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Vol. XXIII

No. 9

September 2015

Corporate Office :

rial

he name of the new star is Abdul Kalam. Born in the temple town

Gurgaon -122 003 (HR). Tel : 0124-4951200

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

Regd. Office

Trichy (Tiruchirapalli). He had taken Physics Hons. as his choice. He, like

Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029.

the other top scientists of India developed the rockets which could carry

Managing Editor

Editor

:

:

atomic missiles, fulfilling the dreams of Dr. Bhabha, Vikram Sarabhai and

Mahabir Singh

Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)

The next step was sending rockets to the moon. Now India is sending

contents

Physics Musing (Problem Set-26)

AIPMT (Re-Exam)

10

scientist. After his term as president, he had a new dream- igniting the

Ace Your Way CBSE XI

minds of the young to teach them to excel themselves. No film hero had

25

Series 1

Our advice to the young is this. Try to study his books when you are grown

31

Brain Map

46

just a great scientist without barriers, inspiring students from the age of

58

five to eighty and more. We pray for the great man who is no more with

JEE Workouts

61

65

AA lg oh;Za djokogsAA

Series 4

Core Concept

73

78

Exam Prep

80

84

Crossword

85

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PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

Set 26

single option correct type

1. A

wall

consists

of

alternate

blocks

with

a

length d and coefficients of

thermal conductivity l1 and

l2. The area of cross-section of

the blocks is same.The effective

thermal conductivity of the wall

is

ll

(a) l = 1 2

(b) l = 2(l1 + l2)

l1 + l2

l1 + l2

l + l2

(c) l = 1

(d) l =

4

2

2. A copper plate is soldered between two steel plates. All

the plates have the same cross-section area A and length l.

The coefficients of thermal expansion are ac and as and

their Youngs moduli are Yc and Ys

Steel

respectively. What force will arise

Copper

in the plates if the temperature is

increased by TC?(Assume that

Steel

the plates suffer the same net

expansion)

2 AYcYs (ac a s )T

AYcYs (ac a s )T

(a)

(b)

2Ys + Yc

2Ys + Yc

2AYcYs (ac a s )T

AYcYs (ac a s )T

(c)

(d)

Ys + Yc

Ys + Yc

3. A disc of radius R has a mass 9m. A hole of radius

R

is cut from it as shown in figure.

3

R/

3

O

The moment of inertia of the

R

remaining part about an axis passing

through centre O of the disc and

perpendicular to the plane of disc is

(a) 8mR2

(b) 4mR2

40

37

(c)

mR2

(d)

mR2

9

9

4. The surface density of a circular disc of radius

a depends on the distance from the center as r(r) = A+ Br.

plane of the disc through its centre is

Aa5

(a) 2

5

Aa 4

(c) 2

Ba6

(b) 2

Aa3

Ba5

(d)

Aa3

3

Ba 4

Ba 4

produces a fundamental note just audible to a person of

normal hearing is (Take velocity of sound in air = 340 m s1)

(a) 4.25 m (b) 8.5 m (c) 12.75 m (d) 1 m

6. A string B has twice the length, twice the diameter of

another string A. Both strings have same density. Which of

the following alternatives express the relation between the

frequency of A and B ?

(a) uB = 4uA

(b) uA = 4uB

(c) uA = 2uB

(d) 2uB = uA

7. How many octaves does the audible range for normal

human hearing cover approximately ?

(a) 3

(b) 5

(c) 10

(d) 20

8. The maximum number of overtones emitted by an

open organ pipe of length 15 cm that can be heard by a

person with normal hearing is

(a) 16

(b) 17

(c) 18

(d) 19

9. A battery of 10 V is connected to a 20 W resistance

through a variable resistance R. The amount of charge

which has passed in the circuit in 4 minutes, if the variable

resistance R is increased at the rate of 5 W min1 is

(a) 120 C

(b) 120 ln 2 C

(c) 240 ln 2 C

(d) 60 ln 2 C

10. In a series grouping of N cells, current in the external

circuit is I. Number of cells to be reversed in polarity such

I

that current becomes is

3

N

N

N

2N

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

2

4

3

nn

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of physics for Jee main & Advanced, senior professor physics, rAO IIt ACADemY, mumbai.

AIPMT

Re-Ex

a

held m

t

25 h J on

uly

1. A photoelectric surface is illuminated successively

by monochromatic light of wavelength l and l .

2

If the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted

photoelectrons in the second case is 3 times that in

the first case, the work function of the surface of the

material is

(h = Plancks constant, c = speed of light)

2hc

hc

hc

hc

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

l

2l

l

3l

2. The input signal given to a CE amplifier having

p

3

The corresponding output signal will be

5p

4p

2p

(c) 300 cos 15t + p (d) 75 cos 15t +

3

3

3. A series R-C circuit is connected to an alternating

voltage source. Consider two situations :

(a) When capacitor is air filled.

(b) When capacitor is mica filled.

Current through resistor is i and voltage across

capacitor is V then

(a) ia > ib

(b) Va = Vb

(c) Va < Vb

(d) Va > Vb

4. Point masses m1 and m2 are placed at the opposite

ends of a rigid rod of length L, and negligible

mass. The rod is to be set rotating about an axis

perpendicular to it. The position of point P on this

rod through which the

axis should pass so

that the work required

to set the rod rotating

with angular velocity

w0 is minimum, is

given by

m2 L

m

(a) x = 2 L

(b) x =

m1 + m2

m1

10

(c) x =

m1L

m1 + m2

(d) x =

m1

L

m2

of separation between plates is d and potential

difference V is applied between the plates. Force of

attraction between the plates of the parallel plate air

capacitor is

CV 2

C 2V 2

(a)

(b)

d

2d 2

C 2V 2

CV 2

(d)

2d

2d

6. An ideal gas is compressed to half its initial volume

by means of several processes. Which of the process

results in the maximum work done on the gas?

(a) Isochoric

(b) Isothermal

(c) Adiabatic

(d) Isobaric

(c)

blue colours is incident on a right angled prism.

The refractive index of the material of the prism for

the above red, green and blue wavelengths are 1.39,

1.44 and 1.47 respectively.

(a) not separate the three colours at all

(b) separate the red colour part from the green and

blue colours

(c) separate the blue colour part from the red and

green colours

(d) separate all the three colours from one another

8. Two vessels separately contain two ideal gases A

and B at the same temperature, the pressure of A

being twice that of B. Under such conditions, the

density of A is found to be 1.5 times the density of

B. The ratio of molecular weight of A and B is

3

1

2

(c)

(d)

4

2

3

9. A remote-sensing satellite of earth revolves in a

circular orbit at a height of 0.25 106 m above the

surface of earth. If earths radius is 6.38 106 m and g

= 9.8 ms2, then the orbital speed of the satellite is

(a) 9.13 km s1

(b) 6.67 km s1

1

(c) 7.76 km s

(d) 8.56 km s1

(a) 2

(b)

keV. To which part of the spectrum does it belong?

(a) Ultraviolet rays

(b) g-rays

(c) X-rays

(d) Infra-red rays

11. A proton and an alpha particle both enter a region

of uniform magnetic field B, moving at right angles

to the field B. If the radius of circular orbits for

both the particles is equal and the kinetic energy

acquired by proton is 1 MeV, the energy acquired

by the alpha particle will be

(a) 1.5 MeV

(b) 1 MeV

(c) 4 MeV

(d) 0.5 MeV

wt

wt

B = cos

i + sin

j are functions of time,

2

2

then the value of t at which they are orthogonal to

each other is

p

p

p

(a) t =

(b) t = 0 (c) t =

(d) t =

w

2w

4w

0.1 m having 50 turns of wire is suspended vertically

in a uniform magnetic field of strength 0.2 Weber/m2.

The coil carries a current of 2 A. If the plane of the

coil is inclined at an angle of 30 with the direction

of the field, the torque required to keep the coil in

stable equilibrium will be

(a) 0.24 Nm

(b) 0.12 Nm

(c) 0.15 Nm

(d) 0.20 Nm

14. An automobile moves on a road with a speed of

54 km h1. The radius of its wheels is 0.45 m and

the moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of

rotation is 3 kg m2. If the vehicle is brought to rest

in 15 s, the magnitude of average torque transmitted

by its brakes to the wheel is

(a) 10.86 kg m2 s2

(b) 2.86 kg m2 s2

2 2

(c) 6.66 kg m s

(d) 8.58 kg m2 s2

15. Two metal wires of identical dimensions

are connected in series. If s1 and s2 are the

conductivities of the metal wires respectively, the

effective conductivity of the combination is

12

s1 + s 2

s1s 2

2s1s 2

(c)

s1 + s 2

(a)

s1s 2

s1 + s 2

s1 + s 2

(d)

2s1s 2

(b)

V(x, y, z) = 6xy y + 2yz, the electric field (in N/C)

at point (1, 1, 0) is

(a) (2i + 3j + k )

(b) (6i + 9 j + k )

(c) (3i + 5j + 3k )

(d) (6i + 5j + 2k )

17. Two particles A and B, move with constant

The condition for particles A and B for their

collision is

(a) r1 v1 = r2 v2

(b) r1 r2 = v1 v2

r1 r2

v2 v1

(c) = (d) r1 v1 = r2 v2

r1 r2

v2 v1

heat capacity of the gas at constant volume is

5.0 JK1 mol1. If the speed of sound in this gas at

NTP is 952 ms1, then the heat capacity at constant

pressure is

(Take gas constant R = 8.3 JK1 mol1)

(a) 7.0 JK1 mol1

(b) 8.5 JK1 mol1

1

1

(c) 8.0 JK mol

(d) 7.5 JK1 mol1

momentum about origin is conserved is

(a) zero

(b) 1

(c) 1

(d) 2

maximum of a single-slit diffraction pattern, the

phase difference between the Huygens wavelet

from the edge of the slit and the wavelet from the

midpoint of the slit is

p

radian

(a) p radian

(b)

8

p

p

radian

radian

(c)

(d)

4

2

21. The heart of a man pumps 5 litres of blood

through the arteries per minute at a pressure of

150 mm of mercury. If the density of mercury be

13.6 103 kg/m3 and g = 10 m/s2 then the power of

heart in watt is

(a) 3.0

(b) 1.50 (c) 1.70

(d) 2.35

22. A ball is thrown vertically downwards from a

height of 20 m with an initial velocity v0. It collides

in collision and rebounds to the same height.

The initial velocity v0 is (Take g = 10 ms2)

(a) 28 ms1

(b) 10 ms1

1

(c) 14 ms

(d) 20 ms1

23. The cylindrical tube of a spray pump has radius R,

one end of which has n fine holes, each of radius r.

If the speed of the liquid in the tube is V, the speed

of the ejection of the liquid through the holes is

VR2

V 2R

VR2

VR2

(c)

(d)

nr

n3r 2

n2r 2

nr 2

24. A string is stretched between fixed points separated

by 75.0 cm. It is observed to have resonant

frequencies of 420 Hz and 315 Hz. There are no

other resonant frequencies between these two. The

lowest resonant frequency for this string is

(a) 10.5 Hz

(b) 105 Hz

(c) 155 Hz

(d) 205 Hz

(a)

(b)

flowing through a tube are expressed as [hxryrz]

where h, r and r are the coefficient of viscosity

of liquid, density of liquid and radius of the tube

respectively, then the values of x, y and z are given

by

(a) 1, 1, 1

(b) 1, 1, 1

(c) 1, 1, 1

(d) 1, 1, 1

26. A nucleus of uranium decays at rest into nuclei of

thorium and helium. Then

(a) The helium nucleus has more momentum than

the thorium nucleus.

(b) The helium nucleus has less kinetic energy than

the thorium nucleus.

(c) The helium nucleus has more kinetic energy

than the thorium nucleus.

(d) The helium nucleus has less momentum than

the thorium nucleus.

27. An electron moves on a straight line path XY as

shown. The abcd is a coil adjacent to the path of

electron. What will be the direction of current,

if any, induced in the coil?

electron goes past the coil

(c) abcd

(d) adcb

28. Water rises to a height h in capillary tube. If the

length of capillary tube above the surface of water is

made less than h, then

(a) water rises upto a point a little below the top

and stays there.

(b) water does not rise at all.

(c) water rises upto the tip of capillary tube and

then starts overflowing like a fountain.

(d) water rises upto the top of capillary tube and

stays there without overflowing.

29. In an astronomical telescope in normal adjustment

a straight black line of length L is drawn on inside

part of objective lens. The eye-piece forms a real

image of this line. The length of this image is I.

The magnification of the telescope is

L

L+I

(a)

(b)

I

LI

L

L

(c)

(d) 1

+1

I

I

30. A circuit contains an ammeter, a battery of 30 V

and a resistance 40.8 ohm all connected in series. If

the ammeter has a coil of resistance 480 ohm and a

shunt of 20 ohm, the reading in the ammeter will be

(a) 2 A

(b) 1 A (c) 0.5 A (d) 0.25 A

31. On a frictionless surface, a block of mass M moving

at speed v collides elastically with another block

of same mass M which is initially at rest. After

collision the first block moves at an angle q to its

v

initial direction and has a speed . The second

3

blocks speed after the collision is

3

3

v

(a)

(b)

v

2

2

3

(c) 2 2 v

(d) v

4

3

32. A satellite S is moving in an elliptical orbit around

the earth. The mass of the satellite is very small

compared to the mass of the earth. Then,

(a) the linear momentum of S remains constant in

magnitude.

(b) the acceleration of S is always directed towards

the centre of the earth.

(c) the angular momentum of S about the centre

of the earth changes in direction, but its

magnitude remains constant.

(d) the total mechanical energy of S varies

periodically with time.

Physics for you | September 15

13

external resistance R = 100 W and an e.m.f. of 3.5 V.

If the barrier potential

developed across the

diode is 0.5 V, the current

in the circuit will be

(a) 20 mA

(b) 35 mA

(c) 30 mA

(d) 40 mA

34. A potentiometer wire of length L and a resistance

r are connected in series with a battery of e.m.f. E0

and a resistance r1. An unknown e.m.f. E is balanced

at a length l of the potentiometer wire. The e.m.f. E

will be given by

LE0r

E l

(a) 0

(b)

(r + r1 )l

L

(c)

LE0r

lr1

(d)

E0r l

.

(r + r1 ) L

r

horizontal circles, the heavier one in a radius

2

and the lighter one in radius r. The tangential speed

of lighter stone is n times that of the value of heavier

stone when they experience same centripetal forces.

The value of n is

(a) 4

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

36. Two slits in Youngs experiment have widths in the

ratio 1 : 25. The ratio of intensity at the maxima and

I

minima in the interference pattern, max is

I min

49

9

121

4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

121

4

49

9

37. The Youngs modulus of steel is twice that of brass.

Two wires of same length and of same area of

cross section, one of steel and another of brass are

suspended from the same roof. If we want the lower

ends of the wires to be at the same level, then the

weights added to the steel and brass wires must be

in the ratio of

(a) 4 : 1

(b) 1 : 1 (c) 1 : 2

(d) 2 : 1

38. The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is

5. If the temperature inside freezer is 20C, the

temperature of the surroundings to which it rejects

heat is

(a) 11C (b) 21C (c) 31C

(d) 41C

39. Light of wavelength 500 nm is incident on a

metal with work function 2.28 eV. The de Broglie

14

(a) 2.8 109 m

(b) 2.8 1012 m

10

(c) < 2.8 10 m

(d) < 2.8 109 m

40. A source of sound S emitting waves of frequency

100 Hz and an observer O are located at some

distance from each other. The source is moving

with a speed of 19.4 ms1 at an angle of 60 with

the source observer line as shown in the figure.

The observer is at rest.

The apparent frequency

observed by the observer

(velocity of sound in air

330 ms1), is

(a) 106 Hz (b) 97 Hz (c) 100 Hz (d) 103 Hz

41. The value of coefficient of volume expansion of

glycerin is 5 104 K1. The fractional change

in the density of glycerin for a rise of 40C in its

temperature, is

(a) 0.025 (b) 0.010 (c) 0.015 (d) 0.020

time is given by

R = 4 sin(2 pt )i + 4 cos(2 pt )j

Where R is in meters, t is in seconds and i and j

respectively. Which one of the following statements

is wrong for the motion of particle?

(a) Magnitude of the velocity of particle is

8 meter/second.

(b) Path of the particle is a circle of radius 4 meter.

v2

(d) Magnitude of acceleration vector is

, where

R

v is the velocity of particle.

raised about the other end. As the angle of

inclination with the horizontal reaches 30, the box

starts to slip and slides 4.0 m down the plank in 4.0 s.

The coefficients of

static and kinetic

friction between the

box and the plank will

be, respectively

(a) 0.5 and 0.6

(b) 0.4 and 0.3

(c) 0.6 and 0.6

(d) 0.6 and 0.5

44. In the spectrum of hydrogen, the ratio of the longest

wavelength in the Lyman series to the longest

wavelength in the Balmer series is

27

5

9

4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5

27

4

9

Its maximum acceleration is a and maximum

velocity is b. Then, its time period of vibration will

be

(a)

b2

a

(b)

b2

2pb

(c) 2

a

a

(d)

a

b

solutions

1. (c) : Let f0 be the work function of the surface of

According to Einsteins photoelectric equation,

the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted

photoelectrons in the first case is

hc

K max = f0

1

l

and that in the second case is

hc

2hc

K max = f0 =

f0

2

l

l

2

But Kmax = 3Kmax (given)

2

2hc

hc

f0 = 3 f0

l

l

2hc

3hc

f0 =

3f0

l

l

3hc 2hc

3f0 f0 =

l

l

hc

hc

2f 0 =

or f0 =

2l

l

2. (b) : Here,

V

As Av = o

Vi

\ Output signal, Vo = AvVi

Since CE amplifier gives a phase difference of

p(=180) between input and output signals,

4p

3

3. (d) : Current through resistor, i

V0

V0

=

=

R2 + XC2

R2 + (1/wC )2

V0

1

=

R2 + (1/wC )2 wC

=

V0

R 2 w 2C 2 + 1

As Ca < Cb

\ ia < ib and Va > Vb

4. (b) :

rotation (through point P) is

I = m1x2 + m2(L x)2

By work energy theorem,

Work done to set the rod rotating with angular

velocity w0 = Increase in rotational kinetic energy

1

1

W = I w20 = [m1x 2 + m2 (L x )2 ]w20

2

2

dW

For W to be minimum,

=0

dx

1

i.e.

[2m1x + 2m2 (L x )(1)]w20 = 0

2

or m1x m2(L x) = 0

(... w0 0)

m2 L

or (m1 + m2)x = m2L or x =

m1 + m2

5. (d) : Force of attraction between the plates of the

Q2

2e0 A

where Q is the charge on the capacitor, e0 is the

permittivity of free space and A is the area of each

plate.

But Q = CV

e A

and C = 0

or e0 A = Cd

d

C 2V 2 CV 2

\ F=

=

2Cd

2d

6. (c) : The P-V diagram of an ideal gas compressed

V

from its initial volume V0 to 0 by several processes

2

is shown in the figure.

F=

15

As area under the PV curve is maximum for

adiabatic process, so work done on the gas is

maximum for adiabatic process.

gas constant.

\ The molecular weight of A is

r RT

MA = A A

PA

and that of B is

r RT

MB = B B

PB

Hence, their corresponding ratio is

M A r A TA PB

=

M B rB TB PA

Here,

refraction occurs at face AB and it passes straight

and strikes the face AC at an angle of incidence

i = 45.

For total reflection to take place at face AC,

i > ic or sini > sinic

where ic is the critical angle.

1

But as here i = 45 and sin ic =

m

1

1

1

\ sin 45 > or

>

m

2 m

or m > 2 = 1.414

As mred (= 1.39) < m(= 1.414) while mgreen( = 1.44)

and mblue(= 1.47) > m (= 1.414), so only red colour

will be transmitted through face AC while green

and blue colours will suffer total internal reflection.

So the prism will separate red colour from the green

and blue colours as shown in the following figure.

rRT

rRT

M=

as P =

M

P

where P, T and r are the pressure, temperature and

16

rA

3 T

= 1.5 = , A = 1 and

rB

2 TB

PA

=2

PB

MA 3 1 3

= (1) =

MB 2 2 4

vo = R

g

( R + h)

due to gravity on earths surface and h is the height

above the surface of earth.

Here, R = 6.38 106m, g = 9.8 m s2 and

h = 0.25 106 m

\ vo = (6.38 106 m)

(9.8 m s 2 )

(6.38 106 m + 0.25 106 m)

(... 1 km = 103 m)

hc

E

where the symbols have their usual meanings.

Here, E = 15 keV = 15 103 V

and hc = 1240 eV nm

1240 eV nm

\ l=

= 0.083 nm

15 103 eV

10. (c) : As l =

103 nm, so this wavelength belongs to X-rays.

11. (b) : The kinetic energy acquired by a charged

particle in a uniform magnetic field B is

2mK

mv

q2 B2 R2

K=

as R = qB = qB

2m

where q and m are the charge and mass of the

particle and R is the radius of circular orbit.

\ The kinetic energy acquired by proton is

Kp =

q2p B2 R2p

2m p

q2 B2 Ra2

Ka = a

2ma

2

q m p Ra

Thus, K a = a

Kp q p ma R p

2

qa m p Ra

or K a = K p

q p ma R p

mp 1

q

=

Here, K p = 1 MeV, a = 2,

qp

ma 4

Ra

=1

and

Rp

1

\ K a = (1 MeV)(2)2 (1)2 = 1 MeV

4

other, if their scalar product is zero i.e. A B = 0.

wt

wt

i + sin

j

and B = cos

2

2

wt

wt

2

2

wt

wt

+ sin wt sin

2

2

( i i = j j = 1 and i j = j i = 0)

= cos wt cos

wt

= cos wt

But A B = 0 (as A and B are orthogonal to each other)

\ cos wt wt = 0

2

wt p

p

wt

=

or wt

cos wt = cos

2 2

2

2

p

wt p

or t =

=

w

2 2

13. (d) : The required torque is

t = NIABsinq

where N is the number of turns in the coil, I is the

current through the coil, B is the uniform magnetic

field, A is the area of the coil and q is the angle

normal to the plane of the coil.

Here, N = 50, I = 2 A, A = 0.12 m 0.1 m = 0.012 m2

B = 0.2 Wb/m2 and q = 90 30 = 60

\ t = (50)(2 A)(0.012 m2)(0.2 Wb/m2) sin60

= 0.20 Nm

14. (c) : Here,

Speed of the automobile,

5

v = 54 km h 1 = 54 m s 1 = 15 m s 1

18

Radius of the wheel of the automobile, R = 0.45 m

Moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of

rotation, I = 3 kg m2

Time in which the vehicle brought to rest, t = 15 s

The initial angular speed of the wheel is

1

1500

100

v 15 m s

rad s 1 =

rad s 1

=

=

45

3

R 0.45 m

and its final angular speed is

wf = 0 (as the vehicle comes to rest)

\ The angular retardation of the wheel is

100

w f wi 0 3

100

rad s 2

a=

=

=

t

15 s

45

The magnitude of required torque is

100

t = I | a | = (3 kg m2 )

rad s 2

45

20

=

kg m2s 2 = 6.66 kg m2s 2

3

15. (c) : As both metal wires are of identical dimensions,

so their length and area of cross-section will be

same. Let them be l and A respectively. Then

The resistance of the first wire is

l

... (i)

R1 =

s1 A

wi =

l

R2 =

s2 A

... (ii)

resistance is

Rs = R1 + R2

l

l

=

+

s1 A s 2 A (using (i) and (ii))

=

1

l 1

+

A s1 s 2

Physics for you | September 15

... (iii)

17

then

2l

... (iv)

Rs =

s eff A

Equating eqns. (iii) and (iv), we get

1

2l

l 1

= +

s eff A A s1 s 2

s + s1

2

= 2

s eff

s1s 2

2s1s 2

s eff =

s1 + s 2

are related as

V V V

i+

j+

k

E =

y

z

x

Here, V(x, y, z) = 6xy y + 2yz

\ E = (6 xy y + 2 yz )i + (6 xy y + 2 yz )j

y

x

+ (6 xy y + 2 yz )k

z

= [(6 y )i + (6 x 1 + 2z )k + (2 y )k]

At point (1, 1, 0),

= (6i + 5j + 2k )

17. (c) : Let the particles A and B collide at time t. For

should be same at time t, i.e.

r1 + v1t = r2 + v2t

r1 r2 = v2t v1t

= (v2 v1 ) t

... (i)

Also, | r1 r2 | = | v2 v1 | t

|r r |

or t = 1 2

| v2 v1 |

gRT

M

where g is the ratio of two specific heats, R is the

universal gas constant and T is the temperature of

the gas.

v=

Mv 2

RT

Here, M = 4.0 g mol1= 4.0 103 kg mol1,

v = 952 ms1, R = 8.3 JK1 mol1

and T = 273 K (at NTP)

\ g=

\ g=

= 1.6

(8.3 JK 1 mol 1 )(273 K)

By definition,

Cp

g=

or Cp = gCv

Cv

But g = 1.6 and Cv = 5.0 JK1 mol1

\ Cp = (1.6)(5.0 JK1 mol1)

= 8.0 JK1 mol1

19. (c) : For the conservation of angular momentum

will be zero.

By definition, t = r F

Here, r = 2i 6 j 12 k and F = ai + 3j + 6 k

i j

k

\ t = 2 6 12

a 3

6

= i(36 + 36) j(12 + 12a) + k (6 + 6a)

= j(12 + 12a) + k (6 + 6a)

But t = 0

\ 12 + 12a = 0 or a = 1

and 6 + 6a = 0

or a = 1

20. (a) : The situation is shown in the figure.

| r1 r2 |

r1 r2 = (v2 v1 )

| v2 v1 |

(v v )

r r

or 1 2 = 2 1

| r1 r2 | | v2 v1 |

M = 4.0 g mol1

As the speed of the sound in the gas is

18

of width a and C represents the midpoint of the

slit.

For the first minimum at P,

asinq = l

... (i)

where l is the wavelength of light.

The path difference between the wavelets from A to

C is

a

1

Dx = sin q = (a sin q)

2

2

l

(using (i))

2

The corresponding phase difference Df is

2p

2p l

Df =

Dx =

=p

l

l 2

21. (c) : Here,

Volume of blood pumped by mans heart,

V = 5 litres = 5 103 m3 (... 1 litre = 103 m3)

Time in which this volume of blood pumps,

t = 1 min = 60 s

Pressure at which the blood pumps,

P = 150 mm of Hg = 0.15 m of Hg

= (0.15 m)(13.6 103 kg/m3)(10 m/s2)

(... P = hrg)

3

2

= 20.4 10 N/m

PV

\ Power of the heart =

t

(n + 1)v nv

v

=

2L

2L 2L

which is also the lowest resonant frequency

(n = 1).

Thus the lowest resonant frequency for the given

string

= 420 Hz 315 Hz = 105 Hz

60 s

= 1.70 W

ball with which it collides

with ground. Then according

to the law of conservation of

energy,

Gain in kinetic energy = loss in potential energy

1

1

i.e. mv 2 mv02 = mgh

2

2

(where m is the mass of the ball)

or

v 2 v02 = 2 gh

... (i)

of its energy is lost and it rebounds to the same

height h.

50 1 2

\

mv = mgh

100 2

1 2

v = gh or v2 = 4gh

4

Substituting this value of v2 in eqn. (i), we get

4 gh v02 = 2 gh

or

v02 = 4 gh 2 gh = 2 gh

or v0 = 2 gh

Here, g = 10 ms2 and h = 20 m

\ v0 = 2(10 ms 2 )(20 m) = 20 ms 1

through the holes be v. Then according to the

equation of continuity,

pR2V VR2

pR2V = npr2v or v =

=

npr 2

nr 2

24. (b) : For a string fixed at both ends, the resonant

frequencies are

nv

un =

where n = 1, 2, 3, .....

2L

The difference between two consecutive resonant

frequencies is

Dun = un+1 un =

... (i)

Writing the dimensions of various quantities in

eqn. (i), we get

[M0LT1] = [ML1T1]x[ML3T0]y[M0LT0]z

= [Mx + y Lx 3y + z Tx]

Applying the principle of homogeneity of

dimensions, we get

x + y = 0; x 3y + z = 1; x = 1

On solving, we get

x = 1, y = 1, z = 1

and helium nuclei respectively, then according to

law of conservation of linear momentum

ve sign shows that both are moving in opposite

directions.

But in magnitude

pTh = pHe

If mTh and mHe are the masses of thorium and

helium nuclei respectively, then

p2

Kinetic energy of thorium nucleus is K Th = Th

2mTh

and that of helium nucleus is

K He =

2

pHe

2mHe

19

K Th pTh mHe

\

=

K He pHe mTh

But pTh = pHe and mHe < mTh

\ KTh < KHe or KHe > KTh

Thus the helium nucleus has more kinetic energy

than the thorium nucleus.

27. (a) :

linked with the coil abcd (which is into the page)

will first increase and then decrease as the electron

passes by. So the induced current in the coil will be

first anticlockwise and will reverse its direction (i.e.

will become clockwise) as the electron goes past the

coil.

28. (d) : Water will not overflow but will change its

radius of curvature.

29. (b) : The situation is shown in the figure.

eyepiece respectively.

For normal adjustment distance of the objective

from the eyepiece (tube length) = fo+ fe.

Treating the line on the objective as the object and

eyepiece as the lens.

\ u = (fo + fe) and f = fe

1 1 1

As

=

v u f

1

1

1

\

=

v ( fo + fe ) fe

f +f f

fo

1 1

1

=

= o e e =

v fe fo + fe

fe ( fo + fe ) fe ( fo + fe )

f (f + f )

or v = e o e

fo

fe ( fo + fe )

fo

f

I v

= e

Thus, = u =

fo

( fo + fe )

L

20

or

fo L

=

fe I

... (i)

adjustment is

f

L

(using (i))

m= o =

fe I

30. (c) : The circuit is shown in the figure.

(480 W)(20 W)

RA =

= 19.2 W

(480 W + 20 W)

(As 480 W and 20 W are in parallel)

As ammeter is in series with 40.8 W,

\ Total resistance of the circuit is

R = 40.8 W + RA = 40.8 W + 19.2 W = 60 W

By Ohms law,

Current in the circuit is

V 30 V 1

I= =

= A = 0.5 A

R 60 W 2

Thus the reading in the ammeter will be 0.5 A.

31. (c) : The situation is shown in the figure.

As the collision is elastic, so kinetic energy is

conserved.

According to conservation of kinetic energy,

1

1 v 2 1

Mv 2 + 0 = M + Mv 2

2

2 3 2

v2

v 2 = + v 2

9

or

v 2 9v 2 v 2 8 2

=

= v

9

9

9

8 2

8

2 2

v =

v =

v=

v

9

3

3

v 2 = v 2

21

of the satellite S is always directed towards the

centre of the earth.

33. (c) :

V = 3.5 V 0.5 V = 3 V

By Ohms law,

The current in the circuit is

3V

V

I= =

R 100 W

= 3 102 A = 30 103 A = 30 mA

34. (d) :

2

2

n2 mv = 4 mv

r

r

n2 = 4 or n = 2

36. (c) : As, intensity I width of slit W

Also, intensity I square of amplitude A

I

W

A2

\ 1= 1= 1

I2 W2 A22

But

\

W1 1

=

W2 25

A12

A22

1

25

I max ( A1 + A2 )2

=

=

2

I min ( A1 A2 )2 A

1 1

A

2

37. (d) :

1

+ 1

5

1

1

5

2

2

6

5

4

5

36 9

=

16 4

(r / 2)

But (Fc)lighter = (Fc)heavier (given)

each wire. In order to have the lower ends of the

wires to be at the same level (i.e. same elongation is

produced in both wires), let weights Ws and Wb are

added to steel and brass wires respectively. Then

By definition of Youngs modulus, the elongation

produced in the steel wire is

WL

W/ A

DLs = s

as Y =

Ys A

DL / L

and that in the brass wire is

WL

DLb = b

Yb A

But DLs = DLb (given)

Ws L Wb L

Ws Ys

\

=

or

=

Ys A Yb A

Wb Yb

Y

(given)

As s = 2

Yb

m(nv )2

r

and that of heavier stone is

(Fc )lighter =

(Fc )heavier =

22

A1

1 1

=

=

A2

25 5

or

A1

A + 1

2

E0

I=

(r + r1 )

and the potential difference across the wire is

E r

V = Ir = 0

(r + r1 )

The potential gradient along the potentiometer

wire is

E0r

V

k= =

L (r + r1 )L

As the unknown e.m.f. E is balanced against length

l of the potentiometer wire,

E0r l

\ E = kl =

(r + r1 ) L

(given)

2 mv 2

m(nv )2 2mv 2

=

r

(r / 2)

Ws 2

=

Wb 1

is

a=

T2

T1 T2

cold reservoirs (in kelvin) respectively.

Here, a = 5, T2 = 20C = 20 + 273 K = 253 K

T1 = ?

253 K

\ 5=

T1 253 K

5T1 5(253 K) = 253 K

5T1 = 253 K + 5(253 K) = 6(253 K)

6

T1 = (253 K) = 303.6 K = 303.6 273

5

= 30.6C 31C

39. (a) : According to Einsteins photoelectric equation,

the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electron

is

hc

K max = f0

l

where l is the wavelength of incident light and f0 is

the work function.

Here, l = 500 nm, hc = 1240 eV nm

and f0 = 2.28 eV

1240 eV nm

\ K max =

2.28 eV

500 nm

= 2.48 eV 2.28 eV = 0.2 eV

The de Broglie wavelength of the emitted electron

is

h

l min =

2 mK max

line is vscos60 and the observer is at rest, so the

apparent frequency observed by the observer is

v

u = u0

v vs cos 60

330 ms 1

= (100 Hz)

330 ms 1 (19.4 ms 1 ) 1

2

330 ms 1

= (100 Hz)

330 ms 1 9.7 ms 1

330 ms 1

= (100 Hz)

= 103 Hz

320.3 ms 1

41. (d) : Let r0 and rT be densities of glycerin at 0C

and TC respectively. Then,

rT = r0(1 gDT)

where g is the coefficient of volume expansion of

glycerine and DT is rise in temperature.

r

rT

= 1 gDT or gDT = 1 T

r0

r0

r r

Thus, 0 T = gDT

r0

\ The fractional change in the density of glycerin

r r

= 0 T = gDT = (5 104 K 1 )(40 K) = 0.020

r0

of the electron.

As h = 6.6 1034 J s, m = 9 1031 kg

and Kmax = 0.2 eV = 0.2 1.6 1019 J

dR d

v=

= [4 sin(2 pt )i + 4 cos(2 pt )j]

dt dt

= 8 p cos(2 pt )i 8 p sin(2 pt )j

Its magnitude is

l min =

6.6 1034 J s

6. 6

109 m = 2.8 109 m

2. 4

So, l 2.8 109 m

40. (d) : Here,

Frequency of source, u0 = 100 Hz

Velocity of source, vs = 19.4 ms1

Velocity of sound in air, v = 330 ms1

=

= 64 p2 cos2 (2 pt ) + 64 p2 sin2 (2 pt )

= 64 p2[cos2 (2 pt ) + sin2 (2 pt )]

= 64 p2

= 8p m/s

43. (d) : Let ms and mk be the coefficients of static and

kinetic friction between the box and the plank

respectively.

When the angle of inclination q reaches 30, the

block just slides,

Physics for you | September 15

23

m s = tan q = tan 30 =

1

3

= 0. 6

ma = mgsinq f k

(where f k is force of kinetic friction)

= mgsinq mkN

(as f k = mkN)

= mgsinq mkmgcosq

(as N = mgcosq)

a = g(sinq mkcosq)

As g = 10 ms2 and q = 30

\ a = (10 ms2)(sin30 mkcos30)

...(i)

If s is the distance travelled by the block in time t,

then

1

s = at 2

(as u = 0)

2

2s

or a =

t2

But s = 4.0 m and t = 4.0 s (given)

2(4.0 m) 1

\ a=

= ms 2

2

2

( 4. 0 s )

Substituting this value of a in eqn. (i), we get

1

ms 2 = (10 ms 2 ) 1 mk 3

2

2

2

1

= 1 3 mk

10

1

9

or

3 m k = 1 = = 0. 9

10 10

0.9

mk =

= 0. 5

3

44. (b) : The wavelength of a spectral line in the Lyman

series is

1

1 1

= R 2 2 , n = 2, 3, 4, .......

lL

1 n

and that in the Balmer series is

1

1

1

= R 2 2 , n = 3, 4, 5, .......

lB

2 n

For the longest wavelength in the Lyman series,

n=2

1

1 1

1 1

4 1 3R

=

\

= R 2 2 = R = R

lL

1 4

4 4

1 2

4

or l L =

3R

24

n=3

1

1

1

1 1

\

= R 2 2 = R

4 9

2

lB

3

9 4 5R

= R

=

36 36

36

or l B =

5R

4

l L 3R 4 5R 5

Thus ,

=

=

=

l B 36 3R 36 27

5R

45. (b) : If A and w be amplitude and angular frequency

of vibration, then

a = w2A

...(i)

and b = wA

...(ii)

Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get

a w2 A

=

=w

b wA

Time period of vibration is

2p

2p

2 pb

T=

=

=

w (a / b)

a

nn

Vipul Garg, a 17-year-old from Haryanas Jind district, topped the

All India Pre-Medical Test (AIPMT) entrance examination 2015,

the results for which were announced on 17th August 2015.

Vipul, who is the first in his family to go to medical school and

has mostly relied on scholarships so far to get ahead, scored 695

marks out of 720.

My family worked very hard and faced lots of hardships to meet

my expenses. I scored cent per cent in Class X and was given a fee

waiver by the school for the remaining years. A private coaching

institute agreed to waive off the fee for me while I was preparing

for my medical entrance.

He was disappointed when the earlier AIPMT was cancelled. I

had done well and was sad. But then I realised it was a good

opportunity to work on my weak points and things I knew I had

difficulty doing in the first test. I had no idea I would top the

entrance, he said, adding he plans to become a cardiologist.

Occupying the second slot is 17-year old Khushi Tiwari from

Rajasthan, who was sure she would ace the examination. Khushi,

who always wanted to be a doctor like her parents, scored 688

out of 720.

Although, I have not decided on my specialisation, I know

I studied 14 hours a day to be able to get into Maulana Azad

Medical College, she said.

The Central Board of Secondary Education had re-conducted the

test on July 25 on direction from the Supreme Court after allegations

of irregularities surfaced in the first test held on May 3.

Courtesy : The Hindu

Series 1

Chapterwise Unit test : Units and Measurement | Kinematics

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

2. A stone tied at the end of string is whirled in a circle.

Why?

significant figures.

pedal is pushed hard ?

represents greater velocity? What is the ratio of the

two velocities?

3 A2 + B 2 ?

the body depend on time elapsed?

OR

Two balls of different masses (one lighter and other

heavier) are thrown vertical upwards with the same

speed. Which one will pass through the point of

projection in their downward direction with the

greater speed?

10. The lengths of two cylinders are measured to be

Calculate difference in lengths with error limits.

scale divisions. If each main scale division is

0.5 mm, calculate the minimum inaccuracy in the

measurement of distance.

roof of the next building which is of a lower height

than the first. If his speed is 9 m s1, the (horizontal)

distance between the two buildings is 10 m and the

height difference is 9 m, will he be able to land on

the next building? (Take g = 10 m s2)

Another boy sitting in a passing by car observes the

ball. Sketch the motion of the ball as observed by

the boy in the car, if car has a speed of 18 km h1.

Give explanation to support your diagram.

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

25

OR

A particle falling vertically from a height hits a

plane surface inclined to horizontal at an angle q

with speed vo and rebounds elastically (see figure).

Find the distance along the plane where it will hit

second time.

200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed

uniform), and how long does it take for the car to

stop?

the maximum heights for these two angles does not

depend upon the angle of projection.

h metre. If tp is the time between p and highest point

and coming back and tq is the time between q and

highest point and coming back, relate acceleration

due to gravity, tp , tq and h.

OR

Two ends of a train moving with a constant

acceleration passes a certain point with velocities

u and v. Show that the velocity with which the

middle point of the train passes the same point is

radius r. From Keplers third law about the period

of a satellite around a common central body, square

of the period of revolution T is proportional to

the cube of the radius of the orbit r. Show using

k r3

, where k is

R g

a dimensionless constant and g is acceleration due

to gravity.

OR

Figure gives a speed-time graph of a particle in one

dimensional motion along a constant direction.

Three equal intervals of time are shown. In which

interval is the average acceleration greatest in

magnitude? In which interval is the average speed

greatest? Choosing the positive direction as the

constant direction of motion, give the signs of v and

a in the three intervals. What are the accelerations

at the points A, B, C and D?

dimensional analysis, that T =

(u2 + v 2 ) .

2

17. The speed of sound, v through a medium may be

medium, d and (ii) its modulus of elasticity, E.

Modulus of elasticity is a ratio of stress to strain and

stress is the force per unit area. Deduce by the method

of dimensions, the formula for the speed of sound.

questions.

own car. The college is about 10 km from their home.

They drive on alternate days. Shreya is a very careful

driver, but Shyam is a rasher. He takes 3 minutes

lesser than Shreya in reaching the college. Shreya

advises Shyam to drive safely, but he hardly listens.

(i) What values are displayed by Shreya ? Do you

agree with her?

(ii) What is the difference between average speeds

of Shyam and Shreya if latter takes 15 minutes

to drive to the college ?

19. A projectile is fired at a certain angle with the

projectile.

Also write expression for : (i) the maximum height

attained (ii) the time of its flight and (iii) the

horizontal range.

26

Speed

B

C

Time

solutions

1.

dimensions.

2.

instantaneous velocity of stone is acting tangentially

to the circle. When the string breaks, the centripetal

force stops to act. Due to inertia, the stone continue to

move along the tangent to circular path. That is why,

the stone flies off tangentially to the circular path.

3.

= (3.0 0.0) 104

= 3.0 104

4.

pushed hard, because car suddenly comes to rest,

i.e., the rate of change of velocity of car is large.

5.

Thus, the line which makes an angle of 60 with

time axis has greater velocity.

tan 30 1 / 3 1

=

=

tan 60

3

3

6. As L.H.S. represents distance, every term on R.H.S.

must represent distance.

[x ] [L]

\ [bt ] = [ x ] or [b ] =

=

= [LT1 ]

[t ] [ T ]

Therefore, b represents velocity and hence its unit

is m s1.

Ratio of two velocities =

7.

8.

shown in figure (i). The v-t graph for the motion

is a straight line as shown in figure (ii) because

acceleration is constant during the entire motion of

the body.

Here, P = A + B ; Q = A B

and R = 3A2 + B2

R2 = (A + B)2 + (A B)2 + 2(A + B) (A B) cos q

or 3A2 + B2 = 2(A2 + B2) + 2(A2 B2) cos q

1

or cos q =

2

\ q = 60

9.

motion. Given, x = k t3, where k is a constant of

proportionality.

dx

Velocity of object, v =

= 3 kt 2 and acceleration

dt

dv

of object, a =

= 3k 2t = 6 kt

dt

i.e., a t. It means acceleration time.

OR

and v be the velocity of the same body while passing

downwards through point of projection. The

displacement of body s = 0.

Using the relation v2 = u2 + 2as,

and u = u, v = ? ; a = g, s = 0, we have

v2 = u2 + 2 ( g) 0 = u2 or v = u

It means that the final speed is independent of mass

of the body. Hence, both the bodies will acquire

the same speed while passing through point of

projection.

10. Here, l1 = (5.62 0.01) cm

l2 = (4.34 0.02) cm

l = l1 l2 = 5.62 4.34 = 1.28 cm.

Dl = (Dl1 + Dl2) = (0.01 + 0.02) = 0.03

0. 03

Percentage error =

100 = 2. 34 %

1. 28

Hence, difference in lengths = (1.28 0.03) cm

= 1.28 cm 2.34 %

1 VSD =

49

MSD

50

1 MSD = 0.5 mm

In vernier callipers,

Minimum inaccuracy in the measurement of

distance by vernier callipers = vernier constant

= 1 MSD 1 VSD

49

1

= 1 MSD

MSD =

MSD

50

50

1

=

0.5 mm = 0.01 mm

50

12. Suppose man is at building A and wants to land on

building B.

Horizontal speed of man, vx = 9 m s1

Distance between buildings, x = 10 m

Difference between height of the buildings, h = 9 m

Suppose t is the time taken by the man to fall

vertically downward by a height h,

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

27

h = v yt +

1 2

gt

2

9=0t +

1

10 t 2

2

9

= 1.34 s

5

If distance covered by the man along x-axis during

this time t is x, then

x = vxt = 9 1.34 = 12.06 m

Here, x > x

So, man will land successfully from building A to

building B.

5t 2 = 9 t =

= 36 km h1

The ball is thrown at angle of 60 with the

horizontal.

Horizontal speed of the ball, ux = ucos60

1

= 36 = 18 km h 1

2

Vertical speed of the ball, uy = usin60

3

= 18 3 km h 1

2

Speed of the car, v = 18 km h1

Horizontal range, R =

uy u

60

u2 sin 2a

(i)

R1 =

g

u2

sin2 a

2g

Case (ii) : If q = (90 a), let R = R2

and H = H2, then

and H1 =

R2 =

only the vertical motion of the ball. Sketch of

motion is shown in the figure.

14. Here,

u = 126 km h 1 =

126 1000

60 60

m s1 = 35 m s1 ;

v = 0, s = 200 m, a = ? and t = ?

We know, v2 = u2 + 2as

\ 0 = (35)2 + 2 a 200

2

( 35 )

49

=

= 3.06 m s2

a=

2 200

16

As, v = u + at

49

\ 0 = 35 +

t

16

or

28

(ii)

u2 sin 2 (90 a)

g

u2

u2

sin(180 2a) =

sin 2a

g

g

u2

u2

sin2 (90 a) =

cos2 a

2g

2g

From (i) and (iii), R1 = R2

From (ii) and (iv);

H2 =

H1 + H 2 =

ux= 5 m s1

u2

sin 2q

g

2

2

and maximum height, H = u sin q

2g

uy

= 36

uy

35 16

80

= 11.43 s

49

7

Negative sign shows that acceleration is negative,

which is called retardation i.e. car is uniformly

retarded at a = 3.06 m s2.

or t =

(iii)

(iv)

u2

u2

(sin2 a + cos2 a) =

2g

2g

as shown in figure. A is the highest point of vertical

motion of object. As per question, the time taken by

tp

and the time

the object in going from p to A =

2

tq

taken by the object in going from q to A = .

2

Taking vertical upward motion of object from

p to A, we have

tp

u = u, v = 0, a = g , t =

2

As, v = u + at

tp

gt

\ 0 = u + ( g ) or u = p

(i)

2

2

A, we have,

t

u = v, v = 0, a = g, t = q

2

As, v = u + at

tq

tq

\ 0 = v + ( g )

or v = g

2

2

Taking vertical upward motion of

object from p to q, we have,

u = u, v = v, a = g, s = h

As, v2 = u2 + 2as

\ v2 = u2 + 2( g)h

g 2t 2p g 2tq2

2

2

or 2 gh = u v =

4

4

8h

or g =

(t 2p tq2 )

OR

Let x be the total length of the train, V be the velocity

of the middle point of the train while passing a

certain point and a be the uniform acceleration

of the train. Taking the motion of the train when

middle point is passing from the given point, we

have

x

u = u, v = V, s = ; a = a

2

Using, v2 = u2 + 2 as, we have

2ax

(i)

V 2 = u2 +

= u2 + ax

2

Taking the motion of train when the last end of

train is passing from the given point, then

u = u, v = v, a = a, s = x

Now, we have, v2 = u2 + 2ax

v 2 u2

or ax =

2

Putting this value in (i), we get

V 2 = u2 +

v 2 u2 u2 + v 2

=

2

2

or V =

(u2 + v 2 )

2

E=

=

Stress

Strain

or E =

MLT2 / L2

= [ML1 T2 ]

1

Let v da Eb

or v = k daEb

(i)

where a, b are constants.

Writing the dimensional formula of the various

quantities on both the sides,

[M0L1T1] = [ML3]a [ML1T2]b, we get

[M0L1T1] = Ma + b L3a b T2b]

Applying the principle of homogeneity of

dimensions, we get

a + b = 0, 3a b = 1 and 2b = 1

1

Clearly, b =

2

1

Also, a = b =

2

From eqn (i),

E

v = kd 1/ 2 E1/ 2 = k

d

18. (i) Shreya displays safety concerns for her brother.

Rash driving can lead to any unfortunate incident.

We agree with Shreya that driving must be careful

and safe.

(ii) Average speed of Shreya,

10 km

Distance

v1 =

=

= 40 km h 1

Time taken 15 / 60 hr

\

= 15 3 = 12 minute.

Average speed of Shyam,

10 km

Distance

=

= 50 km h 1

12 / 60 hr

Time

v2 v1 = 50 40 = 10 km h1

v2 =

(x, y) after time t. Then

Components of initial velocity,

ux = u cos q, uy = u sin q

Components of acceleration at any instant,

ax = 0, ay = g

Position after time t,

x

x = (u cos q) t t =

u cos q

1

y = (u sin q) t gt 2

(i)

2

Putting value of t in (i)

2

x 1 x

y = usinq

g

u cos q 2 u cos q

y = x tan q

2u cos2 q

x2

29

Maximum height, H =

Time of flight, T =

2u y

g

Horizontal range, R =

u2y

2g

=

u2 sin2 q

2g

2u sin q

2ux u y

g

=

u2 sin 2q

g

g

Maximum horizontal range is attained at q = 45

and its value is

u2

g

Velocity after time t,

vx = u cos q, vy = u sin q gt

Rmax =

OR

elastic, so its rebound speed is same but direction of

velocity is changed.

After rebounding, motion of the particle is projectile

on inclined plane.

Let T = time taken by the particle to hit the plane

second time.

2v 1

2v

4v 2

= v0 sin q 0 + ( g sin q) 0 = 0 sin q

g

g 2

g

20. According to Keplers third law,

T2 r3 T r3/2

Also, T depends on g and R.

Let, T r3/2 gx Ry

where x and y are exponents of g and R

respectively.

T = kr3/2 gx Ry

where k is dimensionless constant of proportionality.

Writing dimensions of the physical quantities on

both sides

[M0L0T1] = [L]3/2 [LT2]x [L]y

Using the principle of homogeneity of dimensions

3

x+y+ =0

(i)

2

2x = 1

(ii)

1

From eqns. (i) and (ii), x = , y = 1

2

k r3

T = kr 3/ 2 g 1/ 2 R 1 T =

R g

which is required quantity.

(i)

plane,

y = 0, uy = v0 cosq, ay = g cosq, t = T

1

y = u yt + a yt 2

2

1

0 = (v 0 cos q)T + ( g cos q)T 2

2

T=

2v0

g

2v

x = L, ux = v0sinq, ax = gsinq, t = T = 0

g

1

\ x = ux t + a x t 2

2

30

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

OR

The magnitude of the average acceleration is

given by

Change in speed

=

Time interval

i.e. average acceleration in a small interval of

time is equal to the slope of (v-t) graph in that

time interval.

As the slope of (v-t) graph is maximum in the

interval 2 as compared to intervals 1 and 3,

hence the magnitude of average acceleration is

greatest in interval 2.

The average speed is greatest in the interval 3

as peak D is at maximum on speed axis.

v > 0 i.e. positive in all the three intervals.

The slope is positive in intervals 1 and 3, so

a i.e. acceleration is positive in these intervals

while the slope is negative in interval 2, so

acceleration is negative in it. So, a > 0 i.e.

positive in intervals 1 and 3 and a < 0 i.e.

negative in interval 2.

As slope is zero at points A, B, C and D, so the

acceleration is zero at all the four points.

nn

Class

XI

Unit

ROtatIOnal MOtIOn

Centre of Mass

that moves as though

all the mass of the system is concentrated there and

all external forces are applied there.

Centre of Mass of a two Particle System

masses m1 and m2 are

separated by distance d and

the origin coincide with the

particle of mass m1. The

position of the centre of mass

(com) of this two particles is

given by

m2

y

xcom =

d

m1 + m2

xcom

m1

com

m2

d

(a)

with respect to coordinate system, the position of the

centre of mass is given by a position vector

n

mi ri

m r + m2r2 + .....mnrn i =1

Rcom = 1 1

=

m1 + m2 + ..... + mn

M

where, M is total mass of the system.

The coordinates of centre of mass is given by

n

mi xi

xcom =

i =1

mi yi

i =1

, ycom =

M

mi zi

xcom

m1

m2

x

the coordinate system O

com

x1

d

has been shifted leftward.

x

The position of the centre

2

(b)

of mass is

m x + m2 x2

xcom = 1 1

m1 + m2

Similarly for y and z-axis

m y + m2 y2

m z + m2 z2

ycom = 1 1

and z com = 1 1

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

and z com = i =1

M

Centre of Mass of Rigid Body (or continuous

distribution of mass

Solid bodies contain so many particles (atoms) that we

can treat them as a continuous distribution of matter.

The particles then become differential mass elements

dm, the sum become integrals, and the coordinates of

the centre of mass are defined as

1

1

xcom = xdm , ycom = ydm

M

M

1

and z com = zdm

M

where M is the mass of the body.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

31

KEY POINT

The position of the centre of mass of a system is

independent of the choice of coordinate system.

The position of the centre of mass depends on the

shape of the body and the distribution of its mass.

Hence it may lie within or outside the material of

the body.

SELF CHECK

cone from its vertex is z0. If the radius of its base is

R and its height is h then z0 is equal to

5h

3h 2

h2

3h

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4R

8

8R

4

(JEE Main 2015)

Velocity of the Centre of Mass of a System of

n-particles

vcom = 1 1

m1 + m2 + ... + mn

n

n

mi vi mi vi

= i =1

mi

= i =1

M

i =1

n-particles

acom = 1 1

m1 + m2 + ... + mn

n

n

m

a

i i mi ai

= i =1

mi

= i =1

M

i =1

the total linear momentum of the system is conserved.

Also, when the total external force acting on the system

is zero, the velocity of centre of mass remains constant.

torque

the axis of rotation due to a force.

position vector relative to any arbitrary point on the

body about the axis of rotation is given by

t=r F

32

Also, | t | = rF sin q

Torque is a vector quantity. Its SI unit is N m.

Torque has the same dimensions as that of work i.e.

[ML2T2]. But both are different. Work is a scalar

quantity whereas torque is a vector quantity.

By sign convention, anticlockwise torque is taken as

positive and clockwise torque is taken as negative.

Work done by torque

For variable torque, dW = t dq

angular Momentum

Angular momentum of a particle about a given point is

defined as

L=r p

to the given point, p = linear momentum of the particle.

for vector product. Angular momentum is a vector

quantity. Its S I unit is kg m2 s 1. Its dimensional formula

is [ML2T1].

SELF CHECK

of length l is suspended from a vertical support. The

bob rotates in a horizontal circle with an angular

speed w rad s1 about the vertical. About the point

of suspension

(a) angular momentum changes both in direction

and magnitude.

(b) angular momentum is conserved.

(c) angular momentum changes in magnitude but

not in direction.

(d) angular momentum changes in direction but

not in magnitude.

(JEE Main 2014)

Conservation of angular Momentum

external torque acting on a particle,

dL

then we can put

= 0 L = constant

dt

Therefore, the angular momentum of the particle remains

unchanged in the absence of an external torque.

Relationship

Momentum

between

torque

and

angular

to the external torque acting upon the body.

dL

i.e., text =

dt

SELF CHECK

angular velocity w0 is placed on a rough horizontal

surface. The initial velocity of the centre of the hoop

is zero. What will be the velocity of the centre of the

hoop when it ceases to slip?

rw 0

rw 0

rw 0

(a) rw0

(b)

(c)

(d)

4

2

3

(JEE Main 2013)

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

it is in translational equilibrium i.e. the total external

force on it is zero. i.e. SFi = 0.

it is in rotational equilibrium, i.e., the total external

torque on it is zero, i.e. Sti = 0.

Moment of Inertia

change in its state of rest or of rotation is defined as its

moment of inertia. The moment of inertia of a particle

is given by

I = mr2

where m is the mass of the particle and r is the distance

of the particle from axis of rotation.

Moment of inertia of a system of particles depends on

Axis of rotation

Mass of the system

Distribution of mass in the body

About a particular axis of rotation, moment of inertia of

a rigid body is constant. Moment of inertia plays same

role in rotational motion as mass plays in translational

motion.

KEY POINT

Moment of inertia is a scalar quantity. Its SI unit is

kg m2 and its dimensional formula is [ML2T0].

may also be defined as the root mean square distance of

the particles from the axis of rotation

r12 + r22 + ... + rN2

N

theorems of Moment of Inertia

Theorem of perpendicular axes: The moment of inertia

of a planar lamina about an axis perpendicular to its

plane is equal to the sum of its moments of inertia about

two perpendiculzar axes concurrent with perpendicular

axis and lying in the plane of the body.

Iz = Ix + Iy

where x and y are two perpendicular axes in the plane

and z axis is perpendicular to its plane.

Theorem of parallel axes : The moment of inertia of a

body about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of

inertia of the body about a parallel axis passing through

its centre of mass and the product of its mass and the

square of the distance between the two parallel axes.

I = ICM + Md2

where ICM is the moment of inertia of the body about

an axis passing through the centre of mass and d is the

perpendicular distance between two parallel axes.

Moment of inertia of some regular bodies about

specific axis is given in the table :

i.e., k =

S.

No.

1.

Radius of Gyration

at which, if whole mass of the body were supposed to

be concentrated, the moment of inertia would be same

as with the actual distribution of the mass of body into

small particles.

I

M

The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is

equal to the product of mass of the body and square of

its radius of gyration about that axis. i.e., I = Mk2.

The SI unit of radius of gyration is metre and its

dimensional formula is [M0LT0].

Radius of gyration, k =

2.

Body

Axis of rotation

Moment of

inertia (I)

about an axis

passing through

its centre and MR2

perpendicular to

its plane

Uniform

circular ring about a diameter

of mass M

and radius R about a tangent in

its own plane

about a tangent

perpendicular to

its plane

about an axis passing

through its centre

and perpendicular

to its plane

Uniform

circular disc about a diameter

of mass M

and radius R about a tangent in

its own plane

about a tangent

perpendicular to

its own plane

1

MR2

2

3

MR2

2

2MR2

1

MR2

2

1

MR2

4

5

MR2

4

3

MR2

2

33

3.

4.

5.

6.

2

2

Solid sphere about its diameter 5 MR

of radius R

7

and mass M about a tangential MR2

axis

5

Hollow

about its diameter

sphere

of

radius R and about a tangential

mass M

axis

2

MR2

3

5

MR2

3

1

MR2

2

Solid

cylinder

of length l,

radius R and

mass M

Hollow

cylinder of

mass

M,

length l and

radius R

about an axis

l 2 R2

passing through

M +

12 4

perpendicular to

its own axis

about the diameter

l 2 R2

of one of the faces M +

4

3

of cylinder

about its own axis MR2

about an axis

passing through

R2 l 2

its centre and M +

2 12

perpendicular to

its own axis

7.

about an axis

passing through

2

its centre and ML

perpendicular to 12

Thin rod of the rod

length L

about an axis

passing through

ML2

one end and

3

perpendicular to

the rod

8.

about an axis

Rectangular

passing through

2

2

lamina

of

its centre and M l + b

length l and

12

perpendicular to

breadth b

its plane

SELF CHECK

m. The moment of inertia of this plate about an axis

perpendicular to its plane and passing through one

of its corners is

34

(a)

(c)

2

ma 2

3

1

ma 2

12

5

ma 2

6

7

(d)

ma 2

12

(b)

(AIEEE 2008)

rotational counterparts which are, by comparison,

...(i)

w = w0 + at

1 2

...(ii)

q = w 0t + at

2

w02

...(iii)

w =

+ 2aq

where w0 is the initial angular velocity and w is the final

angular velocity (both in rad s1) after the body has

rotated through angular displacement q (in rad) with

constant angular acceleration a (in rad s2) in a time

interval t (in s).

Analogy between translational motion and

rotational motion

1.

Translational motion

Displacement s

2.

Velocity v =

3.

4.

5.

Acceleration

dv

a=

dt

Mass M

Force F = Ma

6.

Work dW = Fds

ds

dt

Rotational motion

Angular

displacement q

Angular velocity

dq

w=

dt

Angular acceleration

dw

a=

dt

Moment of inertia I

Torque t = Ia

Work dW = tdq

rotational motion

translational motion

2

Mv

I w2

KT =

KR =

2

2

8. Power P = Fv

Power P = tw

9. Linear momentum

Angular momentum

p = Mv

L = Iw

Equations of

10. Equations of

rotational motion

translational motion

(i) w = w0 + at

(i) v = u + at

1 2

1 2

(ii) s = ut + at

(ii) q = w0t + at

2

2

2

2

2

2

(iii) v u = 2as

(iii) w w0 = 2aq

a

(iv)

(iv) snth = u + (2n 1)

a

2

qnth = w0 + (2n 1)

2

7.

1

Kinetic energy of rotational motion, K R = I w2 .

2

Kinetic energy of a rolling body = translational kinetic

energy (KT) + rotational kinetic energy (KR)

K2

1

1

1

= Mv 2 + I w2 = Mv 2 1 +

2

2

2

2

R

When a body rolls down an inclined plane of inclination

q without slipping its velocity at the bottom of incline

2 gh

where h is the height of the

is given by v =

K2

1+

R2

incline. Its acceleration down the inclined plane is given

g sin q

.

by a =

K2

1+

R2

Time taken by the body to reach the bottom is given by

t=

K2

2l 1 +

R2

g sin q

KEY POINT

The motion of a rigid body, which is not pointed

or fixed in some way, is either purely translational

or a combination of translational and rotational

motions.

Angular displacement in the anticlockwise

direction is positive and one in the clockwise

direction is negative.

GRaVItatIOn

distances and also for short distances like interatomic

distances.

The interaction means that both the particles

experience forces of equal magnitude in opposite

directions. If F1 , F2 are the forces exerted on particle 1

by particle 2 and on particle 2 by particle 1, respectively

on different bodies, they are known as actionreaction pair.

It is a conservative force. Therefore, the work

done by the gravitational force on a particle is

independent of the path described by the particle.

It depends upon the initial and final positions of the

particle. Therefore, no work is done by the gravity if

a particle moves in a closed path.

If a particle A is acted upon by n particles say the net

force exerted on it must be equal to the vector sum

of the forces due to all the surrounding particles.

i =n

FA = Fi

i =1

particle.

SELF CHECK

each other, move along a circle of radius R under

the action of their mutual gravitational attraction.

The speed of each particle is

(a)

particle with a force that is proportional to the product

of their masses and inversely proportional to the square

of the distance between them.

The gravitational force F between two particles of

masses m1 and m2, distance r apart is given by

mm

F =G 1 2

r2

where G is a constant, called the universal gravitational

constant, and assumed to have the same value

everywhere for all matter.

Characteristics of the Gravitational Force

Gravitational force is always attractive and directed

along the line joining the particles.

It is independent of the nature of the medium

surrounding the particles.

(c)

1 GM

(1 + 2 2 ) (b)

2 R

2 2

GM

R

(d)

GM

R

GM

(1 + 2 2 )

R

(JEE Main 2014)

The sun has eight planets and the earth is one of them.

The planets closer to the sun moves in nearly circular

orbits whereas the farther planets move in elliptical

orbits. some planets have satellites orbiting around them.

For example the moon is the earths satellite. It is a natural

satellite. The earth has many artificial satellite orbiting it.

The orbital motion of planets and satellites obey certain

laws known as Keplers laws of planetary motion.

First law (law of orbits)

of its foci.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

35

KEY POINT

The radial line connecting the planet and the sun sweeps

out equal areas in equal time intervals.

dA

remains constant for a planet.

Areal velocity =

dt

Angular momentum

( L ) of a planet is related with areal

dA

dA

velocity dt by the relation L = 2m

dt

The area covered by the radius vector in dt seconds

=

body but depends upon mass and radius of the

earth or planet due to which there is a gravity

pull.

The value of the acceleration due to gravity on the

moon is about one sixth of that on the earth and

on the sun is about 27 times that on the earth.

The value of acceleration due to gravity is

minimum at planet Mercury and maximum at

planet Jupiter.

1 2

r dq.

2

2

dt

KEY POINT

Keplers second law follows from the law of

conservation of angular momentum.

According to Keplers second law, the speed of the

planet is maximum, when it is closest to the sun

and is minimum when the planet is farthest from

the sun.

the cube of the semi-major axis of the orbit.

i.e., T2 r3

\ For two planets with time period, T1, T2 and semimajor axis r1 and r2

r3

= 1

T22 r23

acceleration Due to Gravity

It is defined as the acceleration of a particle caused by

the gravitation force, at the point under consideration.

According to Newtons second law,

F = ma

If the force on body is due to gravity of earth, then

acceleration in the body is called acceleration due to

gravity. It is denoted by g, i.e. a = g, \ F = mg

Acceleration due to gravity is a vector quantity. It is

directed towards the centre of earth. Its SI unit is m s2.

Its dimensional formula is [M0LT2].

The value of g on the surface of earth is taken to be

9.8 m s2 and it varies with altitude, depth, shape and

the rotation of earth.

T12

4

G pRe3r

4

g=

= 3

= pGRe r

2

2

3

Re

Re

where Me is the mass of the earth, Re is the radius of

the earth and r is the uniform density of the material

of the earth.

GMe

36

at height h above the surface of earth is given by

2

GMe

GMe

h

gh =

= g 1 + g =

Re

(Re + h)2

Re2

2h

For h << Re, g h = g 1

Re

When we move above the surface of earth g goes on

decreasing.

Due to depth (d): The acceleration due to gravity at

a depth d below the surface of earth is given by

R d

GMe

d

gd =

(Re d ) = g e

= g 1

Re

Re

Re3

At the centre, d = Re \ gd = 0.

The value of g decreases with depth also. It is

maximum at the earths surface and becomes zero

at the centre of the earth.

For h << Re, the decrease of the acceleration due

to gravity with height is twice as compared to that

with depth.

If a body is taken above the surface of earth, the

value of acceleration due to gravity varies inversely

as the square of the distance from the centre of

the earth. But if the body is taken inside the earth,

acceleration due to gravity decreases linearly with

distance from the centre of the earth.

Due to rotation of earth : The acceleration due to

gravity at latitude l is given by

gl = g Re w2 cos2l

where w is the angular speed of the earth.

At the equator, l = 0

gl = ge = g Rew2cos20 = g Re2

At the poles, l = 90

gl = gp = g Rew2cos290 = g

at the equator and maximum at the poles. Thus g

increases as we move from equator to the pole.

gp ge = g (g Rew2) = Rew2

sphere but it is an ellipsoid. The earths radius is

21 km larger at the equator than at the poles. Thus

the earth has an equatorial bulge and is flattened

at the poles. Both, rotation and equatorial bulge

contribute additively to keep the g smaller at the

equator than at the poles.

Gravitational Potential

but also by a scalar function, the gravitational potential

V. The gravitational potential at any point may be

defined as the potential energy per unit mass of a test

mass placed at that point.

U

i.e., V =

m

where U is the gravitational potential energy of the test

mass m.

Thus, if the reference point is taken at infinite distance,

the potential of a point in the gravitational field is equal

to the amount of work done by the external agent per unit

mass in bringing a test mass from infinite to that point.

GM

i.e., V =

r

Here, V is the gravitational potential due to a point mass

M at a distance r from it.

Gravitational potential is a scalar quantity. Its

dimensional formula is [M0L2T2].

Unit of gravitational potential in SI system is

J kg1 and in CGS system it is erg g1.

Gravitational potential due to shell

The gravitational potential due to a spherical shell of

radius R and mass M at a point distant r from the centre

of the shell is given as follows :

at a point outside the shell is V = GM

r

GM

at a point on the surface of shell is V =

R

GM

at a point inside the shell is V =

R

Gravitational potential due to a uniform solid sphere

outside the sphere at a distance r from the centre is

GM

V =

r

3GM R2 r 2

V =

R3 2

6

dV

The field and the potential are related as, E =

dr

Gravitational Potential Energy

The gravitational potential energy of a body at a point

in a gravitational field of another body is defined as the

amount of work done in bringing the given body from

infinity to that point.

The gravitational potential energy between two bodies

of masses M and m separated by distance r is given by

GMm

U =

r

where U is taken to be zero as r .

Gravitational potential energy is a scalar quantity. Its

dimensional formula is [ML2T2] and SI unit is J.

Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass m at

height h above the surface of the earth is given by

GMe m

Uh =

(Re + h)

Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass m on

the surface of the earth is given by

GMe m

Us =

Re

The change in potential energy when a body of mass m

is moved vertically upwards through a height h from

the surface of the earth is given by

1

1

DU = U h U s = GMe m

Re Re + h

GM

GMe mh

mgh

e

=

=

As 2 = g

h

h

Re

Re2 1 + 1 +

Re Re

For h < < Re, DU = mgh.

SELF CHECK

R

is removed, as shown

spherical portion of radius

2

in the figure. Taking gravitational potential V = 0 at

r = , the potential at the centre of the cavity thus

formed is

(G = gravitational constant)

(a)

(c)

2GM

3R

GM

2R

2GM

R

GM

(d)

R (JEE Main 2015)

(b)

37

correct variation of the gravitational potential V(r)

due to a large planet of radius R and uniform mass

density?

(figures are not drawn to scale)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

GMe

As g = 2

Re

earth, i.e., h < < Re, then

g

= gRe

Re

of the satellite. The orbital speed of a satellite depends upon

the mass and radius of the earth/planet around which

the revolution of satellite is taking place. The direction of

orbital speed of a satellite at an instant is along the tangent

to the orbital path of satellite at that instant.

Time period of a satellite: It is the time taken by satellite

to complete one revolution around the earth and it is

given by T = 2 p

=

GMe

Re

g

i.e. h < < Re

T = 2p

38

Re

= 84.6 min.

g

continuously in an orbit around a comparatively much

larger body. e.g. earth is a satellite of sun and moon in

turn is a satellite of earth.

Orbital speed of a satellite: It is defined as the minimum

speed required to put the satellite into a given orbit

around earth.

Orbital speed of satellite, when it is revolving around

earth at a height h is given by

vo = Re

Re

GM

= [m2GMr ]1/2

r

Angular momentum of a satellite depends on both, mass

of the satellite (m) and mass of the planet (M). It also

depends upon the radius of the orbit (r) of the satellite.

Satellite

GMe

g

= Re

Re + h

Re + h

1/3

T 2 R2 g

e

h=

2

4p

L = mvo r = mr

vo =

1

1 GMe m | U |

K = mvo2 =

=

2

2 (Re + h)

2

Potential energy of a satellite,

U=

GMe m

Re + h

E = K +U =

GMe m

2(Re + h)

GMe m

i.e., h < < Re then E =

2Re

Kinetic energy of a satellite is equal to negative of total

energy while potential energy is equal to twice the total

energy, i.e. K = E, U = 2E

Binding energy of a satellite,

EB = E =

GMe m

2(Re + h)

SELF CHECK

satellite of mass m from the surface of a planet of mass

M and radius R in a circular orbit at an altitude of 2R?

5GmM

GmM

(a)

(b)

6R

3R

2GmM

GmM

(c)

(d)

3R

2R

(JEE Main 2013)

Geostationary satellite : A satellite which revolves

around the earth with the same angular speed in the

same direction as is done by the earth around its axis is

known as geostationary or geosynchronous satellite.

The height of a geostationary satellite is about

36000 km.

KEY POINT

A geostationary (geosynchronous communication)

satellite moves in a circular orbit in the equatorial

plane at an approximate distance of 4.22 104 km

from the earths centre.

The orbit of a geostationary satellite is known as

parking orbit. Its orbital velocity is about 3.1 km s1.

orbit around earth.

A polar orbit is that orbit whose angle of inclination with

equatorial plane of earth is 90. The polar satellites are

low altitude satellites. They go around the poles of the

earth from north to south direction whereas the earth

rotates around its axis from west to east direction.

Escape Speed

defined as the minimum speed with which a body has

to be projected vertically upwards from the surface of

earth (or any other planet) so that it just crosses the

gravitational field of earth (or of that planet) and never

returns on its own. Escape speed ve is given by

2GM

ve =

R

where M = Mass of the earth/planet

R = Radius of the earth/planet

2G volume density

ve =

R

2

2G 4 3

8 prGR

pR r =

R 3

3

For earth, ve = 11.2 km s1

If a body is projected from a planet with a speed v which

is smaller than the escape speed ve (i.e. v < ve), then the

body will reach a certain height may either move in an

orbit around the planet or may fall back to the planet.

If speed of projection (v) of the body from the surface

of a planet is greater than the escape speed (ve) of that

planet, the body will escape out from the gravitational

field of that planet and will move in the interstellar space

with speed v and v is given by

or

ve =

v = v 2 ve2

KEY POINT

The escape speed depends upon the mass and

radius of the earth/planet from the surface of

which the body is to be projected.

The escape speed is independent of the mass

and direction of projection of the body from the

surface of earth/planet.

Weightlessness

becomes zero. An astronaut experiences weightlessness

in a space satellite.

PROPERtIES OF SOlIDS anD lIqUIDS

Elasticity

original size and shape after the removal of deforming

force is called elasticity and the deformation caused

is called elastic deformation. If a body regains its

original size and shape completely after the removal of

deforming force, it is said to be perfectly elastic body.

Quartz fibre and phosphor bronze are the examples of

nearly perfectly elastic bodies. The property by virtue of

which a body does not regain its original size and shape

even after the removal of the deforming force is called

plasticity. If a body does not have any tendency to regain

its original size and shape even after the removal of

deforming force, it is said to be perfectly plastic body.

Putty and paraffin wax are the examples of nearly

perfectly plastic bodies.

KEY POINT

No body is perfectly elastic or perfectly plastic. All

the bodies found in nature lie between these two

limits.

Stress

the shape or size of the body by changing the normal

positions of the molecules or atoms of the body. As

a result, an internal restoring force comes into play,

which tends to bring the body back to its initial shape

or size. This internal restoring force acting per unit area

is called stress.

restoring force

i.e., Stress =

area

The unit of stress in SI system is N m2 or pascal (Pa)

and in CGS system is dyne cm2.

The dimensional formula of stress is same as that of

pressure i.e. [ML1T2].

Type of stress : Stress is of two types :

Normal stress

Tangential or shearing stress

Normal Stress : When a deforming force acts normally

over an area of a body, then the internal restoring force set

up per unit area of the body is known as normal stress.

Normal stress can be subdivided into following

categories :

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

39

or extension of the body in the direction of force

applied, the stress set up is known as tensile stress.

Compressive stress: If there is a decrease in length

or compression of the body due to force applied, the

stress set up is known as compressive stress.

Hydraulic stress: When a solid body undergoes

a change in volume without any change in

its geometrical shape on applying the force

perpendicular to every point on the surface of

body, then the restoring force per unit area in the

body is known as hydraulic stress. Hydraulic stress

is generally possible when a solid spherical body is

placed in a fluid under high pressure.

Tensile or compressive stress can also be termed as

longitudinal stress.

Tangential or shearing stress: When a deforming force,

acting tangentially to the surface of a body produces a

change in the shape of the body without any change in

volume, then the stress set up in the body is known as

tangential stress or shearing stress.

Strain

a change in the shape or size of the body. The body is

said to be strained or deformed. The ratio of change in

dimension to the original dimension is called strain.

change in dimensions

i.e. Strain =

original dimension

Strain being the ratio of two similar quantities is a

unitless and dimensionless quantity.

Strain is of three types :

change in length DL

Longitudinal strain =

=

original length

L

change in volume DV

=

original volume

V

Shearing strain : When there is change in shape

of a body without change in its volume, the strain

produced is known as shearing strain. If a body

is acted upon by an external force tangential to a

surface of the body and the opposite surface is being

kept fixed, then the angle through which the line

perpendicular to the stationary surface gets turned

is known as angle of a shear f or shearing strain.

Volumetric strain =

Hookes law

wire is directly proportional to the load applied within

elastic limit. That is within elastic limit, extension load

applied. Later on it was found that this law is applicable to

all types of deformations such as compression, bending,

40

was given as stated below.

Within elastic limit, the stress developed is directly

proportional to the strain produced in a body, that is

Stress Strain

or Stress = E Strain

where E is constant and known as modulus of

elasticity.

Modulus of Elasticity

Stress

E=

= a constant

Strain

where E is known as the coefficient of elasticity or, the

modulus of elasticity of a body.

It depends upon the nature of material of the body and

the manner in which the body is deformed.

types of Modulus of Elasticity

three types of modulus of elasticity as described below.

Youngs modulus of elasticity : It is defined as the

ratio of normal stress to the longitudinal strain

within the elastic limit.

normal stress

F / pr 2 mgL

=

=

Thus, Y =

longitudinal strain

l/L

pr 2l

Normal stress is constant over any area of crosssection. Youngs modulus is numerically equal to

the stress which will double the length of a wire.

Bulk modulus of elasticity : It is defined as the ratio

of normal stress to the volumetric strain, within the

elastic limit.

normal stress

Thus, K =

volumetric strain

P

PV

\ K =

=

DV / V

DV

Modulus of rigidity : It is defined as, the ratio of

tangential stress to the shearing strain, within the

elastic limit. It is also called shear modulus of rigidity.

tangential stress

Thus, h =

shearing strain

F/A F

h=

=

q

Aq

The values of moduli of elasticity are independent of the

magnitude of the stress and strain. They depend only on

the nature of the material of the body.

For a given material there can be different moduli of

elasticity depending on the type of stress applied and

the strain resulting.

and units as that of stress since strain is dimensionless,

i.e., the dimensional formula for Y, B and h is [ML1T2]

while the SI unit of Y, B and h is N m2 or Pa and the

CGS unit is dyne cm2.

Youngs modulus of a rigid body is infinity.

Greater the value of Youngs modulus of a material,

larger is its elasticity. Therefore steel is more elastic than

rubber.

The reciprocal of bulk modulus is known as

compressibility.

1

Compressibility =

B

The SI unit of compressibility is N1 m2 and CGS unit

is dyne1 cm2.

Bulk modulus is relevant for solids, liquids and gases.

Bulk modulus of gases is very low while that for liquids

and solids is very high. i.e. Bsolid > Bliquid > Bgas

For gases, bulk modulus are of two types:

Isothermal bulk modulus Biso = P (pressure exerted

by the gas)

Adiabatic bulk modulus Bad = gP where g = CP/CV.

Bad

\

= g > 1 ; Bad > Biso

Biso

Therefore adiabatic bulk modulus is greater than

isothermal bulk modulus.

h is the characteristic of solid materials only as the

liquids and gases do not have fixed shape. h for liquid

is zero.

section of the wire.

Work done in a stretched wire,

1

W = stress strain volume

2

1 F DL

1

=

AL = F DL

2A L

2

1

= load elongation

2

This work done is stored in the wire as its elastic potential

energy or strain energy.

Elastic potential energy stored per unit volume of a

stretched wire,

1

1

u = stress strain = Y (strain)2

2

2

Pressure

It is defined as the thrust acting per unit area on the

surface in contact with liquid.

thrust (F ) F

i.e. P =

=

area (A) A

It is a scalar quantity. Its dimensional formula is

[ML1T2]. Its SI unit is N m2. It has been named

as pascal (Pa) in the honour of French scientist

Blaise Pascal.

For a point at a depth h below the surface of a liquid

of density r, hydrostatic pressure P is given by

P = P0 + hrg

where P0 represents the atmospheric pressure.

KEY POINT

Youngs modulus is defined only for solids, but not

for liquids and gases.

lateral strain

Dr / r

=

longitudinal strain DL / L

where L is the original length of the wire, DL the increase

in length, r is the original radius and Dr is the change in

radius. s has no units and dimensions.

1

Theoretically, s lies between 1 and + .

2

1

+

.

Practically s lies between zero and

2

Relations among elastic constants (Y, B, h and s)

Y = 3B(1 2s)

Y = 2h(1 + s)

3B 2h

s=

2h + 6 B

Poissons ratio (s) :

9 1 3

= +

Y B h

pressure.

Pressure depends on the depth of the point below

the surface (h), nature of liquid (r) and acceleration

due to gravity (g) while it is independent of the

amount of liquid, shape of the container or crosssectional area considered. So if a given liquid is

filled in vessels of different shapes to same height,

the pressure at the base in each vessel will be the

same, though the volume or weight of the liquid in

different vessels will be different.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

41

Pascals law

Stokes law

points which are at the same height. A change in

pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted

undiminished to every point of the fluid and the walls

of the containing vessel.

Hydraulic lift : It is used to lift heavy loads such as car

at the service station. It is based on the Pascals law.

It consists of two pistons which are separated by the

space filled with a liquid as shown in the figure.

through a fluid of viscosity h, the viscous force opposing

the motion of the sphere is given by

F = 6phrv

Importance of Stokes law

charge with the help of milikans experiment.

This law accounts the formation of clouds.

This law accounts why the speed of rain drops is

less than that of a body falling freely with a constant

velocity from the height of clouds.

This law helps a man coming down with the help

of parachute.

terminal Velocity

a force F1 directly on the liquid. The pressure

P = F1/A1 is transmitted throughout the liquid to

the larger cylinder attached with larger piston of

area A2 which results in an upward force of P A2.

FA

F2 = PA2 = 1 2

A1

Hydraulic brakes in automobiles is based on the

Pascals law.

Viscosity

up within it, force act within the fluid so as to prevent

the velocity gradient from existing. This force is due to

property called viscosity.

dv

Thus, F = h A

dz

(The negative sign is put to account for the fact that the

viscous force is opposite to the direction of motion.)

where h is a constant called coefficient of viscosity, its

CGS unit is poise. Dimensions is [ML1T1]. The SI unit

of viscosity is poiseuille (Pl).

1 Pl = 10 poise

Effect on viscosity

42

viscosity of a liquid decreases.

Effect of pressure : On increasing pressure viscosity

of liquid increases but viscosity of water decreases.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

weight acting downward, the velocity of the body

become constant and is known as terminal velocity and

is given by,

2 rs

vc = r 2

g

9 h

Streamline Flow

the liquid passing a point moves along the same path

and has the velocity as its predecessor then the flow is

called streamline flow. It is also called laminar flow.

turbulent Flow

time, the flow is called unsteady flow. The unsteady flow

is called turbulent when there are bends in the path of a

fast moving liquid.

Critical Velocity

which its flow is streamlined and above which its flow

becomes turbulent.

kh

vc =

rr

Reynold number : Reynold number is a pure number

which determines the nature of flow of liquid through a

pipe. According to Reynold, the critical velocity vc of a

liquid flowing through a tube of diameter D is given by

N h

rDvc

vc = R

or NR =

rD

h

where h is the coefficient of viscosity of the liquid, r is

the density of liquid and NR is a constant called Reynold

number.

the flow of liquid is streamline or laminar. For values of

NR above 3000, the flow of liquid is turbulent and for

values of NR between 2000 to 3000, the flow of liquid is

unstable changing from streamline to turbulent flow.

SELF CHECK

2

water tap of diameter

cm then the Reynolds

p

number for the flow is (density of water = 103 kg/m3

and viscosity of water = 103 Pa.s) close to

(a) 5500 (b) 11,000 (c) 550 (d) 1100

(JEE Main 2015)

Bernoullis theorem

and non-viscous fluid through a tube of non-uniform

cross-section, the sum of the pressure energy per unit

volume, the potential energy per unit volume and the

kinetic energy per unit volume is same at every point

in the tube,

1

i.e., P + rgh + rv 2 = constant

2

This equation is known as Bernoullis equation. It

represents conservation of mechanical energy in case of

moving fluids.

If the liquid is flowing through a horizontal tube, then

h is constant, then Bernoullis theorem states that

1

P + rv 2 = a constant

2

applications of Bernoullis theorem

Bunsens burner

Atomiser or sprayer

Aerofoil or lift on aircraft wing

Blowing off the roof during storm

Curved motion of a spinning ball (Magnus effect)

Venturimeter

Surface tension

surface area becomes minimum i.e., it behaves as if it

were under tension, some what like a stretched elastic

membrane. This property is known as surface tension.

The surface tension of a liquid varies with temperature

as well as dissolved impurities, etc. When soap is mixed

with water, the surface tension of water decreases.

Surface tension of a liquid is measured by the normal

force acting per unit length.

F

i.e., S = .

L

SI unit of surface tension is N m1.

Dimensions of surface tension is [ML0T2].

Surface Energy

force of surface tension in increasing the liquid surface

of a given area at a constant temperature.

i.e., surface energy = work done

= surface tension increase in

surface area of the liquid

The SI unit of surface energy is joule and CGS unit is erg.

When a bigger drop splits into smaller drops, energy is

required to break it but when smaller drops coalesce to

form a bigger drop energy is released.

Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius r, surface

tension S is, W = 4pr2S.

Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius r, surface

tension S is, W = 2 4pr2S = 8pr2S

Work done in increasing the radius of a liquid drop

from r1 to r2 is W = 4 pS (r22 r12 )

Work done in increasing the radius of a soap bubble

from r1 to r2 is W = 8 pS (r22 r12 )

When n number of smaller drops of a liquid, each of

radius r, surface tension S are combined to form a bigger

drop of radius R, then R = n1/3r

The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2 = 4pn2/3r2. It is

less than the area of n smaller drops.

Work done in breaking a liquid drop of radius R into n

where S is the surface tension.

SELF CHECK

between a U-shaped wire and

a light slider supports a weight

FILM

of 1.5 102 N (see figure). The

length of the slider is 30 cm

and its weight negligible. The

surface tension of the liquid

w

film is

(a) 0.1 Nm1

(b) 0.05 Nm1

(c) 0.025 Nm1

(d) 0.0125 Nm1

(AIEEE 2012)

11. Work done in increasing the size of a soap bubble

from a radius of 3 cm to 5 cm is nearly (Surface

tension of soap solution = 0.03 N m1)

(a) 4p mJ

(b) 0.2p mJ

(c) 2p mJ

(d) 0.4p mJ

(AIEEE 2011)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

43

Excess Pressure

angle of Contact

always greater than the pressure on the convex side. The

difference of pressure is known as excess pressure.

Excess pressure inside a liquid drop is given by

2S

P=

r

Excess pressure inside a soap bubble is given by

4S

P= .

r

Excess pressure inside an air bubble in a liquid is given

by

2S

P=

r

When an air bubble of radius r is at depth h below the

free surface of liquid of density r and surface tension S,

then the excess pressure inside the bubble,

2S

P = + hrg

r

If r1 and r2 are the radii of curved liquid surface, then

excess pressure inside the liquid surface is given by

and liquid surfaces at a point of contact inside the

liquid. It depends on the nature of solid and liquid. The

angle of contact is different for different pairs of solids

and liquids. Angle of contact does not depend upon

the inclination of the solid surface to the liquid surface.

Angle of contact increases with increase in temperature

of liquid. Angle of contact decreases on adding soluble

impurity to a liquid.

The value of angle of contact lies between 0 and 180.

The value of angle of contact for pure water and glass

(without grease) is zero.

For all those liquids which wet the solid surface and

which rise up in a capillary tube, the angle of contact is

an acute angle (q < 90), e.g. water and glass.

For all those liquids which do not wet a solid surface and

which depress in a capillary tube, the angle of contact is

an obtuse angle (q > 90). e.g. glass and mercury.

For all those liquids which neither rise nor get depressed

in a capillary tube, the angle of contact is right angle

(q = 90). e.g. silver, and water.

1 1

P =S +

r1 r2

When two bubbles of different sizes are in communication

with each other, air passes from smaller one to larger

one and larger one grows at the expense of smaller one.

This happens due to pressure inside the smaller bubble

being higher than that inside the larger bubble.

When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 coalesce to

form a new soap bubble of radius r, under isothermal

conditions then r = r12 + r22 .

When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 are in contact

with each other and r is the radius of the interface, then

rr

r= 12 .

r2 r1

The total pressure inside an air bubble of radius r at a

depth h below the surface of liquid of density r is

2S

P = P0 + hrg +

r

where P0 is the atmospheric pressure and S is the surface

tension of liquid.

KEY POINT

If a small drop of water is squeezed between two

parallel glass plates so that a very thin layer of large

area is formed then the pressure inside the water

layer is less than the pressure on the plates by (2S/d)

(where d is the distance between the plates).

44

Capillarity

tube is known as capillarity.

The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by

2S cos q 2S

r

h=

=

cos q =

rrg

Rrg

R

where S is the surface tension of the liquid, is the angle

of contact, r is the density of liquid, r is the radius of

capillary tube, R is the radius of the meniscus and g is

the acceleration due to gravity.

If q > 90, i.e., meniscus is convex, h will be negative,

i.e., the liquid will fall in a capillary tube.

If q = 90, i.e., meniscus is plane, h = 0, so no

phenomenon of capillarity.

If q < 90, i.e., meniscus is concave, h will be positive,

i.e., the liquid will rise in the capillary.

If a capillary tube is of insufficient length as compared

to height to which liquid can rise in the capillary tube,

then the liquid rises upto the full length of capillary

tube but there is no overflowing of the liquid in the

form of fountain. It is so because the liquid meniscus

adjusts its radius of curvature so that hR = a constant

i.e. hR = hR.

Heat

by virtue of temperature difference between them.

The SI unit of heat is joule.

1 kcal = 103 cal

1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5C to 15.5C.

Joules mechanical equivalent of heat :

Joule found that when mechanical work is converted

into heat, the ratio of work done (W) to heat produced

(Q) always remains the same and constant.

W

i.e.

= constant = J or W = JQ

Q

The constant J is called Joules mechanical equivalent of

heat. J is not a physical quantity but a conversion factor

involved when work is converted into heat or vice-versa.

The value of J = 4.186 J cal1

1 calorie = 4.186 joule.

temperature

body.

Relationship between Different Temperature Scales

If TC, TF, TR and TK are the temperatures of a body

on Celsius, Fahrenheit, Reaumur and Kelvin scales

respectively, then

TC 0 TF 32 TR 0

T 273.15

=

=

= K

100 0 212 32 80 0 373.15 273.15

T

T 32 TR TK 273.15

=

=

or C = F

5

9

4

5

KEY POINT

Celsius and Fahrenheit scales show the same

reading at 40 i.e. 40C = 40F

thermometer

a body.

Different types of thermometers are as follows :

Liquid thermometers

Gas thermometers

Resistance thermometers

Thermoelectric thermometers

Pyrometers

Vapour pressure thermometers

Bimetallic thermometers

Magnetic thermometers

thermal Expansion

increase in its temperature is called thermal expansion.

Thermal expansion is present in solids, liquids and gases.

In the case of solids the increase will be in length, area and

volume. In liquids and gases only expansion in volume is

case of gases the state of a gas at any instant is dependent

on its volume, pressure and temperature. Hence a gas can

be heated at constant volume or at constant pressure. The

property of thermal expansion of substance is different

for different substances and it also depends on the state

of the substance viz, solid, liquid or gas.

thermal Expansion in Solids

Linear expansion : The increase in length is called

linear expansion.

Area expansion or superficial expansion :

The increase in area is called area expansion or

superficial expansion.

Volume expansion or cubical expansion : The

increase in the volume is called volume expansion

or cubical expansion.

Coefficient of linear expansion : It is defined as the

increase in length per unit original length per degree

rise in temperature.

Increase in length

a=

Original length Rise in temperature

L L0

a= T

or LT = L0 (1 + aDT )

L0 DT

Coefficient of area expansion : It is defined as the

increase in surface area per unit original surface area

per degree rise in temperature.

Increase in area

b=

Original area Rise in temperature

A A0

b= T

or AT = A0 (1 + bDT )

A0 DT

Coefficient of volume expansion : It is defined as the

increase in volume per unit original volume per degree

rise in temperature.

Increase in volume

g=

Original volume Rise in temperature

V V0

g= T

or VT = V0 (1 + gDT )

V0 DT

Relation between a, b and g

The three coefficients of thermal expansion are related as

b g

a= = .

2 3

The units of a, b and g are the same. They are measured

in C1 or K1. The value of a, b and g depend on the

nature of the material of the solid.

When temperature increases (during summer), the

length of the pendulum increases due to which the time

period increases and the clock will lose time and run

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

45

(during winter season), the length of the pendulum

decreases due to which the time period decreases and

the clock will gain time and run fast.

1

The loss or gain in time Dt = a(DT )t

2

where a is the coefficient of linear expansion.

DT = change in temperature and t = time interval in

which we have to find loss or gain of time.

Bimetallic strip : A bimetallic strip consists of two

strips of equal length but of different metals, riveted

together keeping one over the other. When such a

bimetallic strip is heated, it bends with metal of greater

a on outer side, i.e., convex side.

Expansion in Liquids

liquid is heated, the containing vessel also expands and

hence the measured increase in volume of the liquid is

the apparent increase in volume. The real increase in

volume of the liquid is equal to the sum of the apparent

increase in the volume of the liquid and the increase in

volume of the containing vessel.

A liquid has two coefficients of expansion :

Coefficient of real expansion

Coefficient of apparent expansion

Coefficient of real expansion

Real increase in volume

gr =

Original volume Rise in temperaature

Coefficient of apparent expansion

Apparent increase in volume

ga =

mperature

Original volume Rise in tem

gr = ga + gg, where gg is coefficient of volume expansion

of the container.

Anomalous Expansion of Water

cooling. In case of water, it expands on heating if its

temperature is greater than 4C. In the range 0C to

4C, water contracts on heating and expands on cooling,

(i.e., its coefficient of volume expansion in this range

is negative). This behaviour of water in the range from

0C to 4C is called anomalous expansion.

Water has a maximum density a 4C.

Specific Heat or Specific Heat Capacity

temperature of unit mass of the substance through 1C.

1 DQ

The specific heat of a substance is given by s =

m DT

where m is the mass of the substance and DQ is the heat

required to change its temperature by DT.

48

The practical unit of specific heat is cal g1 C1.

Specific heat depends on the nature of the substance

and its temperature.

Specific heat for hydrogen is maximum (= 3.5 cal g1 C1)

and for water, it is 1 cal g1 C1. For all other substances,

the specific heat is less than 1 cal g1 C1.

Gas has two types of Molar Specific Heats

Molar specific heat at constant pressure (CP)

Change of State

and gas. A transition from one of these states to another

is known as change of state.

Melting : The change of state from solid to liquid is

known as melting.

Fusion : The change of state from liquid to solid is

known as fusion.

Melting point : The temperature at which the solid

and liquid states of the substance are in thermal

equilibrium with each other is called its melting point.

It is the characteristic of the substance. It also depends

on pressure. The melting point of a substance at standard

atmospheric pressure is called its normal melting point.

Vaporisation : The change of state from liquid to vapour

is known as vaporisation.

Boiling point : The temperature at which the liquid and

the vapour states of the substance co-exist is called its

boiling point. It is the characteristic of the substance.

It also depends on pressure. The boiling point of a

substance at standard atmospheric pressure is called

its normal melting point.

Sublimation : The change from solid state to vapour

state without passing through the liquid state is known

as sublimation.

Latent Heat

the state of a unit mass of the substance at a constant

temperature.

Q

The latent heat of a substance is given by L =

m

where m is the mass of a substance.

The SI unit of latent heat is J kg1 while practical unit

is cal g1.

Latent heat of fusion : It is the amount of heat required

to change unit mass of the solid into liquid at constant

temperature e.g. latent heat of fusion of ice = 80 cal g1.

required to change unit mass of the liquid into vapour

at constant temperature. e.g. latent heat of vaporisation

of water = 540 cal g1.

Principle of Calorimetry

in contact with each other then heat will pass from

the body at higher temperature to the body at lower

temperature until both reach a common temperature.

i.e. heat lost by one body = heat gained by the other.

Principle of calorimetry obeys law of conservation of

energy.

Conduction

its other end also becomes warm. Heat is transferred

from one end of the spoon to the other end due to

molecular vibrations within the spoon. This process is

called thermal conduction. In this process there is no

movement of mass.

In the beginning of conduction process, a part of heat

is absorbed at every cross-section and the remaining

part is transported to the next section. But after time

a steady-state is reached and the temperature of all the

parts of the conductor becomes constant.

Convection

the heat is carried from one place to another by actual

movement of heated matter. This process can occur

only in fluids. If the heated matter is forced to move

by some agent (like a fan) then the process is known

as forced convection. If the matter flows on its own

due to difference of pressure it is known as natural or

free convection.

Radiation

not require any material medium. In this process heat

energy is transferred in the form of electro-magnetic

waves. The properties of radiation are similar to those

of light.

It travels with the velocity of light (3 108 m s1

in vacuum).

It shows all the properties of light, i.e. reflection,

interference, polarization etc.

It obeys inverse square law.

Wiens Displacement Law

is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.

Thus

b

T

where b (= 2.89 103 meter kelvin) is known as the

Wiens constant.

lm =

Stefans law

black body is proportional to the fourth power of

corresponding absolute temperature. Thus, the energy

of thermal radiation emitted per unit time by a black

body of surface area A is given by

Q = sAT4

where s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4 is a universal constant,

known as Stefans constant.

For a non-black body

Q = esAT4, where e is the emissivity of that body.

For a body kept in surroundings of temperature

T0, the net loss of thermal energy per unit time

DQ = esA(T4 T04) as the body absorbs esAT04 energy

during the same period.

Newtons Law of Cooling

to the excess temperature of the body over the

surroundings

dQ

= K (T T0 )

dt

where T0 is the temperature of the surrounding medium

and T is the temperature of the body.

SELF CHECK

together to form a Y-shaped structure. Area of crosssection of each rod = 4 cm2. End of copper rod is

maintained at 100C where as ends of brass and steel

are kept at 0C. Lengths of the copper, brass and steel

rods are 46, 13 and 12 cms respectively. The rods

are thermally insulated from surroundings except

at ends. Thermal conductivities of copper, brass and

steel are 0.92, 0.26 and 0.12 CGS units respectively.

Rate of heat flow through copper rod is

(a) 6.0 cal/s

(b) 1.2 cal/s

(c) 2.4 cal/s

(d) 4.8 cal/s

(JEE Main 2014)

ANSWER kEYS (SELF CHECk)

1. (d)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (a)

6. (d)

7. (b)

8. (b)

9. (a)

10. (c)

11. (d) 12. (d)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

49

into two compartments by a vertical partition in

the middle. There is a small hinged door of face

area 20 cm2 at the bottom of the partition. Water

is filled in one compartment and an acid of relative

density 1.5 in the other, both to a height of 4 m.

The force necessary to keep the door closed is

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 10 N (b) 20 N (c) 40 N (d) 80 N

2. Two bodies, each of mass M, are kept fixed with

a separation 2L. A particle of mass m is projected

from the midpoint of the line joining their centres,

perpendicular to the line. The gravitational constant

is G. The minimum initial velocity of the mass m to

escape the gravitational field of the two bodies is

GM

GM

(a) 4

(b) 2

.

L

L

2GM

(c)

(d) None of these

L

3. A particle undergoes uniform circular motion.

About which point on the plane of the circle, will

the angular momentum of the particle remain

conserved?

(a) Centre of the circle

(b) On the circumference of the circle

(c) Inside the circle

(d) Outside the circle

4. Two thin uniform circular rings each of radius

10 cm and mass 0.1 kg are arranged such that

they have common centre and their planes are

perpendicular to each other. The moment of

inertia of this system about an axis passing through

common centre and perpendicular to the plane of

either of the rings in kg m2 is

(a) 15 103

(b) 5 10 3

4

(c) 15 10

(d) 18 104

5. A metal cylinder of length L is

subjected to a uniform compressive

force F as shown in the figure.

The material of the cylinder has

Youngs modulus Y and Poissons

ratio s. The change in volume of

the cylinder is

50

(1 s)FL

sFL

(b)

Y

Y

(1 2s)FL

(1 + 2s)FL

(c)

(d)

Y

Y

6. The cylindrical tube of spray pump has a crosssection of 8 cm2, one end of which has 40 fine holes

each of area 108 m2. If the liquid flows inside the

tube with a speed of 0.15 m min1, the speed with

which the liquid is ejected through the holes is

(a) 50 m s1

(b) 5 m s1

1

(c) 0.05 m s

(d) 0.5 m s1

(a)

mass m is set for launch on the surface of the earth

of mass M and radius R. If the satellite is intended to

move in a circular orbit of radius 7R, the minimum

energy required to be spent by the launching vehicle

on the satellite is (Gravitational constant = G)

13 GMm

GMm

(a)

(b)

14 R

R

GMm

GMm

(c)

(d)

7R

14 R

8. A uniform disc of radius R lies in xy plane with its

centre at origin. Its moment of inertia about the axis

x = 2R and y = 0 is equal to the moment of inertia

about the axis y = d and z = 0. Find the value of d

interms of R.

4

15

R (d) R

3

2

2

9. A body of area 1 cm is heated to a temperature 1000

K. The amount of energy radiated by the body in 1 s

is (Stefans constant s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4)

(a) 5.67 J (b) 0.567 J (c) 56.7 J (d) 567 J

(a)

17

R (b)

2

13 R (c)

separated by a distance of r. The gravitational

potential at the midpoint of the line joining the

centres of the spheres is

GM

2GM

(a)

(b)

r

r

GM

4GM

(c)

(d)

2r

r

the centre of a turntable that is rotating about its central

axis with an angular speed w0. Now, the child folds his

hands back so that moment of inertia becomes 3 times

the initial value. The new angular speed is

w

w

(a) 3w0 (b) 0

(c) 6w0

(d) 0

6

3

12. Two bodies have their moments of inertia I and

2I respectively about their axis of rotation. If their

kinetic energies of rotation are equal, their angular

momenta will be in the ratio

(a) 1 : 2

(b)

2 : 1 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 2 : 1

point. A fluid of density fills

Hinge

the space left of it. The force

which acting 1 m from

1m

lowest point can hold the

gate stationary is

256

256

128

128

g (b)

g (c)

g

(a)

g (d)

3

9

3

9

14. A coin of mass m and radius r, having moment of

inertia I about the axis passing through its centre

and perpendicular to its plane, is beaten uniformly

to form a disc of radius 2r. What will be the moment

of inertia of the disc about the same axis?

(a) I

(b) 2I

(c) 4I

(d) 16 I

15. A spherical ball is F

P

dropped in a long column

Q

of viscous liquid. Which

of the following graphs

R

represent respectively

the variation of

(i) gravitational force with time

(ii) viscous force with time

(iii) net force acting on the ball with time?

(a) Q, R, P

(b) R, Q, P

(c) P, Q, R

(d) P, R, Q

of eccentricity e. If T is the time period of the planet,

then the time spent by the planet between the ends

of the minor axis and major axis close to the sun is

Tp

2e

1

(a)

(b) T

2e

p

(c)

Te

2p

1

e

(d) T

4 2p

by three wires each of length L. Those at each end

are of copper and the middle one is of iron. The

ratio of their diameters, if each is to have the same

tension, is equal to

Ycopper

Yiron

(b)

(a)

Ycopper

Yiron

(c)

2

Yiron

2

Ycopper

(d)

Yiron

Ycopper

ends by four rivets, each of diameter 6 mm. Assume

that each rivet is to carry one quarter of the load.

If the shearing stress on the rivet is not to exceed

6.9 107 Pa, the maximum tension that can be

exerted by the riveted strip is

(a) 2 103 N

(b) 3.9 103 N

3

(c) 7.8 10 N

(d) 15.6 103 N

19. A solid cylinder of radius R made of a material

of thermal conductivity K1 is surrounded by a

cylindrical shell of inner radius R and outer radius

2R made of a material of thermal conductivity K2.

The two ends of the combined system are maintained

at two different temperatures. Then there is no loss

of heat across the cylindrical surface and the system

is in steady state. The effective thermal conductivity

of the system is

K1 K 2

(a) K1 + K2

(b)

K1 + K 2

K

+ 3K 2

3K1 + K 2

(b)

(d) 1

4

4

20. Three uniform spheres of mass M and radius R each

are kept in such a way that each touches the other

two. The magnitude of gravitational force on any of

the spheres due to other two is

(a)

(c)

3 GM 2

2 R2

3GM 2

(b)

(d)

3 GM 2

2 R2

3 GM 2

4 R2

R2

21. A circular platform is mounted on a frictionless

vertical axle. Its radius R = 2 m and its moment of

inertia about the axle is 200 kg m2. It is initially at

rest. A 50 kg man stands on the edge of the platform

and begins to walk along the edge at the speed of

1 m s1 relative to the ground. Time taken by the

man to complete one revolution is

p

3p

s

s (c) 2p s (d)

(a) p s

(b)

2

2

Physics for you | September 15

51

in the xy plane at the corners of an equilateral triangle

of side b with mass 1 kg at the origin and 2 kg on the

x-axis The coordinates of the centre of mass are

3 3b 7b

7b 3 3b

,

, 0

(a) 0, ,

(b)

12 12

12 12

7b 3 3b

, 0

(c) ,

12 12

7b

3 3b

(d) , 0,

12

12

y

23. Four holes of radius R each are cut

from a thin square plate of side

4R and mass M, as shown in

x

figure. The moment of inertia

of the remaining portion about

z-axis is

4 p

p

(a)

(b) MR2

MR2

3 4

12

8 5p

4 p

2

(c) MR2

(d) MR

3 6

3 8

24. A point P lies on the axis of a

a

ring of mass M and radius a,

P

at a distance a from its centre O

a

O. A small particle starts

from P and reaches O under

gravitational attraction only. Its speed at O will be

(a)

2GM

a

(b)

2GM

1

1

a

2

2GM

( 2 1) (d) zero

(c)

a

25. What will be the total pressure (in N m2) inside a

spherical air bubble of radius 0.2 mm at a depth of

2 m below the surface of a liquid of density 1.1 g cm3

and surface tension 50 dyne cm1? Atmospheric

pressure is 1.01 105 N m2. (Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 1.235 105

(b) 1.112 105

5

(c) 1.215 10

(d) 1.122 105

26. How many grams of ice at 14C is needed to cool

200 gram of water from 25C to 10C?

(Take specific heat of ice = 0.5 cal g1C1 and latent

heat of ice = 80 cal g1.)

(a) 14 g (b) 31 g (c) 50 g (d) 80 g

27. A mass M is divided into two parts xm and (1 x)m.

For a given separation, the value of x for which

the gravitational attraction between the two pieces

becomes maximum is

52

(a)

1

2

(b)

3

5

(c) 1

(d) 2

1

L of wood whose mass is mw and a uniform

2

1

length L of brass whose mass is mb. The moment

2

of inertia I of the rod about an axis perpendicular to

the rod and through its centre is equal to

(a) (mw + mb)

L2

12

L2

3

L2

6

L2

(d) (mw + mb)

2

(b) (mw + mb)

to steam at 100C. Which of the following curves

represents the phenomena qualitatively?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Column I

Column II

heel changes under

elasticity is involved

stress

(B) In a suspended bridge, (q) B u l k m o d u l u s o f

there is a strain in the

elasticity is involved

ropes by the load of

the bridge

(C) In an automobi l e (r) Modulus of rigidity

tyre, when air is

is involved

compressed, the shape

of tyre changes

(D) A s o l i d b o d y i s (s) A l l t h e m o d u l i

subjected to a

of elasticity are

deforming force

involved

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

A q, B r, C s, D p

A p, B q, C r, D s

A r, B q, C p, D s

A r, B p, C q, D s

SolutionS

1. (c) : The situation is as shown in the figure.

4 m Water

Acid

Door

h = 4 m, w = 103 kg m3

Pressure exerted by the water on the door at the

bottom is

Pw = whg = 103 kg m3 4 m 10 m s2

= 4 104 N m2

For compartment containing acid,

a = 1.5 103 kg m3, h = 4 m

Pressure exerted by the acid on the door at the

bottom is

Pa = ahg = 1.5 103 kg m3 4 m 10 m s2

= 6 104 N m2

\ Net pressure on the door = Pa Pw

= (6 104 4 104) N m2

= 2 104 N m2

Area of the door= 20 cm2 = 20 104 m2

\ Force on the door

= 2 104 N m2 20 104 m2

= 40 N

Thus, to keep the door closed the force of 40 N must

be applied horizontally from the water side.

2. (b) : The situation is as shown in the figure.

v

m

2L

energy, we get

GMm GMm 1 2

+ mv = 0 + 0

L

L

2

1 2 2GMm

4GM

GM

mv =

=2

v=

L

2

L

L

perpendicular to the plane containing the circular

path. Both magnitude

L

and direction of the

angular momentum of

p= mv

r

the particle moving in

O

a circular path about its

centre O is constant.

and their planes are mutually perpendicular, hence,

an axis which is passing through the centre of one

of the rings and perpendicular to the plane of its

plane, will be along the diameter of other ring.

Hence, moment of inertia of the system about the

given axis is

2 1

2 3

2

I = ICM + Idiameter = MR + MR = MR

2

2

3

= (0.1 kg )(0.1 m)2 = 15 104 kg m2

2

5. (d) : Volume of the cylinder, V = pr2L

DV D(pr 2 L)

=

=

Volumetric strain

V

pr 2 L

2

DV pr DL + 2 pr L Dr DL 2Dr

=

+

...(i)

=

L

r

V

pr 2 L

Dr

sDL

(Dr / r )

or

=

Poissons ratio, s =

r

L

(DL / L)

Dr

On substituting this value of

in eq. (i), we get

r

DV DL

...(ii)

=

(1 2s)

V

L

DL

F

(F / pr 2 )

or

=

Youngs modulus, Y =

L

(DL / L)

pr 2Y

DL

On substituting this value of

in eq. (ii), we

L

get

DV

F

(1 2s)

=

V

pr 2Y

DV

F

=

(1 2s)

2

pr L pr 2Y

FL

DV =

(1 2s)

Y

6. (b) : According to equation of continuity,

a1v1 = a2v2

0.15

\ (40 108 ) v1 = 8 104

60

8 104 0.15

or v1 =

= 5 m s 1

8

40 10 60

7. (b) : The energy of the satellite on the surface of

the earth is

GMm

GMm

Es = KE + PE = 0 +

=

R

R

The energy of the satellite in an orbit of radius r is

1

GMm

Eo = mvo2 +

2

r

1 GM GMm

GM

= m

As vo =

2 r

r

r

GMm

=

2r

Physics for you | September 15

53

vehicle on the satellite is

DE = Eo Es

GMm GMm

( r = 7R)

=

2(7 R)

R

GMm GMm 13 GMm

=

+

=

14 R

R

14 R

8. (a) :

y=d

z=0

Final moment of inertia If = 3Ii

According to the law of conservation of angular

momentum, we get

Li = Lf

Ii wi = If wf

I

I

Iw

w f = i i = i wi = i wi ( If = 3Ii)

If

3Ii

If

w w

= i = 0 ( wi = w0)

3

3

12. (c) : As K R = K R

1

x = 2R

y=0

figure. Using theorem of parallel axes,

1

9

I1 = m R2 + m(2 R)2 = m R2

2

2

The axis y = d, z = 0 is shown as dotted line in figure.

Again, using the theorem of parallel axes,

1

I2 = m R2 + md 2

4

As I2 = I1

(Given)

1

2

2 9

2

\

m R + md = m R

4

2

17

2 9 1

md = m R2 = m R2

2 4

4

17

d=

R

2

9. (a) : Here, A = 1 cm2 = 104 m2

T = 1000 K, t = 1 s

s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4

According to Stefan-Boltzmann law, energy radiated

by a body is

E = sAT4t = 5.67 108 104 (1000)4 1 = 5.67 J

10. (d) :

M R

r/2

r/2

r

of the spheres.

The gravitational potential at point P is

4 GM

GM GM

2GM 2GM

VP =

=

r /2 r /2

r

r

r

11. (b) : Here,

Initial angular speed, wi = w0

54

1

1

\

I w2 = I w2

2 1 1 2 2 2

w

I

or 1 = 2

w2

I1

L1 I1w1 I1

=

=

L2 I2w2 I2

L1

1

1

=

=

2

L2

2

(i)

I2

I

= 1

I1

I2

(Using (i))

Consider an elementary strip of thickness dy of

fluid at distance y from the point O.

Area of the strip = ady

Force acting on the elementary strip at a distance

y from O

O

dF = (gy) (ady)

y

Torque due to dF about O

dy

dt = y (dF)

F

dt = (gy2a)dy

Net torque due to fluid

a=4

y3

t = (gay )dy = ga = 256g clockwise

3

3 0

0

Torque due to applied force

t = F 3 anticlockwise

256

256g

g

For equilibrium, F 3 =

F=

9

3

14. (c) : Moment of inertia of a coin of mass m and

radius r about the axis passing through the centre of

mr 2

mass and perpendicular to its plane is I =

.

2

Moment of inertia of disc of mass m and radius 2r

about the axis passing through the centre of mass

and perpendicular to its plane is

2

I =

m(2r )2

= 4I

2

55

falling spherical ball. It is represented by straight

line P. The viscous force (F = 6phrv) increases

as the velocity increases with time. Hence, it is

represented by curve Q. Net force = gravitational

force viscous force. As viscous force increases,

net force decreases and finally becomes zero. Then

the body falls with a constant terminal velocity. It

is thus represented by curve R.

A

16. (d) :

B

constant. Therefore, the desired time is

area ABS

t AB =

time period

area of ellipse

If a = semi-major axis and b = semi-minor axis of

ellipse, then area of ellipse = pab

1

Area ABS = (area of ellipse)

4

Area of triangle ASO

1

1

= p ab (ea) (b)

4

2

p (ab) 1

4 2 eab

T = T 1 e

\ t AB =

4 2p

p ab

Let T be tension in each wire.

As the bar is supported symmetrically by the three

wires, therefore extension in each wire is same.

F/A

As Y =

Copper

Copper

Iron

DL/L

T

T

T

If D is the diameter

of the wire, then

M

4F L

F / p(D /2)2

Y =

=

DL/L

p D 2 DL

As per the conditions of the problem, F(tension),

length L, and extension DL is same for each wire.

1

1

\ Y

2 or D

Y

D

Dcopper

Yiron

\

=

Diron

Ycopper

18. (c) : Radius of a rivet,

6

r = mm = 3 mm = 3 103 m

2

56

Maximum load on a rivet

= Maximum stress Area of cross-section

= 6.9 107 p (3 103)2 = 1950 N

.. . Maximum tension that can be exerted by rivet

strip = 4 1950 N = 7.8 103 N

19. (d) :

T2

T1

K2

K1

2R

Area of cross-section of outer shell

= p(2R)2 pR2 = 3pR2

Rate of heat flow in inner cylinder

K pR2 (T1 T2 )

H1 = 1

L

Rate of heat flow in outer shell

K 3pR2 (T1 T2 )

H2 = 2

L

Rate of heat flow in the combined system

K 4 pR2 (T1 T2 )

H=

L

At steady state,

H = H1 + H2

\

=

+

L

L

L

K + 3K 2

4K = K1 + 3K2 or K = 1

4

A

2R

B

2R

FCA

60

2R FCB C

GM M GM 2

FCA =

=

along CA

(2R)2

4 R2

Gravitational force on sphere C due to sphere B is

GM M GM 2

FCB =

=

along CB

(2R)2

4 R2

These two forces are equal in magnitude and

inclined at an angle 60.

\ The total gravitational force on sphere C due

to other two spheres is

mR2

M

(16R2 + 16R2 ) 4

+ m( 2R)2

2

12

M

2

2 8

2 10 p

= 32R 10mR = MR

MR2

12

3

16

8 5p

2

I = MR

3 8

2

2

Ftotal = FCA

+ FCB

+ 2FCA FCB cos 60

2

GM 2 GM 2

GM 2

=

+

+2

4 R2 4 R2

4 R2

=

GM 2 1

4 R2 2

3GM 2

4 R2

21. (c) : As the system is initially at rest, therefore,

initial angular momentum Li = 0.

According to the principle of conservation of

angular momentum, final angular momentum,

Lf = 0.

\ Angular momentum of man

= Angular momentum of platform in opposite

direction

i.e., mvR = Iw

mvR 50 1 2 1

or w =

=

= rad s 1

I

200

2

Angular velocity of man relative to platform is

v 1 1

wr = w + = + = 1 rad s 1

R 2 2

Time taken by the man to complete one revolution is

2p 2p

T=

=

= 2p s

wr

1

22. (c) : The coordinates of

points A, B and C are

(0, 0, 0), (b, 0, 0) and

b b 3

2, 2 ,

Y

C

b

3 kg

b

0 respectively.

B

A

X

b

2 kg

1 kg

Now as the triangle is in XY plane,

i.e., Z coordinate of all the masses

is zero, so ZCM = 0.

1 0 + 2 b + 3(b / 2) 7b

=

Now, XCM =

1+ 2 + 3

12

1 0 + 2 0 + 3 3 (b / 2) 3 3b

YCM =

=

1+ 2 + 3

12

So, the coordinates of centre of mass are

7b 3 3b

12 , 12 , 0

the holes, then mass of each hole,

M

p

m=

pR2 = M

2

16

16R

\ Moment of inertia of remaining portion about

the given axis is

I = Isquare 4Ihole

GM

GM

VP =

=

2a

a2 + a2

GM

Gravitational potential at O, VO =

a

Let m be mass of the particle and v be the velocity of

it while reaching O.

According to law of conservation of mechancial

energy, we get

(PE)at P = (KE)at O + (PE)at O

GM m 1 2 GM m

\

= mv +

a

2a 2

or

or

2GM 2 GM 2GM

1

=

1

a

a

2 a

2

2GM

1

v=

1

a

2

v2 =

h = 2 m, = 1.1 g cm3 = 1.1 103 kg m3,

S = 50 dyne cm1 = 50 103 N m1,

Pa = 1.01 105 N m2

Total pressure inside the bubble = atmospheric

pressure + pressure due to column of liquid + excess

pressure

2S

= Pa + hg +

r

2 (50 103 )

= 1.01 105 + 2 1.1 103 10 +

2 104

5

4

= 1.01 10 + 2.2 10 + 500 = 1.235 105 N m2

26. (b) : Heat lost by water in cooling from 25C to

10C,

Q1 = msDT = 200 1 (25 10) = 3000 cal

Heat gained by m g of ice at 14C to change into

water at 10C,

Q2 = (msDT)ice + mL + (msDT)water

= m 0.5 14 + m 80 + m 1 10 = 97m cal

By principle of calorimetry, Q1 = Q2

or 97m = 3000

3000

or m =

g = 31 g

97

27. (a)

28. (a)

29. (a)

30. (d) : A r, B p, C q, D s

57

smooth surface

equilibrium with its lower end

on a rough horizontal plane

and its upper end against a

smooth vertical wall as shown

in figure. Find the maximum

inclination q of the ladder to

the vertical.

the maximum couple C

A

which may be applied to

R O

the cylinder if it is not to

B

spin. The cylinder has a

weight W, radius R and the

coefficient of friction m is

W

same at A and B as shown

in figure.

ladder

weight W rests on a horizontal surface and is pulled

at right angle to its geometric axis by a horizontal

force F applied at B of the front edge. Find the angle

q that the flat face will make with the horizontal

plane just before sliding begins if the coefficient

of friction at the line of contact A is m as shown in

figure.

FRICTION

Ring D

C

uniform rod AB can slide

A

along a rough horizontal

rod CD to which it is

B

C are joined by a string.

If ABC is a right angle and a is the angle between

AB and vertical when the rod is on the point of

sliding, find the coefficient of friction between ring

and horizontal rod CD as shown in figure.

5. Figure shows a small block of mass m kept at the left

end of a larger block of mass M and length L. The

system can slide on a horizontal surface. The system

is started moving towards right with an initial

velocity v. The coefficient of friction between the

bigger block and floor is m and that between two

blocks is m/2.

L

Find the time

m

elapsed

before

v

M

the smaller block

separates from

the bigger block.

6. Figure shows that two blocks in contact are sliding

down an inclined surface of inclination q = 30. The

friction coefficient between the block of mass

m = 2 kg and the incline is m1 = 0.20 and that

between the block of

mass M = 4 kg and

m

M

the incline is m2 = 0.30.

Find the acceleration

of 2 kg block.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

58

SOLUTIONS

NB

W

NA

F(r r sin q) = W

NA

SFV = 0 = W NA NA = W

SFH = 0 = NB mNA

NB = mNA = mW

(using (i))

StA = 0 = NB AB cosq W AG sinq

\ W AGsinq = NB ABcosq

...(i)

AB

sin q = mW AB cos q

2

sin q

= 2m or tan q = 2m or q = tan 1(2m)

cos q

2. Free body diagram of cylinder is shown in figure.

Under the equilibrium

NA

condition of cylinder,

SFV = mNA + NB = W ...(i)

C

O

SFH = 0 = NA mNB

NA A

W

NA = mNB

...(ii)

Putting (ii) in (i), we get,

NB

B

(m2 + 1)NB = W

NB

W

NB = 2

m +1

NA =

mW

1+ m

Taking moment about O, StO = 0

mNA R + mNB R = C

...(iii)

mR[NA + NB] = C

Putting NA and NB, we get

m(1 + m)WR

W

mW

+

= C or C =

mR

2

2

1 + m2

1 + m 1 + m

3. Free body diagram is shown in figure.

N

\ sin q =

4r

sin q

3

F

4W

F+

3

...(iv)

sin q =

sin q =

mW

4W

mW +

3

3m

3m

q = sin 1

3m + 4

3m + 4

of gravity G. Let N be the resultant of N and mN,

then N is inclined to N at an angle l given by

m = tanl. Three forces, tension T, weight W of

rod and resultant reaction N meet at O. Then

AOG = l, BOG = 90 a and BGO = a.

Applying trigonometrical theorem

(m + n)cotq = mcota ncotb.

N

(using (ii))

O

G

N

D

...(i)

...(ii)

...(iii)

F (AD) = W (GD)

F(OA OD) = W(GD)

F = mN

and SFV = 0 = N W N = W

Putting (ii) in (i), F = mW

A

W

force mN and l is the friction angle, i.e. m = tan l.

Under equilibrium, SFH = 0 = F mN

B

90

N

N

(BG + AG)cota = AG cotl BG cot (90 a)

2 cota = cotl tana

(Q AG = BG)

cot l = 2 cot a + tan a =

\ cot l =

m=

2 + tan2 a

tan a

tan a

2 + tan2 a

2

+ tan a

tan a

tan l =

tan a

2 + tan2 a

( m = tanl)

59

5.

m

/2N1

/2N1

mA

N2

mg N1

FBD of m

Mg

FBD of M

MA

N2

N1 = mg

m

N = ma

2 1

From free body diagram of lower block

N2 = N1 + Mg

mA

...(i)

m N1

m mg

mg

+a=

+a=

+a

2 m

2 m

2

m

m

mg + M g + a

2

2

a

N

...(iii)

m

...(iv)

N + MA

2 1

From (i) and (iii), N2 = mg + Mg = (M + m)g

m(m + M )g =

N1 = mgcosq

ma = mgsinq m1N1 N

From free body diagram of mass M,

N2 = Mgcosq

Ma = Mgsinq + N m2N2

...(ii)

mN 2 =

From (ii), A =

m M + m

g

2 M

1

2L

4ML

As L = at 2 t =

=

m(M + m)g

2

a

a=

N1

1N1

mg N1

Mg

CLASSROOM

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N

2N2

LENT

EXCEL Y

IT

QUAL

...(iii)

...(iv)

N2

(ii) and (iv), we get

(M + m)a = (M + m)g sinq (m1m + m2M)gcosq

(M + m) g sin q (m1m + m2 M )g cos q

a=

M +m

Here, M = 4 kg, m = 2 kg, q = 30, m1 = 0.20,

m2 = 0.30, g = 10 m s2

\ a = 2.7 m s2

nn

....(i)

...(ii)

Your logo

here

1. The loss of pressure when a fluid flows through a pipe

is given by P = kral vbdch, where d and l are diameter

and length of the pipe respectively, r and h are the

mass density and coefficient of viscosity of the fluid,

v is the mean velocity of flow through the pipe and

k is a numerical constant. The value of a + b c is

2. The acceleration of a marble in a certain fluid is

proportional to the speed of the marble squared

v 2

for v > 0. If

and is given (in SI units) by a =

3

the marble enters this fluid with a speed of 1.50 m s1,

how long will it take before the marbles speed is

reduced to half of its initial value (in s)?

3. A 2 kg block is

A

gently pushed from R = 1.5 m

B

rest at A and it

R

slides down along

the fixed smooth

circular surfaces as shown in figure. If the attached

spring has a force constant k = 20 N m1, what is

unstretched length of spring (in m) so that it does

not allow the block to leave the surface until angle

with the vertical is q = 60?

4. A disc of mass m is

k

connected to an ideal spring

of force constant k. If disc

is released from rest, what

is maximum friction force

motion. Assuming friction is sufficient to put it in

rolling. (Take, mass of disc = 1 kg, radius of disc

= 10 cm, angle of incline = 37.)

5. A cubical container with side 2 m has a small hole

with a cap at point C as shown. The water level is

If container is given an

A

acceleration of 8 m s2

D

and the hole is opened

simultaneously.

The

C

amount of water that will

spill out of the container is

B

200 a litre. Find the value

2m

of a.

6. A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m and area of

cross-section 0.04 m2 is placed coaxially on a thin

metal disc of mass 0.4 kg and of the same crosssection. The upper face of the cylinder is maintained

at a constant temperature of 400 K and the initial

temperature of the disc is 300 K. If the thermal

conductivity of the material of the cylinder is

10 W m1 K1 and the specific heat of the material

of the disc is 600 J kg1 K1, it takes 30 n ln 2 s for

the temperature of the disc to increase to 350 K?

Assume, for the purpose of calculation, the thermal

conductivity of the disc to be very high and the

system to be thermally insulated except for the

upper face of the cylinder.

7. A solid copper cube and sphere, both of same mass

and emissivity are heated to same initial temperature

and kept under identical conditions. The ratio of

1

3

their initial rate of the fall of temperature is p .

isothermally to five times its volume and then

heated at this constant volume to raise its pressure

equal to initial pressure (before expansion). If heat

given to the system in the process is 83.14 kJ then

C

find the value of n. The = p of the gas is 1.42.

Cv

[Take ln5 = 1.61]

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

61

tension of 100 N, and each emits a note of frequency

200 Hz. The tension in one wire is increased by

1 N. Calculate the number of beats heard per second

when the wires are plucked.

should be given to the satellite so that it escapes

from the gravitational field of earth. Assume earths

gravitational force to be the only gravitational force

on the satellite and no atmospheric resistance.

two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximately

a

b

given by U (x ) =

6

12

x

x

where a and b are constants and x is the distance

between the atoms. If the dissociation energy of the

b2

, then

molecule is D = [U (x = ) Uequilibrium] =

pa

find the value of p.

box 2.0 cm thick and of inside measurements

200 cm 120 cm 120 cm assuming that the external

temperature is 30C and coefficient of thermal

conductivity of wood is 0.0004 cal s1 cm1C1, is

approximately b g s1. Find the value of b.

60

0

in the horizontal plane at

60

0

uniform speed, moving

60

0

along concentric circular

trajectories that are shown

3 2 1

in figure. The aircrafts move

such that they are at constant distance of 600 m from

each other at any time. The aircraft closest to the

centre moves in a circle of radius R = 600 m. The

aircraft 2 is moving at a speed of v2 = 720 km h1.

The acceleration of third aircraft is 10a m s2. Find

the value of a.

12. A massless rod of length L is

A

C

suspended by two identical

strings AB and CD of equal

lengths. A block of mass m

B

D

O

L

is suspended from point

m

O such that BO is equal to

L

. Further it is observed that the frequency of 1st

n

harmonic in AB is equal to 2nd harmonic frequency

in CD. Find the value of n.

13. An open organ pipe containing air resonates in

fundamental mode due to a tuning fork. The

measured values of length l(in cm) of the pipe and

radius r(in cm) of the pipe are l = 94 0.1, r = 5 0.05.

The velocity of the sound in air is accurately known. The

maximum percentage error in the measurement of

the frequency of that tuning fork by this experiment

is given by a2%. Find the value of 10 a.

14. The gravitational potential energy of a satellite

revolving around the earth in circular orbit is

62

solutions

Considering dimensions on both sides

[P] = [kral vbdch]

or [ML1 T2] = [ML3]a [L] [LT1]b [L]c [ML1 T1]

Equating the dimensions on both sides, we get

a + 1 = 1 ; 3a + 1 + b + c 1 = 1 ; b 1 = 2

On solving these equations, we get

a = 0, b = 1, c = 2

a + b c = 0 + 1 ( 2) = 3

2. (2) : Given a =

v 2

3

dv

dt

dv v 2

=

or 2 =

3

v

3

dt

On integrating both sides,

0.75

1.5

1

= dt

2

3 0

v

dv

0.75

t

1

1

1 t

=

=

v

3

0

.

75

1

.5 3

1. 5

1 3

or t =

= 2s

1. 5

3. (1) : When the block has fallen by 60,

1 2

1

mv = mgR(1 cos q) v = 2 gR = gR

2

2

Applying Newtons law of motion along the radial

direction

mv 2

x = 0. 5 m

R

Extension in spring = 0.5 m

Natural length = (R x) = 1 m

4. (2) : Let maximum extension of spring be xm.

From work-energy theorem

mg cos q + kx =

kxm

1 2

mgxm sinq = kxm

2

2mg sinq

k

At lower extreme position

kxm mg sinq f = ma

Also, a = Ra

or xm =

mgcos f

mR2

a

2

mg sin q 1 10 3 / 5

Thus, f =

=

=2 N

3

3

5. (6) :

P

and fR =

2m

Q

mgsin

...(i)

...(ii)

...(iii)

dT

eA 4

=

(T T04 ) . Here e is same, m is

dt

ms

same, both are of copper and both are heated upto

same temperature and kept under same conditions,

so (T 4 T 40 ) is same initially. But (T 4 T40 ) will

not remain same for both every time.

dT

A

dt

dT

dt

cube = Acube

Asphere

dT

dt

sphere

7. (6) :

C

R 0.5 m

3M

4

For sphere, r R3 = M ; R =

3

4 r

RB = PQ QB tanq = 2 2 4/5 = 0.4 m

PQ + BR

2

Volume of water contained, Vf =

4 m

2

2

Amount of water spilled = Vi Vf

= (4BD 2PQ 2BR) m3

= 2(2BD PQ BR) 1000 litre

= 2(3 2 0.4) 1000 = 1200 litre = 200a litre

a = 6

6. (8) : If in any time dt, the temperature of disc is

increased by dT. Then amount of heat supply will

be (ms dT) in time dt, so rate of heat supply will

dT

be ms and it will be equal to the rate of heat

dt

dT KA(T0 T )

=

supply by conduction. ms

dt

L

where T is the temperature of disc at any time t,

T0 = 400 K

350 dT

t KA

=

dt

300 T T

0 msL

0

350

KAt

= ln(T0 T )

300

msL

KAt

= [ln(400 350) ln(400 300)]

msL

1

KAt

msL

50 KAt

= ln or t =

= ln

ln 2,

or

msL

2

msL

KA

100

0.4 600 0.4

t=

ln 2 = 240 ln 2 s = 8 30 ln 2 s

10 0.04

n=8

1/3

2 /3

3M

Asphere = 4 R2 = 4

4 r

M

rL3 = M; L =

r

For cube,

M

Acube = 6L2 = 6

r

1/3

2/3

2/3

M

dT

6

1/3

dt

Acube

6

cube

r

=

=

=

2/3

Asphere

dT

3M

dt

4

sphere

4 r

p=6

8. (3) : As DQ = DU + DW

For isothermal process, DU1 = 0

DW1 = nRT0 ln(Vf /Vi), where T0 = 300 K

DQ1 = nRT0 ln 5 J (Q Vf = 5Vi)

For isochoric process, DW2 = 0

DU2 = nCvDT

DQ2 = nCvDT, DT = T T0,

PV P 5V

=

T = 1500 K

T0

T

DQ2 = n

R

1200 J

1

On solving, we get n = 3

9. (1) : The frequency of the fundamental note emitted

by each wire before the tension change occurs is

u=

1 T

2L

1/2

...(i)

1/2

du 1 1 T

1

=

dT 2L 2

63

du 1 T

=

dT 4 L

1/2

= Frequency of second harmonic in CD

1/2

2

or du = 1 T

2

dT

4 LT T

du u

=

dT 2T

u DT

Hence, Du

2 T

1 T

=

4 LT

1/2

(Using (i))

string as a result of change in tension DT. In other

words, Du is the number of beats observed if the

strings tension is changed by an amount DT. Using

the given data,

200 1

Du =

= 1 Hz

2 100

a

b

x12 x 6

dU 12a 6b

F=

=

dx x13 x 7

10. (4) : U =

b

b2

=

2a

4a

b

60

or

5

= 1 or n = 5

n

14. (2) : Total energy of the satellite

60

60

1000

3600 = 1 rads 1

1200

6

720

1

a3 = R3 = (1800) = 50 m s2

6

As 10a = 50

a=5

64

4

1

=1

n

n

Du

=

100 = 0.16% = a2 %

u 100

.

94

+

1

2

max

11. (5) :

Angular velocity of all aircrafts will be same.

L

L

= T2(L )

n

n

4mg mg 1

=

1

or

5n

5 n

T1

b2 b2

= 0 =

4a 4a

v2

=

R2

Torque due to T1 about O

= Torque due to T2 about O

v

Du

Dl + 1.2Dr

100 =

100

u

l + 1.2r

D = U(x = ) Uequilibrium

mg

4mg

and T2 =

5

5

Here Dv = 0 (given)

1/6

2a

b

... (ii)

v

where e = end correction = 0.6r

2(l + 2e)

v

v

u=

=

2(l + 2 0.6r ) 2(l + 1.2r )

Du Dv D(l + 1.2r ) Dv Dl + 1.2 Dr

=

u

v

l + 1.2r

v

l + 1.2r

12a 6b

=0

x13 x 7

2a

x6 =

b

T1 =

...(i)

13. (4) : u =

F=

U equilibrium =

1 T1 1 T2

=

2l l

or T1 = 4T2

For translational equilibrium,

T1 + T2 = mg

From (i) and (ii), we get

or

At equilibrium,

x = 2a

b

U(x = ) = 0

= PE + KE = 4 MJ + | PE | = 2 MJ

2

Energy required = 2 MJ

15. (9) : Area of all the six faces, A

=(2 120 120 + 4 200 120) = 124800 cm2

x = 2 cm, T1 T2 = 30 0 = 30C,

K = 0.0004 cal s1 cm1 C1

Q = mL =

KA(T1 T2 )t

x

= 9.36 g s1.

=

=

t

xL

2 80

b = 9.36 9

Series 4

CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER : Ray Optics | Wave Optics

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section

E contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

section-A

1. Which is more readily seen at a distance, a white

2.

3.

4.

5.

Will a star twinkle if seen from space (say moon or

a spacecraft)?

When an unpolarised light is incident on a plane

glass surface, what should be the angle of incidence

so that the reflected and refracted waves are

perpendicular to each other?

What focal length should the reading spectacles

have for a person for whom the least distance of

distinct vision is 50 cm?

Calculate the distance that a beam of light of

wavelength 500 nm can travel without significant

broadening , if the diffracting aperture is 3 mm

wide.

section-b

diverges from a point source, and (ii) light emerges

out of convex lens when a point source is placed at

its focus.

7. How will the angular separation and visibility of

fringes in Youngs double slit experiment change

slits, and (ii) width of the source slit is increased?

8. Show that a light ray will pass through an equilateral

glass prism (m = 1.5) if the angle of incidence is

greater than 30.

9. Explain why does a convex lens behave as a

converging lens when immersed in water (m = 1.33)

and as a diverging lens when immersed in carbon

disulphide (m = 1.63). The refractive index of lens

material is 1.52.

10. A fish, looking up through the water sees the

outside world contained in a circular horizon. If

4

the refractive index of water is

and the fish is

3

30 cm below the surface, then calculate the radius

of the circle.

OR

Show that a convex lens produces an N times

magnified image when the object distances from

f

. Here, f is the

the lens have magnitudes f

N

magnitude of the focal length of the lens.

Hence, find the two values of object distance for

which a convex lens of power 2.5 D will produce an

image that is 4 times as large as the object?

physics for you | september 15

65

section-c

11. A slide of 35 mm 23 mm is placed at a distance

Where should a screen be placed on the other side

of the lens so as to form a sharp image of the slide?

What are the dimensions of the image formed on

the screen? Also, find the areal magnification.

12. The radius of curvature of the convex surface of a

planoconvex lens is 12 cm and its refractive index

is 1.5.

(a) Find the focal length of planoconvex lens.

(b) The plane surface of planoconvex lens is silvered

so that it begins to behave as a concave mirror.

Find the focal length of the mirror so formed.

13. A parallel beam falls on a solid glass sphere at

normal incidence. Prove that the distance of the

image from the outer edge in terms of refractive

R(2 m)

.

index m and radius R of sphere is

2(m 1)

refractive index of the liquid?

17. Discuss the action of a prism, a convex lens and a

concave mirror, when a plane wavefront is incident

on each of them.

18. Three polarisers are arranged as shown in figure.

Polariser

Io

10 D and 1 D.

(i) State with reason, which lens is preferred as

objective and which as eye-piece.

(ii) Calculate the magnifying power of the telescope,

if the final image is formed at the near point.

(iii) How do the light gathering power and resolving

power of a telescope change, if the aperture of

the objective lens is doubled?

15. A person looking at another person wearing a shirt

with a pattern comprising vertical and horizontal

lines is able to see the vertical lines more distinctly

than the horizontal ones. What is this defect due to?

How is such a defect of vision corrected?

16. White light reflected at perpendicular incidence

from a soap film has, in the visible spectrum, an

interference maximum at 6000 and a minimum

at 4500 with no minimum in between. If m = 4/3

for the film, what is the thickness of the film?

OR

Figure shows an equiconvex

lens (of refractive index 1.50)

in contact with a liquid layer

on top of a plane mirror. A

small needle with its tip on

the principal axis is moved

along the axis until its inverted

image is found at the position

of the needle. The distance of the needle from

the lens is measured to be 45.0 cm. The liquid is

removed and the experiment is repeated. The new

66

19.

20.

21.

22.

Second

polariser

Analyser

(90-)

through analyser in terms of the incident light

(I0) and the angle (q) between the first and the

second polariser ?

(b) What happens if the second polariser is rotated ?

(c) When is the light not transmitted through the

system?

(d) For what value of q will the transmitted intensity

be maximum?

Light of wavelength 589 nm is used to view an object

under a microscope. The aperture of the objective

has a diameter of 0.900 cm.

(a) Find the limiting angle of resolution.

(b) Using visible light, what is the maximum limit

of resolution for this microscope?

(c) Suppose water (m = 1.33) fills the space between

the object and objective. What effect would this

have on the resolving power?

A diffraction grating can as well be called an

interference grating. Discuss.

A lens is held directly above a coin lying on a table and

forms an image of it. After the lens has been moved

vertically downwards a distance equal to its focal

length, it forms another image of the coin equal in

size to previous image. If the diameter of the coin is

4.0 cm, what is the diameter of the coins image?

A thin equiconvex lens of glass of refractive index

mg = 3/2 and of focal length 0.3 m in air is sealed into

an opening at one end of a tank filled with water,

mw = 4/3. On the opposite of the lens a mirror is placed

inside the tank, on the tank wall perpendicular to

the lens axis as shown in figure. The separation

between the lens and the mirror is 0.8 m. A small

object is placed outside the tank infront of the lens

at a distance 0.9 m from the lens along its axis. Find

the position (relative to the lens) of the image of the

object formed by the system.

0.9 m

=1

0.8 m

w = 4/3

O g = 3/2

Lens

Water

section-D

23. Mr. Lohiya, a retired professor of physics was

December and so it was dark around 5.30 pm. The

streetlights were on and the yellow light flooded the

area around. The boy asked professor why yellow

lights were used when white light were brighter. The

professor answered that during foggy days the tiny

droplets act as prisms splitting white light into its

constituent colours and thus reducing the clarity.

(i) What phenomena was the professor referring

to? Why does it happen?

(ii) Give one application of prism.

(iii) What values of the boy reflect from the

conversation?

section-e

internal reflection to take place. Derive the relation

between the critical angle and the refractive index

of the medium. Draw ray diagrams to show how

a right angled isosceles prism can be used to

(i) deviate ray through 180, and (ii) to invert it.

OR

A spherical surface of radius of curvature R and

of refractive index m2 is placed in a medium of

refractive index m1 where m1 < m2. The surface

produces a real image of an object kept infront

of it. Using appropriate assumptions and sign

conventions, derive a relationship between the

object distance, image distance, R, m1 and m2. Under

what conditions this surface diverge a ray incident

on it?

25. (a) Using Huygens principle, draw a diagram to

show propagation of a wavefront originating

from a monochromatic point source and

explain briefly.

(b) Derive Snells law of refraction using Huygens

principle.

OR

(a) What are coherent sources of light? State two

conditions for two light sources to be coherent.

of interference fringes obtained in Youngs

double slit experiment with the help of a suitable

diagram.

26. (a) What is plane polarised light? The polaroids are

placed at 90 to each other and the transmitted

intensity is zero. What happens when one more

polaroid is placed between these two, bisecting

the angle between them? How will the intensity

of transmitted light vary on further rotating the

third polaroid?

(b) If a light beam shows no intensity variation

when transmitted through a polaroid which

is rotated, does it mean that the light is

unpolarised? Explain briefly.

OR

What is meant by diffraction? Draw a graph to

show the relative intensity distribution for a single

slit diffraction pattern. Obtain an expression for the

diffraction of the first minimum and first maximum

in the diffraction pattern.

solutions

1. A white blotting paper is more readily visible from a

of white blotting paper provides irregular reflection

and hence light spreads in all possible directions and

one can see the paper from a distance. A polished

mirror gives rise to only regular reflection and

can be seen only in the direction of reflected rays.

Hence, it cannot be seen from a distance easily.

2. No, a star will not appear twinkling if seen from free

space because there will be no atmospheric refraction.

The star will appear to be shining continuously.

3. The unpolarised light is incident on a plane glass

surface at an angle i such that tan i = m, where

m is refractive index of glass. In that case, the

reflected and refracted waves are perpendicular

to each other and the reflected light is completely

plane polarised.

4. The reading matter placed at 25 cm from the correct

Therefore,

u = 25 cm, v = 50 cm

By thin lens formula,

1 1

1

1

1

= =

v u

50 25

f

1

1 + 2

=

=

50

50

or f = + 50 cm

physics for you | september 15

67

must be a convex lens of focal length 50 cm.

5. Here d = 3 mm = 3 103 m,

l = 500 nm = 500 109 m

The distance upto which a beam of light can travel

without significant broadenning is called Fresnel

distance and its value is given by

(3 10 3 )2

d2

=

= 18 m.

l

500 10 9

6. A wavefront is a surface obtained by joining all

points vibrating in the same phase. A ray is line

drawn perpendicular to the wavefront in the

direction of propagation of light wave.

The wavefront of light emerging from a point source

are spherical as shown in figure (a). When a point

source is placed at the focus of a convex lens, the

emerging light has plane wavefronts, as shown in

figure (b).

DF =

Ray S

S

hence, fm is positive. It means that the lens behaves

as a converging lens.

However, for carbon disulphide (mm = 1.63),

(mg mm) is negative and hence, fm is negative. It

means that the lens behaves as a diverging lens.

4

10. As per question, mw =

and h = 30 cm.

3

Dl

d

l

b

=

d

D

(i) When the screen is moved away from the

slits, the distance D increases. Fringe width

b increases but angular separation q remains

unchanged.

(ii) The interference pattern becomes less and

less sharp. When the source slit becomes so

l

s

wide that the condition

<

(Here, s is the

d

S

width of the source slit and S its distance from

the plane of the two slits) is not satisfied, the

interference pattern disappears. But the angular

width q remains unchanged.

sin i

8. From Snells law, m =

.

sin r

If the light is incident at 30, then

physics for you | september 15

90

ic

Figure (b)

Angular separation, q =

68

will suffer total internal reflection at the second face

and will not emerge through the prism.

9. For a convex lens (mg = 1.52), focal length f has

positive sign. When it is immersed in a medium of

refractive index mm, its focal length changes to fm,

where

(m g 1) m m

f

fm =

(m g m m )

Figure (a)

7. Fringe width, b =

0. 5

sini

sin 30

=

=

= 0.33

1

.5

m

1. 5

1

or r = sin (0.33) 19

Angle of incidence at second face,

i = A r = 60 19 = 41 which is just less than the

1

1

critical angle 42 = sin 1 = sin 1 for

m

1. 5

sinr =

ic

contained in a circular cone of semi-vertical angle

1

1

ic = sin1 or sinic =

mw

mw

r

But sinic =

2

r + h2

1

r

\

=

2

2

m

w

r +h

r=

r=

h

m 2w 1

30 cm

2

4

3 1

30 cm

OR

7

9

= 34.0 cm

by

v

f

=

u

u+ f

Here, m = N (the positive sign is for virtual image

and negative sign for real image).

f

\ N =

u+ f

m=

f

N

f

f

u = f

or |u| = f

N

N

Thus, the desired result is proved.

As power, P = 2.5 D,

1

1

=

m = 0.4 m = 40 cm and N = 4

\

P

2. 5

\ Two values of the object distance,

f

40

u=f

= 40

= 50 cm and 30 cm

N

4

u+f=

h1 h2 = 35 mm 23 mm

1 1

1

From the lens formula, = , we have

v u

f

1 1

20 21

1

1

1

1

= + =

=

=

+

u f

420

(21) (+20) (21 20)

v

v = 420 cm or 4.2 m

Let the dimension of the image formed on the

screen be h1 h2.

h

v

Then, from the relation, m =

= , we have

h

u

420 cm

v

h1 =

h1 =

35 mm

(21 cm)

u

= 700 mm = 70.0 cm

420 cm

v

and h2 =

h2 =

23 mm

(21 cm)

u

= 460 mm = 46.0 cm

Thus, the dimensions of image formed on the screen

is 70 cm 46 cm. The negative sign signifies that

the image is inverted.

hh

Areal magnification, m = 1 2

h1h2

(70 cm) (46 cm)

=

= 400

(35 mm) (23 mm)

12. (a) For the plano-convex lens, we have

Hence, its focal length f is given by

1

= (m 1) 1 1

f

R1 R2

1

1 0. 5

1

= (1.5 1)

=

=

24

(

+

12

)

12

f = +24 cm

(b) If plane surface of the lens is

silvered, then a light ray after

passing through the lens will

be incident on plane polished

12 cm

surface (behaving as a plane

mirror), which will reflect it

back through the lens again.

Hence, power P of the entire arrangement is

given by

P = PL + PM + PL

where PL is the power of the lens and PM is the

power of the plane mirror.

1

1

1

1

Now PL =

=

=

=

D

24 cm

fL

0.24 m

0.24

1

1

and PM =

= =0

fM

1

1

2

1

+0+

\ P=

=

=

D

0.24

0.24

0.24

0.12

As the arrangement behaves as a concave mirror

of focal length F,

1

Hence, P =

F

1

1

= or F = 0.12 m = 12 cm

F

0.12

13. Figure shows the refraction of a parallel beam of

normal incidence.

For refraction at first surface from air to glass,

m1 = 1, m2 = m, u = , R = +R

Air, = 1

S

Glass

A

Air, = 1

B

I

u

m m1

m

m2

1 = 2

R

u

v

mR

1

m

m 1

\

=

or v =

m 1

v

R

This image formed at I acts as virtual object for

second surface. For refraction at second surface

from glass to air,

u = BI = AI AB = v 2R

mR

mR 2R(m 1) 2 m

=

2R =

=

R

m 1

m 1

m 1

As

69

Now m1 = m, m2 = 1, R = R

m

1 m

1

=

\

R

v u

m 1

m (m 1)

1

or

=

R

R (2 m)

v

1

m 1 m (m 1)

or

=

+

v

R

R (2 m)

2(m 1)

(m 1)(2 m + m)

=

=

R(2 m)

R(2 m)

R(2 m)

\ v =

2(m 1)

14. (i)The lens of power 1 D should be used as objective

10 D should be used as eyepiece because of its

smaller focal length.

1

(ii) Here, f0 =

= 1 m = 100 cm,

1D

1

fe =

= 0.1 m = 10 cm

10 D

f0

f

1+ e = 100 1 + 10 = 14.

fe D

10 25

(iii) Light gathered Area of the objective of a

telescope

D 2

i.e.,

Q

or Q D2

4

When aperture (D) is doubled, light gathering

capacity increases 4 times.

Resolving power of a telescope D

When aperture (D) is doubled, resolving power

also gets doubled.

15. The given defect is called astigmatism. It arises

because the curvature of the cornea plus eye lens

refracting system is not the same in different planes.

The eye lens is usually spherical, i.e., has the same

curvature in different planes but the cornea is not

spherical in case of an astigmatic eye. In the present

case, the curvature in the vertical plane is enough,

so sharp images of vertical lines can be formed on

the retina. But the curvature is insufficient in the

horizontal plane, so horizontal lines appear blurred.

This defect can be corrected by using a cylindrical

lens with its axis along the vertical. Clearly, parallel

rays in the vertical plane will suffer no extra

refraction, but those in the horizontal plane can get

the required extra convergence due to refraction

by the curved surface of the cylindrical lens if

the curvature of the cylindrical surface is chosen

appropriately.

\

70

|m| =

4

3

For normal incidence, the condition for (n + 1)th

maximum is

2mt

1

1

2mt = n + l1 or n + =

(i)

l1

2

2

The condition for (n + 1)th minimum is

2mt

2mt = (n + 1)l2 or n + 1 =

(ii)

l2

Subtracting (i) from (ii), we get

l l2

1

= 2mt 1 1 = 2mt 1

2

l 1l 2

2 l1

t=

6 10 7 4.5 10 7

l 1l 2

=

4

4m(l1 l 2 )

4 (6 4.5) 10 7

3

27

107 m = 3.375 107 m.

8

OR

Distance of the needle from the lens in the first case

= focal length F of the combination of the convex

lens and plano-concave lens formed by the liquid

i.e., F = 45 cm

and in the second case

= focal length of the convex lens

i.e., f1 = + 30 cm

The focal length f2 of the plano-concave lens is

given by

1

1 1

=

+

F

f1 f 2

=

or

1 1

23

1

1

1 1

=

=

=

=

F f1

90

90

f2

45 30

\

f2 = 90 cm

Now for the equiconvex lens, we have

R1 = R, R2 = R, f1 = 30 cm, m = 1.5

Using Lens makers formula

1

1

1

= (m 1)

f

R1 R2

1

1 1

2

= (1.5 1) + = 0.5

R R

30

R

or R = 0.5 2 30 cm = 30 cm

For plano-convex lens, f2 = 90 cm

For concave surface, R1 = R = 30 cm,

For plane surface, R2 =

1

As

= (m 1) 1 1

R R

f2

1

2

\

1

1

1

= (m 1)

90

30

1

30

or

m 1 =

=+

3

90

1

or

m = 1 + = 1.33.

3

17. Behaviour of prism : Since the speed of light in glass

is smaller than that in air, therefore, the lower part

C of the plane wavefront which travels through the

greatest thickness of the glass prism is slowed down

the most and the upper part A, which travels through

the minimum thickness of the glass prism, is slowed

down the least. This explains the tilting of a plane

wavefront after refraction through a glass prism.

\

Incident

wavefront

A

B

Refracted

wavefront

A

the plane wavefront travels through the greatest

thickness of the lens and is, therefore, slowed

down the most. The marginal parts A and C of the

wavefront travel through a minimum thickness of

the lens and are, therefore, slowed down the least. So

the emerging wavefront is spherical and converges

to a focus F.

Refracted

wavefront

A

B

C

B

C

before getting reflected compared to the marginal

parts A and C. Therefore, the central portion B of

the reflected wavefront is closer to the mirror than

the marginal portions A and C. Hence the reflected

wavefront is spherical and converges to a focus.

Incident

wavefront

A

B

C

Refracted

wavefront

F

A

B

C

polariser, I1 = I0/2.

Intensity of transmitted light through second

polariser I2 = I1cos2q = (I0/2)cos2q

Intensity of transmitted light through analyser,

i.e., I3 = I2cos2(90 q)

= [(I0/2)cos2q]cos2(90 q)

= (I0/2)cos2qsin2q

= (I0/8)sin22q

(b) Since I3 depends on q, rotating the second

polariser will change the light intensity.

(c) If q = 0 and 90, then I3 = 0

(as sin 0 = cos90 = 0)

Thus, for q equal to 0 and 90, no light will be

transmitted through the system.

(d) I3 is maximum when q = 45.

Incident

wavefront

A

589 10 9 m

l

Dq = 1.22 = 1.22

rad

0.900 10 2 m

a

= 7.98 105 rad

(b) To obtain the smallest angle corresponding

to the maximum limit of resolution, we have

to use the shortest wavelength in the visible

spectrum. Violet light (l = 400 nm) gives us a

limiting angle of resolution of

400 10 9 m

Dq = 1.22

rad

0.900 10 2 m

= 5.42 105 rad

(c) Wavelength of light in water,

589 nm

l

lw = a =

= 443 nm

m

1.33

443 10 9 m

Dq = 1.22

rad

0.900 10 2 m

Since Dq in this case is less than that in case (a),

resolving power increases.

20. A diffraction grating is an arrangement consisting

of a large number of parallel slits of the same width

separated by equal opaque spaces. It consists of a

well-polished metal or glass surface upon which

equidistant, fine and parallel lines are ruled by a

diamond point. The number of lines may vary from

15,000 to 40,000 per inch. The problem of studying

the diffraction of a grating is essentially the problem

of finding the resultant due to interference of a large

number of secondary distrubances issuing from

physics for you | september 15

71

equidistant fine diamond rulings. Thus, we can call

a diffraction grating as an interference grating.

21. Case I : Object distance = u, focal length = f and

image distance = v

1

1 1

=

By lens formula,

f

v u

1

1

u f

1 1

= + or =

v

f

uf

v u

So, m1 =

v=

uf

u f

f

v

=

u f

u

then object distance, u = (u f),

f

1

1

1

= +

\

v (u f )

f

or

1

u f f

=

v

f (u f )

f (u f )

v =

(u 2 f )

So,

m2 =

As

\

v

f

=

(u f )

(u 2 f )

m1 = m2

f

f

=

(u 2 f )

(u f )

u 22ff = u + f

3

2u = 33ff or u = f

2

f

\

m1 =

=2

3

ff

2

Hence, diameter of coins image, D = 2 4 = 8 cm

22. Let us trace the path of light from the object.

First it is refracted at surface S1 (air to glass), next

refraction takes place at surface S2 (glass to water),

then reflection at the mirror. It is reflected back and

refracted through surfaces S2 and S1 once again in the

order of their appearance. The given parameters are

u = 0.9 m, m = 1, mg = 3/2, mw = 4/3

Using lens makers formula,

mg m 1

1

1

=

m

R

R

f

1

2

1

1. 5 1 2

=

or R = 0.3 m

1 R

0. 3

72

As

\

or

m m mw m g

mw m

= g

+

v u

R

R

(3 / 2) 1 (4 / 3) (3 / 2)

4/3

1

=

+

0. 3

( 0.3)

v

0.9

v = 1.2 m

behind the mirror. It is a virtual object at a distance

0.4 m for the mirror. Now the mirror forms an

image in front of it. This image is an object for the

lens system.

m mw m m g

m mw

= g

+

v u

R

R

(3 / 2) (4 / 3) 1 (3 / 2)

1

4/3

=

+

0. 3

( 0.3)

v (0.4)

\

v = 0.9 m = 90 cm

(ii) Studying and analysing the spectrum of distant

light sources.

(iii) Curiosity, research mindedness, awareness.

24. Refer point 6.4 page no. 371 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

OR

Refer point 6.5(5((i), (ii))) page no. 372 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

25. Refer point 6.11(1, 5) page no. 444 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

OR

Refer point 6.13(7, 9) page no. 448 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

26. Refer point 6.15 page no. 453 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

OR

Refer point 6.14 page no. 449 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

nn

Learning gives creativity,

creativity leads to thinking,

thinking provides knowledge,

knowledge makes

you great

-A P J Abdul Kalam

we need to understand first of all, what actually work

stands for!

Let us begin by taking two small examples of motion

1. An object moves under the action of a force acting

along the direction of motion. The path obviously is a

straight line.

object B the speed decreases.

2. An object moves under the action of a force of

constant magnitude but always perpendicular to path,

as in uniform circular motion (UCM).

Fdr cosq = m vdv F dr = m vdv

Integrating

both sides we get,

r2

v

F dr = m vdv

r1

1

1

...(i)

= mv 2 mu2 = change in KE = DKE

2

2

Hence the quantity on left, i.e., the line integral of the

dot product of force with instantaneous displacement is

said to be the work done by force.

r1 to r2 is,

r2

WF = F dr

r1

the object is always perpendicular to the direction of

motion.

Now, whenever we talk of work being done by a force,

we check whether the force is capable of changing the

kinetic energy of the mass (or system of masses) which

can happen only if the applied force has a component

which is parallel to the direction of motion.

Now with this understanding, let us see how do we

define work.

Consider an object moving in a curved

path and at an

is v.

responsible for changing the KE.

\ Ft = mat

(where at = tangential acceleration)

dv

dv

F cos q = m = mv

dt

dr

sum of all forces acting on the object.

Hence equation (i) becomes

work done by all forces = change in kinetic energy

Wall forces = DKE

This equation is work energy theorem.

Before we proceed further with this theorem, let us

see further examples of work done by forces in various

situations.

Work done by a constant force

A force is constant only if its magnitude as well as

direction remains constant which is possible only if

all the three components of force are each individually

constants.

^

\ If F = Fx i^ + Fy ^j + Fz k and,

^

dr = dx i^ + dy ^j + dzk , then,

dWF = F dr = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

\ WF = dWF =

WF =

r2 = x2 ^

i + y2 j^ + z2^

k

F dr

r1 = x1^

i + y1 j^ + z1k^

x2

y2

z2

x1

y1

z1

73

out of integration.

\ WF = Fx

x2

y2

x1

y1

dx + Fy

z2

dy + Fz dz

z1

Apart from memorizing the result, let us try to

understand the above expression.

If we treat the components of force Fx, Fy and Fz as three

independent forces, then work done by Fx is Fx Dx which

is force multiplied with displacement in the direction of

the force or displacement multiplied with force in the

direction of displacement. Let us try to apply this for

a physical situation where an object is moved from A

to B in a curved path and one constant force F acts on

the object at all instants at an angle q with the line AB

at the classification of forces once.

Conservative ForCes

These are those forces for which the work done is

independent of path and depends only on initial

and final positions.

W1 = W2 = W3

The work done by these forces in a closed path is

always necessarily zero.

We always associate a scalar quantity known as potential

energy (PE) with these forces and the work done by

conservative forces is the negative of the change in PE.

WC = DPE

74

as shown.

\ WF = (Fcosq) l or F(lcosq)

Now, to be able to apply WET we follow these basic

steps.

on the relative configuration of the system.

Example: Gravitational force (mg), spring force,

electrostatic force etc.

Gravitational Potential energy

surface of earth, its PE is

U(h) = mgh + U0

taken to be zero until and unless specified otherwise.

spring Potential energy

undeformed natural length by an amount x, the stored

1

PE is kx 2.

2

its speed is gl. Find the work done

by man, assume that the rope does

not fall down as it is being pulled

but rather it stays at the same level

platform from which it is being

pulled?

Soln.:

Hence,

Work done by gravity,

Wg = DPEg = mg(Dh); where Dh = change in height.

Work done by spring,

1

1

2

2

where x1 and x2 are initial and final elongation/

compression in spring.

non Conservative ForCes

These are those category of forces for which work

done is path dependent.

Generally we put dissipative forces (i.e., forces which

extract energy out of the system) in this category.

Example: Friction

external ForCes

These are forces which act as a push or a pull on the

object under consideration.

Example: Tension (T) of string, normal reaction (N) etc.

Note : When observing from accelerated frame, pseudo

force can also be thrown in this category.

Now let us apply, whatever we have learnt here.

Q1.

travelled by it on rough surface before coming to rest.

Soln.: Let the distance be x.

mg, fK(= mmg), N are the forces acting but N is

incapable of performing work.

Hence, Wg + Wf = DKE

DPEg + Wf = 0

(mgh) + (mmgx) = 0

h

\ x=

m

Q2. A rope of mass m, length l is used to pull a mass M

as shown.

76

block by l. Hence

1

Wg + Wext = DKE = Mv 2 0

2

l

1

2

2

M

m

3

Wext =

+ gl

2

2

Q3. If a constant force F starts acting as shown then find,

(ii) maximum speed of mass.

Soln.: As the spring starts stretching, spring force,

opposite to F starts increasing in magnitude but

till its value is less than F, the objects speed will

increase till a maximum value after which spring

force will become greater than applied force hence

the block will start decelerating.

Hence we divide the motion into two parts-

Wext + Wsp = DKE

Fxmax DPEsp = 0

1 2

Fxmax kxmax

0 = 0

2

2F

...(i)

k

Interestingly, the elongation at equilibrium is,

when, kxe = F

F

xe =

k

\ xmax = 2xe

Applying WET between O and A

1 2

Wext + Wsp = DKE = mvmax

0

2

1 2

1

Fxe kxe2 0 = mvmax

2

2

F

vmax =

...(ii)

mk

Equations (i) and (ii) obtained above can be

memorized as standard results and be used in

various problems but the limitation to the result is

that the results are applicable only if 1. The block starts from natural length of spring.

2. Speed at natural length position is zero.

3. F is constant.

Q4. The spring is released from natural

length of spring. Find the minimum

value of m so that on being released, it

is able to lift the mass off ground.

xmax =

Soln.:

l

mass (COM) of BC portion is lifted up by

.

2n

\ W + W = DKE

g

ext

DPE + Wext = 0

m l mgl

Wext = DPE = g = 2

n 2n 2n

(ii) Similarly,

appears as if the COM of the portion on the table

l 1

has come down by 1 + .

2 n

Hence, Wg = DKE

1

DPE = mv 2

2

1 l 1

1 2

mv = m 1 g 1 +

2

n 2 n

1

v = gl 1 2

n

Q6. The string is initially unstretched. Find the

maximum value of F for which m2 does not slip

over the surface.

2mg

Clearly, xmax =

k

\ For block M, to lift off,

kxmax Mg m

Soln.:

M

2

l is overhanging a smooth

horizontal table such that

l/n part of it hangs below the

surface of table.

Find - (i) Work done by external agent to lift the

chain completely over table.

(ii) Speed of the chain when it just becomes

vertical.

=

k

k

And block m2 wont slip if, kxmax f 2 lim

mm2 g

2(F mm1g) mm2g F

+ mm1 g

2

nn

Clearly, xmax =

77

Solution Set-25

1. From DABC

80

4 ...(i)

tan q =

=

300 15

From DAPO

20

...(ii)

tan q =

h

From eqns (i) and (ii)

4 20

20 15

=

h=

= 75 cm

15 h

4

2. Suppose there is n moles of gas.

For process BC (isochoric), energy given out by the

gas,

nR

Qisochoric = nCV DT =

(T T )

1 B C

For the process DA, V T i.e., P = constant.

Wisobaric = nRDT = nR TA TD = nR TB TC

Q

1

\ Required ratio = isochoric =

=4

Wisobaric 1

CP

= C = 1.25

V

60 + 45

sin

4 2

8

m=

; m=

m=

5 1

5

60

sin

2

When prism is placed in liquid of refractive index

m then

60 + 30

sin

sin 45

8

8 1

2

; m =

=

=

5 m

sin 30

60

5 2

sin

2

4. Image formation due to convex lens

1

1

1

30 36

=

v=

= 180 cm

v 36 30

6

This image will act like a virtual object for mirror

and after reflection from mirror its image (shown

by I2) will be formed at 80 cm below optical axis of

convex lens.

For concave lens, this image will be object at a

position of 15 cm below the lens.

For final image formed by concave lens

1 1 1

1

5

=

=

20 15 f

f

300

78

1

1 1

= (m 1)

R R

f

5

3 2

or

= 1

300 2 R

300

R=

= 60 cm

5

5. We have f1 = 50 cm and f2 = 100 cm

Let the real distance between A and B be x. Also let

refractive index of liquid be m. Then

1

1 2

1 3 1

1

= 1 =

f1

2

R1 R2

R1 R2 f1

Also,

1

1 3

1

= 1

f1 2m R1 R2

1 2 3 2m and 1 = 2 3 2m

=

f2 f2 2m

f1 f1 2m

Now, for A we have

1 1 2 3 2m

=

200 x 50 2m

1

1

2 3 2m

=

+

...(i)

x 200 50 2m

Also, for B we have

1 1 2 3 2m

=

100 x 100 2m

1

1

2 3 2m

=

+

x 100 100 2m

From (i) and (ii), we get

2(3 2m) 1

1 2(3 2m)

+

=

+

100(2m) 100 200 50(2m)

so

...(ii)

12 6

=

10 5

6. Area covered by line joining planet and sun in time

dt is

1

dS = x 2dq

2

dS 1 2 dq 1 2

= x

= x w

Areal velocity =

dt 2 dt 2

where x = distance between planet and sun and

w = angular speed of planet about sun.

From Keplers second law, areal velocity of planet

is constant.

m=

At farthest position,

dS 1

A=

= (2R r )2 w

dt 2

1

1

= (2R r )[(2R r )w] = (2R r )v

2

2

2A

or v =

2R r

Here, A = 4.4 1016 m s1, R = 2 1012 m, r = 1.8 1012 m

\ v = 40 km s1

7. If temperature is increased by DT then

Dl

Dl = laDT DT =

la

Dl

\ E1 = (Al )sDT = Als

la

Dl

When stretched, stress = Y

l

8.

Y (Dl )2 A

1 Dl Dl

E2 = Y Al =

2 l l

2l

E1

AlsDl 2l

2sl

So,

=

=

= 500

E2 al Y (Dl )2 A a(Dl )Y

Refraction at point A,

sin 30 = 1.5 sin q

... (i)

Refraction at point B,

1.5 sin (60 q) = m sin x

... (ii)

Refraction at point C,

m sin (60 x) = 1.5 sin (60 q)

... (iii)

From eqns. (ii) and (iii)

x = 30

\ 1.5 sin (60 q) = m sin 30

[Using (ii)]

Now, q 20 [from eqn. (i)]

1.5 sin(60 20)

\ m=

= 1.93

sin 30

9. R = 10 cm

sin q 3

6

=

r = 53 Using sin q =

sin r 4

10

sin(r q) sin( r )

=

10

(10 + x )

10 + x

4

\

=

10

5(sin r cos q cos r sin q)

4

=

4 4 3 3

5

5 5 5 5

200

10 + x =

7

200 70 130

X

x=

=

cm = cm \ X = 130

7

7

7

10. Process 1-2

Since V T, thus P = constant

DQ1 = nCP DT

5

5

= 1 R (T0 2T0 ) = RT0

2

2

DW1 = RT0

Process 2-3

Since temperature is constant, thus process is

isothermal PV = constant

\ DU = 0 DQ2 = DW2 = RT0ln2

Process 3-4

Since V T, thus P = constant

5

\ DQ3 = RT0

2

\ DW3 = RT0

Process 4-1

Since temperature is constant, thus, PV = constant

\ DQ4 = DW4 = 2RT0ln2

Net work done, DW = DW1 + DW2 + DW3 + DW4

= RT0 ln2

5

Heat supplied, DQ = DQ3 + DQ4 = RT0 + 2RT0 ln 2

2

RT0 ln 2

Work done

100%

Efficiency =

=

Heat supplied 5 RT + 2RT ln 2

0

2 0

ln 2

=

100% 18%

2.5 + 2ln2

nn

1.

2.

3.

1.

2.

3.

sET-25

Trishala Gupta (Delhi)

Deep Anand Basumatary (Assam)

Subham Bakli

sET-24

Imran Hussain (Mumbai)

Rajat Tripathi (Uttrakhand)

Sucheta Nain (Jaipur)

physics for you | September 15

79

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

sysTEM of PArTicLEs AND roTATioNAL MoTioN

forces shown in the figure, for L = 3.0 m, is

(a) 210 N m

(c) 95 N m

(b) 140 N m

(d) 75 N m

radius R about an axis passing through its centre is

2

MR2. The radius of gyration of the sphere about

5

a parallel axis to the above and tangent to the sphere

is

7

3

(a) R

(b) R

5

5

7

(d) 3 R

R

5

5

3. If the earth suddenly changes its radius x times the

present value, the new period of rotation would be

(a) 6x2 hr

(b) 12x2 hr

2

(c) 24x hr

(d) 48x2 hr

(c)

orbital motion and its daily rotation is

(a) much greater than 1

(b) smaller than 1

(c) equal to 1

(d) slightly greater than 1

5. The moment of inertia of uniform circular disc of

radius R and mass M about an axis passing from the

80

1

7

(a) MR2

(b) MR2

2

2

3

(c) MR2

(d) MR2

2

6. Two solid spheres (A and B) are made of metals of

different densities rA and rB respectively. If their

masses are equal, the ratio of their moments of

inertia (IIA/IIB) about their respective diameter is

r

(a) B

r

A

(c)

2/3

rA

rB

r

(b) A

r

B

(d)

2/3

rB

rA

on the rim of a disc of mass M and radius R. Moment

of inertia of this system about an axis passing

through one of the particles and perpendicular to

plane of disc is

(a) 16mR2

R2

2

R2

(d) zero

2

8. A rigid body rotates about a fixed axis with variable

angular velocity equal to (a bt) at time t where

a and b are constants. The angle through which it

rotates before it comes to rest is

(c) (3m + 12M )

a2

(a)

b

(b)

a2

4b

(d)

(c)

a2

2b

a2

2b2

radius start rolling down a fixed inclined plane

from the same height at the same time. Cylinder P

has most of its mass concentrated near its surface,

while Q has most of its mass concentrated near the

axis. Which statement(s) is (are) correct?

(a) Both cylinders P and Q reach the ground at the

same time.

(b) Cylinder P has larger linear acceleration than

cylinder Q.

(c) Both cylinders reach the ground with same

translational kinetic energy.

(d) Cylinder Q reaches the ground with larger

angular speed.

10. A uniform rod of length 1 m is bent at its midpoint

to make 90 angle. The distance of the centre of

mass from the centre of the rod is

(a) 36.1 cm

(b) 25.2 cm

(c) 17.7 cm

(d) zero

momentum about origin is conserved is

(a) 1

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) zero

the circle.

(d) The velocity and acceleration vectors are

perpendicular to each other.

15. An athlete throws a discus from rest to a final

angular velocity of 15 rad s1 in 0.270 s before

releasing it. During motion, discus moves a circular

arc of radius 0.810 m. Acceleration of discus before

it is released is

(a) 45 m s2

(b) 182 m s2

2

(c) 187 m s

(d) 192 m s2

soLuTioNs

1. (d) :

components. The line of action of 90 N, 50 N, and

x-components of the 80 N and 70 N forces pass

through the pivot point A, therefore they cause no

rotation.

\ The total torque about point A is

L

L

= (80 sin 30) (60) + (70 cos 60)(L)

2

2

BC

11 2

8

(a)

ml

(b)

ml 2

252

203

5

7

(c)

(d)

ml 2

ml 2

136

162

13. A circular plate of uniform

thickness has a diameter of

56 cm. A circular portion of

diameter 42 cm is removed

O2

O O1

from one edge as shown in

figure. The centre of mass

28 cm

of the remaining portion

21 cm

from the centre of plate

will be at

(a) 5 cm

(b) 7 cm

(c) 9 cm

(d) 11 cm

particle moving in a circle with a constant angular

speed?

(a) The velocity vector is tangent to the circle.

(b) The acceleration vector is tangent to the circle.

13

3

1

= (80) (60) + (70) (3)

22

2

2

= 60 90 + 105 = 75 N m

2

2. (c) : Given Ic = MR2

5

Using the theorem of parallel axes, moment of

inertia of the sphere about a parallel axis tangential

to the sphere is

2

7

I = Ic + MR2 = MR2 + MR2 = MR2

5

5

\

7

I = MK 2 = MR2

5

or

K=

7

R

5

L = I w = constant

2

2

or MR2 = constant

5

T

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

81

i.e.,

R2 R2

R2

= constant or 1 = 2

T

T1 T2

R22

r

= B

rA

xR

T2 = 2 T1 = 1 24 hr = 24x 2 hr

R1

R1

4. (a) : For orbital motion of earth around the sun

2

L1 = I1 w1 = Mass (radius of orbit)2

T1

2

= 6 1024 (1.49 1011)2

365 24 60 60

40

2

1

= 2.66 10 kg m s

For rotation around its axis,

2

2

L2 = I2 w2 = MR2

T2

5

2

2

= 6 1024 (6.4 106 )2

5

24 60 60

= 7.1 1033 kg m2 s1

L1

>> 1

L2

1

2

5. (c) : I AB = MR

2

ICD = ?

Applying the theorem of parallel axes,

I CD = IAB + MR 2

1

3

= MR2 + MR2 = MR2

2

2

\

R

B

rA

4 3

4

RA = rB R3B

3

3

1/3

RA r B

=

RB rA

82

(... MA = MB)

2 /3

(Using(i))

moment of inertia of disc about an axis passing

through K and perpendicular to plane of disc, is

1

3

= MR2 + MR2 = MR2

2

2

R

O

3

= MR2 + m(2R)2 + m( 2R)2 + m( 2R)2

2

R2

= (3M + 16m)

2

8. (b) : w = a bt

At time t = 0, w = w0 = a

dw

a=

=b

dt

Using w2 = w20 + 2aq

and radius R about its diameter is

2

I = MR2

5

2

2

2

IA 5 M ARA M ARA

\

=

=

I B 2 M R2 M B RB2

5 B B

Mass(M )

Density, r =

Volume(V )

4 3

M = rV = r R

3

As per question, MA = MB

\

IA RA

=

IB RB

... (i)

0 = w20 + 2aq

w 2 a2

q= 0 =

2a 2b

9. (d) : Acceleration of a body rolling down a fixed

inclined plane of inclination q is

or

a=

g sin q

(i)

k2

1+ 2

R

As cylinder P has most of its mass concentrated

near its surface, while cylinder Q has most of its

mass concentrated near the axis, therefore, radius

of gyration,

kP > kQ

From (i), aP < aQ

Therefore, at bottom of incline, vP < vQ

or (wPR) < (wQR)

or wP < wQ

or wQ > wP

i.e., cylinder Q reaches the ground with larger

angular speed.

l = 1 m = 100 cm is bent

at its midpoint O so that

POQ = 90 (see figure).

The mass of part PO of

length l/2 can be taken

to be concentrated at

its midpoint A whose

coordinates are (0, l/4) and

of part OQ of length l/2 at its midpoint B whose

coordinates are (l/4, 0). The centre of mass of these

two equal masses is at midpoint C between A and B.

The coordinates of C are (l/8, l/8).

2

l l

OC = (OE)2 + (CE)2 = +

8 8

100 cm

l

=

=

= 17.7 cm

32

32

11. (b) : Angular momentum, L = constant, when

=r F =0

i.e. (2i 6j 12k ) (ai + 3j + 6k ) = 0

\

or

12. (d) :

i j

k

2 6 12 = 0, which gives a = 1

a 3

6

AB

=2

BC

AB = DC =

l

3

l

6

m

Similarly, mAB = mDC =

3

m

and mBC = mAD =

6

\ Moment of inertia of the wire frame about the

given axis is

I = IAB + IAD + IDC + IBC

and

BC = AD =

1 m l

m l 1 m l

= + + +0

6 3 3 3 3

3 3 3

7

ml 2 ml 2 ml 2

+

+

=

ml 2

81

54

81 162

13. (c) : Let M be the mass of circular plate with centre O.

M

Mass per unit area =

(28)2

\ Mass of circular portion removed, with centre

O1

9

M

(21)2 = M

M1 =

2

16

(28)

=

9

7

M= M

16

16

Let O2 be its centre of mass, where OO2 = x.

Now, M1 OO1 = M2 OO2

9

7

M 7 = M x

16

16

Mass left, M2 = M M1 = M

x = 9 cm

angular speed, velocity vector is always tangent

to the circle and the acceleration vector always

points towards the centre of the circle or is always

along radius of the circle. Since, tangential vector

is perpendicular to radial vector therefore velocity

vector will be perpendicular to the acceleration

vector. But in no case acceleration vector is tangent

to the circle.

15. (a) : w = w0 + at or w = 0 + at

15

w

rad s 2

=

t 0.270

15

\ a = ra = 0.81

= 45 m s 2

0.270

or a =

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83

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this column each month.

upstream, why do the boats tend to pull together?

Aditya Kashyap (Haryana)

between the boats, it increases speed of the water waves.

The only way it can get the energy required for the

increased speed is to take it from the internal energy

associated with pressure. As a result, the water pressure

between the boats decreases. With normal pressure on

the exterior sides of the boats and this decreased pressure

on the interior sides, the boats are drawn together.

Q2. If you inspect a light bulb that has been operating for

a long time, a dark region appears on the inner surface

of the bulb. What is the origin of this dark region?

Kirti Gupta (U.P.)

filament of the lightbulb and collected on the inner

surface of the glass. Many lightbulbs contain a gas that

allows convection to occur within the bulb. The gas near

the filament is at a very high temperature, causing it to

expand and float upward, due to Archimedes principle.

As it floats upward, it carries the vaporized tungsten

with it, so that the tungsten collects on the surface at the

top of the lightbulb.

Q3. Suppose a point charge + Q is in empty space. We

surround the charge with a spherical conducting

shell so that the charge is at the centre of the shell.

What effect does this have on the field lines from the

charge?

Shan Doshi (WB)

Ans. When the spherical shell is placed around the charge,

the charges in the shell adjust so as to satisfy the rules

for a conductor in equilibrium and Gausss law. A

net charge of Q moves to the interior surface of

the conductor, so that the electric field within the

conductor is zero (a spherical gaussian surface totally

within the shell encloses no net charge). A net charge of

+ Q resides on the outer surface, so that a Gaussian

surface outside the sphere encloses a net charge of

+ Q, just as if the shell were not there. Thus, the only

change in the field lines from the initial situation is the

absence of field lines within the conducting shell.

Q4. What makes evaporation different from boiling, in

terms of the latent heat of vaporisation? How is the

boiling point of water dependent upon atmospheric

pressure?

Shreya Singh (Delhi)

84

heat required to convert liquid water into a gas is referred

to as latent heat. It represents the energy required to pull

molecules of water away from each other, overcoming

their mutual attraction. At low temperatures, only a

few molecules manage to escape, those whose thermal

velocities are at the upper end of the energy distribution of

molecules in the liquid. This is what causes evaporation.

As the temperature is raised, more and more molecules

acquire energies sufficient to escape from the liquid,

and therefore the rate of evaporation increases. When a

temperature that is high enough for most of the molecules

to escape the liquid is reached, the liquid begins to boil.

The temperature, which is a measure of kinetic energy

of the molecules, cannot increase any further, because

any increase in the energy of the molecules leads to their

escape from the system. At this point, heat just serves to

overcome the mutual attraction of the molecules.

The molecules attempting to escape the force of others

in the liquid have to face the pressure of the atmosphere

above, including that exerted by their companions that

escaped before them. This pressure keeps them close to

the liquid surface and many of them return. If, on the

other hand, the pressure outside is low, the molecules

escape to greater distances. Lowering the pressure

enables even those molecules to leave that have not

yet attained velocities that would be considered high

enough at normal pressure. Thus, at low pressure, the

liquid begins to boil at lower temperatures, because

molecules that are not very energetic can also overcome

the barrier. This is the reason that the boiling point of

water decreases at low pressure and, conversely, is raised

when the pressure is increased.

Sanjay Yadav (UP)

rajat Choudhary (Delhi)

Aarthi nair (Kerala)

Solution Senders (July 2015)

Prachi Singh (Delhi)

Sumit Agarwal (Bihar)

Avinash Mittal (Haryana)

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

across

Cut Here

An electrical conductor held at a

constant voltage, used to carry high

currents between different circuits in a

system. (6)

7

4. Tiny solid or liquid particles suspended

among the molecules of atmospheric

14

gases. (8)

8. The branch of mechanics concerned

with forces that change or produce the

motions of bodies. (8)

14. Interstellar clouds. (7)

15. A very strongly magnetized neutron

23

star that emits a uniform series of

equally speed electromagnetic pulses.

(6)

26

21. A heat engine that runs backward.

(12)

23. A device for continuous removal of

heat. (9)

25. Disk shaped region of small icy bodies

which ranges from about 30 to 100 AU from Sun.

(6, 4)

26. A collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved.

(9)

27. A measure of internal friction within a fluid. (9)

28. A unit of luminance equal to 1 candela per cm2. (5)

29. Unit of radiation dose. (3)

30. The collective name given to long-lived baryons

other than the proton and neutron. (7)

3.

Down

1.

2.

5.

6.

7.

9.

Smooth dark areas of moon. (5)

A copper-tin alloy used for metal, mirrors and

reflection diffraction gratings. (8)

A succession of waves of limited duration. (4, 5)

The peak of a wave disturbance. (5)

A mineral widely used for electrical insulation. (4)

2

5

3

6

8

10

11

12

13

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

24

25

27

28

29

30

11.

12.

13.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

22.

24.

A hypothetical particle of time approximately equal

to 1024 s. (7)

Acronym for balanced unbalanced. (5)

The size of a vector quantity. (9)

An inverted U tube with one limb longer than the

other. (6)

The slow permanent deformation of a crystal or

other specimen under sustained stresses. (5)

The maximum value of stress that must be applied

to a material in order that it shall flow. (5, 5)

A term used to describe the way materials responds

to forces. (10)

An access point in an electronic circuit or network.

(4)

The prefix for 1018. (4)

A type of aerial used in radio astronomy. (4)

85

86

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