same instant another body passes through
x = 0 moving in the positive x-direction with a
constant speed. The position of the first body is
given by x1(t) after time t and that of the second
body by x2(t) after the same time interval. Which
of the following graphs correctly describes (x1 x2)
as a function of time t?

(b)
O

Time

Relative Velocity

(a)

(c)

(x1 x2)

(x1 x2)

O
(x1 x2)

(d)
t

(AIEEE 2008)
SCalaRS anD VeCtORS

Scalars : The physical quantities which have only


magnitude and no direction are called scalars e.g., mass,
length, time, speed, work, power, etc.
Vectors : The physical quantities which have both
magnitude and direction are called vectors e.g.,
displacement, velocity, acceleration, force momentum,
etc.
Position vector : A vector which gives position of
an object with reference to the origin of a coordinate
system is called position vector.
Displacement vector : It is that vector which tells
how much and in which direction an object has
changed its position in a given time interval.
Polar vectors : These are the vectors which have
a starting point or a point of application e.g.,
displacement, force, velocity, etc.
Axial vectors : The vectors which represent
rotational effect and act along the axis of rotation
in accordance with right hand screw rule are called
axial vectors e.g., torque, angular momentum, etc.
Equal vectors : Two vectors are said to be equal if
they have the same magnitude and direction.
Negative vector : The negative of a vector is defined
as another vector having the same magnitude but
having an opposite direction.
Zero vector : A vector having zero magnitude
and an arbitrary direction is called a zero or null
vector.
Collinear vectors : The vectors which either act
along the same line or along parallel lines are called
collinear vectors.
Coplanar vectors : The vectors which act in the
same plane are called coplanar vectors.
Modulus of a vector : The magnitude or length of
a vector is called its modulus.

Modulus of vector A = A = A

Fixed vector : The vector whose initial vector is


fixed is called a fixed vector or localised vector.
Unit vector : A unit vector is a vector of unit
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

33

magnitude drawn in the direction of a given


vector.

A unit vector in the direction of A is given by

A=
A

Co-initial vectors : The vectors which have the


same initial point are called co-initial vectors.
Co-terminus vectors : The vectors which have the
common terminal point are called co-terminus
vectors.
Properties of zero vector : A zero vector has the
following properties :



A + O = A; l O = O; 0 A = O
Multiplication of a vector by a real number :

When a vector A is multiplied by a real number

n, it becomes another vector nA . Its magnitude

becomes n times the magnitude of A.

addition of Vector

Addition of two collinear vectors

Suppose A and B are two collinear vectors.

O
P
A
B Q

P R
B
O
Q

Now the resultant vector R = A + B
Suppose a body is displaced through 4 m due west and
then is further displaced through 6 m due west. Then
the resultant displacement of the body = (4 m + 6 m) =
10 m due west.
Triangle law of vector addition : If two vectors are
represented both in magnitude and direction by the two
sides of a triangle taken in the same order, then the
resultant of these vectors is
Q
represented both in magnitude
and direction by the third side of

R
the triangle taken in reverse order
B
as shown.

or
O
R = A+B = B+A
P
A
Parallelogram law of vector

addition : If the non-zero vectors A and B are


represented by the two adjacent
sides of a parallelogram then the
resultant is given by the diagonal
of the parallelogram passing
through the point of intersection
of the two vectors.

The magnitude of R is
34

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

R = R = A2 + B 2 + 2 AB cos q

where q is the angle between A and B .


Here,
B sin q
tan a =
A + B cos q
A sin q
and tan b =
B + A cos q
Special cases
If
q = 0, Rmax = A + B
q = 180, Rmax = A B

...(i)

...(ii)

and q = 90, R = A2 + B 2
In all other cases equation (i) and (ii) can be used to

calculate magnitude and direction of R.

Polygon law of vector addition :


E
U

If a number of vectors are


D
represented both in magnitude and
T
direction by the sides of a polygon

taken in the same order, then the R


C
resultant vector is represented both
S
in magnitude and direction by the

B
closing side of polygon taken in the

P
Q
opposite order.
A

R=A+B+C+D+E
Properties of vector addition
(i) Vector addition is commutative. i.e.,

A+B = B+A
(ii)

Vector addition is associative i.e.,



( A + B) + C = A + ( B + C )

(iii) Vector addition is distributive. i.e.,


l( A + B) = lA + lB
Subtraction of Vectors

Negative of a vector ( A) is a vector of the same

magnitude as vector A but pointing in a direction

opposite to that of A.

Therefore, A B = A + ( B)

Let the angle between vectors A and B be q, then the

angle between A and B will be 180 q.



A B = A2 + B 2 2 AB cos q

180

Rectangular Components of a Vector in a Plane

When a vector is splitted into two component vectors


at right angles to each other, the component vectors are
called rectangular components of a vector. If it makes an

angle q with x-axis and Ax and A y be the rectangular

components of A along x-axis and y-axis respectively,


then

A = A + A = A i + A j
x

Here, Ax = A cos q and Ay = A sin q.


\
A2(cos2q + sin2q) = Ax2 + Ay2
or

A = Ax2 + A2y

1/2

and tan q =

Ay
Ax

Addition of vectors in rectangular coordinates

If A = Ax i + A y j + Az k and B = Bx i + B y j + Bz k

Then, A + B = ( Ax i + A y j + Az k ) + (Bx i + B y j + Bz k )
= ( A + B )i + ( A + B )j + ( A + B )k
x

Dot Product or Scalar Product

The dot product or scalar

product of two vectors A and


by A . B (read
B represented

A dot B ) is defined as the


product of the magnitudes of

A and B and the cosine of the


angle between them.

A . B = AB cos q
Cross Product or Vector Product

PROjeCtIle mOtIOn

Any body projected into space, such that it moves


under the effect of gravity alone is called a projectile.
The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory
which is always a parabola. A projectile executes two
independent motions simultaneously:
(i) uniform horizontal motion and
(ii) uniform accelerated downward motion.
Projectile Fired Horizontally

KEY POINT
Two vectors can be added if both of them are of
same nature, for example, a displacement vector
cannot be added to a force vector but can be added
to displacement vector only.
Vector subtraction is neither commutative nor
associative by nature.
Resolution of a vector into two component
vectors along the directions of two given vectors
is unique.

where n is a unit vector indicating the direction of



A B.

The cross product of two vectors A and B is a vector


C = A B (read as A cross B ). The magnitude of A B

is defined as the product of the magnitudes of A and B


and the sine of the angle between them. The direction of

the vector C = A B is perpendicular to the plane A


and B and such that A, B and C form a right handed


system.

A B = AB sin q n .

Suppose a body is projected horizontally with velocity u


from a height h above the ground. Let it reach the point
(x, y) after time t.
Then position of the projectile after time t,
1
x = ut,
y = gt 2
2
g
2
Equation of trajectory, y = 2 x
2
u
Velocity after time t,
gt
v = u 2 + g 2 t 2 ; b = tan 1
u
2h
Time of flight, T =
g
2h
Horizontal range, R = u T = u
.
g
Projectile Fired at an angle with the Horizontal

Suppose a projectile is fired with velocity u at an angle


q with the horizontal. Let it reach the point (x, y) after
time t. Then
Components of initial velocity,
ux = u cos q, uy = u sin q
Components of acceleration at any instant,
ax = 0, ay = g
Position after time t,
1
x = (u cos q) t, y = (u sin q) t gt 2
2
Equation of trajectory,
g
y = x tan q
x2
2
2
2u cos q
Maximum height, H =

u2y

u 2 sin 2 q

=
2g
2g
2u y 2u sin q
=
Time of flight, T =
g
g
Horizontal range, R =

2u x u y
g

u 2 sin 2q
g

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

35

Maximum horizontal range is attained at q = 45 and


its value is
u2
Rmax =
g
Velocity after time t,
vx = u cos q, vy = u sin q gt
KEY POINT
When the motion is two-dimensional, the time
variable t has the same value for both the x-and
y-directions.

In projectile motion, the horizontal motion and


the vertical motion are independent of each other;
that is, neither motion affects the other.
The horizontal range is the same if an object is
projected at angles q and 90 q.
A projectile moves under the combined effect of
two velocities (i) uniform horizontal velocity which
would not change if there is no air resistance (ii)
uniform changing vertical velocity due to gravity.

SELF CHECK

4. A projectile is given an initial velocity of

(i + 2 j) m s 1 , where i is along the ground and j


s2,

is along the vertical. If g = 10 m


the equation of
its trajectory is
(a) 4y = 2x 25x2
(b) y = x 5x2
(c) y = 2x 5x2
(d) 4y = 2x 5x2

(JEE Main 2013)


5. A boy can throw a stone up to a maximum height
of 10 m. The maximum horizontal distance that the
boy can throw the same stone up to will be
(a) 10 m

(b) 10 2 m

(c) 20 m

(d) 20 2 m
(AIEEE 2012)

Uniform Circular motion

When a body moves along a circular path with uniform


speed, its motion is said to uniform circular motion.
Angular displacement : It is the angle swept out by a
radius vector in a given time interval.
Arc
s
q (rad) =
=
Radius r
Angular velocity : The angle swept out by the radius
vector per second is called angular velocity.
q q
q
w=
or w = 2 1
t
t 2 t1
36

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

Relationship between v and w : It is given by


v = rw
i.e. Linear velocity = Radius angular velocity.
Angular acceleration and its relation with linear
acceleration : The rate of change of angular velocity is
called angular acceleration. It is given by
w w1
a= 2
t 2 t1
Also, a = r a
i.e. Linear acceleration = Radius angular acceleration
Centripetal acceleration : A body moving along a
circular path is acted upon by an acceleration directed
towards the centre along the radius. This acceleration is
called centripetal acceleration. It is given by
a=

v2
= rw 2 .
r

KEY POINT
A centripetal force accelerates a body by changing
the direction of the velocity of body without
changing the speed of body.

SELF CHECK

6. For a particle in uniform circular motion, the

acceleration a at a point P(R, q) on the circle of


radius R is (Here q is measured from the x-axis)
(a)

v2 ^ v2 ^
i+
j
R
R

(b)

^ v2
^
v2
cos q i + sin q j
R
R

(c)

^ v2
^
v2
sin q i + cos q j
R
R

(d)

^ v2
^
v2
cos q i sin q j
R
R

(AIEEE 2010)

FORCe anD IneRtIa

Force is defined as an agency (a push or a pull) which


changes or tends to change the state of rest or of uniform
motion or the direction of motion of a body.
Inertia is a property of the body due to which body
opposes the change of its state itself. Inertia of a body is
measured by mass of the body
i.e., Inertia Mass
Heavier the body greater is the force required to change
its state and hence greater is inertia. The reverse is also
true. i.e., lighter body has less inertia.

types of Inertia

Inertia of rest : It is the inability of a body to change


its state of rest by itself.
Inertia of motion : It is inability of a body to change
its state of uniform motion by itself.
Inertia of direction : It is the inability of a body to
change its direction of motion by itself.

KEY POINT
Force on a body can be exerted from a distance
by the external agencies of force. Examples are
gravitational and magnetic forces.
newtOnS lawS OF mOtIOn

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) made a systematic study


of motion and extended the ideas of Galileo. He arrived
at three laws of motion which are called Newtons laws
of motion.

duration the total effect of force is called impulse. This


type of force is sometimes called impulsive force.
Impulse, I = F Dt


I = mDv = m(v u)


= mv mu = p f pi

\ I = D p = p f pi

SELF CHECK

7. A particle of mass m is at rest at the origin at time


t = 0. It is subjected to a force F(t) = Foebt in the
x direction. Its speed v(t) is depicted by which of
the following curves?
(a)

Impulse

In many cases, the forces involved in collisions and


other interactions that act a very short time are known
explicitly. When a large force act for an extremely short

(b)

v(t)
t

First law

A body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion


in a straight line unless compelled by an external force
to change that state. The first law defines inertia hence
it is also called law of inertia.
momentum
It is the product of the mass and velocity of a body,
i.e. p = mv
The concept of momentum was introduced by Newton
to measure the quantitative effect of force.
Second law
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly
proportional to the applied force and takes place in the
direction in which the force acts.

dp
Mathematically, F =
dt
It can be shown experimentally that the acceleration is

(i) proportional to the net force F net on the object


and
(ii) inversely proportional to the mass m of the object.
1
a Fnet and a .
m
Fnet
kF
Thus, a
a = net ,
m
m
The value of constant k is 1.
F
\ a = net , Fnet = ma
m

F0b
m

(c)

F0
mb

(d)

v(t)

F0
mb

v(t)

F0
mb

v(t)

(AIEEE 2012)

8. The figure shows the position - time (x-t) graph of


one-dimensional motion of a body of mass 0.4 kg.
The magnitude of each impulse is
2
x(m)
0

(a) 0.2 N s
(c) 0.8 N s

6
8
t(s)

10

12

14

(b) 0.4 N s
(d) 1.6 N s

16

(AIEEE 2010)

third law

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.


Meaning of action and reaction : Suppose that a body A

experiences a force FAB due to other body B. Also body

B will experience a force FBA due to A. According to


Newtons third law if two forces are equal in magnitude
and opposite
mathematically we write it as
in direction,

FAB = FBA

Here we can take either FAB or FBA as action force and


the other will be the reaction force. Another important
thing is these two forces always act on different bodies,
and so, they never cancel each other.
apparent weight of Body in a lift
(i) When a lift moves upwards with uniform
acceleration, apparent weight of a body in the lift
increases.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

37

From Fig. (a), R mg = ma or R = m (g + a)


R
m
mg
(a)

mg
(b)

R
m

a=0

mg
( c)

(ii) When a lift moves downwards with acceleration,


a the the apparent weight of a body in the lift
decreases. From Fig. (b)
mg R = ma or R = m (g a)
(iii) When a lift is at rest or moves with uniform velocity,
a = 0, the apparent weight of the body is equal to
its true weight.
From Fig. (c),
R = mg
(iv) When a lift fall freely, (a = g) the apparent weight
of a body in the lift becomes zero.
R = m(g g) = 0
KEY POINT
If the elevator is at rest or is moving uniformly
in the upward/downward direction, the apparent
weight is equal to actual weight of the person.
COnSeRVatIOn OF lIneaR mOmentUm

When no external force acts on a system of several


interacting particles, the total linear momentum of the
system is conserved. The total linear momentum is the
vector sum of the linear momenta of all the particles of
the system.
Derivation of the law of conservation of momentum
from Newtons second law of motion
Suppose the n particles have masses m1, m2, m3 ... mn and

are moving with velocities, v1 , v2 ..... vn respectively.


Then total linear momentum of the system is

p = m1v1 + m2v2 ..... mnvn


p = p1 + p2 + ....... pn

If F is the external force acting on the system, then


according to Newtons second law
dp
F=
dt
For an isolated system

dp
F = 0 or
= 0 or p = constant
dt

or p1 + p2 + ....... + pn = constant
Thus in the absence of any external force, the total linear
momentum of the system is constant. This is the law of
conservation of linear momentum.
application of the law of Conservation of momentum

(i) Recoil of a gun. Let M be the mass of the gun and


38

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

m be the mass of the bullet. Before firing, both the


gun and the bullet are at rest. After firing, the bullet

moves with velocity v and the gun moves with

velocity V . As no external force acts on the system,


so according to the principle of conservation of
momentum,
Total momentum before firing = Total momentum
after firing

or 0 = mv + MV

V
M
m v
or MV = mv

m
or V = v
M

The negative sign shows that V and v are in


opposite directions i.e., the gun gives a kick in
the backward direction or the gun recoils with

velocity V . Further, as M > > m, so V < < v i.e.,


the recoil velocity of the gun is much smaller than
the forward velocity of the bullet.
(ii) When a man jumps out of a boat to the shore, the
boat slightly moves away from the shore. Initially,
the total momentum of the boat and the man is
zero. As the man jumps from the boat to the shore,
he gains a momentum in the forward direction. To
conserve momentum, the boat also gains an equal
momentum in the opposite direction. So the boat
slightly moves backwards.
(iii) An astronaut in open space, who wants to
return to the spaceship, throws some object in a
direction opposite to the direction of motion of
the spaceship. By doing so, he gains a momentum
equal and opposite to that of the thrown object and
so he moves towards the spaceship.
Rocket propulsion. It is an example of momentum
conservation in which the large backward momentum of
the ejected gases imparts an equal forward momentum
to the rocket. Due to the decrease in mass of the rocketfuel system, the acceleration of the rocket keeps on
increasing. Let
u = velocity of exhaust gases
v0, v = initial velocity and velocity of the rocket at
any instant t
m0, m, me = initial mass, mass of the rocket at any
instant t and mass of empty rocket respectively.
dm
Thrust on rocket, F = u
dt

dm

u
Acceleration of rocket, a =
dm dt

mo t

dt

Velocity of rocket, v = v0 + u log e

m0
m

Burnt-out speed of rocket, vb = v0 + u log e

SELF CHECK

m0
me

9. A machine gun fires a bullet of mass 40 g with a


velocity 1200 m s1. The man holding it can exert
a maximum force of 144 N on the gun. How many
bullets can he fire per second at the most?
(a) one
(b) four (c) two (d) three.
(AIEEE 2004)
FRee BODY DIagRam

A single body or a subsystem of bodies isolated from


its surroundings showing all the forces acting on it is
its free body diagram.
Steps for Free Body Diagram
Step 1: Identify the object or system and isolate it
from other objects clearly, specify its boundary.
Step 2 : First draw non-contact external force in the
diagram. Generally it is weight.
Step 3 : Draw contact forces which acts at the
boundary of the object or system. Contact forces
are normal, friction, tension and applied force.
In free body diagram, internal
forces are not drawn, only
external are drawn.
Free body diagram of a block of
mass m is kept on the ground as
shown in figure.
tenSIOn

When we pull the two ends of a string in opposite


directions then a force is developed in the body of the
string which is called tension.

tension in a String

Features of an ideal string


Ideal string is massless.
Ideal string is perfectly smooth.
Ideal string is inextensible. Length of the strings
remains constant.
Ideal string is perfectly flexible.
Rules of marking tension force on a body by a string
(i) The tension force should be along the length of the
string.
(ii) The tension force should be away from the body.
Tensions are of two different types :
Extensional

Compressional
In a string or in a chain tension is only extensional.
In a rod tension can be extensional or compressional
or both.
Tension in a string is the force by which one part of the
string pulls the other part.
An ideal string has zero mass then the net force acting
on that string will always be equal to zero.
Fnet = 0 a \ Fnet = 0
In an ideal string the tension at all the points of the
string will be same.

We had to find out the tension in the string between the


blocks by drawing the free body diagram of both the
blocks and the string.
m1F
T = m1a T =
m1 + m2

Motion of connected bodies. Suppose two bodies of


masses M and m(M > m) are tied at the ends of an
inextensible string passing over a frictionless pulley.
Then
M m
g
Acceleration of the masses, a =
M +m
2 Mm
g
Tension of the string, T =
M +m
Clearly, a < g.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces: A number of
concurrent forces acting on a body are said to be in
equilibrium if their vector sum is zero or if these forces
can be completely represented by the sides of a closed
polygon taken in the same order.

F1 + F 2 + F 3 + ......F n = 0
Lamis theorem : It states that if three forces acting
on a particle keep it in equilibrium, then each force is
proportional to the sine of the angle between other two


forces. If a, b, g be the angles between F 2 and F 3 ; F 3

and F1 ; F1 and F 2 respectively, then according to Lamis


theorem :
F
F1
F
= 2 = 3 .
sin a sin b sin g
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

39

SELF CHECK

10. A rocket with a lift-off mass 3.5 104 kg is blasted


upwards with an initial acceleration of 10 m s2.
Then the initial thrust of the blast is
(a) 3.5 105 N
(b) 7.0 105 N
5
(c) 14.0 10 N
(d) 1.75 105 N.
(AIEEE 2003)
FRICtIOn

Friction is a contact force that opposes the relative


motion or tendency of relative motion of two bodies.
Consider a block on a horizontal table as shown in the
figure.

flim N flim = msN


Here ms is a constant, the value of which depends
on nature of surfaces in contact and is called as
coefficient of static friction.
(ii) The magnitude of limiting frictional force is
independent of area of contact between the
surfaces.
kinetic Frictional Force

Once relative motion starts between the surfaces in


contact, the frictional force is called as kinetic frictional
force. The magnitude of kinetic frictional force is also
proportional to normal force.
f k = m kN
From the previous observation we can say that mk < ms.
angle of Friction

If we apply a force, acting to the right, the block remains


stationary if F is not too large. The force that counteracts
F and keeps the block at rest is called frictional force. If
we keep on increasing the force, the block will remain
at rest and for a particular value of applied force, the
body comes to state of about to move. Now if we slightly
increase the force from this value, block starts its motion
with a jerk and we observe
that to keep the block
moving we need less effort
than to start its motion.
If we draw the graph
between applied force and
frictional force for this
observation its nature is as shown in figure.
Static Frictional Force

When there is no relative motion between the contact


surfaces, frictional force is called static frictional force.
It is a self-adjusting force, it adjusts its value according to
requirement (of no relative motion). In the taken example
static frictional force is equal to applied force. Hence one
can say that the ab portion of graph will have a slope of 45.
(fs msN)
limiting Frictional Force

This frictional force acts when body is about to move.


This is the maximum frictional force that can exist at
the contact surface. We calculate its value using laws
of friction.
laws of Friction

(i) The magnitude of limiting frictional force is


proportional to the normal force at the contact
surface.
40

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

The resultant of normal reaction


R and the frictional force f is S


which makes an angle l with R.
Now, the angle l is called the
angle of friction.
f mR
tan l = =
=m
R R
angle of repose

The minimum angle of


inclination of plane with
the horizontal, at which the
body placed on the plane
just begins to slide down
the incline, is known as angle of repose.
a = tan1m
Rolling Friction

The opposing force that comes into existence when one


object rolls over the surface of another object is known
as rolling friction.

SELF CHECK
11. A block of mass m is placed on a surface with a
x3
vertical cross section given by y = . If the
6
coefficient of friction is 0.5, the maximum height
above the ground at which the block can be placed
without slipping is
1
2
1
1
(a) m (b) m (c) m (d) m
6
3
3
2
(JEE Main 2014)
12. Two fixed frictionless inclined planes making an
angle 30 and 60 with the vertical are shown in the
figure. Two blocks A and B are placed on the two

planes. What is the relative vertical acceleration of


A with respect to B?

end of the string is attached as shown in figure, then


vH

A
O

60

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

vL
L
mgsin mgcos
mg

30

4.9 m s2 in vertical direction


4.9 m s2 in horizontal direction
9.8 m s2 in vertical direction
zero
(AIEEE 2010)

CIRCUlaR mOtIOn
Centripetal Force

Centripetal force is the force required to move a


body uniformly in a circle. Magnitude of this force
mv 2
is F =
= mrw2 where v is the linear velocity, w
r
is angular velocity of the body and r is radius of the
circular path.
a Vehicle taking a Circular turn on a level Road

If the coefficient of friction between the tyres and the


road is ms, the maximum velocity with which a vehicle
can take a circular turn of radius r without slipping is
given by
v = m s rg
A cyclist move along a circular level track of radius r
with speed v. The angle through which the cyclist bends
himself is given by
tan = v2/rg
Banking of Roads

Vehicles move on a curved track of radius r with


maximum speed v, the track is banked through an angle
q is given by
tan = v2/rg
(frictionless road)
A car is moving on a circular track of radius R and
angle q. ms is the coefficient of friction between the
wheels of the car and the road. The optimum speed to
avoid skidding is given by
1/2

vmax

Rg (m s + tan q)
=

1 m s tan q

motion in a Vertical Circle

Bending of a Cyclist

When a small body of mass m is attached to an


inextensible light string of length r and whirling in a
vertical circle about a fixed point O to which the other

Tension at any position of angular displacement, (q)


along a vertical circle is given by
mv 2
T=
+ mg cos q
r
Thus, tension at the lowest point (q = 0) is given
by
mv L2
TL =
+ mg
r
and tension at the highest point (q = 180) is given by
2
mv H
TH =
mg
r
Minimum speed at the highest point,
v H = gr
Minimum speed at the lowest point for looping the
loop, v L = 5 gr .
When the string is horizontal, q = 90, minimum
velocity, v = 3 gr .
Height through which a body should fall for looping
the vertical loop or radius r is, h = 5r/2.
wORk, eneRgY anD POweR

work

Work is said to be done whenever a force acts on a


body and the body moves through some distance in the
direction of the force. This work is done on a body only
if the following conditions are satisfied.
(i) A force acts on the body
(ii) The point of application of the force moves in the
direction of the force.
work Done by a Constant Force
(i) Measurement of work done when the force acts
along the direction of motion.
Work done (W) = Force (F) distance moved in
the direction of force (s)
(ii) Measurement of work done when force and
displacement are inclined to each other.
Work done (W) = component of force in the
direction of displacement
Fcosq) magnitude of
displacement (s)

= Fs cos q = F s
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

41

Positive and negative work

Work done is a scalar quantity. It can be positive or


negative.
F

q < 90, W is +ve

q = 90, W is zero

s
q > 90, W is ve.
If the force applied to a body does a positive work, the
velocity of the body increases. In this case the force, and
hence the acceleration are directed along velocity.

If however, the force does a negative work, the


acceleration is directed against the velocity and the
velocity of the body decreases.

gravitational force, electrostatic force, elastic force in a


spring etc.
Forces acting along the line joining the centres of
two bodies are called central force. Gravitational and
electrostatic forces are two important examples. Central
forces are conservative forces.
A force is said to be non-conservative if work done by
or against the force in moving a body depends upon the
path. e.g., frictional forces, air resistance, viscous force,
induced electric force etc.

SELF CHECK
13. When a rubber-band is stretched by a distance x, it
exerts a restoring force of magnitude F = ax + bx2
where a and b are constants. The work done in
stretching the unstretched rubber-band by L is
1 aL2 bL3
(a)
(b) aL2 + bL3
+
2 2
3
aL2 bL3
1
+
(c) (aL2 + bL3 )
(d)
2
3
2
(JEE Main 2014)

work Done by Variable Force

A variable force F, dependent on the position of the


particle, is acting on a particle. If the particle moves

through an incremental displacement ds .

^
^
^
F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k

^
^
^
ds = dx i + dy j + dz k

increment of work done on the
dW = F ds is the

particle by force F during the displacement ds .



^
^
^
^
^
^
dW = F ds = (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k) (dx i + dy j + dz k)
dW = Fxdx + Fydy + Fzdz
xf

yf

zf

xi

yi

zi

W = dW = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz
(xi, yi, zi) is initial position and (xf, yf, zf) is final
position.
KEY POINT
Work is energy transferred to or from a system by
means of an external force acting on that system.

Work done by a variable force is numerically


equal to the area under the force curve and the
displacement axis.
Conservative Force and non-Conservative Force

A force is said to be conservative if work done by or


against the force in moving a body depends only on the
initial and final positions. It is independent of the path
followed. Work done in a round trip is always zero. e.g.,
42

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

eneRgY

Energy is the capacity of a body to do work. It is


measured in joule, like work.
mechanical energy

There are two types of mechanical energy


Kinetic energy
Potential energy
kinetic energy

Kinetic energy of body of mass m moving with velocity


v is given by
1
K = mv 2
2
Two points regarding kinetic energy are as follows :
Since both m and v2 are always positive, K is always
positive and does not depend on the direction of
motion of the body.
Kinetic energy depends on the frame of reference.
e.g., the KE of a person of mass m sitting in a train
moving with speed v is zero in the frame of train
1 2
but mv in the frame of earth.
2

SELF CHECK

14. An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of


100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated
to be in the range
(a) 2,000 J - 5,000 J (b) 200 J - 500 J
(c) 2 105 J - 3 105 J (d) 20,000 J - 50,000 J.
(AIEEE 2008)

Relation between kinetic energy (K) and linear


momentum (p)
p2
or p = 2mK
K=
2m
K

The graph between K and p


is a parabola as shown in the
figure.
The graph between K and
p is a straight line as shown
in figure.
The graph between K and
1/p is a rectangular hyperbola
as shown in figure.
work energy theorem

p
K

where R is the radius of earth.


If h << R, (h/R) << 1. So U = mgh.
Conservative force is the negative gradient of potential
energy.

^ U ^ U ^ U
F = i
+j
+k
= U

y
z
x

^ ^
where = ^i
+ j +k
x
y
z
In one dimension, F =

p
K

1/p

It states that, total work done (W) on a particle by all


the forces (conservative and non-conservative) equals
to the change in kinetic energy of the particle.
W = K 2 K1
If the forces acting on a particle does works W1, W2,
W3........Wn then,
W1 + W2 + W3 + ..... + Wn = K2 K1
n

or Wn = DK = K 2 K1

dU
or U = Fdx
dx

KEY POINT
The concept of potential energy is not defined for a
non-conservative force.

SELF CHECK
15. The potential energy of a 1 kg particle free to move
along the x-axis is given by
x 4 x2
V (x ) =
J.
2
4
The total mechanical energy of the particle 2 J.
Then, the maximum speed (in m s1) is
(a) 2

(b) 3 / 2 (c)

(d) 1 / 2 .
(AIEEE 2006)

PRInCIPle OF COnSeRVatIOn OF meCHanICal eneRgY

Potential energy

The energy possessed by a body or system by virtue of


its position or configuration is known as the potential
energy.
In mechanics there are two types of the potential
energy.
Elastic potential energy : It is energy associated with
state of compression or stretching of an elastic spring
and is given by U = 1 kx 2
2
where k is the spring constant and x is the stretch or
compression in the spring.
Gravitational potential energy : It is the energy
associated with two bodies of masses m1 and m2
separated by distance r and is given by

It states that for conservative forces the sum of kinetic


and potential energies at any point remains constant
throughout the motion. It does not depend on time.
i.e. K1 + U1 = K2 + U2 or K + U = constant

Gm1m2
r
For a body of mass m at height h relative to surface of
earth its potential energy reduces to
mgh
U=
h
1 + R

POweR

U =

KEY POINT
In an isolated system the mechanical energy
of the system, cannot change which means for
isolated system mechanical energy of the system
is conserved.
We can relate the sum of kinetic energy and potential
energy at one instant to that at another instant
without considering the intermediate motion when
the mechanical energy of a system is conserved.

It is defined as the rate of doing work.

dW d r
Instantaneous power P =
=F
= F v
dt
dt

where v is the instantaneous velocity when the force is F .


Average power : It is defined as the ratio of the work
DW, to the time Dt, i.e., Pav = DW/Dt.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

43

Power is a scalar quantity. Its dimensional formula is


[ML2T3].
Units of power : In SI system the absolute unit of power
is watt. It is denoted by symbol W.
1 watt = 1 J s1.
In CGS system, the absolute unit of power is
erg s1.
1 W = 107 erg s1.
Bigger units of power are

1 kilowatt = 1 kW = 103 W

1 megawatt = 1 MW = 106 W
In engineering, horse power is the practical unit of
power.
1 hp = 746 W.

SELF CHECK

16. A body of mass m is accelerated uniformly from


rest to a speed v in a time T. The instantaneous
power delivered to the body as a function of time is
given by
(a)
(c)

1 mv 2
t
2 T2
mv 2
T2

(b)
(d)

1 mv 2 2
t
2 T2
mv 2
T2

t 2
(AIEEE 2005)

COllISIOn

In physics a collision will take place if either of the two


bodies come in physical contact with each other or even
when path of one body is affected by the force exerted
due to the other.
Collisions are broadly classified into two types :

Elastic collision

Inelastic collision
KEY POINT
If the component of the net external force on
a closed system is zero along an axis then the
component of the linear momentum of the system
along that axis cannot change.
elastic Collision
A collision in which both the momentum and kinetic
energy of the body remains conserved. e.g. the collision
between two glass balls.
The basic characteristics of an elastic collision are :
(i) The momentum is conserved.
(ii) Total energy is conserved.
(iii) Kinetic energy is conserved.
(iv) Forces involved in the interaction are of conservative
nature.
44

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

(v) Kinetic energy is not transformed into any other


form of energy.
KEY POINT
In an elastic collision, the kinetic energy of each
colliding body may change, but the total kinetic
energy of the system does not change.
Inelastic Collision

A collision in which only the momentum of the system


is conserved but kinetic energy is not conserved. Most
of the collisions in our day to day life are inelastic
collisions. e.g. mud thrown on the wall.
The basic characteristics of an inelastic collision are :
(i) Momentum is conserved.
(ii) Total energy is conserved.
(iii) Kinetic energy is not conserved.
(iv) Some or all of the forces involved are nonconservative in nature.
(v) A part of the kinetic energy is transformed into
other forms of energy.
elastic Collision in One Dimension

Consider two bodies A and B of masses m1 and m2


moving along the same straight line with velocities u1
and u2 respectively. Assume that u1 > u2 so that two
bodies collide. Let v1 and v2 be the final velocities of
the bodies after collision. The two bodies suffer head on
collision and continue moving along the straight line in
the same direction as shown in the figure.

According to the law of conservation of momentum


m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
Since kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collision,
we get
1
1
1
1
m u2 + m u2 = m v 2 + m v 2
2 1 1 2 2 2 2 11 2 2 2
(m m2 )u1 2m2u2
v1 = 1
+
...(i)
(m1 + m2 ) m1 + m2
2m1u1 (m2 m1 )
u
+
m1 + m2 m1 + m2 2
Special cases
When masses of two bodies are equal,
i.e. m1 = m2 = m.
2mu2
= u2
From equation (i), we get v1 =
2m
2mu1
= u1
From equation (ii), we get v2 =
2m
v2 =

...(ii)

Thus, if two bodies of equal masses undergo elastic


collision in one dimension, then after the collision,
the bodies will exchange their velocities.
When the body B is initially at rest i.e., u2 = 0.
From equation (i) and (ii), we get
(m m2 )u1
...(iii)
v1 = 1
m1 + m2
2m1u1
v2 =
m1 + m2

...(iv)

Three cases arise further :


When masses of two bodies are equal
i.e. m1 = m2 = m
From (iii), we get v1 = 0

From (iv), v2 = u1
Therefore, when body A collides with body B
of equal mass at rest, the body A comes to rest
while the body B moves on with the velocity of
the body A.
In this case, transfer of kinetic energy is hundred
percent.
When the body B has negligible mass as
compared to that of body A i.e., m2 < < m1 then
in equations (iii) and (iv), m2 can be neglected
as compared to m1.
\ v1 =

m1u1
2m u
= u1 , v2 = 1 1 = 2u1
m1
m1

Therefore, when a heavy body A collides with


a light body B at rest, the body A should keep
on moving with same velocity and the body B
starts moving with velocity double that of A.
When a mass of body B is very large as
compared to that of body A i.e., m2 > > m1 then
in equations (iii) and (iv), m1 can be neglected
as compared to m2.
m2u1
= u1 , v2 = 0.
m2
Therefore, when a light body A collides with a
heavy body B at rest, the body A should start
moving with same velocity just in opposite
direction while the body B should practically
remain at rest.

v1 =

According to conservation of linear momentum,


m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v + m2v
or

v=

m1u1 + m2u2
(m1 + m2 )

...(i)

Kinetic energy of the system before collision is


1
1
K I = m1u12 + m2u22
2
2
Kinetic energy of the system after collision is
1
K F = (m1 + m2 )v 2
2
Loss in kinetic energy during collision,
DK = KI KF
1
1
1
= m1u12 + m2 u22 (m1 + m2 )v 2
2
2
2

...(ii)

Substituting the value of v from eqn. (i), we get


DK =

1 m1m2
(u u )2
2 (m1 + m2 ) 1 2

SELF CHECK

17. A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of


2.00 ms1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another
mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a
single body. The energy loss during the collision is
(a) 0.34 J (b) 0.16 J (c) 1.00 J (d) 0.67 J.
(AIEEE 2008)
elastic Collision in two Dimensions or Oblique Collision

Let us consider two bodies A and B of masses m1 and


m2 moving along X-axis with velocities u1 and u2
respectively. When u1 > u2, the two bodies collide. After
collision, body A moves with velocity v1 at an angle q1
with X-axis and body B move with a velocity v2 at an
angle q2 with X-axis as shown in the figure.

Perfectly Inelastic Collision in One Dimension


Consider two bodies A and B of masses m1 and m2
moving with velocities u1 and u2 (u2 < u1) respectively
along the same line collide head on and after collision
they have same common velocity v.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

45

BRAIN

ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION
Michael Faraday

Energy Consideration
in Motional emf

l
B 2l 2v
F
R
R
Power required to move the wire
B 2l 2v 2
P
R
It is dissipated as Joule
heat.

mo

f
em
al
n
tio

nge in flux produ


Cha
ces

Eddy Current

The currents induced in


surface of bulk pieces of conductors
when the magnetic flux linked with the
conductor changes are known as Eddy
currents. Slotting the conductor reduces the
eddy current.
Applications : Electromagnetic
damping, Induction furnace, Electric
power meter, Magnetic braking
in trains.

It is produced by change in magnetic


field in a region. This is nonconservative in nature.

is g

The direction of the induced


current is such that it opposes the
change that has induced it.

If a current is induced by an
increasing(decreasing) flux, it will
weaken (strengthen) the original flux.
It is a consequence of the law of
conservation of energy.

se

mf

nt

by
ved
hie
c
ea

dI
Emf induced in the coil/conductor, L
dt
Coefficient of self induction
N

L B
I
dI / dt
1
2
Self inductance of a coil L 0 N R
2
0 r N 2 A
2
Self inductance of a long solenoid L 0r n Al
l
N 2 2
2
1
Mutual inductance, M

I1
(dI1/dt ) (dI 2 /dt )
Mutual inductance of two closely wound circular coils, M N1N 2

Mutual inductance of two long coaxial solenoids


NN A
M 0 r r12n1n2l 0 r 1 2 1
l
M
Coefficient of coupling, k
L1L2

Combination of
Inductors

For perfect coupling, k = 1 so,

em

Electric Generator
Mechanical energy is
converted into electrical energy by
virtue of electromagnetic induction.
Induced emf,
= NAB sint 0sint

uc
e

cu
rre
of
ge

co
il i
nd

the

ch
an

in

of
Ra
te

Inductance

This is also known as integral


form of Faradays law.

d B
dB
A
0
dt
dt

Lenz's Law

al

n
ca

by Lenz's l
aw
iven


B B A BA cos
Faradays Laws : It states that whenever magnetic flux
linked with a coil changes, an emf is induced in the coil.
d
Induced emf, N B
dt
dB / dt

Induced current, I N
R
R

Induced charge flow , Q I t N B


R
Ro
The polarity of induced emf is such that it
tat
ion
B
tends to produce a current which opposes
pr
of
od
co
uc
il i
the change in magnetic flux that
es
n
mo
has produced it.
tio
n

f ie
ld
)

net
ic

(mag

Magnetic flux

UB
B2

V
2 0

M L1L2

Induced
Electric Field

E dl

MAGNETIC
FLUX AND
FARADAYS LAW

Magnetic
Energy
Energy stored in an inductor
1
U B LI 2
2
Energy stored in the solenoid,
1 2
UB
B Al
20
Magnetic energy density,

field

d
behin

uB

induced electric

produces emf

A wire moving in B

Emf in the wire = Bvl


Bvl
Induced current, I
R
R
I
Force exerted on the wire,

Motional emf
On a straight conducting
wire, = Bvl
On a rotating conducting wire
about one end
Bl 2

2

Here, B, v( rv)and l are
perpendicular to
each other.

A magnetic field can produce an electric field that can


drive a current. This link between a magnetic field and
the electric field is now known as Faraday's law of
induction. The observations by Michael Faraday and other
scientists which led to this law were at first just basic
science. Today, however, applications of this basic science
is everywhere.

Current,
NBA
I
sin t I 0 sin t
R

Inductors in series, LS L1 L2 2 M

Inductors in parallel, LP

L1L2 M 2
L1 L2 2 M

If coils are far away, then M = 0


LL
So, LS L1 L2 and LP 1 2
L1 L2

L R Circuit
Current growth in LR
circuit I I 0 (1 e t / L )

Growth
/decay of

Current decay in LR circuit


I I 0 (e t / L )
L
Here, L Time constant
R

I0
R

Since the collision is elastic, kinetic energy is conserved.


1
1
1
1
...(i)
m1u12 m2u22 m1v12 m2v22
2
2
2
2
Also momentum along X-axis before collision
= momentum after collision along X-axis
m1u1 m2u2 m1v1 cos 1 m2v2 cos 2
...(ii)

Similarly along Y-axis


...(iii)
0 m1v1 sin 1 m2v2 sin 2
Thus from these three equations (i), (ii) and (iii) we can
find the required quantities.
Coeffi cient of Restitution
It is defined as the ratio of relative velocity of separation
after collision to the relative velocity of approach before
collision. It is represented by e.
relative velocity of separation (after collision)
e
relativee velocity of approach (before collision)
v2 v1
e
u1 u2
where u1, u2 are velocities of two bodies before collision,
and v1, v2 are their respective velocities after collision.

For perfectly elastic collision, e = 1.

For perfectly inelastic collision, e = 0.


A ball falls from a height h, it strikes the ground
with a velocity u 2 gh . Let it rebound with a

velocity v and rise to a height h1.


2 gh1
h
v
e
1 or h e h
1
u
h
2 gh

or h1 e 2h.

A ball dropped from a height h and attaining height


hn after n rebounds. Then hn = e2nh.
A ball dropped from height h and travelling a total
distance S before coming to rest.
1 e2
Then S h
2
1 e
A ball dropped from a height h and rebounding.
The time taken by the ball in rising to height h1 and
2h1
2h
coming back is 2
2e
.
g
g
Note that h1 = e2h.
Total time taken by the ball in coming to rest is
t

1 e 2h
.
1 e g
ANSWER KEYS (SELF CHECK)

1.
6.
11.
16.

(d)
(d)
(b)
(c)

2.
7.
12.
17.

(b)
(b)
(a)
(d)

3. (c)
8. (c)
13. (d)

4. (c)
9. (d)
14. (a)

5. (c)
10. (a)
15. (b)

APPLICATION OF NEWTONS LAWS


THE ROLLER COASTER

ir Isaac Newton in 1687, published the Principia. This


book contained his three laws of motion which changed
mechanics forever. These three laws became the foundation
of classical mechanics. Newtons three laws of motion have been
proven over and over again in the last three centuries. These
are the basis of many of our modern inventions. One among
these is a roller coaster. It is a modern invention that uses the
laws of motion to thrilling ends. Roller coasters, with their twists,
turns, and loops seem to defy everything we know about how
people and objects move. Roller coaster designers, however, use
Newtons laws to push people past their usual limits.
Newtons first law is the law of inertia. Most roller coasters run by
the Law of Inertia. Since an object at rest stays at rest, all roller
coasters have to be pushed or pulled to get started. Most are
pulled up a large hill called as lift hill. The first hill is usually the
biggest hill. As the cars go uphill, it store potential energy. At the
top, the cars have the largest amount of gravitational potential
energy. These are about to be put into motion. Roller coaster cars
will gain enough energy from the lift hill to be powered through
the rest of the ride. Once put into motion, they will not stop until
the brakes are applied at the end of the ride.
Newtons second law is the law of force and acceleration. You feel
this second law when you start going down the hills. The coaster
cars and your body have mass. The gravity provides acceleration.

48

PHYSICS FOR YOU | AUGUST 15

That causes force. The rider feels the force as it moves the cars
along the coaster track. The track directs the force and the cars.
The mass of your body and the coaster cars is constant. The
amount of force changes due to changes in acceleration. The
changes in acceleration are mostly due to friction. The thrill of
acceleration on a roller coaster comes from Newtons second
law.
Newtons third law is about action and reaction. As you push
down on the seat, the seat pushes back at you. This law really
comes into play with newer roller coasters that expose riders to
high gravitational force.
Gravitational force relates an acceleration on a body to the
acceleration due to gravity. Your body will experience an
acceleration twice as strong as the pull of gravity. Older roller
coasters did not expose riders to gravitational force. Newer roller
coasters, however, can expose riders to very high gravitational
forces.
Gravitational force like all others forces, is not just acting on the
things we can see. It is also acting on our blood and our blood
vessels. Just as they push your body into the seat, it pushes your
blood back away from your brain and toward your feet. As we
use the laws of physics to create more exciting roller coasters,
it becomes more important to keep in mind the limits of our
human bodies.

1. An aeroplane requires for take off a speed of


80 km h1, the run on the ground being 100 m. The
mass of the aeroplane is 104 kg and the coefficient
of friction between the plane and the ground is 0.2.
Assume that the plane accelerates uniformly during
the take off. What is the maximum force required
by the engine of the plane for take off?
(a) 2.51 104 N
(b) 4.43 104 N
2
(c) 4.42 10 N
(d) 8.22 102 N
2. A particle of mass m is moving in a horizontal
circle of radius r, under a centripetal force equal
k
to , where k is constant. What is the total
r2
energy of the particle?
k
k
(a)
(b)
3r
2r
k
k
(c)
(d)
2r
r
3. A particle is moving with uniform acceleration
along a straight line AB. Its speed at A and B are
2 m s1 and 14 m s1 respectively. Then which one
is incorrect?
(a) Speed of particle at the mid-point of AB is
10 m s1.
(b) Speed of particle at a point P such that
AP : PB = 1:5 is 5 m s1.
(c) The time taken by particle to go from A to the
mid-point of AB is double to go from mid-point
to B.
(d) None of these
4. What is the velocity of ring as shown in the figure
when spring becomes horizontal?
m
3m
37
m = 10 kg
k = 400 N m1
l0 = 4 m

(a) 10 m s1
(c) 30 m s1

(b) 20 m s1
(d) 5 m s1

5. A ball is projected with velocity v0 and at an angle


of projection a. After what time is the ball moving
at right angles to the initial direction?
v
v
(a) 0 sin a
(b) 0 cosec a
g
2g
v
v
(c) 0 cos a
(d) 0 cot a
g
2g
6. Two bars of masses m1 and m2 connected by a nondeformed light spring rest on a horizontal plane.
The coefficient of friction between the bars and the
surface is equal to m. If F is the minimum constant
force that has to be applied in the horizontal
direction to the bar of mass m1 in order to shift the
other bar. Then, the value of F is
m
m

(a) mg m1 + 2
(b) mg m2 + 1

2
2
mg
(c) mg (m1 + m2)
(d)
(m1 + m2 )
2
7. The motion of a particle of mass m is given
by x = 0 for t < 0 s, x(t) = A sin 4pt for
0 < t < (1/4)s (A > 0), and x = 0 for t > (1/4) s. Which
of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) The force at t = (1/8) s on the particle is
16p2Am.
(b) The particle is acted upon by an impulse of
magnitude (4p2 Am) at t = 0 s and t = (1/4) s.
(c) The particle is not acted upon by any force.
(d) The particle is not acted upon by a constant
force.
8. Two particles A and B, of masses m and 2m, are
moving along the X-axis and Y-axis respectively
with the same speed v. They collide, at the origin
and coalesce into one body after the collision. What
is the loss of energy during this collision?
1
4
(a) mv 2
(b) mv 2
3
3
3 2
2 2
(c) mv
(d) mv
2
3
9. In the arrangement shown in figure, the ends P and
Q of an inextensible string move downwards with
uniform speed u. Pulleys A and B are fixed. The
mass M moves upwards with a speed
Physics for you | august 15

49

wedge. What magnitude F must have if the block is


to remain at constant height above the table top?

(a) 2u cosq

(b)

u
cos q

2u
(d) u cosq
cos q
10. What is the maximum compression in the spring,
if the lower block is shifted to rightwards with
acceleration a as shown in the given figure? All the
surfaces are smooth.
(c)

ma
(a)
2k

2ma
(b)
k

ma
(c)
k

4ma
(d)
k

11. A chain is held on a frictionless table with 1/nth of


its length hanging over the edge. If the chain has a
length l and a mass m, how much work is required
to pull the hanging part back on the table?
mgl
mgl
mgl
mgl
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
2
3
3n
2n2
4n
2n
12. A car accelerates from rest at a constant rate a for
some time after which it decelerates at a constant
rate b and comes to rest. If the total time elapsed is
t, the maximum velocity acquired by the car will be
a +b
(a)
t
ab

ab
(b)
t
a + b

a 2 b2
(c)
t
ab

2
2
(d) a + b t
ab
13. A heavy particle hanging from a string of length l
is projected horizontally with speed gl. Find the
speed of the particle at the point where the tension
in the string equals weight of the particle.

gl
gl
(a)
(b)
(c) 2gl (d) 3gl
2
3
14. A wedge with mass M rests on a frictionless
horizontal surface. A block with mass m is placed
on the wedge. There is no friction between the block
and the wedge. A horizontal force F is applied to the
50

Physics for you | august 15

(a) Mg tanq
(c) (M + m)g cosq

(b) (M m)g tanq


(d) (M + m)g tanq

15. In a car race, car A takes time t less than car B and
passes the finishing point with a velocity v more
than the velocity with which car B passes the point.
Assuming that the cars start from rest and travel
with constant accelerations a1 and a2. Which of the
equations is correct?
(a) v = a2t
(b) v = a1t
(c) v = t a1a2

(d) v = 2t a1a2

16. A 0.5 kg particle moves along the x-axis from


x = 5 m to x = 17.2 m under the influence of a force
200
F (x ) =
N. The total work done by this force
2x + x 3
during this displacement will be
(a) 6.72 J (b) 2.54 J (c) 3.51 J (d) 3.00 J
17. A particle is moving in a circle of radius R in such
a way that at any instant the normal and tangential
components of the acceleration are equal. If its
speed at t = 0 is u0, the time taken to complete the
first revolution is
u
R
(a)
(b) 0
u0
R
R
R 2 p
(1 e 2 p )
e
(c)
(d)
u0
u0
18. Suppose the average mass of raindrops is
3.0 105 kg and their average terminal velocity
is 9 m s1. The energy transferred by rain to each
square metre of the surface at a place which receives
100 cm of rain in a year is
(a) 2.05 102 J
(b) 4.05 102 J
4
(c) 9.10 10 J
(d) 4.05 104 J
19. A particle is observed from two frames S1 and S2.
The frame S2 moves with respect to S1 with an
acceleration a. Let F1 and F2 be the pseudo forces on
the particle when seen from S1 and S2 respectively.
Which of the following are not possible?
(a) F1 = 0, F2 0
(b) F1 0, F2 = 0
(c) F1 0, F2 0
(d) F1 = 0, F2 = 0

20. The speed of a motor launch with respect to


still water is 7 m s1 and the speed of stream is
3 m s1. When the launch began travelling upstream,
a float was dropped from it. The launch travelled
4.2 km upstream, turned about and caught up with
the float. How long is it before the launch reaches
the float?
(a) 35 min(b) 36 min (c) 34 min (d) 33 min
21. A particle is tied to an ideal string and whirled in a
vertical circle of radius L, where L is the length of
the string. If the ratio of the maximum to minimum
tension in the string throughout the motion is 2 : 1,
then the maximum possible speed of the particle will be
(a) 11 gL (b) 5 gL (c) 10 gL (d) 3 gL
22. In the arrangement, shown in figure,
pulleys are massless and frictionless
and threads are in-extensible, block
of mass m1 will remain at rest if
4
1
1
(a)
=
+
m1 m2 m3
(b) m1 = m2 = m3
(c)

1
1
1
=
+
m1 m2 m3

(d)

A
B
m1

m2 m3

1
2
3
=
+
m3 m2 m1

23. In shown figure,


l
the trolley starts
m
accelerating with
acceleration a. The
maximum
angle
deflected by thread from vertical will be
a
2a
(a) tan 1
(b) tan 1
g
g

U(x)

(a)

U(x)
x

(b)
U(x)

U(x)

(c)

(d)


26. A force F = v A is exerted on a particle in addition

to the force of gravity, where v is the velocity of the

particle and A is a constant vector in the horizontal


direction. The minimum speed of projection for a
particle of mass m so that it continues to move with
a constant velocity is given by
mg
mg
mg
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) mg
A
2A
3A
27. If the potential energy of two molecules is given
A B
by U =
, then at equilibrium position, its
r 6 r 12
potential energy is equal to
B2
A2
B2
2B
(b)
(c)
(d)
4A
4B
4A
A
28. A particle P is sliding down a frictionless
hemispherical bowl. It passes the point A at t = 0. At
this instant of time, the horizontal component of its
velocity is v. A bead Q of the same mass as P is
ejected from A at t = 0 along the horizontal string
AB with speed v. Friction
Q
B
between the bead and A
the string may be
P
neglected. Let tP and tQ
be the respective times
C
taken by P and Q to reach
the point B. Then
(a) tP < tQ
(b) tP = tQ
(c) tP > tQ
Length of arc ACB
t
(d) P =
t Q Length of chord AB
(a)

a
a
(c) 2 tan 1
(d) tan 1
g

2g
24. A cyclist is riding with a speed of 27 km h1. As
he approaches a circular turn on the road of radius
80 m, he applies brakes and reduces his speed at the
constant rate 0.5 m s2. What is the magnitude of the
net acceleration of the cyclist on the circular turn?
(a) 0.74 m s2
(b) 0.86 m s2
2
(c) 0.50 m s
(d) 0.25 m s2
25. A particle, which is constrained to move along the
x-axis, is subjected to a force in the same direction
which varies with the distance x of the particle from
the origin as F(x) = kx + ax3. Here k and a are
positive constants. For x 0, the functional form of
the potential energy U(x) of the particle is

29. A string of negligible mass going over


a clamped pulley of mass m supports
a block of mass M as shown in the
figure. What is the force exerted on
the pulley by the clamp?
(a) 0 mg
(b) 2 Mg

m
M

2
2
2
2
(c) g M + (m + M ) (d) g m + (M + m)
Physics for you | august 15

51

30. A block is projected with an initial velocity vBlock


on a long conveyor belt moving with velocity vBelt
(at that instant) having constant acceleration aBelt.
Mark the correct option regarding friction after
long time (friction coefficient between block and
belt = m). If
P.
Q.
R.
S.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Column-I
v Block = 2v Belt
and aBelt = 0
v Block = 2v Belt
and aBelt > mg
v Block = 2v Belt
and abelt = mg
v Block = 2v Belt
and aBelt < mg

(i)

Column-II
zero

f s static friction
(0 < fs < f l)
(iii) f l limiting friction
(ii)

(iv) f k kinetic friction

P-(i), Q-(ii), R-(iii), S-(iv)


P-(i), Q-(iv), R-(iii), S-(ii)
P-(iv), Q-(i), R-(iii), S-(ii)
P-(ii), Q-(iv), R-(iii), S-(i)

1. (b) : Here u = 0, s = 100 m,


5 200
m s 1
v = 80 km h1 = 80 =
18
9
2
2
As v u = 2as
2

200

0 = 2a 100
9
40000 200
=
m s 2
or a =
81 200 81
Force required to produce acceleration a,
200
F1 = ma = 10 4
= 2.47 10 4 N
81
Force required to overcome friction,
F2 = mR = mmg = 0.2 104 9.8 = 1.96 104 N
Maximum force required by the engine for take off,
F = F1 + F2 = 2.47 104 + 1.96 104 = 4.43 104 N.
2. (c) : As the particle is moving in horizontal circle, so
Centripetal force, F =

mv 2 k
=
r
r2

k
k
U = Fdr = dr = k r 2 dr =
r2
r
52

Physics for you | august 15

k k
k
= .
2r r
2r
d

A
2 m s1

B
14 m s1

142 = 22 + 2 a d
At mid-point, let velocity is v
d
2

v2 = 22 + 2 a

...(i)
14 2 22
2
[Using eqn. (i)]

v2 = 4 +

192
= 100 ; v = 10 m s1
2
AP 1
d
If
= then AP =
PB 5
6
Let velocity at P is v1
v2 = 4 +

d
14 2 22
=4+
= 36
6
6

v1 = 6 m s1
Let time taken to reach mid-point from A is t1, and
t2 be time taken to reach B from mid-point.
6 = 2 + at1 ; t1 = 4/a
14 = 6 + at2 ; t2 = 8/a
t1 4 1
= = t 2 = 2t1
t2 8 2

4. (a) : m = 10 kg, k = 400 N m1


Natural length of spring
=4m
5m
Decrease in PE = Increase
in KE
37
C

A
3m=h

4m

1
1
k (Dl )2 + mgh = mv 2
2
2
1
1
400 12 + 10 10 3 = 10 v 2
2
2
2
200 + 300 = 5v 5v2 = 500
\

k
r
1
k
\ K.E. of the particle, K = mv 2 =
2
2r
dU
As F =
dr
\ Potential energy,
This gives mv 2 =

3. (b) :

v12 = 22 + 2 a

SolutionS

Total energy = K + U =

v = 100 = 10 m s 1

5. (b) : If initial velocity v0 and velocity at time t are


perpendicular, then the final velocity will be at
angle a with the vertical as shown in the figure.

v0

90

Horizontal component of velocity is unchanged


throughout the motion.
Therefore v0 cos a = v sin a
or v = v0 cot a
Vertical component of velocity after time t = v cos a
From the equation vy = v0 sin a gt
v cos a = v0 sin a gt
v 0 sin a + v cos a
or t =
g
v sin a + v 0 cot a cos a
= 0
g
2
v sin a + cos 2 a v 0
= 0
=
cosec a
g
sin a
g

6. (a) :
m
m
2

For mass m2 to move, kx = mm2g


...(i)
Using work energy theorem on m1,
1
Fx mm1gx kx2 = 0
2
1
or, F = mm1 g + kx
2
mm2 g
F = mm1 g +
2
m

= mg m1 + 2
[using eqn. (i)]

2
7. (c) : At t = (1/8) s, as x = A sin 4pt,
dx
v=
= A (cos 4 pt ) 4 p
dt
dv
= 4 pA ( sin 4 pt )(4 p) = 16 p2 A
and a =
dt
Thus, F = ma = (16p2Am)
1

Impulse, I = FDt = (16p2Am) s 0 s = 4p2Am

4
| I | = 4p2Am
For t > (1/4) s, x = 0, v = 0, a = 0, F = 0.
Hence option (c) is incorrect.
8. (c) :

A v
m
B 2m

5
5v 2
, hence V = v
9
3
Total kinetic energy before collision, i.e.
V2 =

or

1
1
3mv 2
K i = mv 2 + (2m)v 2 =
2
2
2
Total kinetic energy after collision, i.e.
1
5
35
K f = (3m)V 2 = mv 2 = mv 2
29
2
6
Loss of kinetic energy during the collision
2
3 5
= K i K f = mv 2 = mv 2
2 6
3
2
2
2
9. (b) : l = x + b
v
dl
dx
db
2l = 2 x + 2b
dt
dt
dt
dx
2l (u) = 2 x + 0
dt
u
dx l
= u=
u
dt x
cos q
10. (b) : Pseudo force on mass m = ma
Spring force developed = kx
where x = compression in spring
Using Newtons second law of motion,
mv

dv
= (ma kx )
dx

0 mv dv = 0
0 = max

b
l

v
m

ma

FBD of mass m

kx

(ma kx ) dx
(Q x = maximum compression)

kx
2

x =

2ma
k

m
l
Let length of the hanging part of the chain = y
m
Mass of the hanging part of the chain = . y
l
Force required to be applied = Weight of the
hanging part
mg
m
or F = y g =
.y
l
l

11. (d) : Mass per unit length of the chain =

3m

Using law of conservation of linear momentum,


For the X-components :
mv = 3mV cosa
...(i)
For the Y-components :
2mv = 3mV sina
...(ii)
From eqns. (i) and (ii),
2
2
v 2v
V 2 cos 2 a + V 2 sin 2 a = +
3 3

Let V be the velocity of the combined mass and


let its direction make an angle a with the positive
X-axis after the collision.

Physics for you | august 15

53

The work done in pulling the chain through a small


distance dy is
mg
dW =
. y dy
l
Here negative sign indicates that the weight and
displacement are oppositely directed. Total work
done in pulling the 1/nth length of the chain is
W = dW =
mg
=
l

mg
l
0

y =0

ydy

l
y=
n

y2
mg
l 2 mgl
=
0 2 = 2 .
2l n 2n
2 l /n

2
\ mv = mg mg cos q

1 2 mgl
or, 2 mv = 2 (1 cos q)
1 2 mgl
mv =
(1 cos q)
...(iii)
2
2

l cos

12. (b) : For accelerated motion for time t 1 , from


v = v0 + at1, we get
v = 0 + at1
(as v0 = 0)
v
or, t1 =
a
For the retarded motion for time t2, from
v = v0 + at2, we get
v
0 = v bt2 or t 2 =
(as v0 = v, v = 0)
b
a +b
v v
Total time, t = t1 + t2 = + = v
ab
a b
ab
t
or v =
a + b
13. (a) : Speed at bottom = gl < 2 gl
Using energy conservation principle,
1
1
mgl (1 cos q) = mgl mv 2
...(i)
2
2
mv 2
Also T mg cos q =
...(ii)
l
According to question,
h = l(1 cos)
T = mg

T
h

v 0 ( gl )

From eqn. (i),

mg

1
1
mgl(1 cos q) = mgl mgl(1 cos q)
2
2
1
2
1 cos q = cos q =
3
3
From eqn. (iii),
gl
v=
3

54

Physics for you | august 15

mg cos

14. (d) : This problem can be solved very easily if we


analyse the block in the reference frame of wedge
instead of analysing it in ground reference frame.
Reference frame of wedge is non-inertial, therefore
we must apply a pseudo force on block m.
System

N
Y

mA cos
Pseudo force

mA

is n
A
A

m
os
c
g
m
mg

m
gs

in

According to condition of problem the block m


remains at constant height h, i.e., it does not slip
downwards along the incline. For an observer on
the wedge the block will be stationary.
SFx = mg sin q mA cos q = 0
...(i)
SFy = N mA sin q mg cos q = 0
...(ii)
From eqn. (i), A = g tan q
From eqn. (ii), we get
N = mg/cos q
If the block is kept on a scale its reading will be
N = mg/cos q. We have to consider block and wedge
as a single body (because block does not slip).
Therefore F = (M + m)A
= (M + m) g tan q
15. (c) : Let s be the distance covered by each car. Let
the times taken by the two cars to complete the
journey be t1 and t2, and their velocities at the
finishing point be v1 and v2 respectively. According
to the problem,
v1 v2 = v and t2 t1 = t
0+v
v
When u = 0, s =
t = .t
2
2
v t
v t
\ s= 1 1 = 2 2
2
2
1 2 1
Also s = a1t1 = a2 t 22
2
2
Hence
2s 2s

2s(t 2 t1 )
v v1 v 2 t1 t 2
2s
=
=
=
=
t t 2 t1
t 2 t1 t1 t 2 (t 2 t1 ) t 1 t 2
=

4s 2
t12 t 22

v = t a1 a2 .

2s 2s
. = a1 a2
t12 t 22

16. (c) :
W=

xf

17.2

xi

F dx =

200
2x + x 3

dx =

17.2

19. (d)

200
x (x 2 + 2)

dx

Put t = x2 + 2, dt = 2 xdx. Then


dt
200
W=

2 (t 2) t
1
1
= 100
dt
2(t 2) 2t
t 2

= 50 log e (t 2) log e t = 50 log e


t

17.2

x2
= 50 2.303 log

x 2 + 2 5

= 50 2.303 log

295.84 27

297.84 25

= 50 2.303 log 1.07275


= 50 2.303 0.0305 = 3.51 J.
17. (c) : Given,
tangential acceleration = centripetal acceleration
dv v 2
=
dt R
v

v2

u0

dv

...(i)
t

=
0

1 1
R =t
u0 v

...(ii)

u0

dv
=
v

2 pR

ds
v = u0e 2 p
R

R
From (ii) and (iii), t = (1 e 2 p )
u0

T = mg +

mv 2
L

12mg = mg +

mv 2
L

v = 11 gL

22. (a) : FBD of masses m1, m2 and m3


T

dv ds v 2
dv v 2
. =
v =
ds R
ds dt R

21. (a) : We know Tmax Tmin = 6mg


and Tmax = 2Tmin(given)
\ Tmin = 6mg, Tmax = 12 mg
Since tension is maximum at lowest points

1
dt
R

Again from eqn. (i)


Q

20. (a) : For upstream motion of launch :


Relative velocity = 7 3 = 4 m s1
Distance moved = 4.2 km = 4200 m
4200
Time taken, t1 =
= 1050 s
4
For downstream motion of launch:
Distance moved downstream by float in 1050 s
= 3 1050 = 3150 m
Distance between float and launch turned about
= 4200 + 3150 = 7350 m
This distance is to be covered by launch with its
own velocity (7 m s1) because stream velocity is
being shared by both.
7350
\ Time taken, t 2 =
= 1050 s
7
Total time taken, t = t1 + t2 = 1050 + 1050
= 2100 s = 35 min

...(iii)

18. (d) : Here; m = 3 105 kg, v = 9 m s1,


Rain received in a year, h = 100 cm = 1 m, A = 1 m2
Volume of the rain falling,
V = Ah = (1 m2) (1m) = 1m3
Mass of rain,
M = Vr = (1 m3) (103 kg m3) = 103 kg
Energy transferred by the rain,
1
1
E = Mv 2 = (103 kg )(9 m s 1 )2
2
2
= 40.5 103 J = 4.05 104 J

m1

m2

m1g

m2g

T
m3

m3g

T = m1g
m2g T = m2a
2
T
m3 g = m3a
2
From eqns. (i) and (ii)
(m m3 ) g
a= 2
m2 + m3
Putting value of a in eqn. (i),
m m2
T = 2m2 1 + 3
g
m2 + m3
Physics for you | august 15

...(i)
...(ii)

55

2m2 2m3
g
m2 + m3
4
1
1
=
+
m1 m2 m3

23. (c) : By work energy theorem from trolley,


maL sin q = mgL(1 cosq)
or, a sin q = 2gsin2q/2
q a
tan =

2 g
ma
a
mg
q = 2 tan 1
g
24. (b) : Here r = 80 m
27 5
v = 27 km h 1 =
m s 1 = 7.5 m s 1 ,
18
Centripetal acceleration,
ac =

v 2 (7.5)2
=
= 0.7 m s 2
r
80

Suppose the cyclist


v
applies
brakes
at
the point A of the
ac
A
O
circular turn, then,
a
at

tangential acceleration
aT (negative) will act
opposite to velocity.
Given at = 0.5 m s2
As the accelerations ac and at are perpendicular to
each other, so the net acceleration of the cyclist is
a=

ac2

+ at2

= (0.7) + (0.5)

U (x ) = (kx + ax 3 ) dx
0

or

U (x ) =

kx 2 ax 4 x 2
ax 2

=
k

2
4
2
2

2k
a
2k
For x >
, U(x) will be negative.
a
Clearly, U(x) = 0 at x = 0 and x =

56

28. (a) : As the particle P moves from A to C, its


horizontal velocity increases from v. Again the
horizontal velocity decreases to v as P moves from
C to B. But the horizontal velocity of P remains
greater than or equal to v. But the horizontal velocity
of bead Q remains constant equal to v. For same
horizontal displacement AB, P takes smaller time
than Q i.e.,
tP < tQ.
29. (c) : The free body diagram for the pulley is shown
in figure.
Fy

= 0.49 + 0.25 = 0.74 = 0.86 m s 2


If q is the angle between the total acceleration and
the velocity of the cyclist, then,
a
0. 7
tan q = c =
= 1.4 or q = 5428 .
at 0.5
dU
25. (d) : F =
dx
or dU = F dx
\

dU
=0
dx
i.e., slope of U-x graph is zero at x = 0.
Hence, the most appropriate option is (d).

26. (b) : For moving with constant velocity Fnet = 0

F + mg = 0

A is in x-direction

\ For net force to be zero, F should be in +ve


y-direction.

Now | v A | = mg
mg
vA sinq = mg or v =
A sin q
For minimum v, sin q should be maximum
mg
\ v min =
A
27. (a)
At x = 0, F =

m1 g =

Physics for you | august 15

Mg

Fx
mg

Mg

For the equilibrium of the pulley,


Fx = Horizontal component of the force
by the clamp on the pulley = Mg
Fy = Vertical component of the force
by the clamp on the pulley = (M + m) g
The net force exerted on the pulley by the clamp,
F = Fx2 + Fy2 = g (m + M )2 + M 2 .
30. (b) : Maximum acceleration due to friction is mg.
So a > mg f k
a < mg fs
a = mg f l
a=0f=0
nn

1.

AMU

An oil drop of n excess electrons is held stationary


under a constant electric field E in Millikan's oil
drop experiment. The density of oil is r. The radius
of the drop is
1/2

1/2

3nrg
(b)

2 peE

1/3

3nrg
(d)

4 peE

(a) 3neE
2 prg

2.

The potential at a point x (measured in mm) due to


some charges situated on the x-axis is given by
V(x) = 20/(x2 4) volt
The electric field E at x = 4 mm is given by
(a) (10/9) volt/mm and in the +ve x direction
(b) (5/3) volt/mm and in the ve x direction
(c) (5/3) volt/mm and in the +ve x direction
(d) (20/9) volt/mm and in the ve x direction

3.

In the following circuit, if potential difference


between A and B is VAB = 4 V, then the value of X
will be
10

6.

B
2V

7.

8.

5V

(a) 5 W

total resistance is P. If S = nP, then the minimum


possible value of n is
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1

1/3

(c) 3nEe
4 prg

(b) 10 W (c) 15 W

(d) 20 W

4.

A wire when connected to 220 V mains supply has


power dissipation P1. Now the wire is cut into two
equal pieces which are connected in parallel to the
same supply. Power dissipation in this case is P2.
Then P2 : P1 is
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 2
(d) 3

5.

The resistance of the series combination of two


resistors is S. When they are joined in parallel the

ENGG.

9.

A triangular loop of side l carries a current i. It is


placed in a magnetic field B such that the plane of
the loop is in the direction of B. The torque on the
loop is
(a) iBl
(b) i2Bl
3 2
(c)
(d) infinity
Bil
4
A long wire carries a steady current. It is bent into
a circle of one turn and the magnetic field at the
centre of the coil is B. It is then bent into a circular
loop of n turns. The magnetic field at the centre of
the coil will be
(a) nB
(b) n2B (c) 2nB
(d) 2n2B
A magnetic needle lying parallel to a magnetic field
requires W units of work to turn it through 60.
The torque needed to maintain the needle in this
position will be
(a) 3W
(b) W
3
(c)
(d) 2W
W
2
The self inductance of the motor of an electric fan
is 10 H. In order to impart maximum power at
50 Hz, it should be connected to a capacitance of
(a) 1 mF (b) 2 mF (c) 4 mF
(d) 8 mF

10. An alternating current is given by


i = i1 coswt + i2 sinwt.
The rms current is given by
i +i
|i + i |
(a) 1 2
(b) 1 2
2
2
(c)

i12 + i22
2

(d)

i12 + i22
2

physics for you | AUGUST 15

57

11. If the wavelengths of light used in an optical


instrument are l1 = 4000 and l2 = 5000 ,
then ratio of their respective resolving powers
(corresponding to l1 and l2) is
(a) 16 : 25
(b) 9 : 1
(c) 4 : 5
(d) 5 : 4
12. Refractive index of glass is 1.520 for red light
and 1.525 for blue light. Let D1 and D2 be angles
of minimum deviation for red and blue light
respectively in a prism of this glass. Then
(a) D1 > D2
(b) D1 < D2
(c) D1 = D2
(d) D1 can be less than or greater than depending
upon angle of prism
13. The maximum number of possible interference
maxima for slit separation equal to twice the
wavelength in Young's double slit experiment is
(a) infinite
(b) five
(c) three
(d) zero
14. The work function of a substance is 4.0 eV.
The longest wavelength of light that can cause
photoelectron emission from this substance is
approximately
(a) 540 nm
(b) 400 nm
(c) 310 nm
(d) 220 nm
15. A proton when accelerated through a potential
difference of V volts has a wavelength l associated
with it. An a particle in order to have the same
wavelength l, must be accelerated through a
potential difference (in volts)
V
V
(d)
8
4
16. Frequency of the series limit of Balmer series of
hydrogen atom in terms of Rydberg constant R and
speed of light c is
Rc
4
(a) Rc
(b) 4Rc (c)
(d)
4
Rc
(a) 2V

(b) V

(c)

17. In the following nuclear reaction, how many a and


b particles are emitted?
82 Pb206
(a) 8a, 6b
(c) 8a, 8b
92 U

238

(b) 6a, 10b


(d) 12a, 6b

18. The circuit shown in figure contains two diodes,


each with a forward resistance of 50 W and with
infinite reverse resistance. If the battery voltage is
6 V, the current through 100 W resistance is
58

physics for you | AUGUST 15

150
50

6V

(a) zero

100

(b) 0.02 A (c) 0.03 A (d) 0.036 A

19. Which of the following statements is not true for


zener diode?
(a) It is used as a voltage regulator.
(b) It is fabricated by heavily doping both p and
n sides of the junctions.
(c) It depletion region is very thin.
(d) The electric field of the junction is very low.
20. For an amplitude modulated wave the maximum
amplitude is found to be 10 V while the minimum
amplitude is found to be 2 V, the modulation index
is
3
2
(a) 5
(b) 0.2
(c)
(d)
2
3
21. The dimension of magnetic field in M, L, T and C
(coulomb) is given as
(a) MLT1C1
(b) MT2C1
2
2
(c) MT C
(d) MT1C1
22. A particle located at x = 0 at time t = 0, starts moving
along the positive x-direction with a velocity v
that varies as v = a x where a is dimensionless
constant. The displacement of the particle varies
with time as
(a) t3
(b) t2
(c) t
(d) t1/2
23. From a building two balls A and B are thrown such
that A is thrown upwards and B downwards with
the same speed (both vertically). If vA and vB are their
respective velocities on reaching the ground then,
(a) vB > vA
(b) vA = vB
(c) vA > vB
(d) their velocities depend on their masses
24. A shell fired from a gun at sea level rises to a
maximum height of 5 km when fired at a ship
20 km away. The muzzle velocity should be
(a) 7 m/s (b) 14 m/s (c) 28 m/s (d) 56 m/s
25. Two racing cars of masses m1 and m2 are moving in
circles of radii r1 and r2 respectively. Their speeds
are such that each makes a complete circle in the
same time t. The ratio of the angular speeds of the
first to the second car is
(a) r1 : r2
(b) m1 : m2
(c) 1 : 1
(d) m1m2 : r1r2

26. A block of mass M is pulled along a horizontal


frictionless surface by a rope of mass m. If a force
P is applied at the free end of the rope, the force
exerted by the rope on the block is
Pm
Pm
(a)
(b)
(M m)
(M + m)
PM
(M + m)
27. A man fires a bullet of mass 200 g at a speed of
5 m/s. The gun is of one kg mass. By what velocity
the gun rebounds backward?
(a) 1 m/s
(b) 0.01 m/s
(c) 0.1 m/s
(d) 10 m/s
(c) P

(d)

28. A man weighs 80 kg. He stands on a weighing scale


in a lift which is moving upwards with a uniform
acceleration of 5 m/s2. What would be the reading
on the scale? (g = 10 m/s2)
(a) zero
(b) 400 N (c) 800 N (d) 1200 N
29. A wire of length 100 cm is connected to a cell of
emf 2 V and negligible internal resistance. The
resistance of the wire is 3 W, the additional resistance
required to produce a potential difference of
1 mV/cm on the wire is
(a) 297 W (b) 60 W (c) 57 W
(d) 35 W
30. The only force acting on a 2.0 kg body as it moves
along a positive x-axis has an x-component
Fx = 6x with x in meters. The velocity at x = 3.0 m
is 8.0 m/s. The velocity of the body at x = 4.0 m is
(a) 6.6 m/s
(b) 46.6 m/s
(c) 60 m/s
(d) 96.6 m/s
31. A quarter horse power motor runs at a speed of
600 rpm. Assuming 40% efficiency, the work done
by the motor in one rotation will be
(a) 7.46 J (b) 74.6 J (c) 7400 J (d) 7.46 erg
32. A rocket is launched vertically upward from
the surface of the earth with an initial velocity
of 10 km/s. If the radius of the earth is 6400 km
and atmospheric resistance is negligible, find the
distance above the surface of the earth that the
rocket will go.
(a) 2.5 104 km
(b) 3.0 104 km
3
(c) 4.0 10 km
(d) 3.0 103 km
33. Consider a two particle system with particles
having masses m1 and m2. If the first particle is
pushed towards the centre of mass through a
distance d, by what distance should the second
particle be moved, so as to keep the centre of mass
at the same position.

m2
d
m1
m1
d
(d)
m2

(a) d
(c)

(b)

m1
d
m1 + m2

34. A body of mass M while falling vertically


downwards under gravity breaks into two parts ; a
1
2
body B of mass M and body C of mass M. The
3
3
centre of mass of bodies B and C taken together
shifts compared to that of body A towards
(a) body C
(b) body B
(c) does not shift
(d) depends on height of breaking
35. A metre stick is balanced on a knife edge at its
centre. When two coins, each of mass 5 g are put
one on top of the other at the 12.0 cm mark, the
stick is found to be balanced at 45.0 cm. The mass
of the metre stick is
(a) 13 g
(b) 33 g (c) 66 g
(d) 77 g
36. A particle performing uniform circular motion has
angular momentum L. If its angular frequency is
doubled and its kinetic energy halved, then new
angular momentum is
L
L
(b) 2L
(c) 4L
(d)
4
2
37. Suppose the gravitational force varies inversely as
the nth power of distance. Then the time period of
a planet in circular orbit of radius R around the sun
will be proportional to
(a)

(a) R
(c)

n + 1
2

(b) R

Rn

(d) R

n 1
2

n 2
2

38. A geo-stationary satellite is in an orbit of radius


36000 km. Approximately what would be the time
period of a spy satellite orbiting a few hundred
kilometers above the surface of the earth?
(Earth radius = 6400 km)
(a) One hour
(b) Two hour
(c) Four hour
(d) Eight hour
39. If S is the stress and Y is the Young's modulus of
material of a wire, the energy stored in the wire per
unit volume is
(a)

2Y
S

(b)

S
2Y

(c) 2S2Y

(d)

physics for you | AUGUST 15

S2
2Y

59

40. Two identical cylindrical vessels with their bases


at the same level, each contains a liquid of density
1.3 103 kg/m3. The area of each base is 4.00 cm2,
but in one vessel, the liquid height is 0.854 m and
in the other it is 1.560 m. Find the work done by
the gravitational force in equalizing the levels when
the two vessels are connected.
(a) 0.0635 J
(b) 0.635 J
(c) 6.35 J
(d) 63.5 J
41. A wire extends by 1 mm when a force is applied.
Double the force is applied to another wire of the
same material and length but half the radius of
cross-section. The elongation of the wire in mm
will be
(a) 8
(b) 4
(c) 2
(d) 1
u
42. The energy density
of an ideal gas is related to
V
its pressure P as
u
u 3
= 3P
= P
(a)
(b)
V
V 2
u 2
u 1
= P
= P
(c)
(d)
V 3
V 3
43. One kg of a diatomic gas is at a pressure of
8 104 N/m2. The density of the gas is 4 kg/m3.
What is the energy of the gas due to its thermal
motion?
(a) 3 104 J
(b) 5 104 J
4
(c) 6 10 J
(d) 7 104 J
44. A refrigerator is to maintain eatables at 9C. If
room temperature is 36C, then the coefficient of
performance is
(a) 8.6
(b) 10.4 (c) 11.2
(d) 12.5
45. According to Newton's law of cooling, the rate of
cooling of a body is proportional to (Dq)n, where
Dq is the difference of the temperature of the body
and surroundings, and n is equal to
(a) four
(b) three (c) two
(d) one
46. Two spheres of the same material have radii
1 m and 4 m and temperatures 4000 K and
2000 K respectively. The ratio of energy radiated
per second by the first sphere to the second is
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 16 : 1 (c) 4 : 1
(d) 1 : 9
47. A whistle producing sound waves of frequency
9500 Hz and above is approaching a stationary
person with speed v m/s. The velocity of sound in
air is 300 m/s. If the person can hear frequencies
upto a maximum of 10000 Hz, the maximum value
of v upto which he can hear the whistle is
60

physics for you | AUGUST 15

(a) 30 m/s
(b) 15 2 m/s
15
m/s
(c)
(d) 15 m/s
2
48. The displacement of an object attached to a spring
and executing simple harmonic motion is given by
x = 2 102 cos pt metre. The time at which the
maximum speed first occurs is
(a) 0.25 s
(b) 0.50 s
(c) 0.75 s
(d) 0.125 s
49. Two concentric spherical shells of radii r1 and r2
have similar charges and equal surface charge
densities (s). What is the potential at the common
centre?
s
s
(r r )
(r1 + r2 )
(a)
(b)
0 1 2
0
(c)

s r12
0 r2

(d)

s
0

r22
r1

A
50. The electric field in a region is given by E = i .
x3
An expression for the potential in the region,
assuming the potential at infinity to be zero, is
A
2x 2
(a)
(b)
2x 3
A
(c)

A2
2x

(d)

A
2x 2

solutions
1. (c) : Let r be radius of the drop. Then the mass of
the drop is
4
m = volume density = pr 3r
3
Since the drop has n excess electrons, therefore
it is negatively charged and the charge on the
drop is
q = ne
As the drop is held stationary under the constant
electric field E,
\ weight of the drop = force on the drop due
to electric field
mg = qE
4 3
+ + + + + +
pr rg = neE
qE
3
3 3neE

r =
E
4prg
mg
1/3

3neE
r=

4prg

2. (a) : The electric field E and potential V at a point


on the x-axis are related as
dV
E=
dx
20
Here, V (x) = 2
volt = 20(x 2 4)1 volt
(x 4)
d 2
d
1
20 (x 2 4)1 = 20 (x 4)
dx
dx
40x
= 20(1)(x2 4)2 (2x) = 2
(x 4)2
At x = 4 mm
40(4)
160 10
E=
=
=
volt/mm
2
2 144
9
( 4 4)
\ E=

Thus the electric field E at x = 4 mm is (10/9) volt/mm


and in the +ve x direction.
3. (d)
4. (b) : Let R be resistance of the wire.
When it is connected to 220 V mains supply, then
power dissipation is

(220 V)2
V2
...(i)
P1 =
P =

R
R

When the wire is cut into two equal pieces, the


resistance of each piece becomes R/2.
Now they are connected in parallel, their equivalent
resistance is
RR
R
2 2
=
Req =
R R
4
+
2 2
As this parallel combination is connected to the
same supply, so power dissipation is
P2 =

(220 V)2
Req

(220 V)2
(R/4)

...(ii)

Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i), we get


(220 V)2
P2
(R/4)
=
=4
P1 (220 V)2
R

5. (a) : Let R1 and R2 be the two given resistances.


Then
RR
S = R1 + R2 and P = 1 2
R1 + R2
But S = nP (given)
RR
\ R1 + R2 = n 1 2
R1 + R2

(R1 + R2)2 = nR1R2


R12 + R22 + 2R1R2 = nR1R2
(R1 R2)2 + 4R1R2 = nR1R2
(R1 R2)2 = R1R2(n 4)
For n to be minimum, R1 = R2,
\ n 4 = 0 or n = 4
6. (c) : Area of the loop is
1
A = base height
2
1
= l l sin 60
2

i
60

i
i

1
3
3 2
...(i)
= ll
=
l
2
2
4
As the loop carries current i and placed in a
magnetic field B such that plane of the loop is in
the direction of B i.e. q = 90, so the torque on
the loop is
t = iABsin90 = iAB = i
=

3 2
l B
4

(using (i))

3 2
Bil
4

7. (b) : Let l be the length of the wire carrying steady


current I.
When it is bent into the circle of one turn of
radius r, then
l
...(i)
2pr = l or r =
2p
\ The magnetic field at the centre of the coil is
m I
m0 I
m Ip
(using (i)) ...(ii)
B= 0 =
= 0
l
l
2r
2
2p
When the same wire is bent into the circular loop
of n turns of radius r, then
l
...(iii)
n(2pr ) = l or r =
2pn
Now the magnetic field at the centre of the coil
is
m nI
m0nI
n2m0 I p
B = 0 =
=
(using (iii))
l
l
2r
2

2pn
= n2 B
(using (ii))
8. (a) : The work done to turn the magnetic needle of
magnetic moment M lying parallel to a magnetic
field B through an angle q is
W = MB(1 cosq)
physics for you | AUGUST 15

61

Here, q = 60

1 MB
\ W = MB (1 cos 60) = MB 1 =
2
2
or MB = 2W
...(i)
The torque needed to maintain the needle in this
position is
t = MB sin q = MB sin 60
=

3
3
MB =
(2W ) = 3W
2
2

(using (i))

9. (a) : Maximum power is imparted at resonance


frequency.
1
As resonance frequency ur =
2p LC
1
\ C= 2 2
4p ur L
Here,
ur = 50 Hz, L = 10 H
1
\ C=
2
4 p (50 Hz)2 (10 H)
1
= 5 2 F = 106 F = 1 mF
10 p
10. (d) : The alternating current is
i = i1coswt + i2sinwt
The rms current is
T 2

0 i dt
T
0 dt

irms =

1 T
(i cos wt + i2 sin wt )2 dt
T 0 1

1 T 2
(i cos2 wt + i22 sin2 wt
= T 0 1
+ 2i1i2 cos wt sin wt )dt
i12 T
i22 T 2
2
+
cos
w
sin wt dt
t
dt

T 0
= T 0
2i i T
+ 1 2 cos wt sin wt dt
T 0
T

T
wt dt = ,
2

0 cos

and

0 cos wt sin wt = 0

\ irms =
=
62

But

0 sin

wt dt =

T
2

i12 T i22 T 2i1i2


(0)
+ +
T 2 T 2
T
i12 + i22
i2 + i2
i12 i22
+
= 1 2 =
2 2
2
2

physics for you | AUGUST 15

1
wavelength (l)
5000 5
=
=
4000 4

11. (d) : As resolving power (RP)


\

RP for l1 l2
=
RP for l2 l1

12. (b) : The angle of minimum deviation is


D = (m 1)A
where m is the refractive index of the material of
prism and A is the angle of the prism.
If mr and mb be refractive indices of glass for red
and blue light respectively, then
D1 = (mr 1)A and D2 = (mb 1)A
D1 (mr 1)
\
=
D2 (mb 1)
As mr = 1.520 and mb = 1.525 (given)
D1 (1.520 1) 0.520
\
=
=
<1
D2 (1.525 1) 0.525
or D1 < D2
13. (b) : The condition for possible interference maxima
on the screen is
dsinq = nl
where d is slit separation and l is the wavelength.
As d = 2l (given)
\ 2lsinq = nl or 2sinq = n
For number of interference maxima to be
maximum,
sinq = 1 \ n = 2
The interference maxima will be formed when
n = 0, 1, 2
Hence the maximum number of possible maxima
is 5.
14. (c) : If l0 is the longest wavelength of light that
can cause photoelectric emission, then
Work function, f0 =

hc
hc
or l0 =
l0
f0

Here, f0 = 4.0 eV, hc = 1240 eV nm


\

l0 =

1240 eV nm
= 310 nm
4.0 eV

15. (d) : According to de Broglie equation, the


wavelength l associated with the proton accelerated
through the potential difference of V volts is
l=

h
2m pq pV

...(i)

where h is the Planck's constant, mp is the mass


of the proton and qp is its charge.

In order to have the same wavelength l, let a


particle be accelerated through the potential
difference V. Then
h
l=
...(ii)
2maqaV

In the given circuit, the upper diode D1 is forward


biased and the lower diode D2 is reverse biased.
Therefore, the resistance of D1 is 50 W and that of
D2 is infinite. No current flows through D2. The
equivalent circuit is shown in the figure.
D1
50

Equating eqns. (i) and (ii), we get


h
h
=
2m pq pV
2maqaV
or

2maqaV = 2m pq pV

Squaring both sides, we get


2ma qaV = 2mpqpV
mp q p
V =
V
m q
a

As

150

mp
ma

qp 1
1
and
=
4
qa 2

V
11
\ V = V = volts
42
8
16. (d) : Frequency of a spectral line of the Balmer
series of hydrogen atom is
1
1
= Rc 2 2 ; n = 2, 3, ............
2
n
For series limit, n =
1
1
1 Rc
\ = Rc 2 2 = Rc =

2
4 4

17. (a) : Let x alpha particles and y beta particles are
emitted in the reaction
92 U

238

82Pb206 + x(2 He4 ) + y(1e 0 )

According to law of conser vation of mass


number,
238 = 206 + 4x + 0
32
or 4x = 238 206 = 32 or x = = 8
...(i)
4
According to law of conservation of atomic number,
92 = 82 + 2x y
or y = 82 + 2(8) 92
(using (i))
= 82 + 16 92 = 98 92 = 6
Thus 8a and 6b are emitted.
18. (b) :
D1

150

D2

50

As 50 W (of D1), 150 W (with D1) and 100 W are


in series,
\ The current through 100 W resistance is
6V
6V
I=
=
= 0.02 A
50 W + 150 W + 100 W 300 W
19. (d) : The electric field of the junction is extremely
high (~ 5 106 V/m).
All other statements are true for zener diode.
20. (c) : The modulation index is
A
Amin
= max
Amax + Amin
Here, Amax = 10 V, Amin = 2 V
10 V 2 V 8 V 2
=
=
10 V + 2 V 12 V 3


21. (d) : As F = q(v B) or F = qvB sin q
F
\ B=
qv sin q
\ =

As sinq is dimensionless
\ [B] =

100

[ F ] = [MLT2] = [MT1C 1]
[q ][v ] [C][LT1]

22. (b) : As v = a x
But v =

dx
dt

(given)
dx
=a x
dt

dx

or x1/2 dx = adt
...(i)
= adt
x
Integrating eqn. (i) within the given limits, we
get
or

6V

100

6V

2 x = at

or

x1/2
t

= a [t]0
1/2 0
at
x=
2

x 1/2 dx = a dt or

physics for you | AUGUST 15

63

Squaring both sides, we get


x=

2 2

at
4

or

x t2

sin2 q
( sin 2q = 2 sin q cos q)
2(2 sin q cos q)

tan q
4
4H max
tan q =
R
=

23. (b) :
or

Here, Hmax = 5 km, R = 20 km


4(5 km)
\ tan q =
=1
20 km
q = tan1(1) = 45
Substituting this value of q in eqn. (i), we get
2

Let the ball A is thrown vertically upwards with


speed u and ball B is thrown vertically downwards
with the same speed u.
After reaching the highest point, A comes back to
its point of projection with the same speed u in
the downward direction.
If h be height of the building, then velocity of A
on reaching the ground is
v 2A = u2 + 2 gh or v A = u2 + 2 gh
and that of B on reaching the ground is

...(i)

v 2B = u2 + 2 gh or v B = u2 + 2 gh

...(ii)

From eqns. (i) and (ii), we get


vA = vB
24. (*) : The situation is shown in the figure.
u

Let u be the muzzle velocity of the shell fired from


the gun at an angle q with the horizontal. Then
Maximum height, H max =

u2 sin2 q
2g

u2 sin 2q
g
Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get
and horizontal range, R =
u2 sin2 q
2g

H max
sin2 q
= 2
=
R
u sin 2q 2 sin 2q
g
64

physics for you | AUGUST 15

...(i)
...(ii)

1
u2
2
u sin 45
u2
=
H max =
=
2g
2g
4g
2

u2 = 4H max g

u = 4H max g
But here, Hmax = 5 km = 5 103 m, g = 9.8 m/s2
or

or

\ u = 4 (5 103 m)(9.8 m/s2 ) = 442.7 m/s


*None of the given options is correct.
Note : If the unit of H max and R are given in
m instead of km, then option (b) is correct as
follows :
u = 4 (5 m)(9.8 m/s2 ) = 14 m/s
25. (c) : The angular speed w is
2
w=
T
As each car makes a complete circle in the same
time t, so the ratio of the angular speeds of the
first to the second car is same,
i.e. w1 : w2 = 1 : 1
26. (d) :
M

If a is the acceleration produced in the system,


then
P
...(i)
a=
(M + m)
The force exerted by the rope on the block is
MP
F = Ma =
(using (i))
(M + m)
27. (a) : Here,
Mass of the bullet, m = 200 g = 200 103 kg

Mass of the gun, M = 1 kg


Speed of the bullet, v = 5 m/s
Let V be the recoil velocity of the gun.
According to law of conservation of linear
momentum,
mv
0 = mv + MV or V =
M
3
(200 10 kg)(5 m/s)
V =
= 1 m/s
1 kg
Negative sign shows that the gun rebound backward
as the bullet moves forward.
28. (d) : When the lift is moving upwards with a uniform
acceleration a, then the reading on the scale is
R = m(g + a)
Here, m = 80 kg, g = 10 m/s2 , a = 5 m/s2
\ R = (80 kg)(10 m/s2 + 5 m/s2)
= (80 kg)(15 m/s2) = 1200 N
29. (c) : Here,
emf of the cell, e = 2 V
Resistance of the wire, R = 3 W
Length of the wire, l = 100 cm
Required potential gradient, k = 1 mV/cm
Potential difference across the wire is
V = kl = (1 mV/cm)(100 cm)
= (103 V/cm)(100 cm) = 0.1 V
Current through the wire is
V 0. 1 V 1
I= =
= A
R 3 W 30
If R be the additional resistance required, then
e
R
I=
R + R
2V
1
\
A=
30
3 W + R

1
1
A (3 W) + A R = 2 V
30
30
1
1
V + A R = 2 V
30
10
1
19
1
A R = 2 V V = V
30
10
10
19
V 570
=
W = 57 W
R = 10
1
10
A
30
30. (a) : Here,
Mass of the body, m = 2.0 kg

Force acting on the body, Fx = 6x


From Newton's second law, the acceleration
produced in the body is
6x
F
ax = x =
= 3x
m 2. 0
By definition,
dv
ax = x
dt
By chain rule,
dv
dv x dv x dx
=
= vx x
dx
dt
dx dt
dv x
\ ax = v x
or vx dvx = axdx
dx
vx dvx = 3xdx
(using (i))
Integrating it within the limits [vx = 8.0 m/s at
x = 3.0 m and vx = v at x = 4.0 m], we get
v

8. 0

v x dx = 3
v

4. 0

x dx

3. 0

4. 0

v2
x2
x = 3
2 8. 0
2 3. 0

1 2
3
[v (8.0)2] = [(4.0)2 (3.0)2]
2
2
v2 64 = 21
v2 = 21 + 64 = 43
v = 43 m/s = 6.6 m/s
Thus the velocity of the body at x = 4.0 m
is 6.6 m/s.
31. (a) : Here,
Power of the motor
1
1
= hp = (746 W) = 186.5 W ( 1 hp = 746 W)
4
4
Angular speed of the motor, w = 600 rpm
2 600
w=
rad/s = 20 rad/s
60
Since the efficiency of the motor is 40%, so the
power used in doing work is 40% of 186.5 W, i.e.
40
P = 186.5 W
= 74.6 W
100
Let t be torque produced. Then
74.6 W
P
P = tw or t = =
...(i)
w 20 rad/s
The work done by the motor in one rotation is
W = tq
74.6 W
=
(2 rad) = 7.46 J (using (i))
20 rad/s
physics for you | AUGUST 15

65

32. (a) : Let the rocket will go distant h above the


surface of the earth.
At h, the velocity of rocket becomes zero. Then
according to law of conservation of energy,
GMm
1 2 GMm
mv
=0
R
( R + h)
2
where m is the mass of the rocket, v is its initial
velocity, M is the mass of the earth and R its
radius.
GMm GMm
1 2
mv =
+
(R + h)
R
2
=

GMmR + GMm(R + h)
GMmh
=
R(R + h)
R(R + h)

GMh
gRh
1 2
v =
=
R(R + h) (R + h)
2
or R + h = 2 gR or
h
v2
or

R 2 gR
=
1 or
h v2

GM

g = 2
R

2 gR
R
+1= 2
h
v
2 gR
h = R 2 1
v

Here,
R = 6400 km = 6400 103 m = 6.4 106 m
g = 9.8 m/s2
v = 10 km/s = 10 103 m/s = 104 m/s

2(9.8 m/s2 )(6.4 106 m)


\ h = (6.4 10 m)
1
(104 m/s)2

6
1
7
= (6.4 10 m)(0.2544) = 2.5 10 m
= 2.5 104 km
33. (d) : Let the second particle be moved by distance
D so as to keep the centre of mass at the same
position. Then
m
m1d = m2D or D = 1 d
m2
6

34. (c) : The centre of mass of bodies B and C taken


together does not shift as no external force is
applied.
35. (c) :
0

45
P

12 cm

33 cm

(10 g)g

50

100

5 cm
mg

Let m be mass of the metre stick.


As the metre stick balances at 50.0 cm mark, so
its centre of gravity G lies at this mark.
66

physics for you | AUGUST 15

When two coins each of mass 5 g are placed at 12.0 cm


mark, the stick is balanced at P (45.0 cm mark).
For rotational equilibrium, taking moments about
P, we get
(10 g)g (45.0 cm 12.0 cm) = mg(50.0 cm 45.0 cm)
(10 g)(33.0 cm) = m (5.0 cm)
(10 g)(33.0 cm)
m=
= 66 g
(5.0 cm)
36. (a) : The angular momentum L and kinetic energy
K of a particle performing uniform circular motion
are related as
2K
L=
...(i)
w
where w is the angular frequency.
When angular frequency is doubled and kinetic
energy is halved, the new angular momentum
becomes
2(K /2) 1 2K L
L =
=
(using (i))
=
2w
4 w 4
37. (a) : As the gravitational force varies inversely as
the nth power of the distance, so the gravitational
force on the planet is
GMm
F= n
R
This force provides the centripetal force mRw2
to the planet
GMm
\ mRw2 = n
R
w=

GM
R

n +1

Time period, T =
T R

n + 1

n+1

2 2R
=
w
GM

38. (b) : For geo-stationary satellite


T1 = 24 hours, R1 = 36000 km
For spy satellite
T2 = ?, R2 6400 km
According to Kepler's third law
\

T22

R23
=
T12 R13

or

R
T2 = T1 2
R1

6400 km
T2 = (24 hours)
36000 km
2 hours

3/2

3/2

39. (d) : The energy stored in the wire per unit volume
is
1
u = stress strain
2
stress
But strain =
Youngs modulus
\ u=

1
stress
stress
2
Youngs modulus

S2
2Y
40. (b) : The situation is shown in the figure.
=

h2
h1

The work done by the force of gravity in equalizing


the levels when the vessels are interconnected is
1
W = rgA(h2 h1)2
4
where r is the density of the liquid, A is the area
of each base, g is the acceleration due to gravity
and h1 and h2 are liquid heights in right and left
vessels respectively.
Here,
r = 1.3 103 kg/m3
g = 9.8 m/s2 , A = 4.00 cm2 = 4.0 104 m2
h1 = 0.854 m, h2 = 1.560 m
1
\ W = (1.3 103 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2 )
4
(4.0 104 m2)(1.560 m 0.854 m)2
= 0.635 J
41. (a) : According to definition of Young's modulus Y,
the elongation produced in a wire when a force F
is applied is
FL
FL
FL

= 2
DL =

as Y =
ADL
AY r Y
where L is the length of the wire and r is its
radius.
As both wires are of same material (i.e. Y is same)
and length, so
DL1 F1 r2
=
DL2 F2 r1

r
Here, DL1 = 1 mm, DL2 = ?, F2 = 2F1, r2 = 1
2
1 mm F1 r1/2 2 1
\
=
=
DL2 2F1 r1
8

DL2 = 8 mm
42. (b) : According to kinetic theory of an ideal gas
u 3
2
= P
PV = u \
V
2
3
43. (b) : Here,
Pressure of the gas, P = 8 104 N/m2
Mass of the gas, m = 1 kg
Density of the gas, r = 4 kg/m3
1 kg
m
1
Volume of the gas, V = =
= m3
3
r 4 kg/m
4
As diatomic gas has 5 degrees of freedom,
\ The energy of the gas due to its thermal motion
(or internal energy) is
5
U = nRT
2
According to gas equation, PV = nRT
5
\ U = PV
2
Substituting the given values, we get
5

1
U = (8 104 N/m2 ) m3

4
2

= 5 104 J
44. (b) : The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator
is
T2
a=
T1 T2
where T1 and T2 are the temperatures of the hot
reservoir and the cold reservoir respectively in
kelvin.
Here,
T1 = 36C = (273 + 36) K = 309 K
T2 = 9C = (273 + 9) K = 282 K
282 K
282 K
\ a=
=
= 10.4
309 282 K 27 K
45. (d) : According to Newton's law of cooling,
Rate of cooling Dq
\ n=1
46. (a) 47. (d) 48. (b)
49. (a) 50. (d)
Refer to "MTG AMU Engg. Explorer" for complete solutions

nn
physics for you | AUGUST 15

67

CHAPTERWISE MCQs FOR PRACTICE

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engineering Entrance Exams
LAWS OF MOTION

1. In the system shown in figure,


tension T3 is
(a) 5 g
(b) 3 g
(c) g
(d) 6 g

(a)







2. A ship of mass 3 107 kg initially at rest is pulled by a


force of 5 104 N through a distance of 3 m. Assuming
that the resistance due to water is negligible, what will
be the speed of the ship?
(a) 0.1 m s1
(b) 1.5 m s1
1
(c) 5 m s
(d) 0.2 m s1

3 kg

(c) 2 3 kg

(b) 3 kg
(d) 9 kg

5. A block of mass m is resting on an inclined plane as


shown in figure. Th e inclination of the plane to the
horizontal is gradually increased. It is found that
when angle of inclination is , the block just begins
to slide down the plane. What is the minimum force
F applied parallel to the plane that would just make
the block move up


the plane?

(a) 2 mg sin



(b) mg sin
  


(c) mg cos

(d) 2 mg cos

3. A block moves down a smooth inclined plane of


inclination . Its velocity on reaching the bottom is 6. A stone tied to a string of length L is whirled in a
v. If it slides down a rough inclined plane of same
vertical circle, with the other end of the string at the
inclination, its velocity on reaching the bottom is
centre. At a certain instant of time, the stone is at its
v/n, where n is a number greater than zero. Th e
lowest position, and has a speed u. Th e magnitude
coeffi cient of friction is given by
of change in its velocity as it reaches a position,
1
where the string is horizontal is

(a) cot 1
2
n
(a) u2 2 gL
(b) 2gL
1

(c) u2 gL
(d) 2 u2 gL
(b) tan 1 2
n
7. A heavy small sized sphere is suspended by a string
1
of length l. Th e sphere is rotated uniformly in a
(c) tan 1
horizontal circle with the string making an angle
n2
with the vertical. Th e time period of this conical
1
pendulum is
(d) cot 1
n2
l tan
l sin
(a) 2
(b) 2
4. A spring balance carries a load. When the load is
g
g
pulled aside so that the balance makes an angle of
l
l cos
30 with the vertical, the balance reads 4 kg wt. Th e
(c) 2
(d) 2
g
g
mass of the load is

68

PHYSICS FOR YOU | AUGUST 15

8. A body of mass 5 103 kg is launched upon a rough


inclined plane making an angle of 30 with the
horizontal. Find the coefficient of friction between
the body and the plane if the time of ascent is half
of the time of descent.
(a) 0.346 (b) 0.436 (c) 0.463
(d) 0.364
9. The coefficient of kinetic friction between a 20 kg
box and the floor is 0.40. How much work does a
pulling force do on the box in pulling it 8.0 m across
the floor at constant speed? The pulling force is
directed 37 above the horizontal.
(a) 343 J
(b) 482 J
(c) 14.4 J
(d) None of these
10. A ball of mass m is thrown upwards with a velocity
v. If air exerts an average resisting force F, the
velocity with which the ball returns to the thrower
is
(a) v

mg
mg + F

(b) v

F
mg + F

(c) v

mg F
mg + F

(d) v

mg + F
mg

11. A 5 kg shell kept at rest suddenly splits up into three


parts. If two parts of mass 2 kg each are found flying
due north and east with a velocity of 5 m/s each, what
is the velocity of the third part after explosion ?
(a) 10 m/s due north-east
10
m/s due south-east
(b)
2
(c) 10 2 m/s due south-west
(d) 10 2 m/s due south-east
12. A block released from rest from the top of a smooth
inclined plane of angle q1 reaches the bottom in
time t1. The same block released from rest from the
top of another smooth inclined plane of angle q2,
reaches the bottom in time t2. If the two inclined
planes have the same height, the relation between t1
and t2 is
1/2

t2 sin q1
(a) t = sin q
1
2
sin
q
t
1
(c) 2 =
t1 sin q2

t2
=1
t1
sin2 q1
t
(d) 2 =
t1 sin2 q2

(b)

13. A block of weight 4 kg is resting on a smooth


horizontal plane. If it is struck by a jet of water at
the rate of 2 kg s1 and at the speed of 10 m s1, then
the initial acceleration of the block is

(a) 15 m s2
(c) 2.5 m s2

(b) 10 m s2
(d) 5 m s2

14. In the arrangement shown in figure, coefficient of


1
friction between the two blocks is = . The force
2
of friction acting between the two blocks is
F2 = 20 N

(a) 8 N
(c) 6 N

2 kg

F1 = 2 N

4 kg

(b) 10 N
(d) 4 N

15. A stone is dropped from a height h. It hits the


ground with a certain momentum P. If the same
stone is dropped from a height 100% more than the
previous height, the momentum when it hits the
ground will change by
(a) 68%
(b) 41%
(c) 200%
(d) 100%
work, energy and Power

16. A man running has half the kinetic energy of a


boy of half his mass. The man speeds up by 1 m s1
and then has KE as that of the boy. What were the
original speeds of man and the boy?
(a)

2 m s 1 ; 2 2 m s 1

(b) ( 2 1) m s 1 ; (2 2 1) m s 1

(c) ( 2 + 1) m s 1 ; 2( 2 + 1) m s 1
(d) None of these
17. A body A is projected upwards with velocity v1.
Another body B of same mass is projected at an
angle of 45. Both reach the same height. What is
the ratio of their initial kinetic energies?
(a) 1/4
(b) 1/3
(c) 1/2
(d) 1
18. A sand bag of 10 kg mass is suspended by a 3 m long
weightless string. A 0.2 kg mass bullet enters the
bag with a velocity of 20 m s1 and gets embedded
into it. The loss in KE in the collision is
(a) 40.2 J
(b) 38.2 J
(c) 49.2 J
(d) 39.2 J
19. The force required to stretch a spring varies with
the distance as shown in figure. If the experiment is
performed with the above spring of half the length,
the line OA will
(a) shift towards F-axis
A
F
(b) shift towards X-axis
(c) remains as it is
O
x
(d) become double in length.
Physics for you | august 15

69

20. A raindrop of mass 1 g falling from a height of


1 km hits the ground with a speed of 50 m s1. If
the resistive force is proportional to the speed of the
drop, then the work done by the resistive force is
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 10 J
(b) 10 J
(c) 8.75 J
(d) 8.75 J
21. Match the Column I with Column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) When a body does (p)


work against friction,
its kinetic energy

independent
of time

(B)

Work done by a body (q)


is
(C) Power of a body (r)
varies inversely as

time

(D) When work done (s)


over a closed path is
zero

decreases

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

force must be
conservative

A p, B q, C r, D s
A q, B r, C s, D p
A s, B r, C q, D p
A s, B p, C q, D r

22. A 1 kg block situated on a

rough incline is connected


to a spring of negligible
mass having spring constant
100 N m1 as shown in the
figure.
The block is released from rest with the spring
in the unstretched position. The block moves
10 cm down the incline before coming to rest. The
coefficient of friction between the block and the
incline is (Take g = 10 m s2 and assume that the
pulley is frictionless)
(a) 0.2
(b) 0.3
(c) 0.5
(d) 0.6

23. The momentum of a body is increased by 25%. The

kinetic energy is increased by about


(a) 25% (b) 5%
(c) 56%
(d) 38%

24. A body of mass 4 kg is moving with momentum of

8 kg m s1. A force of 0.2 N acts on it in the direction


of motion of the body for 10 s. The increase in
kinetic energy is
(a) 10 J (b) 8.5 J (c) 4.5 J (d) 4 J

70

Physics for you | august 15

25. A uniform chain of length L and mass M is lying

on a smooth table and one third of its length is


hanging vertically down over the edge of the table.
If g is acceleration due to gravity, work required to
pull the hanging part on to the table is
(a) MgL

(b) MgL
3

(c) MgL
9

(d) MgL
18

26. The system is released from rest with


the spring initially stretched 75 mm.
Calculate the velocity of the block
after it has dropped 12 mm. The
spring has a stiffness of 1050 N m1.
Neglect the mass of the small pulley.
(a) 0.371 m s1
(b) 0.45 m s1
1
(c) 5 m s
(d) 2.2 m s1

45 kg

27. A car manufacturer claims that his car can be


accelerated from rest to a velocity of 10 m s1 in
5 s. If the total mass of the car and its occupants is
1000 kg, then the average horse power developed
by the engine is
(a)

103
746

(b)

104
746

(c)

105
746

(d) 8

28. A gun of mass 20 kg has bullet of mass 0.1 kg in it.


The gun is free to recoil and 804 J of recoil energy
is released on firing the gun. The speed of bullet
(in m s1) is
(a)

804 2010

(b)

2010
804

(c)

804
2010

(d)

804 4 103

29. A body of mass m1 moving with a uniform velocity


of 40 m s1 collides with another body of mass m2 at
rest and then the two together begin to move with
a uniform velocity of 30 m s1. The ratio of their
m
masses 1 is
m2
(a) 0.75
(c) 3

(b) 0.33
(d) 1.33

30. A block of mass 10 kg is moving in x-direction

with a constant speed of 10 m s1. It is subjected to


a retarding force F = 0.1x J m1 during its travel
from x = 20 m to x = 30 m. Its final kinetic energy
will be
(a) 475 J
(b) 450 J
(c) 275 J
(d) 250 J

solutions

1. (d) : As it is clear from figure,


T1 = 3g
T2 T1 = 2g

T2 = 2g + T1 = 2g + 3g = 5g
Also,
T3 T2 = 1g

T3 = 1g + T2 = 1g + 5g = 6g

B'

B
v

L
A

O'

A'

= u2 + v 2 = u2 + (u2 2 gL)

5 104 5
2. (a) : Here, a = F =
= 103 m s 2
m 3 107 3
s = 3 m, u = 0, v = ?
As v2 u2 = 2as
5
3
v 2 0 = 2 10 3 = 102
3
v = 101 m s1 = 0.1 m s1
3. (b) : Using the relation v2 u2 = 2 as
On smooth inclined plane,
v2 0 = 2 (g sin q) s
On rough inclined plane

= 2(u gL)
7. (d) : As it is clear from figure
mv
, T cos q = mg
r
Dividing, we get
T sin q =

tan q =

...(i)

v
0 = 2 g (sin q cos q) s
n

...(ii)

Divide (i) by (ii),


sin q
n2 =
sin q cos q
n2sin q n2 cos q = sin q
n2 cos q = (n2 1) sin q
1

= 1
tan q

n2

O
4. (c) : As it is clear from figure,
T = 4 kg, mg = ?, q = 30
T
OAB is a right angled triangle,
B
A
F
OA mg
where cos q =
=
OB T
mg
3
mg = Tcosq = 4cos30 = 4
= 2 3 kg
2
5. (a) : The weight mg of the block has two rectangular
components; mg cos q perpendicular to the plane
and mg sin q down the plane.
Force of friction f = R = mg cos q is also down
the plane.
Therefore, F = mg sin q + f
= mg sin q + mg cos q
But = tan q F = mg sin q + tan q mg cos q
= 2 mg sin q

6. (d) : The velocity at B is v, where v2 = u2 2gL, in


vertically upward direction. As is clear from figure
change in velocity

or

v 2 r 2
=
rg g T

2
=
T

g tan q
=
r

T = 2

l cos q
g

l
Tcos
T

Tsin

mg

g tan q
g
=
l sin q
l cos q

8. (a) : When the body is projected up the plane,


there will be retardation aA such that
mgsinq + fL = maA
ion
or aA = g(sinq + cosq) ... (i)
...ot(i)
m
R
[as fL = R = mgcosq]
Now from equation of motion,
f
v = u + at and v2 = u2 + 2as
sin 30 L mgcos
g
m
For the motion up the plane
0 = u aAtA and 0 = u2 2aAs
( v = 0)
Eliminating u between these, we get
2s
... (ii)
aA
Now when the body slides
down the plane there will be
acceleration aD such that
mgsinq fL = maD
aD = g(sinq cosq)
... (iii)
( fL = R = mgcosq)
And from equation of motion
1
s = ut + at 2
2
2s
tD =
(as u = 0)
... (iv)
aD
tA =

According to the given problem


1
t A = tD
2

Physics for you | august 15

71

From eqns. (ii) and (iv)


tA
a
1
= D =
tD
aA 2
Now substituting the values of aA and aD from eqns.
(i) and (iii) in the above equation, we get
sin q cos q 1
=
sin q + cos q 4
which on simplification gives
3
3
3 1
3
= tan q = tan 30 =
=
= 0.346
5
5
5
5
3
9. (b) : The work done by the force is Fs cos37.
where F cos37 = f = N
F sin37
In this case,
F
N = mg F sin37,
37
mg
F cos37
so, F =
20 kg
(cos 37 + sin 37)
Here, = 0.40 and
f
m = 20 kg
mg N
F = 75.4 N
Hence, W = (75.4 cos37)(8.0) = 482 J
10. (c) : For upward motion,
retarding force = mg + F
mg + F
Retardation (a) =
m

v2
v 2m
...(i)
=
2a 2(mg + F )
For downward motion, net force = mg F
mg F
Acceleration (a) =
m
2
2
v
v m
...(ii)
Distance, s =
=
2a 2(mg F )
As s = s
mg F
v 2m
v 2m

=
v = v
2(mg + F ) 2(mg F )
mg + F
Distance, s =

11. (c) : px = momentum along east = 2 kg 5 m s1


= 10 kg m s1
py = momentum along north
= 2 kg 5 m s1
m s1
= 10 kg m s1
Resultant momentum
m s1
p=

px2

p2y

= 102 + 102

m s1

= 10 2 kg m s 1 due north east


According to law of conservation of momentum
p + p3 = 0 or p3 = p
72

Physics for you | august 15

or p3 = 10 2 kg m s 1

or p3 = 10 2 kg m s 1 due south-west

v3 = 10 2 m s 1 due south-west.(m3 = 1 kg)


12. (c) : Lengths of the two inclined planes are
h
h
l1 =
and l2 =
sin q1
sin q2
Accelerations of the block down the two planes are
a1 = g sin q1 and a2 = g sin q2
1
1
As l1 = a1 t12 and l2 = a2 t22
2
2
2
2
g sin q1 sin q1
a t
t
al
l
1 = 1 1 or 2 = 1 2 =

2
2
l2 a2 t 2
t1 a2l1 g sin q2 sin q2
t
sin q1
2=
t1 sin q2
13. (d) : The water jet striking the block at the rate of
2 kg s1 at a speed of 10 m s1 will exert a force on
the block,
F =v

dm
= 10 2 = 20 N
dt

Under the action of this force of 20 N, the block of


mass 4 kg will move with an acceleration given by
F 20 N
a= =
= 5 m s 2
m 4 kg
14. (a) : Let f be the force of friction between the two
blocks. Let a be the acceleration of the two blocks
to the left. The free body diagram of two blocks is
shown in the figure.
Their equations of motion are
f 2 = 2a
...(i)
20 f = 4a ...(ii)
Solving (i) and (ii),
we get f = 8 N
Maximum force of friction,
1
f max = mg = 2 10 = 10 N
2
As the blocks move together, f < fmax
f = 8 N.
15. (b) : When a stone is dropped from a height h, it
hits the ground with a momentum
P = m 2 gh
...(i)
where m is the mass of the stone.
When the same stone is dropped from a height
2h (i.e. 100% of initial), then its momentum with
which it hits the ground becomes

P = m 2 g (2h) = 2P (Using (i))


P P
100%
% change in momentum =
P
=

2P P
P

...(ii)

100% = 41%

16. (c) : Let mass of boy be m.


Therefore, mass of man = 2m.
1
As KE of man = (KE of boy)
2
1
1 1

(2m)u2 = mu2
2
2 2
2
u
2 u
, u=
u =
4
2
When man speeds up by 1 m s1,
KE of man = KE of boy
1
1
1
(2m)(u + 1)2 = mu2 = m(2u)2
2
2
2
2
2
(u + 1) = 2u or u + 1 = 2u
1
2 +1
u=
=
2 1 ( 2 1)( 2 + 1)

u = ( 2 + 1) m s 1 ; u = 2u = 2( 2 + 1) m s 1

17. (c) : As A and B attain the same height, therefore,


vertical component of initial velocity of B = initial
velocity of A.
v
v2cos45 = v1 or 2 = v1
2
1 2
2
2
K1 2 mv1 v1 1 1
=
= =
=
K 2 1 2 v2 2 2
mv2
2
1
18. (d) : Initial KE of system, E1 = (0.2)(20)2 = 40 J
2
Velocity of combination,
m v + m2v2 10 0 + 0.2 20
4
=
=
v= 1 1
m1 + m2
10 + 0.2
10.2
KE of combination,
1
E2 = (m1 + m2 )v 2
2
2
1
8
4
= 10.2
= 10.2 = 0.8 J
2
10
.
2

Loss in KE = E1 E2 = 40 0.8 = 39.2 J


19. (a) : As original length of spring is halved, its
extension (x) corresponding to a given force is
halved. Therefore, the line OA shifts towards F-axis,
increasing the slope.
20. (d) : Here, m = 1 g = 103 kg
h = 1 km = 1000 m = 103 m

The change in kinetic energy of the drop is


1
DK = mv 2 0
( u = 0)
2
1
= 103 50 50 = 1.25 J
2
The work done by the gravitational force is
Wg = mgh = 103 10 103 = 10 J
According to work-energy theorem
DK = Wg + Wr
where Wr is the work done by the resistive force on
the raindrop. Thus
Wr = DK Wg = 1.25 J 10 J = 8.75 J
21. (d) : When a body does some work against friction,
its kinetic energy decreases.
As
Work done by a body is independent of time.
Bp
Power of a body (P = W/t) varies inversely as
time.
Cq
When work done over a closed path is zero, force
must be conservative.
Dr
22. (b) : Here,
m = 1 kg,
q = 45,
k = 100 N m1
From figure,
N = mgcosq
f = N = mgcosq
where is the coefficient between the block and
the incline.
Net force on the block down the incline,
= mgsinq f
= mgsinq mgcosq = mg(sinq cosq)
Distance moved, x = 10 cm = 10 102 m
In equilibrium,
Work done = Potential energy of stretched spring
1
mg(sinq cosq)x = kx 2
2
2mg (sinq cosq) = kx
2 1 10 (sin45 cos45) = 100 10 102
1
sin 45 cos 45 =
2
1
1

=
2
2 2
1
2 1
2
1
=1
= 0.3
=
1 =
=
2
2
2
2
23. (c) : Kinetic energy of the body is
p2
K=
2m
Physics for you | august 15

73

where p is the momentum and m is the mass of a


body respectively.
K p2
When the momentum of a body is increased by
25%, its momentum will become
25
125
5
p = p +
p=
p= p
100
100
4
2

25
K p2 5 25
or K = K
=
= =
2
4
16
16
K

p
Percentage increase in the kinetic energy of the
body
K K
(25 / 16)K K
=
100 =
100
K
K
9
= 100 = 56%
16
24. (c) : Momentum = mass velocity
or p = mu
1
p 8 kg m s
u= =
= 2 m s 1
4 kg
m

Acceleration =

Force
Mass

0. 2 N
= 0.05 m s 2
4 kg
Distance travelled by the body in 10 s is
1
d = ut + at 2
2
1
= (2 m s1) (10 s) + (0.05 m s2) (10 s)2
2
= 20 m + 2.5 m = 22.5 m
Work done, W = Fd = (0.2 N) (22.5 m) = 4.5 J
According to work-energy theorem
Increase in kinetic energy = Work done = 4.5 J
a=

L
25. (d) : The weight of hanging part of chain is
3
1

3 Mg . This weight acts at centre of gravity of the


L
hanging part, which is at a distance of from
6
the table.
As work done = force distance
Mg L MgL
W=
=
3
6
18
26. (a) : When the block descends 12 mm, spring
further stretches by 24 mm.
Decrease in PE of block = increase in KE of
block + increase in elastic potential energy of
spring.
74

Physics for you | august 15

So, 45 9.8 0.012


1
1
= 45 v2 + 1050 [(0.075 + 0.024)2 (0.075)2]
2
2
or v = 0.371 m s1
10 0
m s 2 = 2 m s 2 ;
5
F = ma or F = 1000 2 N = 2000 N
0 + 10
m s 1 = 5 m s 1
Average velocity =
2
Average power = 2000 5 W = 104 W
104
Required horse power is
746
28. (d) : Here, m1 = 20 kg; m2 = 0.1 kg
v1 = velocity of recoil of gun,
v2 = velocity of bullet
As m1v1 = m2v2
v
m
0. 1
v2 = 2
v1 = 2 v2 =
m1
20
200
2
1
1
v
Recoil energy of gun = m1v12 = 20 2
2
2
200
10v22
v22
804 =
=
4 104 4 103
27. (b) : a =

v2 = 804 4 103 m s 1
29. (c) : Applying the principle of conservation of
linear momentum, we get
m1 40 + m2 0 = (m1 + m2)30
m
40 m1 + m2

=
=1+ 2
m1
m1
30
m2 40
m 3
10 1
= 1 = = or 1 =
m1 30
m2 1
30 3
30. (a) : According to work energy theorem,
W = DKE
W = KEF KEI
1
1
2
Fdx = KEF m v 2 = KEF 10 10
2
2
Fdx = KEF 500
30

0.1x dx = KEF 500

20

30

x2
0.1 = KEF 500
2 20
900 400
0.1
= KEF 500
2

KEF = 500 25 = 475 J

\ dx =
0

soLuTioN sET 24

1.

0.3 m

1
1
= (1.50 1) = 0.5
1
Fl
1

2
1
1
1 0.33

=
= (1.33 1) 0 +
=
;

.5
F
0
Fl
0. 5 0. 5
m
2
\ 1 = 2 0.5 + 2 0.33 2 = 1 + 4 4 = 5
3
3
F
0. 5 0. 5
1 1 1 5 10
5
= =
+ =
v F u 3 3
3
3
\ v = m = 0. 6 m
5
Hence, the distance between the object and the final
image is 0.3 + 0.6 = 0.9 m
2. When outer surface is grounded charge Q resides
on the inner surface of sphere B.
Now sphere A is connected to earth, potential on its
surface becomes zero. Let the charge on the surface
A becomes q. Then
kq kQ
a

=0 q= Q
a
b
b
In this position, energy stored
2

Q2
1 a
1 a
E1 =
Q +
Q (Q)
+

8 0a b 8 0b 4 0b b
When S3 is closed, total charge will appear on the
outer surface of shell B. In this position, energy
stored
2

1 a

E2 =
1 Q 2

8 0b b
Heat produced, H = E1 E2 =

Q 2a (b a)

(8 106 )2 0.02(0.04 0.02) 9 109


2 (0.04)3

Also, F cosa + N mg cosa = 0

mg sin a
cos a
\ N = mg
1 + sin a

or N =

mg cos a

1 + sin a
Fcos
Since fmax = mN
mgsin
mg sin a m mg cos a
\
=
1 + sin a 1 + sin a
or m = tana = tan37 = 0.75

= 1. 8 J

F
3. Time taken by pulse to reach from P to Q (t0) = 0
k
where F0 = 3 N
F kt
T
dx
Now, v =

= 0
m
dt
m

Fsin
f

mgcos

mg

5. At maximum elongation velocity will


perpendicular to spring.
Conserving angular momentum about O
mv0l0 = mv1
v1 =

be

11l0
10

10v0
= 10 m s 1
v0
11
( v0 = 11 ms1) m

l0

v1
11l0
10

Now, as per conservation of energy principle,


1 2 1 2 1 l0
mv = mv + k
2 0 2 1 2 10

8 0b3
Here, a = 2 cm = 0.02 m, b = 4 cm = 0.04 m,
Q = 8 mC = 8 106 C
Putting these values, we get
H=

3
333 23
2 F0
2
=
=
3 L m 3 1 3 102 3 0.1
= 20 N s1
4. To keep the cylinder in balance
fr Fr = 0
... (i)
and mg sina F sina f = 0
... (ii)
Solving eqns. (i) and (ii), we get
mg sin a
F= f =
1 + sin a

\ k=

1 2
2
1
=
+
+
F Fl Fl
Fm
1

2
1 t0
1/2
F03/2
(F0 kt ) dt ; L =
m
3
k
m 0

k=

m (v02 v12 ) 0.1(121 100) 21


=
=
= 210 N m 1
2
2
0
1
.
(0.1)
l0

10

6. As En =

m Z 2e 4
8 20 n2h2

So, hu = E5 E4 = +
\ u=

m Z 2e 4 1
1

2 2 16
25

8 0 h

m Z 2 e4 9

8 20 h3 16 25

Physics for you | august 15

... (i)
75

and frequency, un =
\

u4 =

mZ 2e 4

2
2
= [40 10] = 30 = 20 J
3
3
Total work done by the gas = 415 + 20 = 435 J

mZ 2 e 4
4 20 n3 h3

420 (4)3 h 4

... (ii)

Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get


u 18
= = 0.72
u4 25
7. Applying conservation of energy
1
1
1

mgs(sina sinb) = I 2 + 2 mv 2 + I 2
2

2
2
v
mr 2
where = and I =
2
r
7 2
or mgs(sin a sin b) = mv
4
1
\ v=2
gs (sin a sin b)
7
Putting values and solving, we get
v=2

10 3.5 4 3
1
5 5 = 2 m s
7

TB

TB
3
3 1/2
1
T dV = T 1/2 RT 1/2dT
3
TA 2
TA 2

R
(T T ) = 50R
2 B A
= 50 8.3 = 415 J
1 1/2
For process B C, U = V
2
3
1 1/2
or
RT = V
3PV 1/2 = 1 (using (i))
2
2
1
\ P=
3 V
Now, WBC = PdV
On solving, WAB =

1600

1600
2
dV = V
100
3
100 3 V

76

Physics for you | august 15

Bl 2 Bl 2
B 2 l 4
[1 e Rt /L ] =
[1 e Rt /L ]
2 2R
4R
Maximum value of current occurs at t = and half
of this is equal to
=

I1 =

1
B 2 l 2
when 1 e Rt /L =
4R
2

B2 l 4 52 40 (0.1)4
=
8R
8 10
3
= 1.25 10 N m = 1.25 milliN m

\ Torque at this instant =

3
8. For process A B, P = T 1/2
2
According to ideal gas equation for one mole
PV = RT
3 1/2
2
T V = RT V = RT 1/2
2
3
Differentiating both sides, we get
1
dV = RT 1/2dT
3
WAB = PdV

1
Bl 2
2
dI
Bl 2
At any time t, L + IR =
2
dt
Solving for I, we get
Bl 2
[1 e Rt /L ]
I=
2R
Torque about the hinge P is
l
1
= IB dx x = IBl 2
2
0

9. Induced emf =

... (i)

10. Suppose origin is at the equilibrium position and


the direction of increasing x is towards the right. If
the blocks are at the origin, the net force on them
is zero. If the blocks are a small distance x to the
right of the origin, value of the net force on them is
(k1 + k2)x. Applying Newtons law to the two-block
system gives
(k1 + k2)x = 2ma
... (i)
Applying Newtons second law to the lower block
gives
k1(x1 x) f = ma
... (ii)
where x1 = initial stretch and f is the magnitude of
the frictional force.
From eqns. (i) and (ii)
x
f = k1x1 + (k2 k1 )
2
The maximum value for x is the amplitude A and
the maximum value for f is msmg.
A
Thus, msmg = k1x1 + (k2 k1 )
2
Solving for A, we get
(m mg k1x1 ) 2 [0.3 2 10 150 0.01] 2
=
A= s
k2 k1
450 150
= 0.03 m = 3 cm
nn

Graphical Approach to Motion (Kinematics)


Can acceleration of an object be negative and its speed
still increase?
This question runs through the mind of almost every
individual who begins to study motion.
To be able to answer this yourself, let us learn the basis
of this chapter.
Here we will have either scalars or vectors.
Scalars are physical quantities whose description is
complete without any direction being associated with
itself, whereas vectors are those physical quantities
whose description is incomplete without mentioning
their direction. For example distance travelled is scalar
but velocity is a vector.
To indicate direction of a vector quantity for an object
in one dimensional motion, we just append a +ve or ve
sign ahead of the symbol of the quantity. For being able
to do so, a positive direction has to be chosen first of all
and thereafter if the vector quantity points in the chosen
positive direction, it will be positive and if it points in
the direction opposite to the chosen positive direction,
it will be negative.
For example, if a +ve direction of x-axis is taken to be
towards left, then
+ve

4 m s1
A

3 m s1

vA = 4 m s1
vB = +3 m s1

Now, mathematically, 4 < 3 but saying 4 m s1


< 3 m s1 is absurd. Just imagine saying 4 m s1 towards
east is less than 3 m s1 towards west!
So, never confuse with a +ve or ve sign infront of a
vector quantity. They are used only to represent the
direction.
With the development of this understanding, let us
begin with the basic definitions of the quantities used
related to motion of an object.
Position of an object

On a straight line, origin is set somewhere and imagine

a number line placed along the line of motion of the


object.
+ve

4 3 2 1 0 1
(origin)

x (m)

The co-ordinate of the particle (object) in motion is said


to be its position.
Hence, position of A, xA = +2 m
position of B, xB = 3 m
Clearly, its a vector quantity.
Hence it can
start from a non-zero value too.
have +ve as well as ve values.
Displacement refers to the change in position of the
object, which is in short, the straight line connecting
the initial point to the final point and is directed
from initial point towards final point.
Therefore, displacement
Dx = x2 x1
This clearly can have +ve, ve as well as zero
values.
Distance travelled refers to the actual path length
covered by an object. For a particle moving in a
straight line, the magnitude of displacement may
be equal to distance travelled if it has not reversed
back, i.e., changed its direction of motion. Hence
Dx = x2 x1 may or may not be distance travelled.
Note that distance travelled,
will definitely start with zero value, irrespective
of whatever the starting position of the object
was.
will be a non-decreasing function, i.e. it will
either remain constant (if the object stops) or
increase (if the object moves).
will never be ve.

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

physics for you | august 15

77

Velocity refers to the rate of change of position.


Keep in mind that whenever we talk of a particular
quantity changing at a particular rate, the rate of
change can be two, one is instantaneous and the
other is average. Hence velocity too.
Velocity
Average velocity
Instantaneous velocity
It is the average rate It is the instantaneous
of change of position. rate of change of
Hence,
position. Hence,
x x
Dx
vavg = 2 1
v = lim
t2 t1
Dt 0 Dt
dx
Dx
v=
vavg =
dt
Dt
which clearly is the
displacement
vavg =
slope of position time
time taken
(x-t) graph.
Since velocity is found for displacement, hence, it
can have all +ve, ve as well as zero values.
Since, the slope of position time graph gives the
instantaneous velocity. Hence if the particle moves
with uniform velocity, the slope of x-t graph should
not change. Hence the plot will be a straight line.
Speed refers to the rate at which distance travelled
is covered.
Speed
Average speed
Instantaneous speed =
distance travelled magnitude of instantaneous
=
dx
time taken
velocity =
dt

speed

velocity

Speed of an object may be increasing/decreasing


but it will never be negative.
Note : If velocity-time graph is given and we are to
find speed-time graph then just reflect the portion
of the graph which lies below the time axis, as
below.

time

time

78

physics for you | august 15

x2 x1 = Dx = area under v-t graph


In this integration, if v is +ve, area will be +ve which
would indicate displacement towards +ve direction,
whereas if v is ve, area will be ve which would
indicate displacement towards ve direction. Hence,
if we add them algebraically (with sign) we will get
displacement and if we add just the magnitudes, we
get displacement as below:
v

A1
t1

A3
A2

t2

\ Displacement = A1 A2 + A3
Distance travelled = A1 + A2 + A3
Acceleration refers to the rate of change of
velocity.
Acceleration
Average
Instantaneous
v v
aavg = 2 1
t2 t1
aavg =

Dv
Dt 0 Dt

a = lim

dv
dt
Slope of v-t graph
gives us instantaneous
acceleration.

Dv
Dt

a=

Note :
From x-t graph velocity is found from its slope.
Hence if the motion is accelerated, the slope of
x-t graph should change.
dv dv dx
=
l a=
dt dx dt
dv
a=v
dx
can be used if velocity versus position is known.
l

Now, can distance or displacement of an object be


found out from v-t graph? Of course we can. Let us
see how.
x2
t2
dx
v=
dx = vdt
dt
x
t
1

a=

v2
t2
dv
dv = adt
dt
v1
t1
t2

v2 v1 = Dv = adt
t1

\ Area under a-t graph gives us the change in


velocity.
Now, before we begin with the application of whatever
we learnt here, we need to understand how to find
slope.

PRESS RELEASE

Team Kshatriya from VIT

Winning isnt getting ahead of others, its getting ahead of yourself

blazing sun, some fanning dust and hundreds of


excited participants defined the 4-day spectacular
event BAJA SAE INDIA, the largest motorsport gathering
in the world.
Baja SAE INDIA is an intercollegiate design
competition run by the Society of Automotive
Engineers INDIA (SAE INDIA). Teams of students from
various universities designed and built off-road buggies
to withstand the harshest elements of a rough terrain.
Each year as many as 110 Baja cars from around the world
enter the event held in India. These teams come from
places including US, Brazil, South Africa and Korea.
Team Kshatriya from VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu,
was one of the first teams that participated in BAJA
SAE INDIA series since its inception. Formed in the
year 2006 by a group of undergraduate students of the
esteemed university, the team has been rising all these
years unperturbed and now stands on the pinnacle of
its rich history. It was ranked 3rd consecutively this time
at the mega motorsport event held at NATRAX Facility at
Indore, BAJA SAE INDIA 2015.

The team has 25 members from the first, second and


third year. As quoted by the Team Captain, Mr. Nasit
Malay R, The team is readied every year on the basis of
written tests comprising both technical and aptitude
questions. This is followed by Personal Interviews and
Individual Task Rounds. We make sure we get the best
out of them and only then we handpick the ones who
stand to take the legacy ahead. The role of the seniors
is of great importance. They guide the new team with
the help of their own experience and knowledge. This
is what defines the team.
Dr. G. Viswanathan, Chancellor congratulated the
team and said that VIT teams have been winning
several global competitions not only this but several
others. This is due to the combination of students
interest and our encouragement, both financially and
motivationally.
So in future one would need not be surprised if VIT
teams win all global level competitions on a daily
basis.
nn
physics for you | august 15

79

Slope of a given graph at any point is found out by


drawing a tangent at that point and then we measure
the angle that the line makes with the +ve x-axis in
anticlockwise sense and then take its tan.
y
B

Equations of uniformly accelerated motion

At A, slope mA = tanqA > 0


[Q 0 < qA < 90]
At B, slope mB = tanqB < 0
[Q 90 < qB < 180]
Also remember that tanq is a non decreasing function
within its continuous limits, which means if q increases,
tanq will also increase.
Following are examples of increasing and decreasing
slopes.
Increasing slope
y

2
1

1
(A)

(B)

Clearly, if q2 > q1 tanq2 > tanq1 in both cases.


But note that in case B, tanq < 0, hence |tanq1| > |tanq2|.
Decreasing slope
y

Here q2 < q1 tanq2 < tanq1


Therefore, if acceleration is negative, it means
velocity decreses, not necessarily speed. Imagine
velocity to be changing from 5 m s1 to 6 m s1,
speaking mathematically velocity has decreased, since
Dv = 6 (5) = 1 m s1, hence acceleration is negative
but speed increased. Keep in mind that if velocity and
acceleration have same sign (in same direction) then
speed will increase.
Synopsis of learning

Slope of position-time graph at any point gives us


instantaneous velocity.
80

physics for you | august 15

Slope of velocity-time graph gives instantaneous


acceleration.
Area of velocity-time graph gives
distance travelled if area above and below time
axis are added.
displacement if area below time axis is
subtracted from the area above it.
Area under acceleration time graph gives us the
change in velocity.
Suppose the acceleration is known to be constant, say
a m s2. Then we can use standard formulae to find
various quantities related to motion as derived below:
Assumptions:
Initial position at t = 0, xi = x0
Initial velocity at t = 0, vi = u
Final position t sec later, xf = x
Final velocity t sec later, vf = v
Displacement, s = xf xi = x x0
Results:
v
t
dv
a=
dv = adt
dt
u
0
but since acceleration a is a constant, we can take it out
of integration.
\ v u = at v = u + at
... (i)
x
t
dx
Again, v =
dx = (u + at )dt
dt
x0
0
1
x x0 = ut + at 2
2
1 2
... (ii)
s = ut + at
2
Note here that s indicates displacement, which may or
may not be equal to distance travelled.
v
x
dv
Again, a = v
vdv = adx
dx
u
x
0

v 2 u2

= a(x x0 ) = as
2
2
v2 = u2 + 2as
...(iii)
Each of the equation derived above (i), (ii) and (iii)
are applicable only for constant acceleration. If the
acceleration is not constant, and we are given a relation
between v, x, t and a to describe the motion and one or
the other is to be found out then we use either of the
three relations
dv
dx
vdv
(i) a =
(ii) v =
(iii) a =
dt
dt
dx
will help us, as used, while deriving equations (i), (ii)
and (iii).

Now, let us begin with the applications of whatever we


learnt.
Graphical Application

1. The position of a particle moving along x-axis varies


as below.
x (m)
15
10
5

10

t (s)

Find
(i) distance travelled and displacement in the
interval 0 to10 second
(ii) average acceleration in 0 to10 second interval
Soln.: (i) As long as the position increases, particle
is travelling in +ve x-direction but as soon as the
position starts decreasing (after 5 s), the direction
of motion has reversed, and continues to move in
x direction. Hence distance displacement.
\ Distance travelled
= |x(5) x(0)| + |x(10) x(5)| = 5 + 15 = 20 m
Displacement = x(10) x(0) = 0 10 = 10 m
v(10) v(0)
(ii) aavg =
10 0
dx
dx
15 5
dt dt

5
10
0
=
= 5
10
10
= 0.4 m s2
2. The position of a particle moving along x-axis is
given by x(t) = 3t2 12t + 6, where t in seconds
gives x in metres. Find the distance travelled by
particle in the duration (0 - 6) s.
Soln.: One incorrect method to do this would be that
distance = x(6) x(0)
Since we dont know whether the particle changed
its direction of motion or not. To determine this
always remember that at the instant when it will
change the direction of motion, its instantaneous
velocity will definitely be zero.
Here let us find velocity first.
dx
v=
= 6t 12
dt
\ If v = 0 t = 2 s, hence at t = 2 s it has changed
its direction.
\ Distance travelled
= |x(2) x(0)| + |x(6) x(2)|

= |(3(2)2 12(2) + 6 (6)| + |(3(6)2 12(6) + 6)


(3(2)2 12(2) + 6)|
= |6 6| + |42 (6)|
= 12 + 48 = 60 m
Alternatively, this could have been done quickly
v(m s1)
from v-t graph.
v = 6t 12 (linear)
24
v6
tan q =
=6
v6
62
A2
2
v6 = 24 m s 1
6
A1
t(s)
\ Distance travelled
12
= A1 + A2
1
1
= (2 12) + (4 24) = 60 m
2
2
3. The velocity-time graph of a particle moving along
x-axis is shown in the figure.
v (m s1)
10
15

t(s)

10

Find the instant of time when the particle reaches


the initial position which was at t = 0.
Soln.: Since xf = xi Dx = 0
area under v-t graph = 0
v (m s1)
tc

10
A1
10

45

15
5 A2

t(s)

A1 = A2
1
1
10 10 = (Dtc + Dtc + 5)(5) Dtc = 7.5 s
2
2

\ Required time = 15 + 7.5 = 22.5 s

4. The acceleration-time graph of a particle moving


along x-axis is shown. If the particle starts moving
with a speed of 6 m s1 along negative x-direction
then find its velocity at t = 8 s.
a (m s2)

t(s)

physics for you | august 15

81

Soln.: Th e graph clearly shows that

tan 37

 (m s2)

y
2
1 4




7. If the v-x graph of a particle moving along x-axis


varies as shown. Predict the nature of acceleration.

A1 = A2
v = 0
v2 v1 = 0
v2 = v1 = 6 m s1

5. The acceleration-time graph of a particle is shown


which starts from origin from rest. Find the distance
travelled by it till the journey of 15 s.
 (m s2)

5
10




1 1
15 170 85
t 10 10
s
2 2
2
4
2

15
2

3 y

4 10

15

(s)

dv
= v slope of v-x graph
dx
Since v increases but slope decreases, therefore, we
cannot predict with certainty about the nature. It
might be constant, increasing or decreasing as well.

Soln.: We have a v

8. If the position (x) varies with respect to time (t) as


shown in the figure. Justify whether force acts in the
direction of motion or not?


Soln.: The corresponding v-t graph is as follows


 (m s1)

0 = 
= 25


5

10

(s)

15

Distance travelled = A
1
(15 5)(25) 250 m
2
6. (1/v) is plotted against x for a particle moving along
x-axis. Find the time taken to move from x = 0 to
x = 10 m? (v is in m s1 .)

Soln.: If force acts in the direction of motion speed


will increase, hence acceleration and velocity, both
should either be +ve or both ve.
Slope < 0 v < 0 and v2 < v1 a < 0
Both are negative. Hence force acts in the
direction of motion.











Soln.: The area under the graph


1
1
dx
dx dt t
v
(dx / dt )
82

PHYSICS FOR YOU | AUGUST 15

The greatest enemy


of knowledge is not
ignorance, it is illusion of
knowledge.
-Stephen Hawking

J & K CET

...contd. from page 22

51. (d) : For transmission frequency, u = 1 MHz


= 106 Hz

c 3 108 m/s
=
= 300 m
u
106 Hz
To transmit a signal the length of an antenna
is comparable to the wavelength of the signal
(atleast l/4).
Thus the length of the antenna is 300 m.
52. (b) : Both transverse and longitudinal waves
propagate in a solid.
53. (c) : Before jumping the reading of the weighing
scale on which the person is standing is 60 kg and
after jumping on it, the reading goes to 70 kg.
If a be his maximum upward acceleration, then
(70 kg)g = (60 kg)g + (60 kg)a
(70 kg)g (60 kg)g
\ a=
60 kg
The wavelength is l =

g 9.8 m/s2
=
= 1.63 m/s2
6
6

54. (b) : If N0 is the original amount of a radioactive


material, then the amount of substance left after
n half-lives is
n
n
N 1
1
N = N 0 or
=
2
N0 2
Here, n = 3
\

N 1
1 1
=
= = 100 = 12.5%
N 0 2
8 8

55. (c)
56. (c) : When a parallel
narrow beam of light
is falling normally on
a glass sphere, it will
come to focus outside
the sphere as shown in
the figure.
57. (b) : 25 VSD = 24 MSD
24
...(i)
1 VSD =
MSD
25
The least count of vernier callipers is
LC = 1 MSD 1 VSD
24
1
= 1 MSD
MSD =
MSD (using (i))
25
25
As 1 MSD = 0.5 mm (given)
1
\ LC = (0.5 mm) = 0.02 mm = 0.002 cm
25

58. (c)
59. (d) : The energy of incident light is
E = hu
where h is the Planck's constant and u is the
frequency of incident light.
As uviolet > ublue > ugreen > ured
\ Eviolet > Eblue > Egreen > Ered
Since the incident energy is maximum for
violet colour, therefore violet light produces
photoelectrons.
60. (a) : Since the phase difference is constant therefore
angular velocity is same for both pendula. Let it
be w.
If A be amplitude of each pendulum, then the
maximum velocity of one of them is
v = Aw
... (i)
and that of other is
v + x = Aw
... (ii)
Substituting the value of v from eqn. (i) in eqn. (ii),
we get
Aw + x = Aw or x = 0
nn
Refer to MTG J&K CET Explorer for complete solutions
solution of July 2015 crossword
C O L L I D 2E 3R A 4D I
I
Y
5
N
P L U T O N
7
S C R E E
10
S E X T 11A N T
T
12
E
T
D I G
L
E
I
15
GA L V A N I S M
17
O
S
F
19
R
E
A
20
21
22
R
P
G I L B E R T
A
24
R
M
O
T
D C
25
G
T R O C H I L I
L
L
O
S R
A
28
N
CO R E
M
E E
A
W
B
E
T
I
T
29
30
HO L E
FO C I M E
N
R
1

U M
6

T
E
I T R O
A
16
P
R
E
23
C E L
I
C S
I
O
N
T R Y

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C H A R G
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E L V E 27S
O
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R
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K

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saundarya P (Kerala)
physics for you | august 15

83

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. Why is the sky dark at night? Why is there no light


due to diffraction from the Earths surface?
Pooja Yadav (UP)

Ans. Light from the illuminated side of the Earth is not


scattered by the atmosphere to a significant extent,
so as to illuminate the side darkened by night.
This does happen at dawn and dusk, the land is
bright even before sunrise and after sunset. But
as the Earth turns and the Sun dips further away,
this light disappears. Our atmosphere does not
extends very far (less than a hundred kilometres).
So there is nothing above us that could receive the
scattered light from the sunlit side. The situation is
somewhat different near the polar regions. During
the summer months, the Sun does not dip much
below the horizon and the night stays illuminated
by either direct or scattered light. Therefore,
mid-summer nights are never complete dark at
the poles, sunlight or a scattered twilight keeps the
land or the sea bright.
Q2. Many roadway construction sites have flashing
yellow lights to warn motorists of possible dangers.
What causes the lightbulbs to flash?
Divya Nair (Kerala)

Ans. A typical circuit for such


R
a flasher is shown in the

L
C
figure. The lamp L is a gasfilled lamp that acts as an
k
open circuit until a large
potential difference causes an electric discharge in
the gas, which gives off a bright light. During this
discharge, charge flows through the gas between
the electrodes of the lamp. After switch k is closed,
the battery charges up the capacitor of capacitance
C. At the beginning, the current is high and the
84

physics for you | August 15

charge on the capacitor is low, so that most of the


potential difference appears across the resistance
R. As the capacitor charges, more potential
difference appears across it, reflecting the lower
current and, thus, lower potential difference across
the resistor. Eventually, the potential difference
across the capacitor reaches a value at which the
lamp will conduct, causing a flash. This discharges
the capacitor through the lamp and the process of
charging begins again. The period between flashes
can be adjusted by changing the time constant of
the RC circuit.
Q3. If you sit in front of a fire with your eyes closed,
you can feel significant warmth in your eyelids. If
you now put on a pair of eyeglasses and repeat this
activity, your eyelids will not feel nearly so warm.
Why?

Subash Basu (WB)

Ans. Much of the warmth you feel is due to


electromagnetic radiation from the fire. A large
fraction of this radiation is in the infrared part of
the electromagnetic spectrum. Your eyelids are
particularly sensitive to infrared radiation. On
the other hand, glass is very opaque to infrared
radiation. Thus, when you put on the glasses, you
block much of the radiation from reaching your
eyelids, and they feel cooler.
Q4. If an orchestra does not warm up before a
performance, the strings go flat and the wind
instruments go sharp during the performance.
Why ?
Shruti Roy (New Delhi)

Ans. Without warming up, all the instruments will be


at room temperature at the beginning of these
concert. As the wind instruments are played,
these are filled with warm air from the players
exhalation. The increase in temperature of the air
in the instrument causes an increase in the speed of
sound, which raises the resonance frequencies of
the air columns. As a result, the wind instruments
go sharp. The temperature of the strings on the
stringed instruments also increase due to the
friction of it rubbing with the bow. This results
in thermal expansion, which causes a decrease
in the tension in the strings. With a decrease in
tension, the wave speed on the strings drops, and
the fundamental frequencies decrease. Thus, the
stringed instruments go flat.
nn

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.
Winners name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

across

6.

12.
14.
16.
17.
19.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
8.
9.

A piece of solid matter which retains a


permanent electron polarization like a
permanent magnet. (8)
The measurement of force used in doing
work. (11)
An instrument for measuring the bulk flow
of plasma in space. (5,5)
Any material that stops ionizing radiation. 17
(8)
The science, technology and application of
22
nuclear energy. (10)
A phenomenon in which wave velocity
changes with its wavelength. (10)
The transformation of one element into
another by a nuclear reaction. (13)
A particle postulated to move with velocity
28
greater than that of electromagnetic
radiation. (7)
The movement of one atomic plane over
another in a crystal.(5)
A telescope designed to observe the outer
portions of the solar atmosphere. (11)
The abbreviated term for an occurrence of atmospheric
radio noise. (6)
A unit of nuclear cross section. (4)
The ratio of charge stored per increase in potential difference.
(11)

Down

1.

Cut Here
1

Particle that carries or transmits the weak interaction of


force. (4,5)
A combination of two or more tones that sound unpleasant
together. (10)
A reference equipotential surface around a planet where the
gravitational potential energy is defined to be zero. (5)
A hypothetical entity postulated as the building blocks of
leptons and quarks. (5)
Acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation. (5)
Dates on which the day and night are of equal length. (7)
A term used in the study of water waves on a free surface,
such as waves on the surface of the ocean. (8)
A thin bar of metal or cane clamped at one end and set into
transverse vibration generally by a flow of air. (4)

10

12
13
14

15
16

18

19
20
21
23

24
25
26

27
29
30

10. The first legal unit of voltage for the United States was based
on this cell. (5,4)
11. The determination of the absolute values of arbitrary
indications of an instrument. (11)
13. A meteoroid that explodes or breaks up during its passage
through the atomsphere as a meteor. (6)
15. An electronic instrument that indicates, on a meter, the
number of radiation induced pulses per minutes from
radiation detectors. (4,5)
18. The study of technology of optical instruments and
apparatus. (12)
20. The fraction of the incident power at a prescribed wavelength
that is scattered within a volume. (11)
21. A device to accelerate particles in which particles move in
circular path. (11)
22. The area of study that focuses on precise measurements of
the positions and movements of stars and other celestial
bodies. (10)
23. The production of photographs of the internal structure of
bodies, opaque to visible light by the radiation from X-rays
or gamma rays from radioactive substances. (11)

Physics for you | august 15

85

86

Physics for you | august 15