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Vol. XXIII

No. 8

rial

August 2015

Corporate Office :

Plot 99, sector 44 Institutional area,

gurgaon -122 003 (HR). tel : 0124-4951200

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

In Jammu, in the rest-house complex of Mata Vaishno Devi temple,

Regd. Office

406, taj Apartment, Near safdarjung Hospital,

Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029.

Managing Editor

Editor

:

:

the need for electricity is completely met by solar energy. A large open

terrace is completely filled with solar panels and are used for charging

Mahabir singh

Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)

In the city of Coimbatore, many housing complexes and individual

contents

Physics Musing (Problem Set-25)

houses are tapping solar energy for the purpose of producing electricity.

10

J & K CET

16

Ace Your Way CBSE XII

large use of wind-energy to convert it to electrical energy for turning

transformers.

Andre Borschberg, in his solar Impulse 2, an airplane, powered by the sun,

has flown for three consecutive days from Japan to Hawaii. the actual

23

Series 3

Borschbergs collaborator monitoring from the ground was happy that this

31

was done without any other fuel and was able to fly on its own a longer

Brain Map

46

distance than any jet plane, without refuelling. the wings of the carbon

AMU Engg.

57

Exam Prep

68

75

Core Concept

77

84

Crossword

85

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disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction only.

Editor : Anil Ahlawat

Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.

All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

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Editor

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PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is

to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The

detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those

who send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive

exams.

Set 25

subjective type

r = 20 cm is fixed to the ceiling. A bulb is to be

placed on the axis of the mirror. A circular area

of radius R = 1 m on the floor is to be illuminated

after reflection of light from the mirror. The height

of the room is 3 m. What is the maximum distance

between the centre of the mirror and the bulb so

that the required area is illuminated ?

C

2. Some gas P = 1.25 follows V

B

C

C

A

the cycle ABCDA shown in the

D

figure. Determine the ratio of

T

the energy given out by the gas

to its surroundings during the isochore section of

the cycle to the expansion work done during the

isobaric section of the cycle.

3. An equilateral prism provides the least deflection

angle 45 in air. Find the refractive index of an

unknown liquid in which same prism gives least

deflection angle of 30.

4. The final image I of the object O shown in the figure

is formed at a point 20 cm below a thin biconcave

lens, which is at a depth of 65 cm from principal

axis. From the given geometry, calculate the radius

of curvature in cm of lens kept at A.

into a swimming pool and look at each other. B

appears to be present at distance 2 m (from A) to A.

A appears to be present at distance 1 m (from B) to

B. If the refractive index of water in the swimming

X

pool is

then find the value of X.

10

6. A planet revolves about the sun in elliptical orbit

of semi-major axis 2 1012 m. The areal velocity

of the planet when it is nearest to the sun is

4.4 1016 m s1. The least distance between planet

and the sun is 1.8 1012 m. Find the minimum

speed of the planet in km s1.

7. We would like to increase the length of a 15 cm long

copper rod of cross-section 4 mm2 by 1 mm. The

energy absorbed by the rod if it is heated is E1. The

energy absorbed by the rod if it is stretched slowly

E

is E2. Then find 1 .

E2

[Various parameters of Copper are :

Density = 9 103 kg m3; Thermal co-efficient of

linear expansion = 16 106 K1, Youngs modulus

= 135 109 Pa, Specific heat = 400 J kg1 K1]

Contd. on page 30

f = 30 cm

set-24

1. Sameer Joshi (Jharkhand)

45

O

36 cm

65 cm

1m

A

20 cm

= 3/2

I

(in air) P1 = + 2 D and P2 = + 1 D respectively. The

4. Rihan Saifi (UP)

set-23

1. Akansha Arora (Punjab)

2. Varsha Jain (Haryana)

By Akhil Tewari, author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & advanced, senior Professor Physics, RaO IIt aCaDEMY, Mumbai.

difference of 2.5 kV, moves horizontally into a region

of space in which there is a downward electric field

of magnitude 10 kV m1.

(a) In what direction must a magnetic field be

applied so that the electron moves undeflected?

What is the magnitude of the smallest magnetic

field?

(b) What happens if the charge is a proton that

passes through the same combination of fields?

2. A particle of mass m and charge

+q enters a region of magnetic

field with a uniform velocity v

as shown in figure.

(a) Find the angle subtended by

the circular arc described

by it in the magnetic field.

(b) How long does the particle stay inside the

magnetic field?

(c) If the particle enters at A, what is the intercept AB?

3. A charged particle of mass m and charge q is

projected on a rough horizontal x-y plane surface

with z-axis in the vertically upward direction. Both

electric and magnetic fields are acting in the region

^

^

and given by E = E0 k and B = B0 k respectively.

z

The particle enters

B0

into the field at

E0

y

(a0, 0, 0) with

^

velocity v = v0 j .

^

v0 j

The particle starts (a0, 0, 0)

x

moving into a

circular path on

the plane. If the coefficient of friction between particle

(a) time when the particle will come to rest.

(b) time when the particle will hit the centre.

(c) distance travelled by the particle when it comes

to rest.

4. Charge Q is uniformly

distributed over the same

surface of a right circular

cone of semi-vertical

angle q and height h. The

cone is uniformly rotated

about its axis at angular

velocity w.

Calculate the associated magnetic dipole moment.

5. A long horizontal wire AB which is free to move in a

vertical plane and carries a steady current of 20 A, is in

equilibrium at a height of 0.01 m over another parallel

long wire CD, which is fixed in horizontal plane and

carries a steady current of 30 A as shown in figure.

B

0.01 m

D

y

x

executes S.H.M. Find the time period of oscillations.

6. A wire loop carrying a current is placed in the x-y

plane as shown in figure. If a particle with charge

q and mass m is placed at the centre P and given

a velocity v along NP. Find its instantaneous

acceleration. If an external uniform magnetic

^

induction B = B i is applied, find the force and

torque acting on the loop.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

10

y

M

120

60

soLuTioNs

1. (a)

experienced by the electron is

The Lorentz

force

F = e[E + (v B)]

Since the net force is zero as the electron moves

undeflected,

E

...(i)

E = vB sin q or B =

v sin q

The magnetic field is to be smallest

E

\ q = 90, then B =

v

l = R(180 2q) = R(p 2q)

Time spent in the field,

l R(p 2q)

t= =

v

v

mv (p 2q) m(p 2q)

mv

=

=

Using R =

Bq

v

Bq

Bq

2pm

T

As time period T =

,t=

(p 2q)

Bq

2p

(c) Intercept AB = 2Rcosq (from figure)

3. (a) Normal by the surface on the particle,

N = mg + qE0

Centrifugal force on the particle,

qvB0 =

mv 2

R

...(i)

...(ii)

dv

= mN

dt

From equation (ii),

mv

R=

B0q

...(iii)

...(iv)

dv

m

= m(mg + qE0 )

dt

K.E. of electron = eV = 2.5 KeV,

1

or mv 2 = eV

2

2 2.5 103 1.6 1019

2eV

\ v=

=

m

9.1 1031

= 2.96 107 m s 1

3

E 10 10

\ B= =

= 3.37 104 T

v 2.96 107

(b) Proton also moves undeflected through the

given E and B as eE = evB.

2. (a) The particle circulates under the influence of

magnetic field. As the field is uniform the charge

comes out symmetrically. The angle subtended at

the centre is (180 2q).

dt

v0

m dv = m(mg + qE0 ) dt

mv0

t =

m(mg + qE0 )

(b) From equation (iv),

m(mg + qE0 )dt

m dv

dR =

=

B0q

qB0

0

m(mg + qE 0 ) t

dR

=

dt

qB0

Ri

Ri =

qB0

mv0

\ t=

m(mg + qE0 )

(c) m

B Path of particle

O (180 2)

FB

12

mv0

Using Ri =

B0q

dv

dv

= mv = m(mg + qE0 )

dt

dl

v0

or m v dv = m(mg + qE0 ) dl

\

m(mg + qE 0 )

mv02

l=

2m0 (mg + qE0 )

angular velocity w is equivalent to a dipole of

magnetic moment

a = w2y, we get

d

g 2p

\ T = 2p

w=

=

g

d T

w

A

2p

Dipole moment of differential ring,

Q

dx w

dm =

2pr

pr 2

cos q 2p

pRl

m = IA = qA = q

Here, d = 0.01 m, g = 10 m s2

0.01

= 2 p 103 = 0.199 s 0.2 s

\ T = 2p

10

m I 2p / 3 ^

B1 = 0

(k)

2a

2p

The magnetic field at P due to straight segment MN

m I

I

^

B2 = 0

(sin 60 + sin 60)( k)

4p a cos 60

The resultant magnetic field at P due to the given loop,

m I

p ^

BR = B1 + B2 = 0 3 ( k)

2pa

3

h

O

R

h

we have, =

r hx

3

h x

Q cos q dx

wp

R

\ dm =

h

pRh cos q

Integrating both sides, we get

4 0

QwR

h

Qw 2

QwR (h x)

h tan2 q

=

4

4

4

4

4

h

h

h

dF m0 I1I2

=

5. Since

2pd

dl

m=

120

FB

mg

I2

I1

x

y

(d y)

C

In equilibrium position,

mg ^ m0 I1I2 ^

( j) +

( j) = 0

2pd

L

m0 I1I2 mg

=

or

...(i)

2pd

L

If upper wire is displaced slightly from its equilibrium

position, the resultant force per unit length on it

m0 I1I2 ^ mg ^

...(ii)

j

j

FR =

L

2p (d y)

m II 1

y

1 ^ m I I

^

j

FR = 0 1 2

j= 0 1 2

2p d y d

2p (d y)d

[Using eqn (i)]

For small displacement y, y < < d,

m II ^

FR = 0 1 22 y j

2p d

m II L

From (i), m = 0 1 2

2p dg

F

g

Acceleration of wire, a = R = y

...(iii)

d

(m/L)

( y and a are in opposite directions)

14

60

acos60

Force experienced by a moving charge in a magnetic

field is given by

F = qv B

v ^

3 ^ m0 I

p ^

F =q i +

v j

3 ( k)

2

2

2pa

3

m0qvI

p ^

^ ^

F=

3 (i + 3 j)( k)

4pa

3

p

m0qvI 3 3 ^

( j 3 ^i )

F=

4pa

So, acceleration of the charge particle

m qvI 3 p

0

F

3 ( ^j 3 ^i )

=

4pam

m

Net magnetic force on a current carrying coil of any

shape in an external magnetic field is zero.

Torque on the

loop

= m B = I ( A B)

1

Here, A = (area of circle) area of MNP

3

1

1 a

= pa2 3a = 0.614a2

3

2 2

B = Bi

nn

J & K CET

1.

wave?

(a) Sound wave

(b) Thermal radiation

(c) Microwave

(d) Gamma ray

2.

homes is

(a) rms value

(b) peak value

(c) average value

(d) none of the above

3.

Then the ratio of its translational kinetic energy to

its rotational kinetic energy is

(a) 2.5

(b) 1.5

(c) 1

(d) 0.4

4.

(a) MLT1A1

(b) ML1TA2

2

2

2

(c) ML T A

(d) ML2T2A1

5.

while passing through a wooden plank. Then

minimum number of wooden planks required to

completely stop the bullet is

(a) 3

(b) 5

(c) 15

(d) 25

6.

ideal gas is

3

1

3

1

(a) kBT (b) kBT (c) RT (d) RT

2

2

2

2

Two copper spheres having same radii, one solid

and other hollow, are charged to the same potential.

Which of the following statements is correct?

(a) Hollow sphere will hold more charge.

(b) Solid sphere will hold more charge.

(c) Solid sphere will have uniform volume charge

density.

(d) Both spheres will hold same charge.

7.

8.

16

region of a uniform electrostatic field with velocity

perpendicular to the field will be

(a) straight line

(b) circular

(c) helical

(d) parabolic

physics for you | august 15

9.

energy of a system over one complete cycle

(a) depends on the path

(b) is always negative

(c) is always zero

(d) is always positive

(a) ML2T1

(b) ML2T3

1

(c) MLT

(d) ML3T3

11. Which of the following is not an example of

primary cell?

(a) Voltaic cell

(b) Lead-acid cell

(c) Daniel cell

(d) Leclanche cell

12. In a transformer the number of primary turns is

four times that of the secondary turns. Its primary

is connected to an a.c. source of voltage V. Then

(a) current through its secondar y is about

four times that of the current through its

primary.

(b) voltage across its secondary is about four times

that of the voltage across its primary.

(c) voltage across its secondary is about two times

that of the voltage across its primary.

1

(d) voltage across its secondary is about

2 2

times that of the voltage across its primary.

13. A magnet makes a single pass through a coil. Then

across the ends of the coil it produces

(a) d.c. voltage

(b) sinusoidal voltage

(c) single voltage pulse

(d) two voltage pulses

14. An observer standing near the sea-coast counts

48 waves per min. If the wavelength of the wave is

10 m, the velocity of the waves will be

(a) 8 m/s

(b) 12 m/s

(c) 16 m/s

(d) 20 m/s

(a) intrinsic semiconductor

(b) emitter

(c) collector

(d) base

16. The carbon resistor has the colour band sequence

of green, orange, blue and silver. The value of

resistance will be

(a) 64 107 20% W

(b) 53 106 20% W

(c) 64 107 10% W

(d) 53 106 10% W

17. A series LCR circuit is connected to an a.c. source

and is showing resonance. Then

(a) VR = 0

(b) VL = VR

(c) VC = VR

(d) VL = VC

18. The wave nature of electrons is demonstrated by

the

(a) photoelectric effect

(b) Rutherford's experiment

(c) Doppler's effect

(d) Davisson and Germer experiment

19. A ball is projected up at an angle q with horizontal

from the top of a tower with speed v. It hits ground

at point A after time tA with speed vA. Now this ball

is projected at same angle and speed from the base

of the tower (located at point P) and it hits ground

at point B after time tB with speed vB. Then

(a) PA = PB

(b) tA < tB

(c) vA > vB

(d) ball A hits the ground at an angle (q) with

horizontal

20. Consider the two cells having emf E1 and E2 (E1 > E2)

connected as shown in the figure. A potentiometer is

used to measure potential difference between P and

Q, and the balancing length of the potentiometer

wire is 0.8 m. Same potentiometer is then used to

measure potential difference between P and R, and

the balancing length is 0.2 m. Then the ratio E1/E2

is

Q

P

(a)

4

3

E1

(b)

5

4

E2

(c)

5

3

(d)

4

1

with angular momentum L. While moving on the

same path if its kinetic energy becomes four times,

L

L

(a)

(b)

(c) L

(d) 2L

2

4

22. Radius of Earth is 6400 km and that of Mars is

3200 km. Mass of Mars is 0.1 that of Earth's mass.

Then the acceleration due to gravity on Mars is

nearly

(a) 1 m/s2

(b) 2.5 m/s2

2

(c) 4 m/s

(d) 5 m/s2

23. A ball is dropped from the top of 80 m high

tower. If after 2 sec of fall the gravity (g = 10 m/s2)

disappears, then time taken to reach ground since

the gravity disappeared is

(a) 2 sec (b) 3 sec (c) 4 sec

(d) 5 sec

24. Assuming density d of a planet to be uniform, we

can say that the time period of its artificial satellite

is proportional to

1

1

(a) d

(b) d (c)

(d)

d

d

25. A charge particle having charge 1 1019 C revolves

in an orbit of radius 1 such that the frequency

of revolution is 1016 Hz. The resulting magnetic

moment in SI units will be

(a) 1.57 1021

(b) 3.14 1021

23

(c) 1.57 10

(d) 3.14 1023

26. Consider a bi-convex lens and a plano-convex lens

with radii of curvature of all the curved surfaces

being same. If f is focal length of bi-convex lens

then the focal length of the plano-convex lens is

(a) 4f

(b) 2f

(c) f

(d) 0.5f

27. Consider a ray of light travelling from a denser to

a rarer medium. If it is incident at the critical angle

then

(a) it will emerge out into the rarer medium

(b) it will undergo total internal reflection

(c) it will travel along the interface separating the

two media

(d) it will retrace its path

28. A concave mirror has focal length f. A convergent

beam of light is made incident on it. Then the

image distance v is

(a) zero

(b) less than f

(c) equal to f

(d) more than f

29. A 1 m long solenoid containing 1000 turns produces

a flux density of 3.14 103 T. The current in the

solenoid will be

(a) 2.0 A

(b) 2.5 A

(c) 3.0 A

(d) 3.5 A

physics for you | august 15

17

(a) only less than 45

(b) only greater than 45

(c) any value in the range 0 to 90 except 45

(d) any value in the range 0 to 90 including

45

a note of 272 Hz is running towards a reflecting

surface with a speed of 18 km/h. If the speed of

sound is 345 m/s, the number of beats heard by

him are

(a) 4

(b) 6

(c) 8

(d) 10

(a) +1

(b) 0

(c) infinite (d) 1

(a) increase in length per unit length per unit

applied stress

(b) increase in volume per unit volume per unit

applied stress

(c) lateral displacement per unit length per unit

applied stress

(d) change in cross-sectional area per unit area

per unit applied stress

losing heat to its surroundings by

(a) conduction

(b) convection

(c) radiation

(d) conduction as well as radiation

33. A block of mass m is placed on an inclined plane

having coefficient of friction m. The plane is making

an angle q with horizontal. The minimum value of

upward force acting along the incline that can just

move the block up is

(a) mgcosq

(b) mmgcosq

(c) mgsinq

(d) mmgsinq

34. Which of the following is incorrect about sky

waves?

(a) Sky waves are not used in long distance

communication.

(b) Their propagation takes place by total internal

reflection.

(c) Sky waves support the so-called AM band.

(d) The frequency of sky waves ranges typically

from 3 MHz to 30 MHz.

35. Consider boiling water converting into steam.

Under this condition, the specific heat of water is

(a) less than zero

(b) zero

(c) slightly greater than zero

(d) infinite

36. Consider an electric dipole placed in a region of

non-uniform electric field. Choose the correct

statement out of the following options.

(a) The dipole will experience only a force.

(b) The dipole will experience only a torque.

(c) The dipole will experience both force and the

torque.

(d) The dipole will neither experience a force nor

a torque.

37. Conductivity of semiconductors

(a) is maximum at 0 K

(b) decreases with increase in temperature

(c) increases with increase in temperature

(d) is maximum at 300 K

18

refractive index 2 to a medium of index 3. The

angle of incidence is 60. Then

(a) reflected light will be partially polarized.

(b) reflected light will be plane polarized in a plane

perpendicular to plane of incidence.

(c) refracted light will be plane polarized in a

plane perpendicular to plane of incidence.

(d) refracted light will be plane polarized in a

plane parallel to plane of incidence.

41. Which of the following is correct statement about

the magnitude of the acceleration a of the particle

executing simple harmonic motion?

(a) a will be maximum at the equilibrium

position.

(b) a will be maximum at the extreme position.

(c) a will be always constant.

(d) a will always be zero.

42. The ratio of mass defect of the nucleus to its mass

number is maximum for

(a) U238 (b) N14 (c) Si28

(d) Fe56

43. Consider a region of uniform magnetic field

directed along positive x-axis. Now a positive rest

charge Q, located at origin O (0, 0) inside the field

is released from rest position. The particle will

(a) remain stationary at origin O

(b) move along positive x-axis

(c) move along negative x-axis

(d) undergo a circular motion in the x-y plane.

44. If R is Rydberg's constant, the series limit of the

wavelength of Balmer series for hydrogen atom is

given by

1

4

16

9

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

R

R

R

R

with an acceleration of 2 m/s2 acting west on it. The

displacement of the body during the 5th second of

its motion is

(a) 0.25 m (b) 0.5 m (c) 0.75 m (d) zero

46. In the fringe pattern of a Young's double slit

experiment the ratio of intensities of maxima and

minima is 25 : 9. Then the ratio of the amplitudes

of interfering waves is

(a) 4 : 1

(b) 5 : 3 (c) 4 : 3

(d) 25 : 9

47. The combination of gates as shown in the figure

forms the

(a) AND gate

(b) OR gate

(c) NOR gate

(d) NOT gate

48. Metal alloys are used for making standard resistance

coils because

(a) they have high thermal conductivity.

(b) their resistance depend weakly on temperature.

(c) they have low thermal conductivity.

(d) their resistance depend strongly on temperature.

49. If the forward bias voltage in a p-n diode is

decreased, the length of depletion region will

(a) increase

(b) decrease

(c) not change

(d) initially increase and then decrease

50. A block of mass 3 kg starts from rest and slides

down a curved path in the shape of a quarter-circle

of radius 2 m and reaches the bottom of path with

a 4 m/s speed . If g is 10 m/s2, the amount of work

done against friction is

(a) 60 J

(b) 36 J (c) 24 J

(d) 12 J

51. The length of antenna to transmit waves of 1 MHz

will be

(a) 3 m

(b) 15 m (c) 30 m

(d) 300 m

52. In which of the following both transverse and

longitudinal waves propagate?

(a) Heat transfer

(b) Elastic wave motion in a solid

(c) Microwave communication

(d) X-ray motion

53. A person is standing on a weighing-scale and

observes that the reading is 60 kg. He then suddenly

jumps up and observes that reading goes to 70 kg.

Then his maximum upward acceleration is

(a) zero

(b) 1.4 m/s2

2

(c) 1.63 m/s

(d) 9.8 m/s2

left after 3 half-lives?

(a) 6.5% (b) 12.5% (c) 25.5% (d) 33.3%

55. An ideal gas is heated at constant volume until

its pressure doubles. Which one of the following

statements is correct?

(a) The mean speed of the molecules doubles.

(b) Root mean square speed of the molecules

doubles.

(c) Mean square speed of the molecules doubles.

(d) Mean square speed of the molecules remains

unchanged.

56. A parallel narrow-beam of light is falling normally

on a glass sphere. It will come to a focus

(a) inside the sphere (except at its center)

(b) on the surface of the sphere

(c) outside the sphere

(d) exactly at the center of the sphere

57. Smallest division on the main scale of given vernier

callipers is 0.5 mm. Vernier scale has 25 divisions

and these coincide with 24 main scale divisions.

The least count of vernier callipers is

(a) 0.001 cm

(b) 0.002 cm

(c) 0.01 cm

(d) 0.02 cm

58. The electric field of an electric dipole at a point on

its axis at a distance d from the centre of the dipole

varies as

1

1

1

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) 3/2

d

d

d2

d3

59. Red, blue, green and violet colour lights are one

by one made incident on a photocathode. It is

observed that only one colour light produces

photoelectrons. That light is

(a) red

(b) blue (c) green (d) violet

60. Two pendula oscillate with a constant phase

difference of 45 and same amplitude. If the

maximum velocity of one of them is v and that of

other is v + x, then the value of x will be

v

v

(a) 0

(b)

(c)

(d) ( 2 )v

2

2

solutions

1. (a) : Among the given waves, sound wave is not

an electromagnetic wave whereas all others are

electromagnetic waves.

2. (a) : The 220 V a.c. line voltage that we receive in

our homes is an rms value.

3. (a)

physics for you | august 15

19

\ [magnetic flux] = [MT2A1][L2]

= [ML2T2A1]

5. (a)

6. (d) : According to the law of equipartition of energy,

the energy per mole per degree of freedom of an

ideal gas

1

1

R

= kB N AT = RT

as kB =

2

2

N

\ v = s 1 (10 m) = 8 m/s

10

16. (d) : The number for green is 5, for orange is 3

and that for blue is 6. For silver, tolerance is

10%.

C = 4pe0R, where R is its radius.

As both spheres have same radii, so their

capacitances will be same.

Further, when they are charged to the same

potential, both spheres will hold same charge (as

Q = CV).

8. (d) : After entering the region of a uniform

electrostatic field with velocity perpendicular to

the field, the path of the charged particle will be

parabolic.

9. (c) : The change in the internal energy of a system is

path independent and depends only on the initial

and final states of the system.

i.e. DU = Uf Ui

In a cyclic process, the system returns to its initial

state, so Uf = Ui

\ DU = Uf Ui = 0

10. (a) : As Planck's constant =

\ [h] =

[ML2 T2 ]

1

[T ]

energy

frequency

= [ML2 T1 ]

whereas all other given cells are the examples of

primary cell.

12. (a)

13. (d)

14. (a) : Standing near the sea-coast the observer counts

48 waves per min, so the frequency of the wave

is

48

48

8

u=

=

= s 1

1 min 60 s 10

The velocity v, wavelength l and frequency u of

the wave are related as

v = ul

8 1

Here, u =

s and l = 10 m

10

20

Green

Orange

Blue

Silver

figure is

R = 53 106 10% W

17. (d) : At resonance,

voltage across inductor = voltage across capacitor

i.e.

VL = VC

18. (d) : The wave nature of electrons is demonstrated

by the Davisson and Germer experiment and was

first experimentally verified by C.J. Davisson and

L.H. Germer in 1927.

19. (c)

20. (a) :

Q

P

E1

E2

\ When the potentiometer is connected between

P and Q,

E1 0.8

...(i)

and when it is connected between P and R,

E1 E2 0.2

...(ii)

(As E1 and E2 are in opposition and E1 > E2)

Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i), we get

E1 E2 0.2 1

E

or 1 2 = 1

=

=

E1

E1 4

0.8 4

E2

1 3

= 1 =

E1

4 4

or

E1 4

=

E2 3

L of a particle undergoing uniform circular motion

are related as

K=

L2

or L = r 2mK

... (i)

2mr 2

where m is its mass and r is the radius of circle.

While moving on the same path, (i.e. r remains

the same) if its kinetic energy becomes four times,

then its new angular momentum will be

= 2L

(using (i))

22. (c)

23. (b)

24. (c) : The time period of an artificial satellite

revolving very close to a planet's surface is

R3

... (i)

GM

where M is the mass of the planet and R its

radius.

Assuming the planet to be of uniform density d,

so its mass is

4

mass

M = pR3d

as density =

3

volume

T = 2p

\ T = 2p

1

3p

R3

or T

=

d

Gd

4

G pR3d

3

charged particle having charge q is

I = qu

where u is the frequency of revolution.

If r is the radius of the orbit, then the resulting

magnetic moment is

M = IA = qu(pr2) = pqur2

Here,

q = 1 1019 C, u = 1016 Hz,

r = 1 = 1010 m

\ M = (3.14)(1 1019 C)(1016 Hz)(1010 m)2

= 3.14 1023 Am2

26. (b)

27. (c) : When a ray of light

Rarer

travelling from a denser medium

medium to a rarer

medium is incident at

ic

Denser

the critical angle ic, then medium

it will travel along the

interface separating the two media as shown in

the figure.

28. (b)

29. (b) : The flux density produced by a long solenoid

m NI

Bl

or I =

is B = 0

l

m0 N

where N is the number of turns in the solenoid and

l its length and I is the current in the solenoid.

Here, B = 3.14 103 T, l = 1 m

m0 = 4p 107 Tm/A, N = 1000

\ I=

(4 p 10

10

A = 2.5 A

Tm/A)(1000) 4

=

angle iB and refractive index m of a material are

related as

taniB = m or iB = tan1(m) As m > 1 \ iB > 45

Thus the values for Brewster's angle iB can be only

greater than 45.

31. (c) : The dielectric constant of a perfect conductor

is infinite.

32. (b, c) : Newton's law of cooling applies when a body

is losing heat to its surroundings by convection

and radiation.

33. (*) : The various forces acting on the block are

shown in the figure.

N

si

mg

mg

co

mg

the force of friction f acts down the plane. So the

minimum force required to just move the block

up the inclined plane is

F = mgsinq + f = mgsinq + mN

= mgsinq + mmgcosq

(Q N = mgcosq)

= mg(sinq + mcosq)

* None of the given options is correct.

34. (a) : S k y w av e s a re u s e d i n l on g d i s t an c e

communication. All other statements are correct

about sky waves.

Q

35. (d) : As specific heat, s =

mDT

Since boiling of water is an isothermal process,

so DT = 0

Q

\ s=

=

m0

36. (c) : When an electric dipole is placed in a region

of non-uniform electric field, it will experience

both force and the torque.

37. (c) : Conductivity of semiconductors increases with

increase in temperature and vice versa.

Semiconductors behave as insulators at 0 K.

physics for you | august 15

21

38. (c)

39. (*) : Bulk modulus B is defined as the ratio of

normal stress to the volumetric strain and is given

by

DP

B=

DV / V

ve sign shows that with increase in pressure the

volume decreases.

* None of the given options is correct.

40. (a) : As unpolarized light is travelling from the

medium 1 of refractive index m1 (= 2) to the

medium 2 of refractive index m2 (= 3), so the

refractive index of the medium 2 with respect to

the medium 1 is

m

3

1

m2 = 2 =

m1 2

According to Brewster's law, the polarizing angle

ip for given two media is

3

tani p = 1m2 =

2

3

i p = tan 1 = 56.3

2

But angle of incidence i = 60 (given)

i.e. i > ip

For i > ip, both reflected and refracted light will

be partially polarized.

41. (b) : The acceleration of the particle executing simple

harmonic motion at the displacement x from the

equilibrium position is

a = w2 x where w is the angular frequency.

Its magnitude will be minimum at the equilibrium

position (x = 0) and maximum at the extreme

position (x = A(amplitude)).

42. (d) : The ratio of mass defect of the nucleus to its

mass number is maximum for Fe56.

43. (a)

44. (b) : According to Rydberg formula, the wavelength l

of a spectral line in Balmer series is

1

1

1

= R ; n = 3, 4, 5,...

2

2 n2

l

For series limit, n =

1

1

1 R

\ = R

=

22 2 4

l

or l =

4

R

u = 9 m/s and a = 2 m/s2

As S

22

th

a

= u + (2n 1)

2

+ve

\ S

5th

46. (a)

47. (a) :

2

= 9 (2 5 1) = 9 9 = 0

2

of gates is

Y = A + B = A B (using de Morgan's theorem)

= AB

which is Boolean expression for AND gate.

Thus the given combination of gates forms AND

gate.

48. (b) : Metals are used for standard resistance

coils because their resistance depend weakly on

temperature.

49. (a) : In a p-n diode when the forward bias voltage

is decreased the length of depletion region will

increase and vice versa.

m

m = 3 kg

Initial speed of the block,

h

u = 0 (as it starts from rest)

Final speed of the block,

v

v = 4 m/s

Height, h (in this case the radius of quarter circle)

=2m

The change in kinetic energy of the block is

1

1

1

DK = mv 2 mu2 = mv 2 0

2

2

2

1

2

= (3 kg)(4 m/s) = 24 J

2

The work done by the gravitational force is

Wg = mgh = (3 kg)(10 m/s2)(2 m) = 60 J

If W f is the work done by the friction, then

according to work energy theorem,

Wg + Wf = DK

or Wf = DK Wg = 24 J 60 J = 36 J

As work done against friction is equal and opposite

to work done by the friction,

\ The amount of work done against friction is

36 J.

...contd. on page 83

Series 3

CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER : Electromagnetic Induction and

Alternating Currents | Electromagnetic Waves

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section

E contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

section-A

1. For circuits used for transporting electric power,

2.

3.

4.

5.

transmission. Explain.

On the basis of electromagnetic theory, show how

does the refractive index of a material medium

depend on its relative permeability and dielectric

constant.

Consider a metallic pipe with an inner radius of

1 cm. If a cylindrical bar magnet of radius 0.8 cm

is dropped through the pipe, it takes more time to

come down than it takes for a similar unmagnetised

cylindrical iron bar dropped through the metallic

pipe. Explain.

Mention the two characteristic properties of the

material suitable for making core of a transformer.

Can the voltage drop across the inductor or the

capacitor in a series LCR circuit be greater than

the applied voltage of the AC source? Justify your

answer.

section-b

speed in the same magnetic field. Compare:

7.

8.

9.

10.

(b) the current produced in the two coils.

Justify your answer.

Electric field at a given point in space is oscillating

with an angular frequency of 9p 1012 rad s1 and

an amplitude of 7.5 V m1 along Y-axis. Write the

equation of electric field and magnetic field. Given

that the electromagnetic wave is propagating along

x-direction.

OR

How would you establish an instantaneous

displacement current of 1.0 A in the space between

the plates of 1 F capacitor?

Although there is no direct electric connection

between the two coils of a transformer, yet energy

is being transferred from primary coil to secondary

coil. How?

An 80 V, 800 W heater is to be operated on a 100 V,

50 Hz supply. Calculate the inductance of the choke

required.

Ordinary moving coil galvanometer used for

direct current cannot be used to measure an

alternating current even if its frequency is low.

Explain, why?

physics for you | august 15

23

section-c

11. (a) Obtain the expression for the magnetic energy

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

24

B, area A and length l of the solenoid.

(b) How does this magnetic energy compare with

the electrostatic energy in a capacitor?

Name the constituent radiation of electromagnetic

spectrum which:

(a) is used in satellite communication,

(b) is used for studying crystal structure,

(c) is similar to the radiations emitted during decay

of radioactive nuclei,

(d) has its wavelength range between 390 nm and

700 nm,

(e) is absorbed from sunlight by ozone layer, and

(f) produces intense heating effect.

Describe the use of a series resonant circuit in the

tuning of a radio receiver.

A circuit contains two inductors in series with selfinductances L1 and L2 and mutual inductance M.

Obtain a formula for the equivalent inductance in

the circuit.

Show that in the free oscillations of an LC circuit,

the sum of energies stored in capacitor and the

inductor is constant in time.

Name the SI unit of magnetic flux and show that

it equals volt-second. Give three possible ways

of producing an induced emf in a coil giving an

example in each case.

OR

How does the mutual inductance of a pair of coils

change when:

(i) the distance between the coils is increased?

(ii) the number of turns in each coil is decreased?

(iii) a thin iron sheet is placed between the two coils,

other factors remaining the same.

Justify your answer in each case.

(i) The primary of a transformer has 400 turns

while the secondary has 2000 turns . If the power

output from the secondary at 1100 V is 12.1 kW,

calculate the primary voltage. (ii) If the resistance

of the primary is 0.2 W and that of the secondary is

2.0 W and the efficiency of the transformer is 90%,

calculate the heat losses in the primary and the

secondary coils.

Light with an energy flux of 18 W cm2 falls on a

non-reflecting surface at normal incidence. If the

surface has an area of 20 cm2, find the average force

exerted on the surface during a 30 minute time

span.

physics for you | august 15

with angular frequency in a series LCR circuit

and obtained the graphs shown in the figure. They

all used AC sources of the same rms value and

inductances of the same value.

I

X

Y

(a) capacitance values, and

(b) resistance values used by them?

(c) In which case, will the quality factor be

maximum?

(d) What can be concluded about the nature of the

impedance of the set-up at frequency w0?

20. Derive an expression for the mutual inductance of

two long coaxial solenoids.

21. A coil of inductance 0.50 H and resistance 100 W is

connected to a 240 V, 50 Hz AC supply.

(a) What is the maximum current in the coil?

(b) What is the time lag between the voltage

maximum and the current maximum?

22. Prove that an ideal inductor connected to an AC

source does not dissipate any power.

section-D

23. One day Kapil requested his grandfather to show

amazed to observe that radio set was catching

the radio stations on tuning, by rotating the

knob.

His grandfather, who was a retired scientist,

explained the working of tuning circuits and also

explained how the similar circuits work in tuning

the TV for different channels and FM radio

installed in the car. Kapil was very happy to learn

that all these electronic equipments were working

on the fundamental concepts which he learned in

his physics class recently.

(a) What are the major components of tuning

circuit in a radio?

(b) Name the phenomena involved in tuning.

(c) What values can be associated with this?

section-e

24. (a) What are eddy currents? Write their two

applications.

(b) Figure shows a rectangular conducting loop

PQSR in which arm RS of length l is movable.

The loop is kept in a uniform magnetic field

B directed downward perpendicular to the

plane of the loop. The arm RS is moved with a

uniform speed v.

(i) the emf induced across the arm RS,

(ii) the external force required to move the arm,

and

(iii) the power dissipated as heat.

OR

State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction

and explain three methods for producing induced

EMF.

25. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram, the

principle, construction and working of an AC

generator.

OR

Draw a schematic diagram of a step-up transformer.

Explain its working principle. Deduce the expression

for the secondary to primary voltage in terms of

the number of turns in the two coils. In an ideal

transformer, how is this ratio related to the currents

in the two coils?

How is the transformer used in large scale

transmission and distribution of electrical energy

over long distances?

26. Derive an expression for the impedance of a series

LCR circuit connected to an AC supply of variable

frequency.

Plot a graph showing variation of current with the

frequency of the applied voltage.

OR

Derive an expression of power in an LCR AC circuit.

What is wattless current?

solutions

1. We know that power in an AC circuit is given by the

factor. To supply a given power to an AC circuit at a

given voltage if power factor cos f is small, then we

have to increase the value of current accordingly.

However, increase in current means increased

power loss (power dissipation due to Joules heating)

being given by I2R. Thus, transmission line loss is

more.

2. As per electromagnetic theory, speed of light in a

given material medium,

...(i)

c = v mr K

and we know that refractive index n of a medium

is given by

c

...(ii)

n=

v

On putting the value of c in equation (ii), we get

v mr K

= mr K

v

Thus, refractive index of a medium is proportional

to square root of its relative permeability and

dielectric constant.

3. When the bar magnet is dropped into the metallic

pipe, eddy currents are produced in the pipe. As

these currents oppose the motion of the magnet,

its acceleration is less than that due to gravity (g).

Since no eddy currents are produced in the metallic

pipe when the unmagnetised bar is dropped into

the pipe, its acceleration is g. Obviously, the bar

magnet takes more time to come down through the

pipe than the time taken by the unmagnetised bar.

n=

permeability but a low value of magnetic hysteresis

so that magnetic flux linked with each turn of

primary or secondary coil is large and energy loss

due to hysteresis phenomenon is the least possible.

5. Yes, the voltage drop across L or C in a series LCR

circuit can be greater than the applied voltage of the

AC source. This is due to the fact that these voltages

are not in phase and cannot be arithmetically added

up. In fact, VL and VC are in mutually opposite

phase and try to balance each other.

6. (a) When two identical loops, one of copper and

the other of aluminium, are rotated with same

angular speed w in the same magnetic field

B, the induced emf in both coils will be same

physics for you | august 15

25

loops is exactly the same.

e

(b) Induced current, I =

R

where e is the induced emf and R is the

resistance offered by the loop. As copper is a

better conductor than aluminium, resistance

offered by copper loop is less and consequently,

more induced current is produced in the copper

loop.

7. As per question,

w = 9p 1012 rad s1 and E0 = 7.5 V m1

12

w 9p 10

\ k= =

= 3p 10 4 m 1

c

3 108

E

7. 5

and B0 = 0 =

= 2.5 10 8 T

c 3 108

Hence, equation of electric field,

Ey = E0 sin (wt kx)

= 7.5 sin (9p 1012t 3p 104 x) V m1

Similarly,

Bz = B0 sin (wt kx)

= 2.5 108 sin (9p 1012 t 3p 104 x) T

OR

As per question, ID = 1.0 A and C = 1 F = 106 F

We know that,

df

d

I D = e0

= e 0 (EA)

dt

dt

= e0

d V e 0 A dV

dV

=C

A =

dt d

d dt

dt

distance between the plates.

dV I D

1. 0

=

=

= 106 V s 1

dt

C 1 10 6

Thus, to establish a displacement current of

1.0 A, the potential difference between the plates of

capacitor must change at a rate of 106 V s1.

8. Although there is no electrical connection between

the primary and secondary coils of a transformer,

still energy is transferred from the primary circuit to

secondary circuit. Owing to an AC voltage applied

across the primary coil an alternating current flows

in primary coil and an alternating magnetic flux

per unit turn is created. Through the iron core, this

alternating magnetic flux is also linked with each

turn of secondary coil, due to which, an induced

emf is set up in the secondary coil. In this manner,

electrical energy is continuously being transferred

from primary to secondary coil circuit.

26

9. As P = VI

P 800

V 80

=

= 10 A and R = = = 8 W

V 80

I 10

As the choke is connected in series with the heater,

the current should remain same for the impedance

adjusted.

Veff

Veff

\ I eff =

=

2

2 2

2

R +w L

R + 4p 2u2L2

\ I=

100

or

10 =

or

or

L2 =

8 + 4p 2 502 L2

36

6

or L =

= 0.019 H

100 p

10000 p 2

is based on magnetic effect of current which, in

turn, depends on direction of current. So it cannot

be used to measure AC. During one half cycle of AC,

its pointer moves in one direction and during next

half cycle, it will move in the opposite direction.

Now the average value of AC over a complete cycle

is zero. Even if we measure an alternating current

of low frequency, the pointer, will appear to be

stationary at the zero position due to persistence of

vision.

We can measure AC by using a hot-wire ammeter

which is based on heating effect of current and this

effect is independent of the direction of current.

To measure AC, we define the mean value of AC

over half a cycle or its root mean square value.

11. (a)

l

in the form of magnetic field.

If current I is flowing in the solenoid, the magnetic

field energy associated is

1

UB = LI2

2

2

1 B

or UB = L

(Q B = m0nI)

2 m 0n

As coefficient of self induction L = m0 n2 Al

B2

1

1 2

\ UB = m0 n2 Al 2 2 =

B Al

2

m 0n 2 m 0

self-inductances L1 and L2 connected in series.

For the series combination, the emfs induced

in the two coils get added up. Thus

eeq = e1 + e2

...(i)

If the rate of change of current in the series

dI

circuit is

, then

dt

dI

dI

e1 = L1 M ,

...(ii)

dt

dt

U

B 2 Al

B2

uB = B =

=

2m 0 Al 2m 0

V

Electric field energy density in capacitor

1

uE = e0E2

2

So both energy density are proportional to square

of corresponding fields.

12. (a) Microwaves

are

used

in

satellite

communication.

(b) X-rays are used for studying crystal structure.

(c) Gamma rays are similar to the radiations

emitted during decay of radioactive nuclei.

(d) Visible light radiation has its wavelength range

between 390 nm and 700 nm.

(e) Ultraviolet radiations are mainly absorbed from

sunlight by ozone layer.

(f) Infrared rays produce intense heating effect

when fall on a material.

13. The tuning circuit of a radio or TV is an example

of LCR resonant circuit. Signals are transmitted

by different stations at different frequencies. These

frequencies are picked up by the antenna and

corresponding to these frequencies, a number

of voltages appear across the series LCR circuit.

But maximum current flows through the circuit

for that AC voltage which has frequency equal to

1

fr =

.

2p LC

e 2 = L2

dI

dI

M

dt

dt

...(iii)

dI

and e eq = Leq

...(iv)

dt

The negative sign throughout indicates that

both self and mutual induced emfs are opposing

the applied emf.

Using eqns. (ii), (iii) and (iv) in eqn. (i), we get

dI

dI

Leq = (L1 + M + L2 + M )

dt

dt

Leq = L1 + L2 + 2M

or

current flows in opposite senses in the two

coils, as shown in figure.

L1

L2

Antenna

L

dI

dI

dI

dI

e1 = L1 + M , e 2 = L2 + M

dt

dt

dt

dt

To receiver

other stations will be very weak. By changing the

value of the adjustable capacitor C, the signal from

the desired station can be tuned in.

14. (i) Let the series connection be such that the

current flows in the same sense in the two coils

as shown in figure.

applied emf and hence positive. For this series

combination also, the emfs induced in the two

coils get added up.

Here, e eq = e1 + e 2 = [L1 M + L2 M] dI

dt

dI

But

e eq = Leq

dt

dI

dI

\ Leq = [L1+ L2 2M]

dt

dt

or

Leq = L1 + L2 2M.

stored in the capacitor and inductor remains

constant during LC oscillations. Suppose at time

physics for you | august 15

27

voltage V0.

1

So, U E = CV02

2

It is connected with an inductor. So initial energy in

the inductor in zero.

1

Total initial energy of the LC circuit, U v = CV02

2

At any instant, the electrostatic energy stored in the

capacitor is

1 q2

UE =

2C

The magnetic energy stored in the inductor at any

instant is

1

U B = LI 2

2

If there is no (resistive) loss of energy, then the total

energy of the LC circuit at any instant will be

1 q2 1 2

+ LI

2C 2

dq

But q = q0 cos w 0t and I = dt = q0w 0 sin w 0t

1 2

1

\ U=

q cos 2 w 0t + Lw 20 q02 sin 2 w 0t

2C 0

2

U =UE +UB =

1 2

1 1 2 2

q cos 2 w 0t + L

q sin w 0t

2C 0

2 LC 0

1

1 q2

q02 [cos 2 w 0t + sin 2 w 0t] = 0

2C

2 C

1

= CV02 = Initial energy

2

16. SI unit of magnetic flux is weber (Wb).

By Faradays law

df

|e| =

dt

1 weber

\ 1 volt =

or1 weber = 1 volt second

1 second

Magnetic flux linked with a closed coil is given by

f = BA cos q.

Whenever f changes, emf is induced. Hence emf

may be produced by three methods:

(i) By changing the magnetic field B, e.g., by

changing the relative separation between a

closed coil and magnet.

(ii) By changing the area A of the closed coil, e.g., by

moving a closed loop into and out of a region of

magnetic field.

(iii) By changing the relative orientation q between a

closed coil and a magnetic field, e.g., by rotating

28

magnetic field.

OR

(i) The mutual inductance of two coils decreases

when the distance between them is increased.

This is because the flux passing from one coil

to another decreases.

mNN A

(ii) Mutual inductance, M = 0 1 2

l

i.e., M N1N2

Clearly, when the number of turns N1 and

N2 in the two coils is decreased, the mutual

inductance decreases.

(iii) When an iron sheet is placed between the two

coils the mutual inductance increases, because

M permeability ().

17. (i) Here, N1 = 400, N2 = 2000, e2 = 1100 V

N

400

e1 = e 2 1 = 1100

= 220 V .

N2

2000

Resistance of secondary, R2 = 2.0 W

Output power = e2I2 = 12.1 kW = 12100 W

\ Current in the secondary,

e I 12100

I2 = 2 2 =

= 11 A

e2

1100

Output power

As Efficiency =

Input power

12100 W

90

=

100 Input power

or Input power

12100 100

= 13.44 103 W

e1I1 =

90

Current in the primary,

3

e1I1 13.44 10

=

= 61.1 A

e1

220

Power loss in the primary

= I12R1 = (61.1)2 0.2 = 746.64 W

Power loss in the secondary

= I22R2 = (11)2 2.0 = 242 W

18. Here, Energy flux = 18 W cm2 = 18 J s1 cm2

Area = 20 cm2, Time = 30 min = 1800 s

Total energy falling on the surface

U = Energy flux time area

= (18 J s1 cm2) 1800 s 20 cm2

= 6.48 105 J

The total momentum delivered to the surface,

I1 =

solenoids. Hence

B1 = 0n1I1 where n1 = N1/l = the number of turns

per unit length of S1.

Total flux linked with the outer solenoid S2 is

f 2 = B1AN 2 = m 0n1I1 AN 2

6.48 105 J

U

=

= 2.16 103 kg m s1

c 3 108 m s 1

The average force exerted on the surface,

3

p 2.16 10

F= =

= 1.2 10 6 N

1800

t

p=

1

Since, w 0 =

LC

and

LX = LY = LZ

Hence, CX = CY = CZ

(b) At resonance condition,

V V

I= =

Z R

As per graph IX > IY > IZ, hence we conclude

that RX < RY < RZ.

(c) Q-factor = wL/R,

hence Q-factor is maximum for X and minimum

for Z. It means that QX > QY > QZ.

(d) At resonant frequency w0, impedance is purely

resistive in nature, i.e., Z = R.

20. As shown in figure, consider two long co-axial

solenoids S1 and S2, with S2 wound over S1.

I2

S2

r1

I1 S1

r2

I1

coil 1 is

f

mNN A

M 21 = 2 = 0 1 2

I1

l

Clearly M12 = M21 = M(say)

mNN A

\ M = 0 1 2 = m 0n1n2 Al = m 0n1n2pr12l

l

21. For an LR circuit, if V = V0 cos wt, then

I=

V0

R + w 2L2

where tan f =

wL

.

R

V0

V0

=

I0 =

2

2 2

2

R +w L

R + 4p 2u2L2

Given L = 0.50 H, R = 100 W, Veff = 240 V

and u = 50 Hz.

\ I0 =

2 240

(100)2 + 4p 2 (50)2 (0.50)2

V0

Veff = 2

r1, r2 = radii of the two solenoids

A = pr21 = area of cross-section of inner solenoid S1

N1, N2 = number of turns in the two solenoids.

Let a time varying current I2 pass through S2. The

magnetic field set up inside S2 due to I2 is

B2 = 0n2I2 where n2 = N2/l = the number of turns

per unit length of S2.

Total magnetic flux linked with the inner solenoid

S1 is f1 = B2AN1 = 0n2I2AN1

\ Mutual inductance of coil 1 with respect to

coil 2 is

mNN A

f

M12 = 1 = m 0n2 AN 1 = 0 1 2

I2

l

We now consider the flux linked with the outer

solenoid S2 due to the current I1 in the inner

solenoid S1. The field B1 due to I1 is constant inside

1.414 240

1.414 240

= 1.82 A

186.2

10000 + 24674

f

(b) V is maximum at t = 0, I is maximum at t =

w

(i.e., when wt f = 0). If f is positive, this

means current maximum lags behind voltage

maximum by time lag,

f

t =

w

2puL 2p 50 0.5

Now, tan f =

=

= 1.571

R

100

57.5 p

\ f = tan 1 (1.571) 57.5 =

rad

180

57.5 p

f

Time lag, t = =

s

w 180 2p 50

=

physics for you | august 15

29

we can write the instantaneous values of voltage

and current as follows:

V = V0 sin wt

p

and I = I 0 sin wt

2

= I 0 sin wt = I 0 cos wt

2

dW = P dt = V0I0 sin wt cos wt dt

VI

= 0 0 sin 2 wt dt

2

Excel in Physics).

W 1

=

dW

T T

0

Physics).

V I cos 2wt

VI

= 0 0

=+ 0 0

2T 2w

4T w

0

4p

cos T t

V0I 0

VI

[cos 4p cos 0] = 0 0 [1 1]= 0

4T w

4T w

Thus the average power dissipated per cycle in an

inductor is zero.

=

PHYSICS

MUSING

other as shown in the figure. Light of a certain

wavelength is incident on the first prism. The angle

of incidence is 30 and the ray leaves the third prism

parallel to the direction of

first and third prisms is

1.5. Find the refractive index of the material of the

middle prism. (Take 6 = 2.45)

9. A light ray parallel to the principal axis is incident

(as shown in the figure) on a thin planoconvex lens

with radius of curvature of its curved part equal to

10 cm. Assuming that the refractive index of the

material of the lens is 4/3 and medium on both

sides of the lens is air, the distance of the point from

the lens where this ray meets the principal axis is

30

in Physics).

OR

Refer point 4.1(5, 7(a, b, c)) page no. 247, 248 (MTG

Excel in Physics).

25. Refer point 4.8(2) page no. 275 (MTG Excel in

VI

= 0 0 sin 2 wt dt

2T

T

signals and an LCR series resonant circuit

with variable capacitor whose value varies by

rotating the knob.

(b) Phenomena involved in tuning is resonance.

(c) Awareness,

scientific

thinking,

good

communication between old generation and

new generation is important to take advantage

of the hard earned learning by elders.

24. (a) Refer point 4.3(1, 4) page no. 252, 253 (MTG

inductor is

Pav =

OR

Refer point 4.8(1) page no. 274 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

26. Refer point 4.6(6, 8) page no. 269, 270 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

OR

Refer point 4.6(9) page no. 271 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

nn

X

cm. Find the value of X.

7

6 cm

efficiency (in percent) of the cycle.

[Take ln 2 = 0.7]

nn

kInematICS

the motion of points, bodies and system of bodies

without consideration of the cause of motion.

Rest and motion

at rest if its position does not change with time with

respect to a reference point.

An object is said to be in motion if its position changes

with respect to its immediate surroundings.

For example : A car moving on a highway is in motion

with respect to surrounding (tree) but the same car is at

rest with respect to its driver.

Point object

mentally similar to a point then we call such an object

a point object or point particle.

Position, path length and displacement

with respect to reference point (origin of mutually

perpendicular axes).

Path length : Path length (distance) is a measure of

the length of the path taken during the change in

position of an object.

Displacement : The measure of change in position

of an object with time is known as displacement. It

is a vector quantity having both magnitude as well

as direction.

Displacement along x-axis, Dx = x x0

KEY POINT

The magnitude of displacement may or may not be

equal to the path length traversed by an object.

Uniform and non-Uniform motion

distance in equal intervals of time, it is said to be a

uniform motion along a straight line.

If an object moving along the straight line covers equal

distances in unequal intervals of time or unequal

distance in equal intervals of time, it is said to be in

non-uniform motion along a straight line.

average Velocity and average Speed

in position or displacement (Dx) of the object to the

time interval (Dt). The SI unit of the average velocity is

m s1 and it is a vector quantity.

Mathematically, the average velocity is expressed as

Displacement Dx x 2 x1

v avg =

.

=

=

Time interval Dt t 2 t1

Average speed is defined as the ratio of the distance

traveled by a particle to the time taken. The average

speed involved the total distance covered (for example,

the number of meters moved). It is independent of

direction and is given by

Total distance

savg =

.

Total time taken

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed

The velocity of an object at any given instant of time is

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

31

v. The SI unit of instantaneous velocity is m s1 and it

is a vector quantity.

Mathematically, the instantaneous velocity is represented

as

Dx dx

v = lim

= .

dt

x Dt

Instantaneous speed or simply speed is the magnitude

of velocity.

KEY POINT

Average velocity of a body can be positive or

negative but average speed is always positive.

slow motion it would seem to stop and then begin

moving in the opposite direction. There is an

instant of reversal. If the velocity is positive before

this instant then after it, the velocity is negative. In

changing sign, it must pass through zero. At this

instant, the instantaneous velocity is zero.

Displacement-time graph

If the graph is a

straightline parallel to

time-axis, shown by

line AB, it means that

the body is at rest i.e.

velocity = zero.

Displacement

change of velocity of the object and time taken

Change in velocity

Time taken

Acceleration is a vector quantity. Acceleration is

positive, if the velocity is increasing and is negative

if velocity is decreasing. The negative acceleration is

called retardation or deceleration.

Uniform acceleration and variable acceleration :

If the velocity of an object changes by equal amounts

in equal intervals of time, it is said to be moving with a

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

(i) v = u + at

(iii) v 2 = u2 + 2as

1 2

(ii) s = ut + at

2

a

(iv) sn = u + (2n 1)

2

KEY POINT

When a body is accelerated with accelerations

acceleration is given as

a t +a t

aavg = 1 1 2 2

t1 + t 2

is a = g = 9.8 m s2, and the magnitude of the

acceleration is g = 9.8 m s2. Do not substitute

9.8 m s2 for g.

Time

acceleration

32

straight line

D C B

E

(such as OC) shows that body is moving with a

constant velocity.

If the graph obtained is a curve like OD whose slope

decreases with time, the velocity goes on decreasing,

i.e., motion is retarded.

If the graph obtained is a curve like OE whose slope

increases with time, the velocity goes on increasing,

i.e. motion is accelerated.

i.e., Acceleration =

by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time, it is said

to be moving with a variable acceleration.

Instantaneous acceleration : The acceleration of an

object at a given instant or at a given point of motion is

called its instantaneous acceleration. It is defined as the

first time derivative of velocity at a given instant or it is

also equal to second time derivative of the position of

the object at a given instant i.e.,

Instantaneous acceleration,

Dv dv d 2 x

a = Lt

=

=

dt dt 2

Dt 0 Dt

SELF CHECK

vertically upwards with a speed u. The time taken

by the particle, to hit the ground, is n times that

taken by it to reach the highest point of its path. The

relation between H, u and n is

(a) gH = (n 2)u2

(b) 2 gH = n2u2

2

2

(c) gH = (n 2) u

(d) 2 gH = nu2(n 2)

(JEE Main 2014)

2. An object moving with a speed of 6.25 m s1, is

dv

decelerated at a rate given by

= 2.5 v , where

dt

v is the instantaneous speed. The time taken by the

object, to come to rest, would be

(a) 1 s

(b) 2 s

(c) 4 s

(d) 8 s

(AIEEE 2011)

Velocity-time graph

shown by line AB, it means that the body is moving

with a constant velocity or zero acceleration.

(x1 x2)

Velocity

D C

E

time-axis with +ve slope (line OC) it means that the

body is moving with constant acceleration.

If the graph obtained is a curve like OD whose

slope decreases with time, the acceleration goes on

decreasing.

If the graph obtained is a curve like OE whose

slope increases with time, the acceleration goes on

increasing.

The area of velocity-time graph with time axis

represents the displacement of that body.

to another object is known as relative velocity of that

object.

The relative velocity of an object A with respect to object

B when both are in motion, is the time rate of change of

position of object A with respect to that of B.

v AB = v A v B

When vA and vB are inclined to an angle q,

v AB = v 2A + v 2B + 2v A v B cos q

straight line, the magnitude of relative velocity of

one object with respect to the other object will be

equal to difference in magnitude of the velocities of

the two objects.

If two objects are moving in opposite direction along

straight line, the magnitude of relative velocity of

one object with respect to the other object will be

equal to the sum of the magnitude of the velocities

of the two objects.

SELF CHECK

the positive x-direction with a constant acceleration.

At the same instant another body passes through

x = 0 moving in the positive x-direction with a

constant speed. The position of the first body is

given by x1(t) after time t and that of the second

body by x2(t) after the same time interval. Which

of the following graphs correctly describes (x1 x2)

as a function of time t?

(b)

O

Time

Relative Velocity

(a)

(c)

(x1 x2)

(x1 x2)

O

(x1 x2)

(d)

t

(AIEEE 2008)

SCalaRS anD VeCtORS

magnitude and no direction are called scalars e.g., mass,

length, time, speed, work, power, etc.

Vectors : The physical quantities which have both

magnitude and direction are called vectors e.g.,

displacement, velocity, acceleration, force momentum,

etc.

Position vector : A vector which gives position of

an object with reference to the origin of a coordinate

system is called position vector.

Displacement vector : It is that vector which tells

how much and in which direction an object has

changed its position in a given time interval.

Polar vectors : These are the vectors which have

a starting point or a point of application e.g.,

displacement, force, velocity, etc.

Axial vectors : The vectors which represent

rotational effect and act along the axis of rotation

in accordance with right hand screw rule are called

axial vectors e.g., torque, angular momentum, etc.

Equal vectors : Two vectors are said to be equal if

they have the same magnitude and direction.

Negative vector : The negative of a vector is defined

as another vector having the same magnitude but

having an opposite direction.

Zero vector : A vector having zero magnitude

and an arbitrary direction is called a zero or null

vector.

Collinear vectors : The vectors which either act

along the same line or along parallel lines are called

collinear vectors.

Coplanar vectors : The vectors which act in the

same plane are called coplanar vectors.

Modulus of a vector : The magnitude or length of

a vector is called its modulus.

Modulus of vector A = A = A

fixed is called a fixed vector or localised vector.

Unit vector : A unit vector is a vector of unit

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

33

vector.

A=

A

same initial point are called co-initial vectors.

Co-terminus vectors : The vectors which have the

common terminal point are called co-terminus

vectors.

Properties of zero vector : A zero vector has the

following properties :

A + O = A; l O = O; 0 A = O

Multiplication of a vector by a real number :

addition of Vector

O

P

A

B Q

P R

B

O

Q

Now the resultant vector R = A + B

Suppose a body is displaced through 4 m due west and

then is further displaced through 6 m due west. Then

the resultant displacement of the body = (4 m + 6 m) =

10 m due west.

Triangle law of vector addition : If two vectors are

represented both in magnitude and direction by the two

sides of a triangle taken in the same order, then the

resultant of these vectors is

Q

represented both in magnitude

and direction by the third side of

R

the triangle taken in reverse order

B

as shown.

or

O

R = A+B = B+A

P

A

Parallelogram law of vector

represented by the two adjacent

sides of a parallelogram then the

resultant is given by the diagonal

of the parallelogram passing

through the point of intersection

of the two vectors.

The magnitude of R is

34

R = R = A2 + B 2 + 2 AB cos q

Here,

B sin q

tan a =

A + B cos q

A sin q

and tan b =

B + A cos q

Special cases

If

q = 0, Rmax = A + B

q = 180, Rmax = A B

...(i)

...(ii)

and q = 90, R = A2 + B 2

In all other cases equation (i) and (ii) can be used to

E

U

D

represented both in magnitude and

T

direction by the sides of a polygon

C

resultant vector is represented both

S

in magnitude and direction by the

B

closing side of polygon taken in the

P

Q

opposite order.

A

R=A+B+C+D+E

Properties of vector addition

(i) Vector addition is commutative. i.e.,

A+B = B+A

(ii)

( A + B) + C = A + ( B + C )

l( A + B) = lA + lB

Subtraction of Vectors

opposite to that of A.

Therefore, A B = A + ( B)

A B = A2 + B 2 2 AB cos q

180

at right angles to each other, the component vectors are

called rectangular components of a vector. If it makes an

then

A = A + A = A i + A j

x

\

A2(cos2q + sin2q) = Ax2 + Ay2

or

A = Ax2 + A2y

1/2

and tan q =

Ay

Ax

If A = Ax i + A y j + Az k and B = Bx i + B y j + Bz k

Then, A + B = ( Ax i + A y j + Az k ) + (Bx i + B y j + Bz k )

= ( A + B )i + ( A + B )j + ( A + B )k

x

by A . B (read

B represented

product of the magnitudes of

angle between them.

A . B = AB cos q

Cross Product or Vector Product

PROjeCtIle mOtIOn

under the effect of gravity alone is called a projectile.

The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory

which is always a parabola. A projectile executes two

independent motions simultaneously:

(i) uniform horizontal motion and

(ii) uniform accelerated downward motion.

Projectile Fired Horizontally

KEY POINT

Two vectors can be added if both of them are of

same nature, for example, a displacement vector

cannot be added to a force vector but can be added

to displacement vector only.

Vector subtraction is neither commutative nor

associative by nature.

Resolution of a vector into two component

vectors along the directions of two given vectors

is unique.

A B.

and the sine of the angle between them. The direction of

system.

A B = AB sin q n .

from a height h above the ground. Let it reach the point

(x, y) after time t.

Then position of the projectile after time t,

1

x = ut,

y = gt 2

2

g

2

Equation of trajectory, y = 2 x

2

u

Velocity after time t,

gt

v = u 2 + g 2 t 2 ; b = tan 1

u

2h

Time of flight, T =

g

2h

Horizontal range, R = u T = u

.

g

Projectile Fired at an angle with the Horizontal

q with the horizontal. Let it reach the point (x, y) after

time t. Then

Components of initial velocity,

ux = u cos q, uy = u sin q

Components of acceleration at any instant,

ax = 0, ay = g

Position after time t,

1

x = (u cos q) t, y = (u sin q) t gt 2

2

Equation of trajectory,

g

y = x tan q

x2

2

2

2u cos q

Maximum height, H =

u2y

u 2 sin 2 q

=

2g

2g

2u y 2u sin q

=

Time of flight, T =

g

g

Horizontal range, R =

2u x u y

g

u 2 sin 2q

g

35

its value is

u2

Rmax =

g

Velocity after time t,

vx = u cos q, vy = u sin q gt

KEY POINT

When the motion is two-dimensional, the time

variable t has the same value for both the x-and

y-directions.

the vertical motion are independent of each other;

that is, neither motion affects the other.

The horizontal range is the same if an object is

projected at angles q and 90 q.

A projectile moves under the combined effect of

two velocities (i) uniform horizontal velocity which

would not change if there is no air resistance (ii)

uniform changing vertical velocity due to gravity.

SELF CHECK

s2,

the equation of

its trajectory is

(a) 4y = 2x 25x2

(b) y = x 5x2

(c) y = 2x 5x2

(d) 4y = 2x 5x2

5. A boy can throw a stone up to a maximum height

of 10 m. The maximum horizontal distance that the

boy can throw the same stone up to will be

(a) 10 m

(b) 10 2 m

(c) 20 m

(d) 20 2 m

(AIEEE 2012)

speed, its motion is said to uniform circular motion.

Angular displacement : It is the angle swept out by a

radius vector in a given time interval.

Arc

s

q (rad) =

=

Radius r

Angular velocity : The angle swept out by the radius

vector per second is called angular velocity.

q q

q

w=

or w = 2 1

t

t 2 t1

36

v = rw

i.e. Linear velocity = Radius angular velocity.

Angular acceleration and its relation with linear

acceleration : The rate of change of angular velocity is

called angular acceleration. It is given by

w w1

a= 2

t 2 t1

Also, a = r a

i.e. Linear acceleration = Radius angular acceleration

Centripetal acceleration : A body moving along a

circular path is acted upon by an acceleration directed

towards the centre along the radius. This acceleration is

called centripetal acceleration. It is given by

a=

v2

= rw 2 .

r

KEY POINT

A centripetal force accelerates a body by changing

the direction of the velocity of body without

changing the speed of body.

SELF CHECK

radius R is (Here q is measured from the x-axis)

(a)

v2 ^ v2 ^

i+

j

R

R

(b)

^ v2

^

v2

cos q i + sin q j

R

R

(c)

^ v2

^

v2

sin q i + cos q j

R

R

(d)

^ v2

^

v2

cos q i sin q j

R

R

(AIEEE 2010)

changes or tends to change the state of rest or of uniform

motion or the direction of motion of a body.

Inertia is a property of the body due to which body

opposes the change of its state itself. Inertia of a body is

measured by mass of the body

i.e., Inertia Mass

Heavier the body greater is the force required to change

its state and hence greater is inertia. The reverse is also

true. i.e., lighter body has less inertia.

types of Inertia

its state of rest by itself.

Inertia of motion : It is inability of a body to change

its state of uniform motion by itself.

Inertia of direction : It is the inability of a body to

change its direction of motion by itself.

KEY POINT

Force on a body can be exerted from a distance

by the external agencies of force. Examples are

gravitational and magnetic forces.

newtOnS lawS OF mOtIOn

of motion and extended the ideas of Galileo. He arrived

at three laws of motion which are called Newtons laws

of motion.

type of force is sometimes called impulsive force.

Impulse, I = F Dt

I = mDv = m(v u)

= mv mu = p f pi

\ I = D p = p f pi

SELF CHECK

t = 0. It is subjected to a force F(t) = Foebt in the

x direction. Its speed v(t) is depicted by which of

the following curves?

(a)

Impulse

other interactions that act a very short time are known

explicitly. When a large force act for an extremely short

(b)

v(t)

t

First law

in a straight line unless compelled by an external force

to change that state. The first law defines inertia hence

it is also called law of inertia.

momentum

It is the product of the mass and velocity of a body,

i.e. p = mv

The concept of momentum was introduced by Newton

to measure the quantitative effect of force.

Second law

The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly

proportional to the applied force and takes place in the

direction in which the force acts.

dp

Mathematically, F =

dt

It can be shown experimentally that the acceleration is

and

(ii) inversely proportional to the mass m of the object.

1

a Fnet and a .

m

Fnet

kF

Thus, a

a = net ,

m

m

The value of constant k is 1.

F

\ a = net , Fnet = ma

m

F0b

m

(c)

F0

mb

(d)

v(t)

F0

mb

v(t)

F0

mb

v(t)

(AIEEE 2012)

one-dimensional motion of a body of mass 0.4 kg.

The magnitude of each impulse is

2

x(m)

0

(a) 0.2 N s

(c) 0.8 N s

6

8

t(s)

10

12

14

(b) 0.4 N s

(d) 1.6 N s

16

(AIEEE 2010)

third law

Meaning of action and reaction : Suppose that a body A

Newtons third law if two forces are equal in magnitude

and opposite

mathematically we write it as

in direction,

FAB = FBA

the other will be the reaction force. Another important

thing is these two forces always act on different bodies,

and so, they never cancel each other.

apparent weight of Body in a lift

(i) When a lift moves upwards with uniform

acceleration, apparent weight of a body in the lift

increases.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

37

R

m

mg

(a)

mg

(b)

R

m

a=0

mg

( c)

a the the apparent weight of a body in the lift

decreases. From Fig. (b)

mg R = ma or R = m (g a)

(iii) When a lift is at rest or moves with uniform velocity,

a = 0, the apparent weight of the body is equal to

its true weight.

From Fig. (c),

R = mg

(iv) When a lift fall freely, (a = g) the apparent weight

of a body in the lift becomes zero.

R = m(g g) = 0

KEY POINT

If the elevator is at rest or is moving uniformly

in the upward/downward direction, the apparent

weight is equal to actual weight of the person.

COnSeRVatIOn OF lIneaR mOmentUm

interacting particles, the total linear momentum of the

system is conserved. The total linear momentum is the

vector sum of the linear momenta of all the particles of

the system.

Derivation of the law of conservation of momentum

from Newtons second law of motion

Suppose the n particles have masses m1, m2, m3 ... mn and

Then total linear momentum of the system is

p = p1 + p2 + ....... pn

according to Newtons second law

dp

F=

dt

For an isolated system

dp

F = 0 or

= 0 or p = constant

dt

or p1 + p2 + ....... + pn = constant

Thus in the absence of any external force, the total linear

momentum of the system is constant. This is the law of

conservation of linear momentum.

application of the law of Conservation of momentum

38

gun and the bullet are at rest. After firing, the bullet

so according to the principle of conservation of

momentum,

Total momentum before firing = Total momentum

after firing

or 0 = mv + MV

V

M

m v

or MV = mv

m

or V = v

M

opposite directions i.e., the gun gives a kick in

the backward direction or the gun recoils with

the recoil velocity of the gun is much smaller than

the forward velocity of the bullet.

(ii) When a man jumps out of a boat to the shore, the

boat slightly moves away from the shore. Initially,

the total momentum of the boat and the man is

zero. As the man jumps from the boat to the shore,

he gains a momentum in the forward direction. To

conserve momentum, the boat also gains an equal

momentum in the opposite direction. So the boat

slightly moves backwards.

(iii) An astronaut in open space, who wants to

return to the spaceship, throws some object in a

direction opposite to the direction of motion of

the spaceship. By doing so, he gains a momentum

equal and opposite to that of the thrown object and

so he moves towards the spaceship.

Rocket propulsion. It is an example of momentum

conservation in which the large backward momentum of

the ejected gases imparts an equal forward momentum

to the rocket. Due to the decrease in mass of the rocketfuel system, the acceleration of the rocket keeps on

increasing. Let

u = velocity of exhaust gases

v0, v = initial velocity and velocity of the rocket at

any instant t

m0, m, me = initial mass, mass of the rocket at any

instant t and mass of empty rocket respectively.

dm

Thrust on rocket, F = u

dt

dm

u

Acceleration of rocket, a =

dm dt

mo t

dt

m0

m

SELF CHECK

m0

me

velocity 1200 m s1. The man holding it can exert

a maximum force of 144 N on the gun. How many

bullets can he fire per second at the most?

(a) one

(b) four (c) two (d) three.

(AIEEE 2004)

FRee BODY DIagRam

its surroundings showing all the forces acting on it is

its free body diagram.

Steps for Free Body Diagram

Step 1: Identify the object or system and isolate it

from other objects clearly, specify its boundary.

Step 2 : First draw non-contact external force in the

diagram. Generally it is weight.

Step 3 : Draw contact forces which acts at the

boundary of the object or system. Contact forces

are normal, friction, tension and applied force.

In free body diagram, internal

forces are not drawn, only

external are drawn.

Free body diagram of a block of

mass m is kept on the ground as

shown in figure.

tenSIOn

directions then a force is developed in the body of the

string which is called tension.

tension in a String

Ideal string is massless.

Ideal string is perfectly smooth.

Ideal string is inextensible. Length of the strings

remains constant.

Ideal string is perfectly flexible.

Rules of marking tension force on a body by a string

(i) The tension force should be along the length of the

string.

(ii) The tension force should be away from the body.

Tensions are of two different types :

Extensional

Compressional

In a string or in a chain tension is only extensional.

In a rod tension can be extensional or compressional

or both.

Tension in a string is the force by which one part of the

string pulls the other part.

An ideal string has zero mass then the net force acting

on that string will always be equal to zero.

Fnet = 0 a \ Fnet = 0

In an ideal string the tension at all the points of the

string will be same.

blocks by drawing the free body diagram of both the

blocks and the string.

m1F

T = m1a T =

m1 + m2

masses M and m(M > m) are tied at the ends of an

inextensible string passing over a frictionless pulley.

Then

M m

g

Acceleration of the masses, a =

M +m

2 Mm

g

Tension of the string, T =

M +m

Clearly, a < g.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces: A number of

concurrent forces acting on a body are said to be in

equilibrium if their vector sum is zero or if these forces

can be completely represented by the sides of a closed

polygon taken in the same order.

F1 + F 2 + F 3 + ......F n = 0

Lamis theorem : It states that if three forces acting

on a particle keep it in equilibrium, then each force is

proportional to the sine of the angle between other two

forces. If a, b, g be the angles between F 2 and F 3 ; F 3

theorem :

F

F1

F

= 2 = 3 .

sin a sin b sin g

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

39

SELF CHECK

upwards with an initial acceleration of 10 m s2.

Then the initial thrust of the blast is

(a) 3.5 105 N

(b) 7.0 105 N

5

(c) 14.0 10 N

(d) 1.75 105 N.

(AIEEE 2003)

FRICtIOn

motion or tendency of relative motion of two bodies.

Consider a block on a horizontal table as shown in the

figure.

Here ms is a constant, the value of which depends

on nature of surfaces in contact and is called as

coefficient of static friction.

(ii) The magnitude of limiting frictional force is

independent of area of contact between the

surfaces.

kinetic Frictional Force

contact, the frictional force is called as kinetic frictional

force. The magnitude of kinetic frictional force is also

proportional to normal force.

f k = m kN

From the previous observation we can say that mk < ms.

angle of Friction

stationary if F is not too large. The force that counteracts

F and keeps the block at rest is called frictional force. If

we keep on increasing the force, the block will remain

at rest and for a particular value of applied force, the

body comes to state of about to move. Now if we slightly

increase the force from this value, block starts its motion

with a jerk and we observe

that to keep the block

moving we need less effort

than to start its motion.

If we draw the graph

between applied force and

frictional force for this

observation its nature is as shown in figure.

Static Frictional Force

surfaces, frictional force is called static frictional force.

It is a self-adjusting force, it adjusts its value according to

requirement (of no relative motion). In the taken example

static frictional force is equal to applied force. Hence one

can say that the ab portion of graph will have a slope of 45.

(fs msN)

limiting Frictional Force

This is the maximum frictional force that can exist at

the contact surface. We calculate its value using laws

of friction.

laws of Friction

proportional to the normal force at the contact

surface.

40

which makes an angle l with R.

Now, the angle l is called the

angle of friction.

f mR

tan l = =

=m

R R

angle of repose

inclination of plane with

the horizontal, at which the

body placed on the plane

just begins to slide down

the incline, is known as angle of repose.

a = tan1m

Rolling Friction

object rolls over the surface of another object is known

as rolling friction.

SELF CHECK

11. A block of mass m is placed on a surface with a

x3

vertical cross section given by y = . If the

6

coefficient of friction is 0.5, the maximum height

above the ground at which the block can be placed

without slipping is

1

2

1

1

(a) m (b) m (c) m (d) m

6

3

3

2

(JEE Main 2014)

12. Two fixed frictionless inclined planes making an

angle 30 and 60 with the vertical are shown in the

figure. Two blocks A and B are placed on the two

A with respect to B?

vH

A

O

60

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

vL

L

mgsin mgcos

mg

30

4.9 m s2 in horizontal direction

9.8 m s2 in vertical direction

zero

(AIEEE 2010)

CIRCUlaR mOtIOn

Centripetal Force

body uniformly in a circle. Magnitude of this force

mv 2

is F =

= mrw2 where v is the linear velocity, w

r

is angular velocity of the body and r is radius of the

circular path.

a Vehicle taking a Circular turn on a level Road

road is ms, the maximum velocity with which a vehicle

can take a circular turn of radius r without slipping is

given by

v = m s rg

A cyclist move along a circular level track of radius r

with speed v. The angle through which the cyclist bends

himself is given by

tan = v2/rg

Banking of Roads

maximum speed v, the track is banked through an angle

q is given by

tan = v2/rg

(frictionless road)

A car is moving on a circular track of radius R and

angle q. ms is the coefficient of friction between the

wheels of the car and the road. The optimum speed to

avoid skidding is given by

1/2

vmax

Rg (m s + tan q)

=

1 m s tan q

Bending of a Cyclist

inextensible light string of length r and whirling in a

vertical circle about a fixed point O to which the other

along a vertical circle is given by

mv 2

T=

+ mg cos q

r

Thus, tension at the lowest point (q = 0) is given

by

mv L2

TL =

+ mg

r

and tension at the highest point (q = 180) is given by

2

mv H

TH =

mg

r

Minimum speed at the highest point,

v H = gr

Minimum speed at the lowest point for looping the

loop, v L = 5 gr .

When the string is horizontal, q = 90, minimum

velocity, v = 3 gr .

Height through which a body should fall for looping

the vertical loop or radius r is, h = 5r/2.

wORk, eneRgY anD POweR

work

body and the body moves through some distance in the

direction of the force. This work is done on a body only

if the following conditions are satisfied.

(i) A force acts on the body

(ii) The point of application of the force moves in the

direction of the force.

work Done by a Constant Force

(i) Measurement of work done when the force acts

along the direction of motion.

Work done (W) = Force (F) distance moved in

the direction of force (s)

(ii) Measurement of work done when force and

displacement are inclined to each other.

Work done (W) = component of force in the

direction of displacement

Fcosq) magnitude of

displacement (s)

= Fs cos q = F s

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

41

negative.

F

q = 90, W is zero

s

q > 90, W is ve.

If the force applied to a body does a positive work, the

velocity of the body increases. In this case the force, and

hence the acceleration are directed along velocity.

acceleration is directed against the velocity and the

velocity of the body decreases.

spring etc.

Forces acting along the line joining the centres of

two bodies are called central force. Gravitational and

electrostatic forces are two important examples. Central

forces are conservative forces.

A force is said to be non-conservative if work done by

or against the force in moving a body depends upon the

path. e.g., frictional forces, air resistance, viscous force,

induced electric force etc.

SELF CHECK

13. When a rubber-band is stretched by a distance x, it

exerts a restoring force of magnitude F = ax + bx2

where a and b are constants. The work done in

stretching the unstretched rubber-band by L is

1 aL2 bL3

(a)

(b) aL2 + bL3

+

2 2

3

aL2 bL3

1

+

(c) (aL2 + bL3 )

(d)

2

3

2

(JEE Main 2014)

particle, is acting on a particle. If the particle moves

^

^

^

F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k

^

^

^

ds = dx i + dy j + dz k

increment of work done on the

dW = F ds is the

^

^

^

^

^

^

dW = F ds = (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k) (dx i + dy j + dz k)

dW = Fxdx + Fydy + Fzdz

xf

yf

zf

xi

yi

zi

W = dW = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

(xi, yi, zi) is initial position and (xf, yf, zf) is final

position.

KEY POINT

Work is energy transferred to or from a system by

means of an external force acting on that system.

equal to the area under the force curve and the

displacement axis.

Conservative Force and non-Conservative Force

against the force in moving a body depends only on the

initial and final positions. It is independent of the path

followed. Work done in a round trip is always zero. e.g.,

42

eneRgY

measured in joule, like work.

mechanical energy

Kinetic energy

Potential energy

kinetic energy

v is given by

1

K = mv 2

2

Two points regarding kinetic energy are as follows :

Since both m and v2 are always positive, K is always

positive and does not depend on the direction of

motion of the body.

Kinetic energy depends on the frame of reference.

e.g., the KE of a person of mass m sitting in a train

moving with speed v is zero in the frame of train

1 2

but mv in the frame of earth.

2

SELF CHECK

100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated

to be in the range

(a) 2,000 J - 5,000 J (b) 200 J - 500 J

(c) 2 105 J - 3 105 J (d) 20,000 J - 50,000 J.

(AIEEE 2008)

momentum (p)

p2

or p = 2mK

K=

2m

K

is a parabola as shown in the

figure.

The graph between K and

p is a straight line as shown

in figure.

The graph between K and

1/p is a rectangular hyperbola

as shown in figure.

work energy theorem

p

K

If h << R, (h/R) << 1. So U = mgh.

Conservative force is the negative gradient of potential

energy.

^ U ^ U ^ U

F = i

+j

+k

= U

y

z

x

^ ^

where = ^i

+ j +k

x

y

z

In one dimension, F =

p

K

1/p

the forces (conservative and non-conservative) equals

to the change in kinetic energy of the particle.

W = K 2 K1

If the forces acting on a particle does works W1, W2,

W3........Wn then,

W1 + W2 + W3 + ..... + Wn = K2 K1

n

or Wn = DK = K 2 K1

dU

or U = Fdx

dx

KEY POINT

The concept of potential energy is not defined for a

non-conservative force.

SELF CHECK

15. The potential energy of a 1 kg particle free to move

along the x-axis is given by

x 4 x2

V (x ) =

J.

2

4

The total mechanical energy of the particle 2 J.

Then, the maximum speed (in m s1) is

(a) 2

(b) 3 / 2 (c)

(d) 1 / 2 .

(AIEEE 2006)

Potential energy

its position or configuration is known as the potential

energy.

In mechanics there are two types of the potential

energy.

Elastic potential energy : It is energy associated with

state of compression or stretching of an elastic spring

and is given by U = 1 kx 2

2

where k is the spring constant and x is the stretch or

compression in the spring.

Gravitational potential energy : It is the energy

associated with two bodies of masses m1 and m2

separated by distance r and is given by

and potential energies at any point remains constant

throughout the motion. It does not depend on time.

i.e. K1 + U1 = K2 + U2 or K + U = constant

Gm1m2

r

For a body of mass m at height h relative to surface of

earth its potential energy reduces to

mgh

U=

h

1 + R

POweR

U =

KEY POINT

In an isolated system the mechanical energy

of the system, cannot change which means for

isolated system mechanical energy of the system

is conserved.

We can relate the sum of kinetic energy and potential

energy at one instant to that at another instant

without considering the intermediate motion when

the mechanical energy of a system is conserved.

dW d r

Instantaneous power P =

=F

= F v

dt

dt

Average power : It is defined as the ratio of the work

DW, to the time Dt, i.e., Pav = DW/Dt.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

43

[ML2T3].

Units of power : In SI system the absolute unit of power

is watt. It is denoted by symbol W.

1 watt = 1 J s1.

In CGS system, the absolute unit of power is

erg s1.

1 W = 107 erg s1.

Bigger units of power are

1 kilowatt = 1 kW = 103 W

1 megawatt = 1 MW = 106 W

In engineering, horse power is the practical unit of

power.

1 hp = 746 W.

SELF CHECK

rest to a speed v in a time T. The instantaneous

power delivered to the body as a function of time is

given by

(a)

(c)

1 mv 2

t

2 T2

mv 2

T2

(b)

(d)

1 mv 2 2

t

2 T2

mv 2

T2

t 2

(AIEEE 2005)

COllISIOn

bodies come in physical contact with each other or even

when path of one body is affected by the force exerted

due to the other.

Collisions are broadly classified into two types :

Elastic collision

Inelastic collision

KEY POINT

If the component of the net external force on

a closed system is zero along an axis then the

component of the linear momentum of the system

along that axis cannot change.

elastic Collision

A collision in which both the momentum and kinetic

energy of the body remains conserved. e.g. the collision

between two glass balls.

The basic characteristics of an elastic collision are :

(i) The momentum is conserved.

(ii) Total energy is conserved.

(iii) Kinetic energy is conserved.

(iv) Forces involved in the interaction are of conservative

nature.

44

form of energy.

KEY POINT

In an elastic collision, the kinetic energy of each

colliding body may change, but the total kinetic

energy of the system does not change.

Inelastic Collision

is conserved but kinetic energy is not conserved. Most

of the collisions in our day to day life are inelastic

collisions. e.g. mud thrown on the wall.

The basic characteristics of an inelastic collision are :

(i) Momentum is conserved.

(ii) Total energy is conserved.

(iii) Kinetic energy is not conserved.

(iv) Some or all of the forces involved are nonconservative in nature.

(v) A part of the kinetic energy is transformed into

other forms of energy.

elastic Collision in One Dimension

moving along the same straight line with velocities u1

and u2 respectively. Assume that u1 > u2 so that two

bodies collide. Let v1 and v2 be the final velocities of

the bodies after collision. The two bodies suffer head on

collision and continue moving along the straight line in

the same direction as shown in the figure.

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

Since kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collision,

we get

1

1

1

1

m u2 + m u2 = m v 2 + m v 2

2 1 1 2 2 2 2 11 2 2 2

(m m2 )u1 2m2u2

v1 = 1

+

...(i)

(m1 + m2 ) m1 + m2

2m1u1 (m2 m1 )

u

+

m1 + m2 m1 + m2 2

Special cases

When masses of two bodies are equal,

i.e. m1 = m2 = m.

2mu2

= u2

From equation (i), we get v1 =

2m

2mu1

= u1

From equation (ii), we get v2 =

2m

v2 =

...(ii)

collision in one dimension, then after the collision,

the bodies will exchange their velocities.

When the body B is initially at rest i.e., u2 = 0.

From equation (i) and (ii), we get

(m m2 )u1

...(iii)

v1 = 1

m1 + m2

2m1u1

v2 =

m1 + m2

...(iv)

When masses of two bodies are equal

i.e. m1 = m2 = m

From (iii), we get v1 = 0

From (iv), v2 = u1

Therefore, when body A collides with body B

of equal mass at rest, the body A comes to rest

while the body B moves on with the velocity of

the body A.

In this case, transfer of kinetic energy is hundred

percent.

When the body B has negligible mass as

compared to that of body A i.e., m2 < < m1 then

in equations (iii) and (iv), m2 can be neglected

as compared to m1.

\ v1 =

m1u1

2m u

= u1 , v2 = 1 1 = 2u1

m1

m1

a light body B at rest, the body A should keep

on moving with same velocity and the body B

starts moving with velocity double that of A.

When a mass of body B is very large as

compared to that of body A i.e., m2 > > m1 then

in equations (iii) and (iv), m1 can be neglected

as compared to m2.

m2u1

= u1 , v2 = 0.

m2

Therefore, when a light body A collides with a

heavy body B at rest, the body A should start

moving with same velocity just in opposite

direction while the body B should practically

remain at rest.

v1 =

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v + m2v

or

v=

m1u1 + m2u2

(m1 + m2 )

...(i)

1

1

K I = m1u12 + m2u22

2

2

Kinetic energy of the system after collision is

1

K F = (m1 + m2 )v 2

2

Loss in kinetic energy during collision,

DK = KI KF

1

1

1

= m1u12 + m2 u22 (m1 + m2 )v 2

2

2

2

...(ii)

DK =

1 m1m2

(u u )2

2 (m1 + m2 ) 1 2

SELF CHECK

2.00 ms1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another

mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a

single body. The energy loss during the collision is

(a) 0.34 J (b) 0.16 J (c) 1.00 J (d) 0.67 J.

(AIEEE 2008)

elastic Collision in two Dimensions or Oblique Collision

m2 moving along X-axis with velocities u1 and u2

respectively. When u1 > u2, the two bodies collide. After

collision, body A moves with velocity v1 at an angle q1

with X-axis and body B move with a velocity v2 at an

angle q2 with X-axis as shown in the figure.

Consider two bodies A and B of masses m1 and m2

moving with velocities u1 and u2 (u2 < u1) respectively

along the same line collide head on and after collision

they have same common velocity v.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | august 15

45

BRAIN

ELECTROMAGNETIC

INDUCTION

Michael Faraday

Energy Consideration

in Motional emf

l

B 2l 2v

F

R

R

Power required to move the wire

B 2l 2v 2

P

R

It is dissipated as Joule

heat.

mo

f

em

al

n

tio

Cha

ces

Eddy Current

surface of bulk pieces of conductors

when the magnetic flux linked with the

conductor changes are known as Eddy

currents. Slotting the conductor reduces the

eddy current.

Applications : Electromagnetic

damping, Induction furnace, Electric

power meter, Magnetic braking

in trains.

field in a region. This is nonconservative in nature.

is g

current is such that it opposes the

change that has induced it.

If a current is induced by an

increasing(decreasing) flux, it will

weaken (strengthen) the original flux.

It is a consequence of the law of

conservation of energy.

se

mf

nt

by

ved

hie

c

ea

dI

Emf induced in the coil/conductor, L

dt

Coefficient of self induction

N

L B

I

dI / dt

1

2

Self inductance of a coil L 0 N R

2

0 r N 2 A

2

Self inductance of a long solenoid L 0r n Al

l

N 2 2

2

1

Mutual inductance, M

I1

(dI1/dt ) (dI 2 /dt )

Mutual inductance of two closely wound circular coils, M N1N 2

NN A

M 0 r r12n1n2l 0 r 1 2 1

l

M

Coefficient of coupling, k

L1L2

Combination of

Inductors

em

Electric Generator

Mechanical energy is

converted into electrical energy by

virtue of electromagnetic induction.

Induced emf,

= NAB sint 0sint

uc

e

cu

rre

of

ge

co

il i

nd

the

ch

an

in

of

Ra

te

Inductance

form of Faradays law.

d B

dB

A

0

dt

dt

Lenz's Law

al

n

ca

by Lenz's l

aw

iven

B B A BA cos

Faradays Laws : It states that whenever magnetic flux

linked with a coil changes, an emf is induced in the coil.

d

Induced emf, N B

dt

dB / dt

Induced current, I N

R

R

R

Ro

The polarity of induced emf is such that it

tat

ion

B

tends to produce a current which opposes

pr

of

od

co

uc

il i

the change in magnetic flux that

es

n

mo

has produced it.

tio

n

f ie

ld

)

net

ic

(mag

Magnetic flux

UB

B2

V

2 0

M L1L2

Induced

Electric Field

E dl

MAGNETIC

FLUX AND

FARADAYS LAW

Magnetic

Energy

Energy stored in an inductor

1

U B LI 2

2

Energy stored in the solenoid,

1 2

UB

B Al

20

Magnetic energy density,

field

d

behin

uB

induced electric

produces emf

A wire moving in B

Bvl

Induced current, I

R

R

I

Force exerted on the wire,

Motional emf

On a straight conducting

wire, = Bvl

On a rotating conducting wire

about one end

Bl 2

2

Here, B, v( rv)and l are

perpendicular to

each other.

drive a current. This link between a magnetic field and

the electric field is now known as Faraday's law of

induction. The observations by Michael Faraday and other

scientists which led to this law were at first just basic

science. Today, however, applications of this basic science

is everywhere.

Current,

NBA

I

sin t I 0 sin t

R

Inductors in series, LS L1 L2 2 M

Inductors in parallel, LP

L1L2 M 2

L1 L2 2 M

LL

So, LS L1 L2 and LP 1 2

L1 L2

L R Circuit

Current growth in LR

circuit I I 0 (1 e t / L )

Growth

/decay of

I I 0 (e t / L )

L

Here, L Time constant

R

I0

R

1

1

1

1

...(i)

m1u12 m2u22 m1v12 m2v22

2

2

2

2

Also momentum along X-axis before collision

= momentum after collision along X-axis

m1u1 m2u2 m1v1 cos 1 m2v2 cos 2

...(ii)

...(iii)

0 m1v1 sin 1 m2v2 sin 2

Thus from these three equations (i), (ii) and (iii) we can

find the required quantities.

Coeffi cient of Restitution

It is defined as the ratio of relative velocity of separation

after collision to the relative velocity of approach before

collision. It is represented by e.

relative velocity of separation (after collision)

e

relativee velocity of approach (before collision)

v2 v1

e

u1 u2

where u1, u2 are velocities of two bodies before collision,

and v1, v2 are their respective velocities after collision.

A ball falls from a height h, it strikes the ground

with a velocity u 2 gh . Let it rebound with a

2 gh1

h

v

e

1 or h e h

1

u

h

2 gh

or h1 e 2h.

hn after n rebounds. Then hn = e2nh.

A ball dropped from height h and travelling a total

distance S before coming to rest.

1 e2

Then S h

2

1 e

A ball dropped from a height h and rebounding.

The time taken by the ball in rising to height h1 and

2h1

2h

coming back is 2

2e

.

g

g

Note that h1 = e2h.

Total time taken by the ball in coming to rest is

t

1 e 2h

.

1 e g

ANSWER KEYS (SELF CHECK)

1.

6.

11.

16.

(d)

(d)

(b)

(c)

2.

7.

12.

17.

(b)

(b)

(a)

(d)

3. (c)

8. (c)

13. (d)

4. (c)

9. (d)

14. (a)

5. (c)

10. (a)

15. (b)

THE ROLLER COASTER

book contained his three laws of motion which changed

mechanics forever. These three laws became the foundation

of classical mechanics. Newtons three laws of motion have been

proven over and over again in the last three centuries. These

are the basis of many of our modern inventions. One among

these is a roller coaster. It is a modern invention that uses the

laws of motion to thrilling ends. Roller coasters, with their twists,

turns, and loops seem to defy everything we know about how

people and objects move. Roller coaster designers, however, use

Newtons laws to push people past their usual limits.

Newtons first law is the law of inertia. Most roller coasters run by

the Law of Inertia. Since an object at rest stays at rest, all roller

coasters have to be pushed or pulled to get started. Most are

pulled up a large hill called as lift hill. The first hill is usually the

biggest hill. As the cars go uphill, it store potential energy. At the

top, the cars have the largest amount of gravitational potential

energy. These are about to be put into motion. Roller coaster cars

will gain enough energy from the lift hill to be powered through

the rest of the ride. Once put into motion, they will not stop until

the brakes are applied at the end of the ride.

Newtons second law is the law of force and acceleration. You feel

this second law when you start going down the hills. The coaster

cars and your body have mass. The gravity provides acceleration.

48

That causes force. The rider feels the force as it moves the cars

along the coaster track. The track directs the force and the cars.

The mass of your body and the coaster cars is constant. The

amount of force changes due to changes in acceleration. The

changes in acceleration are mostly due to friction. The thrill of

acceleration on a roller coaster comes from Newtons second

law.

Newtons third law is about action and reaction. As you push

down on the seat, the seat pushes back at you. This law really

comes into play with newer roller coasters that expose riders to

high gravitational force.

Gravitational force relates an acceleration on a body to the

acceleration due to gravity. Your body will experience an

acceleration twice as strong as the pull of gravity. Older roller

coasters did not expose riders to gravitational force. Newer roller

coasters, however, can expose riders to very high gravitational

forces.

Gravitational force like all others forces, is not just acting on the

things we can see. It is also acting on our blood and our blood

vessels. Just as they push your body into the seat, it pushes your

blood back away from your brain and toward your feet. As we

use the laws of physics to create more exciting roller coasters,

it becomes more important to keep in mind the limits of our

human bodies.

80 km h1, the run on the ground being 100 m. The

mass of the aeroplane is 104 kg and the coefficient

of friction between the plane and the ground is 0.2.

Assume that the plane accelerates uniformly during

the take off. What is the maximum force required

by the engine of the plane for take off?

(a) 2.51 104 N

(b) 4.43 104 N

2

(c) 4.42 10 N

(d) 8.22 102 N

2. A particle of mass m is moving in a horizontal

circle of radius r, under a centripetal force equal

k

to , where k is constant. What is the total

r2

energy of the particle?

k

k

(a)

(b)

3r

2r

k

k

(c)

(d)

2r

r

3. A particle is moving with uniform acceleration

along a straight line AB. Its speed at A and B are

2 m s1 and 14 m s1 respectively. Then which one

is incorrect?

(a) Speed of particle at the mid-point of AB is

10 m s1.

(b) Speed of particle at a point P such that

AP : PB = 1:5 is 5 m s1.

(c) The time taken by particle to go from A to the

mid-point of AB is double to go from mid-point

to B.

(d) None of these

4. What is the velocity of ring as shown in the figure

when spring becomes horizontal?

m

3m

37

m = 10 kg

k = 400 N m1

l0 = 4 m

(a) 10 m s1

(c) 30 m s1

(b) 20 m s1

(d) 5 m s1

of projection a. After what time is the ball moving

at right angles to the initial direction?

v

v

(a) 0 sin a

(b) 0 cosec a

g

2g

v

v

(c) 0 cos a

(d) 0 cot a

g

2g

6. Two bars of masses m1 and m2 connected by a nondeformed light spring rest on a horizontal plane.

The coefficient of friction between the bars and the

surface is equal to m. If F is the minimum constant

force that has to be applied in the horizontal

direction to the bar of mass m1 in order to shift the

other bar. Then, the value of F is

m

m

(a) mg m1 + 2

(b) mg m2 + 1

2

2

mg

(c) mg (m1 + m2)

(d)

(m1 + m2 )

2

7. The motion of a particle of mass m is given

by x = 0 for t < 0 s, x(t) = A sin 4pt for

0 < t < (1/4)s (A > 0), and x = 0 for t > (1/4) s. Which

of the following statements is incorrect?

(a) The force at t = (1/8) s on the particle is

16p2Am.

(b) The particle is acted upon by an impulse of

magnitude (4p2 Am) at t = 0 s and t = (1/4) s.

(c) The particle is not acted upon by any force.

(d) The particle is not acted upon by a constant

force.

8. Two particles A and B, of masses m and 2m, are

moving along the X-axis and Y-axis respectively

with the same speed v. They collide, at the origin

and coalesce into one body after the collision. What

is the loss of energy during this collision?

1

4

(a) mv 2

(b) mv 2

3

3

3 2

2 2

(c) mv

(d) mv

2

3

9. In the arrangement shown in figure, the ends P and

Q of an inextensible string move downwards with

uniform speed u. Pulleys A and B are fixed. The

mass M moves upwards with a speed

Physics for you | august 15

49

to remain at constant height above the table top?

(a) 2u cosq

(b)

u

cos q

2u

(d) u cosq

cos q

10. What is the maximum compression in the spring,

if the lower block is shifted to rightwards with

acceleration a as shown in the given figure? All the

surfaces are smooth.

(c)

ma

(a)

2k

2ma

(b)

k

ma

(c)

k

4ma

(d)

k

its length hanging over the edge. If the chain has a

length l and a mass m, how much work is required

to pull the hanging part back on the table?

mgl

mgl

mgl

mgl

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

2

3

3n

2n2

4n

2n

12. A car accelerates from rest at a constant rate a for

some time after which it decelerates at a constant

rate b and comes to rest. If the total time elapsed is

t, the maximum velocity acquired by the car will be

a +b

(a)

t

ab

ab

(b)

t

a + b

a 2 b2

(c)

t

ab

2

2

(d) a + b t

ab

13. A heavy particle hanging from a string of length l

is projected horizontally with speed gl. Find the

speed of the particle at the point where the tension

in the string equals weight of the particle.

gl

gl

(a)

(b)

(c) 2gl (d) 3gl

2

3

14. A wedge with mass M rests on a frictionless

horizontal surface. A block with mass m is placed

on the wedge. There is no friction between the block

and the wedge. A horizontal force F is applied to the

50

(a) Mg tanq

(c) (M + m)g cosq

(d) (M + m)g tanq

15. In a car race, car A takes time t less than car B and

passes the finishing point with a velocity v more

than the velocity with which car B passes the point.

Assuming that the cars start from rest and travel

with constant accelerations a1 and a2. Which of the

equations is correct?

(a) v = a2t

(b) v = a1t

(c) v = t a1a2

(d) v = 2t a1a2

x = 5 m to x = 17.2 m under the influence of a force

200

F (x ) =

N. The total work done by this force

2x + x 3

during this displacement will be

(a) 6.72 J (b) 2.54 J (c) 3.51 J (d) 3.00 J

17. A particle is moving in a circle of radius R in such

a way that at any instant the normal and tangential

components of the acceleration are equal. If its

speed at t = 0 is u0, the time taken to complete the

first revolution is

u

R

(a)

(b) 0

u0

R

R

R 2 p

(1 e 2 p )

e

(c)

(d)

u0

u0

18. Suppose the average mass of raindrops is

3.0 105 kg and their average terminal velocity

is 9 m s1. The energy transferred by rain to each

square metre of the surface at a place which receives

100 cm of rain in a year is

(a) 2.05 102 J

(b) 4.05 102 J

4

(c) 9.10 10 J

(d) 4.05 104 J

19. A particle is observed from two frames S1 and S2.

The frame S2 moves with respect to S1 with an

acceleration a. Let F1 and F2 be the pseudo forces on

the particle when seen from S1 and S2 respectively.

Which of the following are not possible?

(a) F1 = 0, F2 0

(b) F1 0, F2 = 0

(c) F1 0, F2 0

(d) F1 = 0, F2 = 0

still water is 7 m s1 and the speed of stream is

3 m s1. When the launch began travelling upstream,

a float was dropped from it. The launch travelled

4.2 km upstream, turned about and caught up with

the float. How long is it before the launch reaches

the float?

(a) 35 min(b) 36 min (c) 34 min (d) 33 min

21. A particle is tied to an ideal string and whirled in a

vertical circle of radius L, where L is the length of

the string. If the ratio of the maximum to minimum

tension in the string throughout the motion is 2 : 1,

then the maximum possible speed of the particle will be

(a) 11 gL (b) 5 gL (c) 10 gL (d) 3 gL

22. In the arrangement, shown in figure,

pulleys are massless and frictionless

and threads are in-extensible, block

of mass m1 will remain at rest if

4

1

1

(a)

=

+

m1 m2 m3

(b) m1 = m2 = m3

(c)

1

1

1

=

+

m1 m2 m3

(d)

A

B

m1

m2 m3

1

2

3

=

+

m3 m2 m1

l

the trolley starts

m

accelerating with

acceleration a. The

maximum

angle

deflected by thread from vertical will be

a

2a

(a) tan 1

(b) tan 1

g

g

U(x)

(a)

U(x)

x

(b)

U(x)

U(x)

(c)

(d)

26. A force F = v A is exerted on a particle in addition

direction. The minimum speed of projection for a

particle of mass m so that it continues to move with

a constant velocity is given by

mg

mg

mg

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) mg

A

2A

3A

27. If the potential energy of two molecules is given

A B

by U =

, then at equilibrium position, its

r 6 r 12

potential energy is equal to

B2

A2

B2

2B

(b)

(c)

(d)

4A

4B

4A

A

28. A particle P is sliding down a frictionless

hemispherical bowl. It passes the point A at t = 0. At

this instant of time, the horizontal component of its

velocity is v. A bead Q of the same mass as P is

ejected from A at t = 0 along the horizontal string

AB with speed v. Friction

Q

B

between the bead and A

the string may be

P

neglected. Let tP and tQ

be the respective times

C

taken by P and Q to reach

the point B. Then

(a) tP < tQ

(b) tP = tQ

(c) tP > tQ

Length of arc ACB

t

(d) P =

t Q Length of chord AB

(a)

a

a

(c) 2 tan 1

(d) tan 1

g

2g

24. A cyclist is riding with a speed of 27 km h1. As

he approaches a circular turn on the road of radius

80 m, he applies brakes and reduces his speed at the

constant rate 0.5 m s2. What is the magnitude of the

net acceleration of the cyclist on the circular turn?

(a) 0.74 m s2

(b) 0.86 m s2

2

(c) 0.50 m s

(d) 0.25 m s2

25. A particle, which is constrained to move along the

x-axis, is subjected to a force in the same direction

which varies with the distance x of the particle from

the origin as F(x) = kx + ax3. Here k and a are

positive constants. For x 0, the functional form of

the potential energy U(x) of the particle is

a clamped pulley of mass m supports

a block of mass M as shown in the

figure. What is the force exerted on

the pulley by the clamp?

(a) 0 mg

(b) 2 Mg

m

M

2

2

2

2

(c) g M + (m + M ) (d) g m + (M + m)

Physics for you | august 15

51

on a long conveyor belt moving with velocity vBelt

(at that instant) having constant acceleration aBelt.

Mark the correct option regarding friction after

long time (friction coefficient between block and

belt = m). If

P.

Q.

R.

S.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Column-I

v Block = 2v Belt

and aBelt = 0

v Block = 2v Belt

and aBelt > mg

v Block = 2v Belt

and abelt = mg

v Block = 2v Belt

and aBelt < mg

(i)

Column-II

zero

f s static friction

(0 < fs < f l)

(iii) f l limiting friction

(ii)

P-(i), Q-(iv), R-(iii), S-(ii)

P-(iv), Q-(i), R-(iii), S-(ii)

P-(ii), Q-(iv), R-(iii), S-(i)

5 200

m s 1

v = 80 km h1 = 80 =

18

9

2

2

As v u = 2as

2

200

0 = 2a 100

9

40000 200

=

m s 2

or a =

81 200 81

Force required to produce acceleration a,

200

F1 = ma = 10 4

= 2.47 10 4 N

81

Force required to overcome friction,

F2 = mR = mmg = 0.2 104 9.8 = 1.96 104 N

Maximum force required by the engine for take off,

F = F1 + F2 = 2.47 104 + 1.96 104 = 4.43 104 N.

2. (c) : As the particle is moving in horizontal circle, so

Centripetal force, F =

mv 2 k

=

r

r2

k

k

U = Fdr = dr = k r 2 dr =

r2

r

52

k k

k

= .

2r r

2r

d

A

2 m s1

B

14 m s1

142 = 22 + 2 a d

At mid-point, let velocity is v

d

2

v2 = 22 + 2 a

...(i)

14 2 22

2

[Using eqn. (i)]

v2 = 4 +

192

= 100 ; v = 10 m s1

2

AP 1

d

If

= then AP =

PB 5

6

Let velocity at P is v1

v2 = 4 +

d

14 2 22

=4+

= 36

6

6

v1 = 6 m s1

Let time taken to reach mid-point from A is t1, and

t2 be time taken to reach B from mid-point.

6 = 2 + at1 ; t1 = 4/a

14 = 6 + at2 ; t2 = 8/a

t1 4 1

= = t 2 = 2t1

t2 8 2

Natural length of spring

=4m

5m

Decrease in PE = Increase

in KE

37

C

A

3m=h

4m

1

1

k (Dl )2 + mgh = mv 2

2

2

1

1

400 12 + 10 10 3 = 10 v 2

2

2

2

200 + 300 = 5v 5v2 = 500

\

k

r

1

k

\ K.E. of the particle, K = mv 2 =

2

2r

dU

As F =

dr

\ Potential energy,

This gives mv 2 =

3. (b) :

v12 = 22 + 2 a

SolutionS

Total energy = K + U =

v = 100 = 10 m s 1

perpendicular, then the final velocity will be at

angle a with the vertical as shown in the figure.

v0

90

throughout the motion.

Therefore v0 cos a = v sin a

or v = v0 cot a

Vertical component of velocity after time t = v cos a

From the equation vy = v0 sin a gt

v cos a = v0 sin a gt

v 0 sin a + v cos a

or t =

g

v sin a + v 0 cot a cos a

= 0

g

2

v sin a + cos 2 a v 0

= 0

=

cosec a

g

sin a

g

6. (a) :

m

m

2

...(i)

Using work energy theorem on m1,

1

Fx mm1gx kx2 = 0

2

1

or, F = mm1 g + kx

2

mm2 g

F = mm1 g +

2

m

= mg m1 + 2

[using eqn. (i)]

2

7. (c) : At t = (1/8) s, as x = A sin 4pt,

dx

v=

= A (cos 4 pt ) 4 p

dt

dv

= 4 pA ( sin 4 pt )(4 p) = 16 p2 A

and a =

dt

Thus, F = ma = (16p2Am)

1

4

| I | = 4p2Am

For t > (1/4) s, x = 0, v = 0, a = 0, F = 0.

Hence option (c) is incorrect.

8. (c) :

A v

m

B 2m

5

5v 2

, hence V = v

9

3

Total kinetic energy before collision, i.e.

V2 =

or

1

1

3mv 2

K i = mv 2 + (2m)v 2 =

2

2

2

Total kinetic energy after collision, i.e.

1

5

35

K f = (3m)V 2 = mv 2 = mv 2

29

2

6

Loss of kinetic energy during the collision

2

3 5

= K i K f = mv 2 = mv 2

2 6

3

2

2

2

9. (b) : l = x + b

v

dl

dx

db

2l = 2 x + 2b

dt

dt

dt

dx

2l (u) = 2 x + 0

dt

u

dx l

= u=

u

dt x

cos q

10. (b) : Pseudo force on mass m = ma

Spring force developed = kx

where x = compression in spring

Using Newtons second law of motion,

mv

dv

= (ma kx )

dx

0 mv dv = 0

0 = max

b

l

v

m

ma

FBD of mass m

kx

(ma kx ) dx

(Q x = maximum compression)

kx

2

x =

2ma

k

m

l

Let length of the hanging part of the chain = y

m

Mass of the hanging part of the chain = . y

l

Force required to be applied = Weight of the

hanging part

mg

m

or F = y g =

.y

l

l

3m

For the X-components :

mv = 3mV cosa

...(i)

For the Y-components :

2mv = 3mV sina

...(ii)

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

2

2

v 2v

V 2 cos 2 a + V 2 sin 2 a = +

3 3

let its direction make an angle a with the positive

X-axis after the collision.

53

distance dy is

mg

dW =

. y dy

l

Here negative sign indicates that the weight and

displacement are oppositely directed. Total work

done in pulling the 1/nth length of the chain is

W = dW =

mg

=

l

mg

l

0

y =0

ydy

l

y=

n

y2

mg

l 2 mgl

=

0 2 = 2 .

2l n 2n

2 l /n

2

\ mv = mg mg cos q

1 2 mgl

or, 2 mv = 2 (1 cos q)

1 2 mgl

mv =

(1 cos q)

...(iii)

2

2

l cos

v = v0 + at1, we get

v = 0 + at1

(as v0 = 0)

v

or, t1 =

a

For the retarded motion for time t2, from

v = v0 + at2, we get

v

0 = v bt2 or t 2 =

(as v0 = v, v = 0)

b

a +b

v v

Total time, t = t1 + t2 = + = v

ab

a b

ab

t

or v =

a + b

13. (a) : Speed at bottom = gl < 2 gl

Using energy conservation principle,

1

1

mgl (1 cos q) = mgl mv 2

...(i)

2

2

mv 2

Also T mg cos q =

...(ii)

l

According to question,

h = l(1 cos)

T = mg

T

h

v 0 ( gl )

mg

1

1

mgl(1 cos q) = mgl mgl(1 cos q)

2

2

1

2

1 cos q = cos q =

3

3

From eqn. (iii),

gl

v=

3

54

mg cos

analyse the block in the reference frame of wedge

instead of analysing it in ground reference frame.

Reference frame of wedge is non-inertial, therefore

we must apply a pseudo force on block m.

System

N

Y

mA cos

Pseudo force

mA

is n

A

A

m

os

c

g

m

mg

m

gs

in

remains at constant height h, i.e., it does not slip

downwards along the incline. For an observer on

the wedge the block will be stationary.

SFx = mg sin q mA cos q = 0

...(i)

SFy = N mA sin q mg cos q = 0

...(ii)

From eqn. (i), A = g tan q

From eqn. (ii), we get

N = mg/cos q

If the block is kept on a scale its reading will be

N = mg/cos q. We have to consider block and wedge

as a single body (because block does not slip).

Therefore F = (M + m)A

= (M + m) g tan q

15. (c) : Let s be the distance covered by each car. Let

the times taken by the two cars to complete the

journey be t1 and t2, and their velocities at the

finishing point be v1 and v2 respectively. According

to the problem,

v1 v2 = v and t2 t1 = t

0+v

v

When u = 0, s =

t = .t

2

2

v t

v t

\ s= 1 1 = 2 2

2

2

1 2 1

Also s = a1t1 = a2 t 22

2

2

Hence

2s 2s

2s(t 2 t1 )

v v1 v 2 t1 t 2

2s

=

=

=

=

t t 2 t1

t 2 t1 t1 t 2 (t 2 t1 ) t 1 t 2

=

4s 2

t12 t 22

v = t a1 a2 .

2s 2s

. = a1 a2

t12 t 22

16. (c) :

W=

xf

17.2

xi

F dx =

200

2x + x 3

dx =

17.2

19. (d)

200

x (x 2 + 2)

dx

dt

200

W=

2 (t 2) t

1

1

= 100

dt

2(t 2) 2t

t 2

t

17.2

x2

= 50 2.303 log

x 2 + 2 5

= 50 2.303 log

295.84 27

297.84 25

= 50 2.303 0.0305 = 3.51 J.

17. (c) : Given,

tangential acceleration = centripetal acceleration

dv v 2

=

dt R

v

v2

u0

dv

...(i)

t

=

0

1 1

R =t

u0 v

...(ii)

u0

dv

=

v

2 pR

ds

v = u0e 2 p

R

R

From (ii) and (iii), t = (1 e 2 p )

u0

T = mg +

mv 2

L

12mg = mg +

mv 2

L

v = 11 gL

T

dv ds v 2

dv v 2

. =

v =

ds R

ds dt R

and Tmax = 2Tmin(given)

\ Tmin = 6mg, Tmax = 12 mg

Since tension is maximum at lowest points

1

dt

R

Q

Relative velocity = 7 3 = 4 m s1

Distance moved = 4.2 km = 4200 m

4200

Time taken, t1 =

= 1050 s

4

For downstream motion of launch:

Distance moved downstream by float in 1050 s

= 3 1050 = 3150 m

Distance between float and launch turned about

= 4200 + 3150 = 7350 m

This distance is to be covered by launch with its

own velocity (7 m s1) because stream velocity is

being shared by both.

7350

\ Time taken, t 2 =

= 1050 s

7

Total time taken, t = t1 + t2 = 1050 + 1050

= 2100 s = 35 min

...(iii)

Rain received in a year, h = 100 cm = 1 m, A = 1 m2

Volume of the rain falling,

V = Ah = (1 m2) (1m) = 1m3

Mass of rain,

M = Vr = (1 m3) (103 kg m3) = 103 kg

Energy transferred by the rain,

1

1

E = Mv 2 = (103 kg )(9 m s 1 )2

2

2

= 40.5 103 J = 4.05 104 J

m1

m2

m1g

m2g

T

m3

m3g

T = m1g

m2g T = m2a

2

T

m3 g = m3a

2

From eqns. (i) and (ii)

(m m3 ) g

a= 2

m2 + m3

Putting value of a in eqn. (i),

m m2

T = 2m2 1 + 3

g

m2 + m3

Physics for you | august 15

...(i)

...(ii)

55

2m2 2m3

g

m2 + m3

4

1

1

=

+

m1 m2 m3

maL sin q = mgL(1 cosq)

or, a sin q = 2gsin2q/2

q a

tan =

2 g

ma

a

mg

q = 2 tan 1

g

24. (b) : Here r = 80 m

27 5

v = 27 km h 1 =

m s 1 = 7.5 m s 1 ,

18

Centripetal acceleration,

ac =

v 2 (7.5)2

=

= 0.7 m s 2

r

80

v

applies

brakes

at

the point A of the

ac

A

O

circular turn, then,

a

at

tangential acceleration

aT (negative) will act

opposite to velocity.

Given at = 0.5 m s2

As the accelerations ac and at are perpendicular to

each other, so the net acceleration of the cyclist is

a=

ac2

+ at2

= (0.7) + (0.5)

U (x ) = (kx + ax 3 ) dx

0

or

U (x ) =

kx 2 ax 4 x 2

ax 2

=

k

2

4

2

2

2k

a

2k

For x >

, U(x) will be negative.

a

Clearly, U(x) = 0 at x = 0 and x =

56

horizontal velocity increases from v. Again the

horizontal velocity decreases to v as P moves from

C to B. But the horizontal velocity of P remains

greater than or equal to v. But the horizontal velocity

of bead Q remains constant equal to v. For same

horizontal displacement AB, P takes smaller time

than Q i.e.,

tP < tQ.

29. (c) : The free body diagram for the pulley is shown

in figure.

Fy

If q is the angle between the total acceleration and

the velocity of the cyclist, then,

a

0. 7

tan q = c =

= 1.4 or q = 5428 .

at 0.5

dU

25. (d) : F =

dx

or dU = F dx

\

dU

=0

dx

i.e., slope of U-x graph is zero at x = 0.

Hence, the most appropriate option is (d).

F + mg = 0

A is in x-direction

y-direction.

Now | v A | = mg

mg

vA sinq = mg or v =

A sin q

For minimum v, sin q should be maximum

mg

\ v min =

A

27. (a)

At x = 0, F =

m1 g =

Mg

Fx

mg

Mg

Fx = Horizontal component of the force

by the clamp on the pulley = Mg

Fy = Vertical component of the force

by the clamp on the pulley = (M + m) g

The net force exerted on the pulley by the clamp,

F = Fx2 + Fy2 = g (m + M )2 + M 2 .

30. (b) : Maximum acceleration due to friction is mg.

So a > mg f k

a < mg fs

a = mg f l

a=0f=0

nn

1.

AMU

under a constant electric field E in Millikan's oil

drop experiment. The density of oil is r. The radius

of the drop is

1/2

1/2

3nrg

(b)

2 peE

1/3

3nrg

(d)

4 peE

(a) 3neE

2 prg

2.

some charges situated on the x-axis is given by

V(x) = 20/(x2 4) volt

The electric field E at x = 4 mm is given by

(a) (10/9) volt/mm and in the +ve x direction

(b) (5/3) volt/mm and in the ve x direction

(c) (5/3) volt/mm and in the +ve x direction

(d) (20/9) volt/mm and in the ve x direction

3.

between A and B is VAB = 4 V, then the value of X

will be

10

6.

B

2V

7.

8.

5V

(a) 5 W

possible value of n is

(a) 4

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 1

1/3

(c) 3nEe

4 prg

(b) 10 W (c) 15 W

(d) 20 W

4.

power dissipation P1. Now the wire is cut into two

equal pieces which are connected in parallel to the

same supply. Power dissipation in this case is P2.

Then P2 : P1 is

(a) 1

(b) 4

(c) 2

(d) 3

5.

resistors is S. When they are joined in parallel the

ENGG.

9.

placed in a magnetic field B such that the plane of

the loop is in the direction of B. The torque on the

loop is

(a) iBl

(b) i2Bl

3 2

(c)

(d) infinity

Bil

4

A long wire carries a steady current. It is bent into

a circle of one turn and the magnetic field at the

centre of the coil is B. It is then bent into a circular

loop of n turns. The magnetic field at the centre of

the coil will be

(a) nB

(b) n2B (c) 2nB

(d) 2n2B

A magnetic needle lying parallel to a magnetic field

requires W units of work to turn it through 60.

The torque needed to maintain the needle in this

position will be

(a) 3W

(b) W

3

(c)

(d) 2W

W

2

The self inductance of the motor of an electric fan

is 10 H. In order to impart maximum power at

50 Hz, it should be connected to a capacitance of

(a) 1 mF (b) 2 mF (c) 4 mF

(d) 8 mF

i = i1 coswt + i2 sinwt.

The rms current is given by

i +i

|i + i |

(a) 1 2

(b) 1 2

2

2

(c)

i12 + i22

2

(d)

i12 + i22

2

57

instrument are l1 = 4000 and l2 = 5000 ,

then ratio of their respective resolving powers

(corresponding to l1 and l2) is

(a) 16 : 25

(b) 9 : 1

(c) 4 : 5

(d) 5 : 4

12. Refractive index of glass is 1.520 for red light

and 1.525 for blue light. Let D1 and D2 be angles

of minimum deviation for red and blue light

respectively in a prism of this glass. Then

(a) D1 > D2

(b) D1 < D2

(c) D1 = D2

(d) D1 can be less than or greater than depending

upon angle of prism

13. The maximum number of possible interference

maxima for slit separation equal to twice the

wavelength in Young's double slit experiment is

(a) infinite

(b) five

(c) three

(d) zero

14. The work function of a substance is 4.0 eV.

The longest wavelength of light that can cause

photoelectron emission from this substance is

approximately

(a) 540 nm

(b) 400 nm

(c) 310 nm

(d) 220 nm

15. A proton when accelerated through a potential

difference of V volts has a wavelength l associated

with it. An a particle in order to have the same

wavelength l, must be accelerated through a

potential difference (in volts)

V

V

(d)

8

4

16. Frequency of the series limit of Balmer series of

hydrogen atom in terms of Rydberg constant R and

speed of light c is

Rc

4

(a) Rc

(b) 4Rc (c)

(d)

4

Rc

(a) 2V

(b) V

(c)

b particles are emitted?

82 Pb206

(a) 8a, 6b

(c) 8a, 8b

92 U

238

(d) 12a, 6b

each with a forward resistance of 50 W and with

infinite reverse resistance. If the battery voltage is

6 V, the current through 100 W resistance is

58

150

50

6V

(a) zero

100

zener diode?

(a) It is used as a voltage regulator.

(b) It is fabricated by heavily doping both p and

n sides of the junctions.

(c) It depletion region is very thin.

(d) The electric field of the junction is very low.

20. For an amplitude modulated wave the maximum

amplitude is found to be 10 V while the minimum

amplitude is found to be 2 V, the modulation index

is

3

2

(a) 5

(b) 0.2

(c)

(d)

2

3

21. The dimension of magnetic field in M, L, T and C

(coulomb) is given as

(a) MLT1C1

(b) MT2C1

2

2

(c) MT C

(d) MT1C1

22. A particle located at x = 0 at time t = 0, starts moving

along the positive x-direction with a velocity v

that varies as v = a x where a is dimensionless

constant. The displacement of the particle varies

with time as

(a) t3

(b) t2

(c) t

(d) t1/2

23. From a building two balls A and B are thrown such

that A is thrown upwards and B downwards with

the same speed (both vertically). If vA and vB are their

respective velocities on reaching the ground then,

(a) vB > vA

(b) vA = vB

(c) vA > vB

(d) their velocities depend on their masses

24. A shell fired from a gun at sea level rises to a

maximum height of 5 km when fired at a ship

20 km away. The muzzle velocity should be

(a) 7 m/s (b) 14 m/s (c) 28 m/s (d) 56 m/s

25. Two racing cars of masses m1 and m2 are moving in

circles of radii r1 and r2 respectively. Their speeds

are such that each makes a complete circle in the

same time t. The ratio of the angular speeds of the

first to the second car is

(a) r1 : r2

(b) m1 : m2

(c) 1 : 1

(d) m1m2 : r1r2

frictionless surface by a rope of mass m. If a force

P is applied at the free end of the rope, the force

exerted by the rope on the block is

Pm

Pm

(a)

(b)

(M m)

(M + m)

PM

(M + m)

27. A man fires a bullet of mass 200 g at a speed of

5 m/s. The gun is of one kg mass. By what velocity

the gun rebounds backward?

(a) 1 m/s

(b) 0.01 m/s

(c) 0.1 m/s

(d) 10 m/s

(c) P

(d)

in a lift which is moving upwards with a uniform

acceleration of 5 m/s2. What would be the reading

on the scale? (g = 10 m/s2)

(a) zero

(b) 400 N (c) 800 N (d) 1200 N

29. A wire of length 100 cm is connected to a cell of

emf 2 V and negligible internal resistance. The

resistance of the wire is 3 W, the additional resistance

required to produce a potential difference of

1 mV/cm on the wire is

(a) 297 W (b) 60 W (c) 57 W

(d) 35 W

30. The only force acting on a 2.0 kg body as it moves

along a positive x-axis has an x-component

Fx = 6x with x in meters. The velocity at x = 3.0 m

is 8.0 m/s. The velocity of the body at x = 4.0 m is

(a) 6.6 m/s

(b) 46.6 m/s

(c) 60 m/s

(d) 96.6 m/s

31. A quarter horse power motor runs at a speed of

600 rpm. Assuming 40% efficiency, the work done

by the motor in one rotation will be

(a) 7.46 J (b) 74.6 J (c) 7400 J (d) 7.46 erg

32. A rocket is launched vertically upward from

the surface of the earth with an initial velocity

of 10 km/s. If the radius of the earth is 6400 km

and atmospheric resistance is negligible, find the

distance above the surface of the earth that the

rocket will go.

(a) 2.5 104 km

(b) 3.0 104 km

3

(c) 4.0 10 km

(d) 3.0 103 km

33. Consider a two particle system with particles

having masses m1 and m2. If the first particle is

pushed towards the centre of mass through a

distance d, by what distance should the second

particle be moved, so as to keep the centre of mass

at the same position.

m2

d

m1

m1

d

(d)

m2

(a) d

(c)

(b)

m1

d

m1 + m2

downwards under gravity breaks into two parts ; a

1

2

body B of mass M and body C of mass M. The

3

3

centre of mass of bodies B and C taken together

shifts compared to that of body A towards

(a) body C

(b) body B

(c) does not shift

(d) depends on height of breaking

35. A metre stick is balanced on a knife edge at its

centre. When two coins, each of mass 5 g are put

one on top of the other at the 12.0 cm mark, the

stick is found to be balanced at 45.0 cm. The mass

of the metre stick is

(a) 13 g

(b) 33 g (c) 66 g

(d) 77 g

36. A particle performing uniform circular motion has

angular momentum L. If its angular frequency is

doubled and its kinetic energy halved, then new

angular momentum is

L

L

(b) 2L

(c) 4L

(d)

4

2

37. Suppose the gravitational force varies inversely as

the nth power of distance. Then the time period of

a planet in circular orbit of radius R around the sun

will be proportional to

(a)

(a) R

(c)

n + 1

2

(b) R

Rn

(d) R

n 1

2

n 2

2

36000 km. Approximately what would be the time

period of a spy satellite orbiting a few hundred

kilometers above the surface of the earth?

(Earth radius = 6400 km)

(a) One hour

(b) Two hour

(c) Four hour

(d) Eight hour

39. If S is the stress and Y is the Young's modulus of

material of a wire, the energy stored in the wire per

unit volume is

(a)

2Y

S

(b)

S

2Y

(c) 2S2Y

(d)

S2

2Y

59

at the same level, each contains a liquid of density

1.3 103 kg/m3. The area of each base is 4.00 cm2,

but in one vessel, the liquid height is 0.854 m and

in the other it is 1.560 m. Find the work done by

the gravitational force in equalizing the levels when

the two vessels are connected.

(a) 0.0635 J

(b) 0.635 J

(c) 6.35 J

(d) 63.5 J

41. A wire extends by 1 mm when a force is applied.

Double the force is applied to another wire of the

same material and length but half the radius of

cross-section. The elongation of the wire in mm

will be

(a) 8

(b) 4

(c) 2

(d) 1

u

42. The energy density

of an ideal gas is related to

V

its pressure P as

u

u 3

= 3P

= P

(a)

(b)

V

V 2

u 2

u 1

= P

= P

(c)

(d)

V 3

V 3

43. One kg of a diatomic gas is at a pressure of

8 104 N/m2. The density of the gas is 4 kg/m3.

What is the energy of the gas due to its thermal

motion?

(a) 3 104 J

(b) 5 104 J

4

(c) 6 10 J

(d) 7 104 J

44. A refrigerator is to maintain eatables at 9C. If

room temperature is 36C, then the coefficient of

performance is

(a) 8.6

(b) 10.4 (c) 11.2

(d) 12.5

45. According to Newton's law of cooling, the rate of

cooling of a body is proportional to (Dq)n, where

Dq is the difference of the temperature of the body

and surroundings, and n is equal to

(a) four

(b) three (c) two

(d) one

46. Two spheres of the same material have radii

1 m and 4 m and temperatures 4000 K and

2000 K respectively. The ratio of energy radiated

per second by the first sphere to the second is

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 16 : 1 (c) 4 : 1

(d) 1 : 9

47. A whistle producing sound waves of frequency

9500 Hz and above is approaching a stationary

person with speed v m/s. The velocity of sound in

air is 300 m/s. If the person can hear frequencies

upto a maximum of 10000 Hz, the maximum value

of v upto which he can hear the whistle is

60

(a) 30 m/s

(b) 15 2 m/s

15

m/s

(c)

(d) 15 m/s

2

48. The displacement of an object attached to a spring

and executing simple harmonic motion is given by

x = 2 102 cos pt metre. The time at which the

maximum speed first occurs is

(a) 0.25 s

(b) 0.50 s

(c) 0.75 s

(d) 0.125 s

49. Two concentric spherical shells of radii r1 and r2

have similar charges and equal surface charge

densities (s). What is the potential at the common

centre?

s

s

(r r )

(r1 + r2 )

(a)

(b)

0 1 2

0

(c)

s r12

0 r2

(d)

s

0

r22

r1

A

50. The electric field in a region is given by E = i .

x3

An expression for the potential in the region,

assuming the potential at infinity to be zero, is

A

2x 2

(a)

(b)

2x 3

A

(c)

A2

2x

(d)

A

2x 2

solutions

1. (c) : Let r be radius of the drop. Then the mass of

the drop is

4

m = volume density = pr 3r

3

Since the drop has n excess electrons, therefore

it is negatively charged and the charge on the

drop is

q = ne

As the drop is held stationary under the constant

electric field E,

\ weight of the drop = force on the drop due

to electric field

mg = qE

4 3

+ + + + + +

pr rg = neE

qE

3

3 3neE

r =

E

4prg

mg

1/3

3neE

r=

4prg

on the x-axis are related as

dV

E=

dx

20

Here, V (x) = 2

volt = 20(x 2 4)1 volt

(x 4)

d 2

d

1

20 (x 2 4)1 = 20 (x 4)

dx

dx

40x

= 20(1)(x2 4)2 (2x) = 2

(x 4)2

At x = 4 mm

40(4)

160 10

E=

=

=

volt/mm

2

2 144

9

( 4 4)

\ E=

and in the +ve x direction.

3. (d)

4. (b) : Let R be resistance of the wire.

When it is connected to 220 V mains supply, then

power dissipation is

(220 V)2

V2

...(i)

P1 =

P =

R

R

resistance of each piece becomes R/2.

Now they are connected in parallel, their equivalent

resistance is

RR

R

2 2

=

Req =

R R

4

+

2 2

As this parallel combination is connected to the

same supply, so power dissipation is

P2 =

(220 V)2

Req

(220 V)2

(R/4)

...(ii)

(220 V)2

P2

(R/4)

=

=4

P1 (220 V)2

R

Then

RR

S = R1 + R2 and P = 1 2

R1 + R2

But S = nP (given)

RR

\ R1 + R2 = n 1 2

R1 + R2

R12 + R22 + 2R1R2 = nR1R2

(R1 R2)2 + 4R1R2 = nR1R2

(R1 R2)2 = R1R2(n 4)

For n to be minimum, R1 = R2,

\ n 4 = 0 or n = 4

6. (c) : Area of the loop is

1

A = base height

2

1

= l l sin 60

2

i

60

i

i

1

3

3 2

...(i)

= ll

=

l

2

2

4

As the loop carries current i and placed in a

magnetic field B such that plane of the loop is in

the direction of B i.e. q = 90, so the torque on

the loop is

t = iABsin90 = iAB = i

=

3 2

l B

4

(using (i))

3 2

Bil

4

current I.

When it is bent into the circle of one turn of

radius r, then

l

...(i)

2pr = l or r =

2p

\ The magnetic field at the centre of the coil is

m I

m0 I

m Ip

(using (i)) ...(ii)

B= 0 =

= 0

l

l

2r

2

2p

When the same wire is bent into the circular loop

of n turns of radius r, then

l

...(iii)

n(2pr ) = l or r =

2pn

Now the magnetic field at the centre of the coil

is

m nI

m0nI

n2m0 I p

B = 0 =

=

(using (iii))

l

l

2r

2

2pn

= n2 B

(using (ii))

8. (a) : The work done to turn the magnetic needle of

magnetic moment M lying parallel to a magnetic

field B through an angle q is

W = MB(1 cosq)

physics for you | AUGUST 15

61

Here, q = 60

1 MB

\ W = MB (1 cos 60) = MB 1 =

2

2

or MB = 2W

...(i)

The torque needed to maintain the needle in this

position is

t = MB sin q = MB sin 60

=

3

3

MB =

(2W ) = 3W

2

2

(using (i))

frequency.

1

As resonance frequency ur =

2p LC

1

\ C= 2 2

4p ur L

Here,

ur = 50 Hz, L = 10 H

1

\ C=

2

4 p (50 Hz)2 (10 H)

1

= 5 2 F = 106 F = 1 mF

10 p

10. (d) : The alternating current is

i = i1coswt + i2sinwt

The rms current is

T 2

0 i dt

T

0 dt

irms =

1 T

(i cos wt + i2 sin wt )2 dt

T 0 1

1 T 2

(i cos2 wt + i22 sin2 wt

= T 0 1

+ 2i1i2 cos wt sin wt )dt

i12 T

i22 T 2

2

+

cos

w

sin wt dt

t

dt

T 0

= T 0

2i i T

+ 1 2 cos wt sin wt dt

T 0

T

T

wt dt = ,

2

0 cos

and

0 cos wt sin wt = 0

\ irms =

=

62

But

0 sin

wt dt =

T

2

(0)

+ +

T 2 T 2

T

i12 + i22

i2 + i2

i12 i22

+

= 1 2 =

2 2

2

2

1

wavelength (l)

5000 5

=

=

4000 4

\

RP for l1 l2

=

RP for l2 l1

D = (m 1)A

where m is the refractive index of the material of

prism and A is the angle of the prism.

If mr and mb be refractive indices of glass for red

and blue light respectively, then

D1 = (mr 1)A and D2 = (mb 1)A

D1 (mr 1)

\

=

D2 (mb 1)

As mr = 1.520 and mb = 1.525 (given)

D1 (1.520 1) 0.520

\

=

=

<1

D2 (1.525 1) 0.525

or D1 < D2

13. (b) : The condition for possible interference maxima

on the screen is

dsinq = nl

where d is slit separation and l is the wavelength.

As d = 2l (given)

\ 2lsinq = nl or 2sinq = n

For number of interference maxima to be

maximum,

sinq = 1 \ n = 2

The interference maxima will be formed when

n = 0, 1, 2

Hence the maximum number of possible maxima

is 5.

14. (c) : If l0 is the longest wavelength of light that

can cause photoelectric emission, then

Work function, f0 =

hc

hc

or l0 =

l0

f0

\

l0 =

1240 eV nm

= 310 nm

4.0 eV

wavelength l associated with the proton accelerated

through the potential difference of V volts is

l=

h

2m pq pV

...(i)

of the proton and qp is its charge.

particle be accelerated through the potential

difference V. Then

h

l=

...(ii)

2maqaV

biased and the lower diode D2 is reverse biased.

Therefore, the resistance of D1 is 50 W and that of

D2 is infinite. No current flows through D2. The

equivalent circuit is shown in the figure.

D1

50

h

h

=

2m pq pV

2maqaV

or

2maqaV = 2m pq pV

2ma qaV = 2mpqpV

mp q p

V =

V

m q

a

As

150

mp

ma

qp 1

1

and

=

4

qa 2

V

11

\ V = V = volts

42

8

16. (d) : Frequency of a spectral line of the Balmer

series of hydrogen atom is

1

1

= Rc 2 2 ; n = 2, 3, ............

2

n

For series limit, n =

1

1

1 Rc

\ = Rc 2 2 = Rc =

2

4 4

17. (a) : Let x alpha particles and y beta particles are

emitted in the reaction

92 U

238

number,

238 = 206 + 4x + 0

32

or 4x = 238 206 = 32 or x = = 8

...(i)

4

According to law of conservation of atomic number,

92 = 82 + 2x y

or y = 82 + 2(8) 92

(using (i))

= 82 + 16 92 = 98 92 = 6

Thus 8a and 6b are emitted.

18. (b) :

D1

150

D2

50

in series,

\ The current through 100 W resistance is

6V

6V

I=

=

= 0.02 A

50 W + 150 W + 100 W 300 W

19. (d) : The electric field of the junction is extremely

high (~ 5 106 V/m).

All other statements are true for zener diode.

20. (c) : The modulation index is

A

Amin

= max

Amax + Amin

Here, Amax = 10 V, Amin = 2 V

10 V 2 V 8 V 2

=

=

10 V + 2 V 12 V 3

21. (d) : As F = q(v B) or F = qvB sin q

F

\ B=

qv sin q

\ =

As sinq is dimensionless

\ [B] =

100

[ F ] = [MLT2] = [MT1C 1]

[q ][v ] [C][LT1]

22. (b) : As v = a x

But v =

dx

dt

(given)

dx

=a x

dt

dx

or x1/2 dx = adt

...(i)

= adt

x

Integrating eqn. (i) within the given limits, we

get

or

6V

100

6V

2 x = at

or

x1/2

t

= a [t]0

1/2 0

at

x=

2

x 1/2 dx = a dt or

63

x=

2 2

at

4

or

x t2

sin2 q

( sin 2q = 2 sin q cos q)

2(2 sin q cos q)

tan q

4

4H max

tan q =

R

=

23. (b) :

or

4(5 km)

\ tan q =

=1

20 km

q = tan1(1) = 45

Substituting this value of q in eqn. (i), we get

2

speed u and ball B is thrown vertically downwards

with the same speed u.

After reaching the highest point, A comes back to

its point of projection with the same speed u in

the downward direction.

If h be height of the building, then velocity of A

on reaching the ground is

v 2A = u2 + 2 gh or v A = u2 + 2 gh

and that of B on reaching the ground is

...(i)

v 2B = u2 + 2 gh or v B = u2 + 2 gh

...(ii)

vA = vB

24. (*) : The situation is shown in the figure.

u

the gun at an angle q with the horizontal. Then

Maximum height, H max =

u2 sin2 q

2g

u2 sin 2q

g

Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get

and horizontal range, R =

u2 sin2 q

2g

H max

sin2 q

= 2

=

R

u sin 2q 2 sin 2q

g

64

...(i)

...(ii)

1

u2

2

u sin 45

u2

=

H max =

=

2g

2g

4g

2

u2 = 4H max g

u = 4H max g

But here, Hmax = 5 km = 5 103 m, g = 9.8 m/s2

or

or

*None of the given options is correct.

Note : If the unit of H max and R are given in

m instead of km, then option (b) is correct as

follows :

u = 4 (5 m)(9.8 m/s2 ) = 14 m/s

25. (c) : The angular speed w is

2

w=

T

As each car makes a complete circle in the same

time t, so the ratio of the angular speeds of the

first to the second car is same,

i.e. w1 : w2 = 1 : 1

26. (d) :

M

then

P

...(i)

a=

(M + m)

The force exerted by the rope on the block is

MP

F = Ma =

(using (i))

(M + m)

27. (a) : Here,

Mass of the bullet, m = 200 g = 200 103 kg

Speed of the bullet, v = 5 m/s

Let V be the recoil velocity of the gun.

According to law of conservation of linear

momentum,

mv

0 = mv + MV or V =

M

3

(200 10 kg)(5 m/s)

V =

= 1 m/s

1 kg

Negative sign shows that the gun rebound backward

as the bullet moves forward.

28. (d) : When the lift is moving upwards with a uniform

acceleration a, then the reading on the scale is

R = m(g + a)

Here, m = 80 kg, g = 10 m/s2 , a = 5 m/s2

\ R = (80 kg)(10 m/s2 + 5 m/s2)

= (80 kg)(15 m/s2) = 1200 N

29. (c) : Here,

emf of the cell, e = 2 V

Resistance of the wire, R = 3 W

Length of the wire, l = 100 cm

Required potential gradient, k = 1 mV/cm

Potential difference across the wire is

V = kl = (1 mV/cm)(100 cm)

= (103 V/cm)(100 cm) = 0.1 V

Current through the wire is

V 0. 1 V 1

I= =

= A

R 3 W 30

If R be the additional resistance required, then

e

R

I=

R + R

2V

1

\

A=

30

3 W + R

1

1

A (3 W) + A R = 2 V

30

30

1

1

V + A R = 2 V

30

10

1

19

1

A R = 2 V V = V

30

10

10

19

V 570

=

W = 57 W

R = 10

1

10

A

30

30. (a) : Here,

Mass of the body, m = 2.0 kg

From Newton's second law, the acceleration

produced in the body is

6x

F

ax = x =

= 3x

m 2. 0

By definition,

dv

ax = x

dt

By chain rule,

dv

dv x dv x dx

=

= vx x

dx

dt

dx dt

dv x

\ ax = v x

or vx dvx = axdx

dx

vx dvx = 3xdx

(using (i))

Integrating it within the limits [vx = 8.0 m/s at

x = 3.0 m and vx = v at x = 4.0 m], we get

v

8. 0

v x dx = 3

v

4. 0

x dx

3. 0

4. 0

v2

x2

x = 3

2 8. 0

2 3. 0

1 2

3

[v (8.0)2] = [(4.0)2 (3.0)2]

2

2

v2 64 = 21

v2 = 21 + 64 = 43

v = 43 m/s = 6.6 m/s

Thus the velocity of the body at x = 4.0 m

is 6.6 m/s.

31. (a) : Here,

Power of the motor

1

1

= hp = (746 W) = 186.5 W ( 1 hp = 746 W)

4

4

Angular speed of the motor, w = 600 rpm

2 600

w=

rad/s = 20 rad/s

60

Since the efficiency of the motor is 40%, so the

power used in doing work is 40% of 186.5 W, i.e.

40

P = 186.5 W

= 74.6 W

100

Let t be torque produced. Then

74.6 W

P

P = tw or t = =

...(i)

w 20 rad/s

The work done by the motor in one rotation is

W = tq

74.6 W

=

(2 rad) = 7.46 J (using (i))

20 rad/s

physics for you | AUGUST 15

65

surface of the earth.

At h, the velocity of rocket becomes zero. Then

according to law of conservation of energy,

GMm

1 2 GMm

mv

=0

R

( R + h)

2

where m is the mass of the rocket, v is its initial

velocity, M is the mass of the earth and R its

radius.

GMm GMm

1 2

mv =

+

(R + h)

R

2

=

GMmR + GMm(R + h)

GMmh

=

R(R + h)

R(R + h)

GMh

gRh

1 2

v =

=

R(R + h) (R + h)

2

or R + h = 2 gR or

h

v2

or

R 2 gR

=

1 or

h v2

GM

g = 2

R

2 gR

R

+1= 2

h

v

2 gR

h = R 2 1

v

Here,

R = 6400 km = 6400 103 m = 6.4 106 m

g = 9.8 m/s2

v = 10 km/s = 10 103 m/s = 104 m/s

\ h = (6.4 10 m)

1

(104 m/s)2

6

1

7

= (6.4 10 m)(0.2544) = 2.5 10 m

= 2.5 104 km

33. (d) : Let the second particle be moved by distance

D so as to keep the centre of mass at the same

position. Then

m

m1d = m2D or D = 1 d

m2

6

together does not shift as no external force is

applied.

35. (c) :

0

45

P

12 cm

33 cm

(10 g)g

50

100

5 cm

mg

As the metre stick balances at 50.0 cm mark, so

its centre of gravity G lies at this mark.

66

mark, the stick is balanced at P (45.0 cm mark).

For rotational equilibrium, taking moments about

P, we get

(10 g)g (45.0 cm 12.0 cm) = mg(50.0 cm 45.0 cm)

(10 g)(33.0 cm) = m (5.0 cm)

(10 g)(33.0 cm)

m=

= 66 g

(5.0 cm)

36. (a) : The angular momentum L and kinetic energy

K of a particle performing uniform circular motion

are related as

2K

L=

...(i)

w

where w is the angular frequency.

When angular frequency is doubled and kinetic

energy is halved, the new angular momentum

becomes

2(K /2) 1 2K L

L =

=

(using (i))

=

2w

4 w 4

37. (a) : As the gravitational force varies inversely as

the nth power of the distance, so the gravitational

force on the planet is

GMm

F= n

R

This force provides the centripetal force mRw2

to the planet

GMm

\ mRw2 = n

R

w=

GM

R

n +1

Time period, T =

T R

n + 1

n+1

2 2R

=

w

GM

T1 = 24 hours, R1 = 36000 km

For spy satellite

T2 = ?, R2 6400 km

According to Kepler's third law

\

T22

R23

=

T12 R13

or

R

T2 = T1 2

R1

6400 km

T2 = (24 hours)

36000 km

2 hours

3/2

3/2

39. (d) : The energy stored in the wire per unit volume

is

1

u = stress strain

2

stress

But strain =

Youngs modulus

\ u=

1

stress

stress

2

Youngs modulus

S2

2Y

40. (b) : The situation is shown in the figure.

=

h2

h1

the levels when the vessels are interconnected is

1

W = rgA(h2 h1)2

4

where r is the density of the liquid, A is the area

of each base, g is the acceleration due to gravity

and h1 and h2 are liquid heights in right and left

vessels respectively.

Here,

r = 1.3 103 kg/m3

g = 9.8 m/s2 , A = 4.00 cm2 = 4.0 104 m2

h1 = 0.854 m, h2 = 1.560 m

1

\ W = (1.3 103 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2 )

4

(4.0 104 m2)(1.560 m 0.854 m)2

= 0.635 J

41. (a) : According to definition of Young's modulus Y,

the elongation produced in a wire when a force F

is applied is

FL

FL

FL

= 2

DL =

as Y =

ADL

AY r Y

where L is the length of the wire and r is its

radius.

As both wires are of same material (i.e. Y is same)

and length, so

DL1 F1 r2

=

DL2 F2 r1

r

Here, DL1 = 1 mm, DL2 = ?, F2 = 2F1, r2 = 1

2

1 mm F1 r1/2 2 1

\

=

=

DL2 2F1 r1

8

DL2 = 8 mm

42. (b) : According to kinetic theory of an ideal gas

u 3

2

= P

PV = u \

V

2

3

43. (b) : Here,

Pressure of the gas, P = 8 104 N/m2

Mass of the gas, m = 1 kg

Density of the gas, r = 4 kg/m3

1 kg

m

1

Volume of the gas, V = =

= m3

3

r 4 kg/m

4

As diatomic gas has 5 degrees of freedom,

\ The energy of the gas due to its thermal motion

(or internal energy) is

5

U = nRT

2

According to gas equation, PV = nRT

5

\ U = PV

2

Substituting the given values, we get

5

1

U = (8 104 N/m2 ) m3

4

2

= 5 104 J

44. (b) : The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator

is

T2

a=

T1 T2

where T1 and T2 are the temperatures of the hot

reservoir and the cold reservoir respectively in

kelvin.

Here,

T1 = 36C = (273 + 36) K = 309 K

T2 = 9C = (273 + 9) K = 282 K

282 K

282 K

\ a=

=

= 10.4

309 282 K 27 K

45. (d) : According to Newton's law of cooling,

Rate of cooling Dq

\ n=1

46. (a) 47. (d) 48. (b)

49. (a) 50. (d)

Refer to "MTG AMU Engg. Explorer" for complete solutions

nn

physics for you | AUGUST 15

67

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engineering Entrance Exams

LAWS OF MOTION

tension T3 is

(a) 5 g

(b) 3 g

(c) g

(d) 6 g

(a)

force of 5 104 N through a distance of 3 m. Assuming

that the resistance due to water is negligible, what will

be the speed of the ship?

(a) 0.1 m s1

(b) 1.5 m s1

1

(c) 5 m s

(d) 0.2 m s1

3 kg

(c) 2 3 kg

(b) 3 kg

(d) 9 kg

shown in figure. Th e inclination of the plane to the

horizontal is gradually increased. It is found that

when angle of inclination is , the block just begins

to slide down the plane. What is the minimum force

F applied parallel to the plane that would just make

the block move up

the plane?

(a) 2 mg sin

(b) mg sin

(c) mg cos

(d) 2 mg cos

inclination . Its velocity on reaching the bottom is 6. A stone tied to a string of length L is whirled in a

v. If it slides down a rough inclined plane of same

vertical circle, with the other end of the string at the

inclination, its velocity on reaching the bottom is

centre. At a certain instant of time, the stone is at its

v/n, where n is a number greater than zero. Th e

lowest position, and has a speed u. Th e magnitude

coeffi cient of friction is given by

of change in its velocity as it reaches a position,

1

where the string is horizontal is

(a) cot 1

2

n

(a) u2 2 gL

(b) 2gL

1

(c) u2 gL

(d) 2 u2 gL

(b) tan 1 2

n

7. A heavy small sized sphere is suspended by a string

1

of length l. Th e sphere is rotated uniformly in a

(c) tan 1

horizontal circle with the string making an angle

n2

with the vertical. Th e time period of this conical

1

pendulum is

(d) cot 1

n2

l tan

l sin

(a) 2

(b) 2

4. A spring balance carries a load. When the load is

g

g

pulled aside so that the balance makes an angle of

l

l cos

30 with the vertical, the balance reads 4 kg wt. Th e

(c) 2

(d) 2

g

g

mass of the load is

68

inclined plane making an angle of 30 with the

horizontal. Find the coefficient of friction between

the body and the plane if the time of ascent is half

of the time of descent.

(a) 0.346 (b) 0.436 (c) 0.463

(d) 0.364

9. The coefficient of kinetic friction between a 20 kg

box and the floor is 0.40. How much work does a

pulling force do on the box in pulling it 8.0 m across

the floor at constant speed? The pulling force is

directed 37 above the horizontal.

(a) 343 J

(b) 482 J

(c) 14.4 J

(d) None of these

10. A ball of mass m is thrown upwards with a velocity

v. If air exerts an average resisting force F, the

velocity with which the ball returns to the thrower

is

(a) v

mg

mg + F

(b) v

F

mg + F

(c) v

mg F

mg + F

(d) v

mg + F

mg

parts. If two parts of mass 2 kg each are found flying

due north and east with a velocity of 5 m/s each, what

is the velocity of the third part after explosion ?

(a) 10 m/s due north-east

10

m/s due south-east

(b)

2

(c) 10 2 m/s due south-west

(d) 10 2 m/s due south-east

12. A block released from rest from the top of a smooth

inclined plane of angle q1 reaches the bottom in

time t1. The same block released from rest from the

top of another smooth inclined plane of angle q2,

reaches the bottom in time t2. If the two inclined

planes have the same height, the relation between t1

and t2 is

1/2

t2 sin q1

(a) t = sin q

1

2

sin

q

t

1

(c) 2 =

t1 sin q2

t2

=1

t1

sin2 q1

t

(d) 2 =

t1 sin2 q2

(b)

horizontal plane. If it is struck by a jet of water at

the rate of 2 kg s1 and at the speed of 10 m s1, then

the initial acceleration of the block is

(a) 15 m s2

(c) 2.5 m s2

(b) 10 m s2

(d) 5 m s2

1

friction between the two blocks is = . The force

2

of friction acting between the two blocks is

F2 = 20 N

(a) 8 N

(c) 6 N

2 kg

F1 = 2 N

4 kg

(b) 10 N

(d) 4 N

ground with a certain momentum P. If the same

stone is dropped from a height 100% more than the

previous height, the momentum when it hits the

ground will change by

(a) 68%

(b) 41%

(c) 200%

(d) 100%

work, energy and Power

boy of half his mass. The man speeds up by 1 m s1

and then has KE as that of the boy. What were the

original speeds of man and the boy?

(a)

2 m s 1 ; 2 2 m s 1

(b) ( 2 1) m s 1 ; (2 2 1) m s 1

(c) ( 2 + 1) m s 1 ; 2( 2 + 1) m s 1

(d) None of these

17. A body A is projected upwards with velocity v1.

Another body B of same mass is projected at an

angle of 45. Both reach the same height. What is

the ratio of their initial kinetic energies?

(a) 1/4

(b) 1/3

(c) 1/2

(d) 1

18. A sand bag of 10 kg mass is suspended by a 3 m long

weightless string. A 0.2 kg mass bullet enters the

bag with a velocity of 20 m s1 and gets embedded

into it. The loss in KE in the collision is

(a) 40.2 J

(b) 38.2 J

(c) 49.2 J

(d) 39.2 J

19. The force required to stretch a spring varies with

the distance as shown in figure. If the experiment is

performed with the above spring of half the length,

the line OA will

(a) shift towards F-axis

A

F

(b) shift towards X-axis

(c) remains as it is

O

x

(d) become double in length.

Physics for you | august 15

69

1 km hits the ground with a speed of 50 m s1. If

the resistive force is proportional to the speed of the

drop, then the work done by the resistive force is

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 10 J

(b) 10 J

(c) 8.75 J

(d) 8.75 J

21. Match the Column I with Column II.

Column I

Column II

work against friction,

its kinetic energy

independent

of time

(B)

is

(C) Power of a body (r)

varies inversely as

time

over a closed path is

zero

decreases

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

force must be

conservative

A p, B q, C r, D s

A q, B r, C s, D p

A s, B r, C q, D p

A s, B p, C q, D r

to a spring of negligible

mass having spring constant

100 N m1 as shown in the

figure.

The block is released from rest with the spring

in the unstretched position. The block moves

10 cm down the incline before coming to rest. The

coefficient of friction between the block and the

incline is (Take g = 10 m s2 and assume that the

pulley is frictionless)

(a) 0.2

(b) 0.3

(c) 0.5

(d) 0.6

(a) 25% (b) 5%

(c) 56%

(d) 38%

of motion of the body for 10 s. The increase in

kinetic energy is

(a) 10 J (b) 8.5 J (c) 4.5 J (d) 4 J

70

hanging vertically down over the edge of the table.

If g is acceleration due to gravity, work required to

pull the hanging part on to the table is

(a) MgL

(b) MgL

3

(c) MgL

9

(d) MgL

18

the spring initially stretched 75 mm.

Calculate the velocity of the block

after it has dropped 12 mm. The

spring has a stiffness of 1050 N m1.

Neglect the mass of the small pulley.

(a) 0.371 m s1

(b) 0.45 m s1

1

(c) 5 m s

(d) 2.2 m s1

45 kg

accelerated from rest to a velocity of 10 m s1 in

5 s. If the total mass of the car and its occupants is

1000 kg, then the average horse power developed

by the engine is

(a)

103

746

(b)

104

746

(c)

105

746

(d) 8

The gun is free to recoil and 804 J of recoil energy

is released on firing the gun. The speed of bullet

(in m s1) is

(a)

804 2010

(b)

2010

804

(c)

804

2010

(d)

804 4 103

of 40 m s1 collides with another body of mass m2 at

rest and then the two together begin to move with

a uniform velocity of 30 m s1. The ratio of their

m

masses 1 is

m2

(a) 0.75

(c) 3

(b) 0.33

(d) 1.33

a retarding force F = 0.1x J m1 during its travel

from x = 20 m to x = 30 m. Its final kinetic energy

will be

(a) 475 J

(b) 450 J

(c) 275 J

(d) 250 J

solutions

T1 = 3g

T2 T1 = 2g

T2 = 2g + T1 = 2g + 3g = 5g

Also,

T3 T2 = 1g

T3 = 1g + T2 = 1g + 5g = 6g

B'

B

v

L

A

O'

A'

= u2 + v 2 = u2 + (u2 2 gL)

5 104 5

2. (a) : Here, a = F =

= 103 m s 2

m 3 107 3

s = 3 m, u = 0, v = ?

As v2 u2 = 2as

5

3

v 2 0 = 2 10 3 = 102

3

v = 101 m s1 = 0.1 m s1

3. (b) : Using the relation v2 u2 = 2 as

On smooth inclined plane,

v2 0 = 2 (g sin q) s

On rough inclined plane

= 2(u gL)

7. (d) : As it is clear from figure

mv

, T cos q = mg

r

Dividing, we get

T sin q =

tan q =

...(i)

v

0 = 2 g (sin q cos q) s

n

...(ii)

sin q

n2 =

sin q cos q

n2sin q n2 cos q = sin q

n2 cos q = (n2 1) sin q

1

= 1

tan q

n2

O

4. (c) : As it is clear from figure,

T = 4 kg, mg = ?, q = 30

T

OAB is a right angled triangle,

B

A

F

OA mg

where cos q =

=

OB T

mg

3

mg = Tcosq = 4cos30 = 4

= 2 3 kg

2

5. (a) : The weight mg of the block has two rectangular

components; mg cos q perpendicular to the plane

and mg sin q down the plane.

Force of friction f = R = mg cos q is also down

the plane.

Therefore, F = mg sin q + f

= mg sin q + mg cos q

But = tan q F = mg sin q + tan q mg cos q

= 2 mg sin q

vertically upward direction. As is clear from figure

change in velocity

or

v 2 r 2

=

rg g T

2

=

T

g tan q

=

r

T = 2

l cos q

g

l

Tcos

T

Tsin

mg

g tan q

g

=

l sin q

l cos q

there will be retardation aA such that

mgsinq + fL = maA

ion

or aA = g(sinq + cosq) ... (i)

...ot(i)

m

R

[as fL = R = mgcosq]

Now from equation of motion,

f

v = u + at and v2 = u2 + 2as

sin 30 L mgcos

g

m

For the motion up the plane

0 = u aAtA and 0 = u2 2aAs

( v = 0)

Eliminating u between these, we get

2s

... (ii)

aA

Now when the body slides

down the plane there will be

acceleration aD such that

mgsinq fL = maD

aD = g(sinq cosq)

... (iii)

( fL = R = mgcosq)

And from equation of motion

1

s = ut + at 2

2

2s

tD =

(as u = 0)

... (iv)

aD

tA =

1

t A = tD

2

71

tA

a

1

= D =

tD

aA 2

Now substituting the values of aA and aD from eqns.

(i) and (iii) in the above equation, we get

sin q cos q 1

=

sin q + cos q 4

which on simplification gives

3

3

3 1

3

= tan q = tan 30 =

=

= 0.346

5

5

5

5

3

9. (b) : The work done by the force is Fs cos37.

where F cos37 = f = N

F sin37

In this case,

F

N = mg F sin37,

37

mg

F cos37

so, F =

20 kg

(cos 37 + sin 37)

Here, = 0.40 and

f

m = 20 kg

mg N

F = 75.4 N

Hence, W = (75.4 cos37)(8.0) = 482 J

10. (c) : For upward motion,

retarding force = mg + F

mg + F

Retardation (a) =

m

v2

v 2m

...(i)

=

2a 2(mg + F )

For downward motion, net force = mg F

mg F

Acceleration (a) =

m

2

2

v

v m

...(ii)

Distance, s =

=

2a 2(mg F )

As s = s

mg F

v 2m

v 2m

=

v = v

2(mg + F ) 2(mg F )

mg + F

Distance, s =

= 10 kg m s1

py = momentum along north

= 2 kg 5 m s1

m s1

= 10 kg m s1

Resultant momentum

m s1

p=

px2

p2y

= 102 + 102

m s1

According to law of conservation of momentum

p + p3 = 0 or p3 = p

72

or p3 = 10 2 kg m s 1

or p3 = 10 2 kg m s 1 due south-west

12. (c) : Lengths of the two inclined planes are

h

h

l1 =

and l2 =

sin q1

sin q2

Accelerations of the block down the two planes are

a1 = g sin q1 and a2 = g sin q2

1

1

As l1 = a1 t12 and l2 = a2 t22

2

2

2

2

g sin q1 sin q1

a t

t

al

l

1 = 1 1 or 2 = 1 2 =

2

2

l2 a2 t 2

t1 a2l1 g sin q2 sin q2

t

sin q1

2=

t1 sin q2

13. (d) : The water jet striking the block at the rate of

2 kg s1 at a speed of 10 m s1 will exert a force on

the block,

F =v

dm

= 10 2 = 20 N

dt

mass 4 kg will move with an acceleration given by

F 20 N

a= =

= 5 m s 2

m 4 kg

14. (a) : Let f be the force of friction between the two

blocks. Let a be the acceleration of the two blocks

to the left. The free body diagram of two blocks is

shown in the figure.

Their equations of motion are

f 2 = 2a

...(i)

20 f = 4a ...(ii)

Solving (i) and (ii),

we get f = 8 N

Maximum force of friction,

1

f max = mg = 2 10 = 10 N

2

As the blocks move together, f < fmax

f = 8 N.

15. (b) : When a stone is dropped from a height h, it

hits the ground with a momentum

P = m 2 gh

...(i)

where m is the mass of the stone.

When the same stone is dropped from a height

2h (i.e. 100% of initial), then its momentum with

which it hits the ground becomes

P P

100%

% change in momentum =

P

=

2P P

P

...(ii)

100% = 41%

Therefore, mass of man = 2m.

1

As KE of man = (KE of boy)

2

1

1 1

(2m)u2 = mu2

2

2 2

2

u

2 u

, u=

u =

4

2

When man speeds up by 1 m s1,

KE of man = KE of boy

1

1

1

(2m)(u + 1)2 = mu2 = m(2u)2

2

2

2

2

2

(u + 1) = 2u or u + 1 = 2u

1

2 +1

u=

=

2 1 ( 2 1)( 2 + 1)

u = ( 2 + 1) m s 1 ; u = 2u = 2( 2 + 1) m s 1

vertical component of initial velocity of B = initial

velocity of A.

v

v2cos45 = v1 or 2 = v1

2

1 2

2

2

K1 2 mv1 v1 1 1

=

= =

=

K 2 1 2 v2 2 2

mv2

2

1

18. (d) : Initial KE of system, E1 = (0.2)(20)2 = 40 J

2

Velocity of combination,

m v + m2v2 10 0 + 0.2 20

4

=

=

v= 1 1

m1 + m2

10 + 0.2

10.2

KE of combination,

1

E2 = (m1 + m2 )v 2

2

2

1

8

4

= 10.2

= 10.2 = 0.8 J

2

10

.

2

19. (a) : As original length of spring is halved, its

extension (x) corresponding to a given force is

halved. Therefore, the line OA shifts towards F-axis,

increasing the slope.

20. (d) : Here, m = 1 g = 103 kg

h = 1 km = 1000 m = 103 m

1

DK = mv 2 0

( u = 0)

2

1

= 103 50 50 = 1.25 J

2

The work done by the gravitational force is

Wg = mgh = 103 10 103 = 10 J

According to work-energy theorem

DK = Wg + Wr

where Wr is the work done by the resistive force on

the raindrop. Thus

Wr = DK Wg = 1.25 J 10 J = 8.75 J

21. (d) : When a body does some work against friction,

its kinetic energy decreases.

As

Work done by a body is independent of time.

Bp

Power of a body (P = W/t) varies inversely as

time.

Cq

When work done over a closed path is zero, force

must be conservative.

Dr

22. (b) : Here,

m = 1 kg,

q = 45,

k = 100 N m1

From figure,

N = mgcosq

f = N = mgcosq

where is the coefficient between the block and

the incline.

Net force on the block down the incline,

= mgsinq f

= mgsinq mgcosq = mg(sinq cosq)

Distance moved, x = 10 cm = 10 102 m

In equilibrium,

Work done = Potential energy of stretched spring

1

mg(sinq cosq)x = kx 2

2

2mg (sinq cosq) = kx

2 1 10 (sin45 cos45) = 100 10 102

1

sin 45 cos 45 =

2

1

1

=

2

2 2

1

2 1

2

1

=1

= 0.3

=

1 =

=

2

2

2

2

23. (c) : Kinetic energy of the body is

p2

K=

2m

Physics for you | august 15

73

body respectively.

K p2

When the momentum of a body is increased by

25%, its momentum will become

25

125

5

p = p +

p=

p= p

100

100

4

2

25

K p2 5 25

or K = K

=

= =

2

4

16

16

K

p

Percentage increase in the kinetic energy of the

body

K K

(25 / 16)K K

=

100 =

100

K

K

9

= 100 = 56%

16

24. (c) : Momentum = mass velocity

or p = mu

1

p 8 kg m s

u= =

= 2 m s 1

4 kg

m

Acceleration =

Force

Mass

0. 2 N

= 0.05 m s 2

4 kg

Distance travelled by the body in 10 s is

1

d = ut + at 2

2

1

= (2 m s1) (10 s) + (0.05 m s2) (10 s)2

2

= 20 m + 2.5 m = 22.5 m

Work done, W = Fd = (0.2 N) (22.5 m) = 4.5 J

According to work-energy theorem

Increase in kinetic energy = Work done = 4.5 J

a=

L

25. (d) : The weight of hanging part of chain is

3

1

L

hanging part, which is at a distance of from

6

the table.

As work done = force distance

Mg L MgL

W=

=

3

6

18

26. (a) : When the block descends 12 mm, spring

further stretches by 24 mm.

Decrease in PE of block = increase in KE of

block + increase in elastic potential energy of

spring.

74

1

1

= 45 v2 + 1050 [(0.075 + 0.024)2 (0.075)2]

2

2

or v = 0.371 m s1

10 0

m s 2 = 2 m s 2 ;

5

F = ma or F = 1000 2 N = 2000 N

0 + 10

m s 1 = 5 m s 1

Average velocity =

2

Average power = 2000 5 W = 104 W

104

Required horse power is

746

28. (d) : Here, m1 = 20 kg; m2 = 0.1 kg

v1 = velocity of recoil of gun,

v2 = velocity of bullet

As m1v1 = m2v2

v

m

0. 1

v2 = 2

v1 = 2 v2 =

m1

20

200

2

1

1

v

Recoil energy of gun = m1v12 = 20 2

2

2

200

10v22

v22

804 =

=

4 104 4 103

27. (b) : a =

v2 = 804 4 103 m s 1

29. (c) : Applying the principle of conservation of

linear momentum, we get

m1 40 + m2 0 = (m1 + m2)30

m

40 m1 + m2

=

=1+ 2

m1

m1

30

m2 40

m 3

10 1

= 1 = = or 1 =

m1 30

m2 1

30 3

30. (a) : According to work energy theorem,

W = DKE

W = KEF KEI

1

1

2

Fdx = KEF m v 2 = KEF 10 10

2

2

Fdx = KEF 500

30

20

30

x2

0.1 = KEF 500

2 20

900 400

0.1

= KEF 500

2

\ dx =

0

soLuTioN sET 24

1.

0.3 m

1

1

= (1.50 1) = 0.5

1

Fl

1

2

1

1

1 0.33

=

= (1.33 1) 0 +

=

;

.5

F

0

Fl

0. 5 0. 5

m

2

\ 1 = 2 0.5 + 2 0.33 2 = 1 + 4 4 = 5

3

3

F

0. 5 0. 5

1 1 1 5 10

5

= =

+ =

v F u 3 3

3

3

\ v = m = 0. 6 m

5

Hence, the distance between the object and the final

image is 0.3 + 0.6 = 0.9 m

2. When outer surface is grounded charge Q resides

on the inner surface of sphere B.

Now sphere A is connected to earth, potential on its

surface becomes zero. Let the charge on the surface

A becomes q. Then

kq kQ

a

=0 q= Q

a

b

b

In this position, energy stored

2

Q2

1 a

1 a

E1 =

Q +

Q (Q)

+

8 0a b 8 0b 4 0b b

When S3 is closed, total charge will appear on the

outer surface of shell B. In this position, energy

stored

2

1 a

E2 =

1 Q 2

8 0b b

Heat produced, H = E1 E2 =

Q 2a (b a)

2 (0.04)3

mg sin a

cos a

\ N = mg

1 + sin a

or N =

mg cos a

1 + sin a

Fcos

Since fmax = mN

mgsin

mg sin a m mg cos a

\

=

1 + sin a 1 + sin a

or m = tana = tan37 = 0.75

= 1. 8 J

F

3. Time taken by pulse to reach from P to Q (t0) = 0

k

where F0 = 3 N

F kt

T

dx

Now, v =

= 0

m

dt

m

Fsin

f

mgcos

mg

perpendicular to spring.

Conserving angular momentum about O

mv0l0 = mv1

v1 =

be

11l0

10

10v0

= 10 m s 1

v0

11

( v0 = 11 ms1) m

l0

v1

11l0

10

1 2 1 2 1 l0

mv = mv + k

2 0 2 1 2 10

8 0b3

Here, a = 2 cm = 0.02 m, b = 4 cm = 0.04 m,

Q = 8 mC = 8 106 C

Putting these values, we get

H=

3

333 23

2 F0

2

=

=

3 L m 3 1 3 102 3 0.1

= 20 N s1

4. To keep the cylinder in balance

fr Fr = 0

... (i)

and mg sina F sina f = 0

... (ii)

Solving eqns. (i) and (ii), we get

mg sin a

F= f =

1 + sin a

\ k=

1 2

2

1

=

+

+

F Fl Fl

Fm

1

2

1 t0

1/2

F03/2

(F0 kt ) dt ; L =

m

3

k

m 0

k=

=

=

= 210 N m 1

2

2

0

1

.

(0.1)

l0

10

6. As En =

m Z 2e 4

8 20 n2h2

So, hu = E5 E4 = +

\ u=

m Z 2e 4 1

1

2 2 16

25

8 0 h

m Z 2 e4 9

8 20 h3 16 25

... (i)

75

and frequency, un =

\

u4 =

mZ 2e 4

2

2

= [40 10] = 30 = 20 J

3

3

Total work done by the gas = 415 + 20 = 435 J

mZ 2 e 4

4 20 n3 h3

420 (4)3 h 4

... (ii)

u 18

= = 0.72

u4 25

7. Applying conservation of energy

1

1

1

mgs(sina sinb) = I 2 + 2 mv 2 + I 2

2

2

2

v

mr 2

where = and I =

2

r

7 2

or mgs(sin a sin b) = mv

4

1

\ v=2

gs (sin a sin b)

7

Putting values and solving, we get

v=2

10 3.5 4 3

1

5 5 = 2 m s

7

TB

TB

3

3 1/2

1

T dV = T 1/2 RT 1/2dT

3

TA 2

TA 2

R

(T T ) = 50R

2 B A

= 50 8.3 = 415 J

1 1/2

For process B C, U = V

2

3

1 1/2

or

RT = V

3PV 1/2 = 1 (using (i))

2

2

1

\ P=

3 V

Now, WBC = PdV

On solving, WAB =

1600

1600

2

dV = V

100

3

100 3 V

76

Bl 2 Bl 2

B 2 l 4

[1 e Rt /L ] =

[1 e Rt /L ]

2 2R

4R

Maximum value of current occurs at t = and half

of this is equal to

=

I1 =

1

B 2 l 2

when 1 e Rt /L =

4R

2

B2 l 4 52 40 (0.1)4

=

8R

8 10

3

= 1.25 10 N m = 1.25 milliN m

3

8. For process A B, P = T 1/2

2

According to ideal gas equation for one mole

PV = RT

3 1/2

2

T V = RT V = RT 1/2

2

3

Differentiating both sides, we get

1

dV = RT 1/2dT

3

WAB = PdV

1

Bl 2

2

dI

Bl 2

At any time t, L + IR =

2

dt

Solving for I, we get

Bl 2

[1 e Rt /L ]

I=

2R

Torque about the hinge P is

l

1

= IB dx x = IBl 2

2

0

9. Induced emf =

... (i)

the direction of increasing x is towards the right. If

the blocks are at the origin, the net force on them

is zero. If the blocks are a small distance x to the

right of the origin, value of the net force on them is

(k1 + k2)x. Applying Newtons law to the two-block

system gives

(k1 + k2)x = 2ma

... (i)

Applying Newtons second law to the lower block

gives

k1(x1 x) f = ma

... (ii)

where x1 = initial stretch and f is the magnitude of

the frictional force.

From eqns. (i) and (ii)

x

f = k1x1 + (k2 k1 )

2

The maximum value for x is the amplitude A and

the maximum value for f is msmg.

A

Thus, msmg = k1x1 + (k2 k1 )

2

Solving for A, we get

(m mg k1x1 ) 2 [0.3 2 10 150 0.01] 2

=

A= s

k2 k1

450 150

= 0.03 m = 3 cm

nn

Can acceleration of an object be negative and its speed

still increase?

This question runs through the mind of almost every

individual who begins to study motion.

To be able to answer this yourself, let us learn the basis

of this chapter.

Here we will have either scalars or vectors.

Scalars are physical quantities whose description is

complete without any direction being associated with

itself, whereas vectors are those physical quantities

whose description is incomplete without mentioning

their direction. For example distance travelled is scalar

but velocity is a vector.

To indicate direction of a vector quantity for an object

in one dimensional motion, we just append a +ve or ve

sign ahead of the symbol of the quantity. For being able

to do so, a positive direction has to be chosen first of all

and thereafter if the vector quantity points in the chosen

positive direction, it will be positive and if it points in

the direction opposite to the chosen positive direction,

it will be negative.

For example, if a +ve direction of x-axis is taken to be

towards left, then

+ve

4 m s1

A

3 m s1

vA = 4 m s1

vB = +3 m s1

< 3 m s1 is absurd. Just imagine saying 4 m s1 towards

east is less than 3 m s1 towards west!

So, never confuse with a +ve or ve sign infront of a

vector quantity. They are used only to represent the

direction.

With the development of this understanding, let us

begin with the basic definitions of the quantities used

related to motion of an object.

Position of an object

object.

+ve

4 3 2 1 0 1

(origin)

x (m)

to be its position.

Hence, position of A, xA = +2 m

position of B, xB = 3 m

Clearly, its a vector quantity.

Hence it can

start from a non-zero value too.

have +ve as well as ve values.

Displacement refers to the change in position of the

object, which is in short, the straight line connecting

the initial point to the final point and is directed

from initial point towards final point.

Therefore, displacement

Dx = x2 x1

This clearly can have +ve, ve as well as zero

values.

Distance travelled refers to the actual path length

covered by an object. For a particle moving in a

straight line, the magnitude of displacement may

be equal to distance travelled if it has not reversed

back, i.e., changed its direction of motion. Hence

Dx = x2 x1 may or may not be distance travelled.

Note that distance travelled,

will definitely start with zero value, irrespective

of whatever the starting position of the object

was.

will be a non-decreasing function, i.e. it will

either remain constant (if the object stops) or

increase (if the object moves).

will never be ve.

77

Keep in mind that whenever we talk of a particular

quantity changing at a particular rate, the rate of

change can be two, one is instantaneous and the

other is average. Hence velocity too.

Velocity

Average velocity

Instantaneous velocity

It is the average rate It is the instantaneous

of change of position. rate of change of

Hence,

position. Hence,

x x

Dx

vavg = 2 1

v = lim

t2 t1

Dt 0 Dt

dx

Dx

v=

vavg =

dt

Dt

which clearly is the

displacement

vavg =

slope of position time

time taken

(x-t) graph.

Since velocity is found for displacement, hence, it

can have all +ve, ve as well as zero values.

Since, the slope of position time graph gives the

instantaneous velocity. Hence if the particle moves

with uniform velocity, the slope of x-t graph should

not change. Hence the plot will be a straight line.

Speed refers to the rate at which distance travelled

is covered.

Speed

Average speed

Instantaneous speed =

distance travelled magnitude of instantaneous

=

dx

time taken

velocity =

dt

speed

velocity

but it will never be negative.

Note : If velocity-time graph is given and we are to

find speed-time graph then just reflect the portion

of the graph which lies below the time axis, as

below.

time

time

78

In this integration, if v is +ve, area will be +ve which

would indicate displacement towards +ve direction,

whereas if v is ve, area will be ve which would

indicate displacement towards ve direction. Hence,

if we add them algebraically (with sign) we will get

displacement and if we add just the magnitudes, we

get displacement as below:

v

A1

t1

A3

A2

t2

\ Displacement = A1 A2 + A3

Distance travelled = A1 + A2 + A3

Acceleration refers to the rate of change of

velocity.

Acceleration

Average

Instantaneous

v v

aavg = 2 1

t2 t1

aavg =

Dv

Dt 0 Dt

a = lim

dv

dt

Slope of v-t graph

gives us instantaneous

acceleration.

Dv

Dt

a=

Note :

From x-t graph velocity is found from its slope.

Hence if the motion is accelerated, the slope of

x-t graph should change.

dv dv dx

=

l a=

dt dx dt

dv

a=v

dx

can be used if velocity versus position is known.

l

found out from v-t graph? Of course we can. Let us

see how.

x2

t2

dx

v=

dx = vdt

dt

x

t

1

a=

v2

t2

dv

dv = adt

dt

v1

t1

t2

v2 v1 = Dv = adt

t1

velocity.

Now, before we begin with the application of whatever

we learnt here, we need to understand how to find

slope.

PRESS RELEASE

excited participants defined the 4-day spectacular

event BAJA SAE INDIA, the largest motorsport gathering

in the world.

Baja SAE INDIA is an intercollegiate design

competition run by the Society of Automotive

Engineers INDIA (SAE INDIA). Teams of students from

various universities designed and built off-road buggies

to withstand the harshest elements of a rough terrain.

Each year as many as 110 Baja cars from around the world

enter the event held in India. These teams come from

places including US, Brazil, South Africa and Korea.

Team Kshatriya from VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu,

was one of the first teams that participated in BAJA

SAE INDIA series since its inception. Formed in the

year 2006 by a group of undergraduate students of the

esteemed university, the team has been rising all these

years unperturbed and now stands on the pinnacle of

its rich history. It was ranked 3rd consecutively this time

at the mega motorsport event held at NATRAX Facility at

Indore, BAJA SAE INDIA 2015.

third year. As quoted by the Team Captain, Mr. Nasit

Malay R, The team is readied every year on the basis of

written tests comprising both technical and aptitude

questions. This is followed by Personal Interviews and

Individual Task Rounds. We make sure we get the best

out of them and only then we handpick the ones who

stand to take the legacy ahead. The role of the seniors

is of great importance. They guide the new team with

the help of their own experience and knowledge. This

is what defines the team.

Dr. G. Viswanathan, Chancellor congratulated the

team and said that VIT teams have been winning

several global competitions not only this but several

others. This is due to the combination of students

interest and our encouragement, both financially and

motivationally.

So in future one would need not be surprised if VIT

teams win all global level competitions on a daily

basis.

nn

physics for you | august 15

79

drawing a tangent at that point and then we measure

the angle that the line makes with the +ve x-axis in

anticlockwise sense and then take its tan.

y

B

[Q 0 < qA < 90]

At B, slope mB = tanqB < 0

[Q 90 < qB < 180]

Also remember that tanq is a non decreasing function

within its continuous limits, which means if q increases,

tanq will also increase.

Following are examples of increasing and decreasing

slopes.

Increasing slope

y

2

1

1

(A)

(B)

But note that in case B, tanq < 0, hence |tanq1| > |tanq2|.

Decreasing slope

y

Therefore, if acceleration is negative, it means

velocity decreses, not necessarily speed. Imagine

velocity to be changing from 5 m s1 to 6 m s1,

speaking mathematically velocity has decreased, since

Dv = 6 (5) = 1 m s1, hence acceleration is negative

but speed increased. Keep in mind that if velocity and

acceleration have same sign (in same direction) then

speed will increase.

Synopsis of learning

instantaneous velocity.

80

acceleration.

Area of velocity-time graph gives

distance travelled if area above and below time

axis are added.

displacement if area below time axis is

subtracted from the area above it.

Area under acceleration time graph gives us the

change in velocity.

Suppose the acceleration is known to be constant, say

a m s2. Then we can use standard formulae to find

various quantities related to motion as derived below:

Assumptions:

Initial position at t = 0, xi = x0

Initial velocity at t = 0, vi = u

Final position t sec later, xf = x

Final velocity t sec later, vf = v

Displacement, s = xf xi = x x0

Results:

v

t

dv

a=

dv = adt

dt

u

0

but since acceleration a is a constant, we can take it out

of integration.

\ v u = at v = u + at

... (i)

x

t

dx

Again, v =

dx = (u + at )dt

dt

x0

0

1

x x0 = ut + at 2

2

1 2

... (ii)

s = ut + at

2

Note here that s indicates displacement, which may or

may not be equal to distance travelled.

v

x

dv

Again, a = v

vdv = adx

dx

u

x

0

v 2 u2

= a(x x0 ) = as

2

2

v2 = u2 + 2as

...(iii)

Each of the equation derived above (i), (ii) and (iii)

are applicable only for constant acceleration. If the

acceleration is not constant, and we are given a relation

between v, x, t and a to describe the motion and one or

the other is to be found out then we use either of the

three relations

dv

dx

vdv

(i) a =

(ii) v =

(iii) a =

dt

dt

dx

will help us, as used, while deriving equations (i), (ii)

and (iii).

learnt.

Graphical Application

as below.

x (m)

15

10

5

10

t (s)

Find

(i) distance travelled and displacement in the

interval 0 to10 second

(ii) average acceleration in 0 to10 second interval

Soln.: (i) As long as the position increases, particle

is travelling in +ve x-direction but as soon as the

position starts decreasing (after 5 s), the direction

of motion has reversed, and continues to move in

x direction. Hence distance displacement.

\ Distance travelled

= |x(5) x(0)| + |x(10) x(5)| = 5 + 15 = 20 m

Displacement = x(10) x(0) = 0 10 = 10 m

v(10) v(0)

(ii) aavg =

10 0

dx

dx

15 5

dt dt

5

10

0

=

= 5

10

10

= 0.4 m s2

2. The position of a particle moving along x-axis is

given by x(t) = 3t2 12t + 6, where t in seconds

gives x in metres. Find the distance travelled by

particle in the duration (0 - 6) s.

Soln.: One incorrect method to do this would be that

distance = x(6) x(0)

Since we dont know whether the particle changed

its direction of motion or not. To determine this

always remember that at the instant when it will

change the direction of motion, its instantaneous

velocity will definitely be zero.

Here let us find velocity first.

dx

v=

= 6t 12

dt

\ If v = 0 t = 2 s, hence at t = 2 s it has changed

its direction.

\ Distance travelled

= |x(2) x(0)| + |x(6) x(2)|

(3(2)2 12(2) + 6)|

= |6 6| + |42 (6)|

= 12 + 48 = 60 m

Alternatively, this could have been done quickly

v(m s1)

from v-t graph.

v = 6t 12 (linear)

24

v6

tan q =

=6

v6

62

A2

2

v6 = 24 m s 1

6

A1

t(s)

\ Distance travelled

12

= A1 + A2

1

1

= (2 12) + (4 24) = 60 m

2

2

3. The velocity-time graph of a particle moving along

x-axis is shown in the figure.

v (m s1)

10

15

t(s)

10

the initial position which was at t = 0.

Soln.: Since xf = xi Dx = 0

area under v-t graph = 0

v (m s1)

tc

10

A1

10

45

15

5 A2

t(s)

A1 = A2

1

1

10 10 = (Dtc + Dtc + 5)(5) Dtc = 7.5 s

2

2

along x-axis is shown. If the particle starts moving

with a speed of 6 m s1 along negative x-direction

then find its velocity at t = 8 s.

a (m s2)

t(s)

81

tan 37

(m s2)

y

2

1 4

varies as shown. Predict the nature of acceleration.

A1 = A2

v = 0

v2 v1 = 0

v2 = v1 = 6 m s1

which starts from origin from rest. Find the distance

travelled by it till the journey of 15 s.

(m s2)

5

10

1 1

15 170 85

t 10 10

s

2 2

2

4

2

15

2

3 y

4 10

15

(s)

dv

= v slope of v-x graph

dx

Since v increases but slope decreases, therefore, we

cannot predict with certainty about the nature. It

might be constant, increasing or decreasing as well.

Soln.: We have a v

shown in the figure. Justify whether force acts in the

direction of motion or not?

(m s1)

0 =

= 25

5

10

(s)

15

Distance travelled = A

1

(15 5)(25) 250 m

2

6. (1/v) is plotted against x for a particle moving along

x-axis. Find the time taken to move from x = 0 to

x = 10 m? (v is in m s1 .)

will increase, hence acceleration and velocity, both

should either be +ve or both ve.

Slope < 0 v < 0 and v2 < v1 a < 0

Both are negative. Hence force acts in the

direction of motion.

1

1

dx

dx dt t

v

(dx / dt )

82

of knowledge is not

ignorance, it is illusion of

knowledge.

-Stephen Hawking

J & K CET

= 106 Hz

c 3 108 m/s

=

= 300 m

u

106 Hz

To transmit a signal the length of an antenna

is comparable to the wavelength of the signal

(atleast l/4).

Thus the length of the antenna is 300 m.

52. (b) : Both transverse and longitudinal waves

propagate in a solid.

53. (c) : Before jumping the reading of the weighing

scale on which the person is standing is 60 kg and

after jumping on it, the reading goes to 70 kg.

If a be his maximum upward acceleration, then

(70 kg)g = (60 kg)g + (60 kg)a

(70 kg)g (60 kg)g

\ a=

60 kg

The wavelength is l =

g 9.8 m/s2

=

= 1.63 m/s2

6

6

material, then the amount of substance left after

n half-lives is

n

n

N 1

1

N = N 0 or

=

2

N0 2

Here, n = 3

\

N 1

1 1

=

= = 100 = 12.5%

N 0 2

8 8

55. (c)

56. (c) : When a parallel

narrow beam of light

is falling normally on

a glass sphere, it will

come to focus outside

the sphere as shown in

the figure.

57. (b) : 25 VSD = 24 MSD

24

...(i)

1 VSD =

MSD

25

The least count of vernier callipers is

LC = 1 MSD 1 VSD

24

1

= 1 MSD

MSD =

MSD (using (i))

25

25

As 1 MSD = 0.5 mm (given)

1

\ LC = (0.5 mm) = 0.02 mm = 0.002 cm

25

58. (c)

59. (d) : The energy of incident light is

E = hu

where h is the Planck's constant and u is the

frequency of incident light.

As uviolet > ublue > ugreen > ured

\ Eviolet > Eblue > Egreen > Ered

Since the incident energy is maximum for

violet colour, therefore violet light produces

photoelectrons.

60. (a) : Since the phase difference is constant therefore

angular velocity is same for both pendula. Let it

be w.

If A be amplitude of each pendulum, then the

maximum velocity of one of them is

v = Aw

... (i)

and that of other is

v + x = Aw

... (ii)

Substituting the value of v from eqn. (i) in eqn. (ii),

we get

Aw + x = Aw or x = 0

nn

Refer to MTG J&K CET Explorer for complete solutions

solution of July 2015 crossword

C O L L I D 2E 3R A 4D I

I

Y

5

N

P L U T O N

7

S C R E E

10

S E X T 11A N T

T

12

E

T

D I G

L

E

I

15

GA L V A N I S M

17

O

S

F

19

R

E

A

20

21

22

R

P

G I L B E R T

A

24

R

M

O

T

D C

25

G

T R O C H I L I

L

L

O

S R

A

28

N

CO R E

M

E E

A

W

B

E

T

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29

30

HO L E

FO C I M E

N

R

1

U M

6

T

E

I T R O

A

16

P

R

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23

C E L

I

C S

I

O

N

T R Y

Pratyusha Das (Odisha)

C H A R G

E

R

N

13

T R 14A C

M

18

A

P

L

Y

E R I T Y

O

H

26

E L V E 27S

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A P

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G

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K

E

B

O

R

E

saundarya P (Kerala)

physics for you | august 15

83

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just cant get

answered?

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

due to diffraction from the Earths surface?

Pooja Yadav (UP)

scattered by the atmosphere to a significant extent,

so as to illuminate the side darkened by night.

This does happen at dawn and dusk, the land is

bright even before sunrise and after sunset. But

as the Earth turns and the Sun dips further away,

this light disappears. Our atmosphere does not

extends very far (less than a hundred kilometres).

So there is nothing above us that could receive the

scattered light from the sunlit side. The situation is

somewhat different near the polar regions. During

the summer months, the Sun does not dip much

below the horizon and the night stays illuminated

by either direct or scattered light. Therefore,

mid-summer nights are never complete dark at

the poles, sunlight or a scattered twilight keeps the

land or the sea bright.

Q2. Many roadway construction sites have flashing

yellow lights to warn motorists of possible dangers.

What causes the lightbulbs to flash?

Divya Nair (Kerala)

R

a flasher is shown in the

L

C

figure. The lamp L is a gasfilled lamp that acts as an

k

open circuit until a large

potential difference causes an electric discharge in

the gas, which gives off a bright light. During this

discharge, charge flows through the gas between

the electrodes of the lamp. After switch k is closed,

the battery charges up the capacitor of capacitance

C. At the beginning, the current is high and the

84

potential difference appears across the resistance

R. As the capacitor charges, more potential

difference appears across it, reflecting the lower

current and, thus, lower potential difference across

the resistor. Eventually, the potential difference

across the capacitor reaches a value at which the

lamp will conduct, causing a flash. This discharges

the capacitor through the lamp and the process of

charging begins again. The period between flashes

can be adjusted by changing the time constant of

the RC circuit.

Q3. If you sit in front of a fire with your eyes closed,

you can feel significant warmth in your eyelids. If

you now put on a pair of eyeglasses and repeat this

activity, your eyelids will not feel nearly so warm.

Why?

electromagnetic radiation from the fire. A large

fraction of this radiation is in the infrared part of

the electromagnetic spectrum. Your eyelids are

particularly sensitive to infrared radiation. On

the other hand, glass is very opaque to infrared

radiation. Thus, when you put on the glasses, you

block much of the radiation from reaching your

eyelids, and they feel cooler.

Q4. If an orchestra does not warm up before a

performance, the strings go flat and the wind

instruments go sharp during the performance.

Why ?

Shruti Roy (New Delhi)

at room temperature at the beginning of these

concert. As the wind instruments are played,

these are filled with warm air from the players

exhalation. The increase in temperature of the air

in the instrument causes an increase in the speed of

sound, which raises the resonance frequencies of

the air columns. As a result, the wind instruments

go sharp. The temperature of the strings on the

stringed instruments also increase due to the

friction of it rubbing with the bow. This results

in thermal expansion, which causes a decrease

in the tension in the strings. With a decrease in

tension, the wave speed on the strings drops, and

the fundamental frequencies decrease. Thus, the

stringed instruments go flat.

nn

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

across

6.

12.

14.

16.

17.

19.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

2.

3.

4.

5.

7.

8.

9.

permanent electron polarization like a

permanent magnet. (8)

The measurement of force used in doing

work. (11)

An instrument for measuring the bulk flow

of plasma in space. (5,5)

Any material that stops ionizing radiation. 17

(8)

The science, technology and application of

22

nuclear energy. (10)

A phenomenon in which wave velocity

changes with its wavelength. (10)

The transformation of one element into

another by a nuclear reaction. (13)

A particle postulated to move with velocity

28

greater than that of electromagnetic

radiation. (7)

The movement of one atomic plane over

another in a crystal.(5)

A telescope designed to observe the outer

portions of the solar atmosphere. (11)

The abbreviated term for an occurrence of atmospheric

radio noise. (6)

A unit of nuclear cross section. (4)

The ratio of charge stored per increase in potential difference.

(11)

Down

1.

Cut Here

1

force. (4,5)

A combination of two or more tones that sound unpleasant

together. (10)

A reference equipotential surface around a planet where the

gravitational potential energy is defined to be zero. (5)

A hypothetical entity postulated as the building blocks of

leptons and quarks. (5)

Acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated

emission of radiation. (5)

Dates on which the day and night are of equal length. (7)

A term used in the study of water waves on a free surface,

such as waves on the surface of the ocean. (8)

A thin bar of metal or cane clamped at one end and set into

transverse vibration generally by a flow of air. (4)

10

12

13

14

15

16

18

19

20

21

23

24

25

26

27

29

30

10. The first legal unit of voltage for the United States was based

on this cell. (5,4)

11. The determination of the absolute values of arbitrary

indications of an instrument. (11)

13. A meteoroid that explodes or breaks up during its passage

through the atomsphere as a meteor. (6)

15. An electronic instrument that indicates, on a meter, the

number of radiation induced pulses per minutes from

radiation detectors. (4,5)

18. The study of technology of optical instruments and

apparatus. (12)

20. The fraction of the incident power at a prescribed wavelength

that is scattered within a volume. (11)

21. A device to accelerate particles in which particles move in

circular path. (11)

22. The area of study that focuses on precise measurements of

the positions and movements of stars and other celestial

bodies. (10)

23. The production of photographs of the internal structure of

bodies, opaque to visible light by the radiation from X-rays

or gamma rays from radioactive substances. (11)

85

86

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