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Vol. XXIII

No. 9

A New star is Born in heaven

September 2015

Corporate Office :

rial

he name of the new star is Abdul Kalam. Born in the temple town

Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,


Gurgaon -122 003 (HR). Tel : 0124-4951200
e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

of Rameswaram, he had his higher education in St. Josephs College

Regd. Office

Trichy (Tiruchirapalli). He had taken Physics Hons. as his choice. He, like

406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,


Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029.

the other top scientists of India developed the rockets which could carry

Managing Editor
Editor

:
:

atomic missiles, fulfilling the dreams of Dr. Bhabha, Vikram Sarabhai and

Mahabir Singh
Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)

the great scientists like Raja Ramanna and his team.


The next step was sending rockets to the moon. Now India is sending

contents
Physics Musing (Problem Set-26)
AIPMT (Re-Exam)

simultaneously five satellites for other countries to study various planets

simultaneously. Yes, our respected ex-president was more than a great

10

scientist. After his term as president, he had a new dream- igniting the

Solved Paper 2015


Ace Your Way CBSE XI

minds of the young to teach them to excel themselves. No film hero had

25

Series 1

such a following as the star of science.


Our advice to the young is this. Try to study his books when you are grown

JEE Accelerated Learning Series

31

up. We cannot classify him as an engineer, physicist or astronomer. He was

Brain Map

46

just a great scientist without barriers, inspiring students from the age of

Thought Provoking Problems

58

five to eighty and more. We pray for the great man who is no more with

JEE Workouts

61

Ace Your Way CBSE XII

65

us physically. May god inspire us to do great things together.

AA lg oh;Za djokogsAA

Series 4
Core Concept

73

Physics Musing (Solution Set-25)

78

Exam Prep

80

You Ask We Answer

84

Crossword

85

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disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction only.
Editor : Anil Ahlawat
Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

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Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

Set 26
single option correct type
1. A
wall
consists
of
alternate
blocks
with
a
length d and coefficients of
thermal conductivity l1 and
l2. The area of cross-section of
the blocks is same.The effective
thermal conductivity of the wall
is
ll
(a) l = 1 2
(b) l = 2(l1 + l2)

l1 + l2
l1 + l2
l + l2
(c) l = 1
(d) l =
4
2
2. A copper plate is soldered between two steel plates. All
the plates have the same cross-section area A and length l.
The coefficients of thermal expansion are ac and as and
their Youngs moduli are Yc and Ys
Steel
respectively. What force will arise
Copper
in the plates if the temperature is
increased by TC?(Assume that
Steel
the plates suffer the same net
expansion)
2 AYcYs (ac a s )T
AYcYs (ac a s )T
(a)
(b)
2Ys + Yc
2Ys + Yc
2AYcYs (ac a s )T
AYcYs (ac a s )T
(c)
(d)
Ys + Yc
Ys + Yc
3. A disc of radius R has a mass 9m. A hole of radius
R
is cut from it as shown in figure.
3
R/
3
O
The moment of inertia of the
R
remaining part about an axis passing
through centre O of the disc and
perpendicular to the plane of disc is
(a) 8mR2
(b) 4mR2
40
37
(c)
mR2
(d)
mR2
9
9
4. The surface density of a circular disc of radius
a depends on the distance from the center as r(r) = A+ Br.

The moment of inertia about the line perpendicular to the


plane of the disc through its centre is

Aa5

(a) 2

5
Aa 4

(c) 2

Ba6

(b) 2

Aa3

Ba5

(d)

Aa3
3

physics for you | september 15

Ba 4

Ba 4

5. The maximum length of an open organ pipe that


produces a fundamental note just audible to a person of
normal hearing is (Take velocity of sound in air = 340 m s1)
(a) 4.25 m (b) 8.5 m (c) 12.75 m (d) 1 m
6. A string B has twice the length, twice the diameter of
another string A. Both strings have same density. Which of
the following alternatives express the relation between the
frequency of A and B ?
(a) uB = 4uA
(b) uA = 4uB
(c) uA = 2uB
(d) 2uB = uA
7. How many octaves does the audible range for normal
human hearing cover approximately ?
(a) 3
(b) 5
(c) 10
(d) 20
8. The maximum number of overtones emitted by an
open organ pipe of length 15 cm that can be heard by a
person with normal hearing is

(Take, velocity of sound = 330 m s1)


(a) 16
(b) 17
(c) 18
(d) 19
9. A battery of 10 V is connected to a 20 W resistance
through a variable resistance R. The amount of charge
which has passed in the circuit in 4 minutes, if the variable
resistance R is increased at the rate of 5 W min1 is
(a) 120 C
(b) 120 ln 2 C
(c) 240 ln 2 C
(d) 60 ln 2 C
10. In a series grouping of N cells, current in the external
circuit is I. Number of cells to be reversed in polarity such
I
that current becomes is
3
N
N
N
2N
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3
2
4
3
nn

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of physics for Jee main & Advanced, senior professor physics, rAO IIt ACADemY, mumbai.

AIPMT

Re-Ex
a
held m
t
25 h J on
uly

SOLVED PAPER 2015


1. A photoelectric surface is illuminated successively
by monochromatic light of wavelength l and l .
2
If the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted
photoelectrons in the second case is 3 times that in
the first case, the work function of the surface of the
material is
(h = Plancks constant, c = speed of light)
2hc
hc
hc
hc
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
l
2l
l
3l
2. The input signal given to a CE amplifier having
p

a voltage gain of 150 is Vi = 2 cos 15t + .

3
The corresponding output signal will be
5p

(a) 2 cos 15t +

4p

(b) 300 cos 15t +

2p
(c) 300 cos 15t + p (d) 75 cos 15t +

3
3
3. A series R-C circuit is connected to an alternating
voltage source. Consider two situations :
(a) When capacitor is air filled.
(b) When capacitor is mica filled.
Current through resistor is i and voltage across
capacitor is V then
(a) ia > ib
(b) Va = Vb
(c) Va < Vb
(d) Va > Vb
4. Point masses m1 and m2 are placed at the opposite
ends of a rigid rod of length L, and negligible
mass. The rod is to be set rotating about an axis
perpendicular to it. The position of point P on this
rod through which the
axis should pass so
that the work required
to set the rod rotating
with angular velocity
w0 is minimum, is
given by
m2 L
m
(a) x = 2 L
(b) x =
m1 + m2
m1
10

Physics for you | September 15

(c) x =

m1L
m1 + m2

(d) x =

m1
L
m2

5. A parallel plate air capacitor has capacity C, distance


of separation between plates is d and potential
difference V is applied between the plates. Force of
attraction between the plates of the parallel plate air
capacitor is
CV 2
C 2V 2
(a)
(b)
d
2d 2
C 2V 2
CV 2
(d)
2d
2d
6. An ideal gas is compressed to half its initial volume
by means of several processes. Which of the process
results in the maximum work done on the gas?
(a) Isochoric
(b) Isothermal
(c) Adiabatic
(d) Isobaric
(c)

7. A beam of light consisting of red, green and


blue colours is incident on a right angled prism.
The refractive index of the material of the prism for
the above red, green and blue wavelengths are 1.39,
1.44 and 1.47 respectively.

The prism will


(a) not separate the three colours at all
(b) separate the red colour part from the green and
blue colours
(c) separate the blue colour part from the red and
green colours
(d) separate all the three colours from one another
8. Two vessels separately contain two ideal gases A
and B at the same temperature, the pressure of A
being twice that of B. Under such conditions, the
density of A is found to be 1.5 times the density of
B. The ratio of molecular weight of A and B is

3
1
2
(c)
(d)
4
2
3
9. A remote-sensing satellite of earth revolves in a
circular orbit at a height of 0.25 106 m above the
surface of earth. If earths radius is 6.38 106 m and g
= 9.8 ms2, then the orbital speed of the satellite is
(a) 9.13 km s1
(b) 6.67 km s1
1
(c) 7.76 km s
(d) 8.56 km s1
(a) 2

(b)

10. The energy of the em waves is of the order of 15


keV. To which part of the spectrum does it belong?
(a) Ultraviolet rays
(b) g-rays
(c) X-rays
(d) Infra-red rays
11. A proton and an alpha particle both enter a region
of uniform magnetic field B, moving at right angles
to the field B. If the radius of circular orbits for
both the particles is equal and the kinetic energy
acquired by proton is 1 MeV, the energy acquired
by the alpha particle will be
(a) 1.5 MeV
(b) 1 MeV
(c) 4 MeV
(d) 0.5 MeV

12. If vectors A = cos wt i + sin wt j and

wt
wt
B = cos
i + sin
j are functions of time,
2
2
then the value of t at which they are orthogonal to
each other is
p
p
p
(a) t =
(b) t = 0 (c) t =
(d) t =
w
2w
4w

13. A rectangular coil of length 0.12 m and width


0.1 m having 50 turns of wire is suspended vertically
in a uniform magnetic field of strength 0.2 Weber/m2.
The coil carries a current of 2 A. If the plane of the
coil is inclined at an angle of 30 with the direction
of the field, the torque required to keep the coil in
stable equilibrium will be
(a) 0.24 Nm
(b) 0.12 Nm
(c) 0.15 Nm
(d) 0.20 Nm
14. An automobile moves on a road with a speed of
54 km h1. The radius of its wheels is 0.45 m and
the moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of
rotation is 3 kg m2. If the vehicle is brought to rest
in 15 s, the magnitude of average torque transmitted
by its brakes to the wheel is
(a) 10.86 kg m2 s2
(b) 2.86 kg m2 s2
2 2
(c) 6.66 kg m s
(d) 8.58 kg m2 s2
15. Two metal wires of identical dimensions
are connected in series. If s1 and s2 are the
conductivities of the metal wires respectively, the
effective conductivity of the combination is
12

Physics for you | September 15

s1 + s 2
s1s 2
2s1s 2
(c)
s1 + s 2
(a)

s1s 2
s1 + s 2
s1 + s 2
(d)
2s1s 2
(b)

16. If potential (in volts) in a region is expressed as


V(x, y, z) = 6xy y + 2yz, the electric field (in N/C)
at point (1, 1, 0) is
(a) (2i + 3j + k )
(b) (6i + 9 j + k )
(c) (3i + 5j + 3k )
(d) (6i + 5j + 2k )
17. Two particles A and B, move with constant

velocities v1 and v2 . At the initial moment their

position vectors are r1 and r2 respectively.


The condition for particles A and B for their
collision is


(a) r1 v1 = r2 v2
(b) r1 r2 = v1 v2


r1 r2
v2 v1

(c) = (d) r1 v1 = r2 v2
r1 r2
v2 v1

18. 4.0 g of a gas occupies 22.4 litres at NTP. The specific


heat capacity of the gas at constant volume is
5.0 JK1 mol1. If the speed of sound in this gas at
NTP is 952 ms1, then the heat capacity at constant
pressure is
(Take gas constant R = 8.3 JK1 mol1)
(a) 7.0 JK1 mol1
(b) 8.5 JK1 mol1
1
1
(c) 8.0 JK mol
(d) 7.5 JK1 mol1

19. A force F = a i + 3j + 6k is acting at a point

r = 2i 6 j 12k . The value of a for which angular


momentum about origin is conserved is
(a) zero
(b) 1
(c) 1
(d) 2

20. At the first minimum adjacent to the central


maximum of a single-slit diffraction pattern, the
phase difference between the Huygens wavelet
from the edge of the slit and the wavelet from the
midpoint of the slit is
p
radian
(a) p radian
(b)
8
p
p
radian
radian
(c)
(d)
4
2
21. The heart of a man pumps 5 litres of blood
through the arteries per minute at a pressure of
150 mm of mercury. If the density of mercury be
13.6 103 kg/m3 and g = 10 m/s2 then the power of
heart in watt is
(a) 3.0
(b) 1.50 (c) 1.70
(d) 2.35
22. A ball is thrown vertically downwards from a
height of 20 m with an initial velocity v0. It collides

with the ground, loses 50 percent of its energy


in collision and rebounds to the same height.
The initial velocity v0 is (Take g = 10 ms2)
(a) 28 ms1
(b) 10 ms1
1
(c) 14 ms
(d) 20 ms1
23. The cylindrical tube of a spray pump has radius R,
one end of which has n fine holes, each of radius r.
If the speed of the liquid in the tube is V, the speed
of the ejection of the liquid through the holes is
VR2

V 2R
VR2
VR2
(c)
(d)
nr
n3r 2
n2r 2
nr 2
24. A string is stretched between fixed points separated
by 75.0 cm. It is observed to have resonant
frequencies of 420 Hz and 315 Hz. There are no
other resonant frequencies between these two. The
lowest resonant frequency for this string is
(a) 10.5 Hz
(b) 105 Hz
(c) 155 Hz
(d) 205 Hz
(a)

(b)

25. If dimensions of critical velocity vc of a liquid


flowing through a tube are expressed as [hxryrz]
where h, r and r are the coefficient of viscosity
of liquid, density of liquid and radius of the tube
respectively, then the values of x, y and z are given
by
(a) 1, 1, 1
(b) 1, 1, 1
(c) 1, 1, 1
(d) 1, 1, 1
26. A nucleus of uranium decays at rest into nuclei of
thorium and helium. Then
(a) The helium nucleus has more momentum than
the thorium nucleus.
(b) The helium nucleus has less kinetic energy than
the thorium nucleus.
(c) The helium nucleus has more kinetic energy
than the thorium nucleus.
(d) The helium nucleus has less momentum than
the thorium nucleus.
27. An electron moves on a straight line path XY as
shown. The abcd is a coil adjacent to the path of
electron. What will be the direction of current,
if any, induced in the coil?

(a) The current will reverse its direction as the


electron goes past the coil

(b) No current induced


(c) abcd
(d) adcb
28. Water rises to a height h in capillary tube. If the
length of capillary tube above the surface of water is
made less than h, then
(a) water rises upto a point a little below the top
and stays there.
(b) water does not rise at all.
(c) water rises upto the tip of capillary tube and
then starts overflowing like a fountain.
(d) water rises upto the top of capillary tube and
stays there without overflowing.
29. In an astronomical telescope in normal adjustment
a straight black line of length L is drawn on inside
part of objective lens. The eye-piece forms a real
image of this line. The length of this image is I.
The magnification of the telescope is
L
L+I
(a)
(b)
I
LI
L
L
(c)
(d) 1
+1
I
I
30. A circuit contains an ammeter, a battery of 30 V
and a resistance 40.8 ohm all connected in series. If
the ammeter has a coil of resistance 480 ohm and a
shunt of 20 ohm, the reading in the ammeter will be
(a) 2 A
(b) 1 A (c) 0.5 A (d) 0.25 A
31. On a frictionless surface, a block of mass M moving
at speed v collides elastically with another block
of same mass M which is initially at rest. After
collision the first block moves at an angle q to its
v
initial direction and has a speed . The second
3
blocks speed after the collision is
3
3
v
(a)
(b)
v
2
2
3
(c) 2 2 v
(d) v
4
3
32. A satellite S is moving in an elliptical orbit around
the earth. The mass of the satellite is very small
compared to the mass of the earth. Then,
(a) the linear momentum of S remains constant in
magnitude.
(b) the acceleration of S is always directed towards
the centre of the earth.
(c) the angular momentum of S about the centre
of the earth changes in direction, but its
magnitude remains constant.
(d) the total mechanical energy of S varies
periodically with time.
Physics for you | September 15

13

33. In the given figure, a diode D is connected to an


external resistance R = 100 W and an e.m.f. of 3.5 V.
If the barrier potential
developed across the
diode is 0.5 V, the current
in the circuit will be
(a) 20 mA
(b) 35 mA
(c) 30 mA
(d) 40 mA
34. A potentiometer wire of length L and a resistance
r are connected in series with a battery of e.m.f. E0
and a resistance r1. An unknown e.m.f. E is balanced
at a length l of the potentiometer wire. The e.m.f. E
will be given by
LE0r
E l
(a) 0
(b)
(r + r1 )l
L
(c)

LE0r
lr1

(d)

E0r l
.
(r + r1 ) L

35. Two stones of masses m and 2m are whirled in


r
horizontal circles, the heavier one in a radius
2
and the lighter one in radius r. The tangential speed
of lighter stone is n times that of the value of heavier
stone when they experience same centripetal forces.
The value of n is
(a) 4
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
36. Two slits in Youngs experiment have widths in the
ratio 1 : 25. The ratio of intensity at the maxima and
I
minima in the interference pattern, max is
I min
49
9
121
4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
121
4
49
9
37. The Youngs modulus of steel is twice that of brass.
Two wires of same length and of same area of
cross section, one of steel and another of brass are
suspended from the same roof. If we want the lower
ends of the wires to be at the same level, then the
weights added to the steel and brass wires must be
in the ratio of
(a) 4 : 1
(b) 1 : 1 (c) 1 : 2
(d) 2 : 1
38. The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is
5. If the temperature inside freezer is 20C, the
temperature of the surroundings to which it rejects
heat is
(a) 11C (b) 21C (c) 31C
(d) 41C
39. Light of wavelength 500 nm is incident on a
metal with work function 2.28 eV. The de Broglie
14

Physics for you | September 15

wavelength of the emitted electron is


(a) 2.8 109 m
(b) 2.8 1012 m
10
(c) < 2.8 10 m
(d) < 2.8 109 m
40. A source of sound S emitting waves of frequency
100 Hz and an observer O are located at some
distance from each other. The source is moving
with a speed of 19.4 ms1 at an angle of 60 with
the source observer line as shown in the figure.
The observer is at rest.
The apparent frequency
observed by the observer
(velocity of sound in air
330 ms1), is
(a) 106 Hz (b) 97 Hz (c) 100 Hz (d) 103 Hz
41. The value of coefficient of volume expansion of
glycerin is 5 104 K1. The fractional change
in the density of glycerin for a rise of 40C in its
temperature, is
(a) 0.025 (b) 0.010 (c) 0.015 (d) 0.020

42. The position vector of a particle R as a function of


time is given by

R = 4 sin(2 pt )i + 4 cos(2 pt )j
Where R is in meters, t is in seconds and i and j

denote unit vectors along x-and y-directions,


respectively. Which one of the following statements
is wrong for the motion of particle?
(a) Magnitude of the velocity of particle is
8 meter/second.
(b) Path of the particle is a circle of radius 4 meter.

(c) Acceleration vector is along R.


v2
(d) Magnitude of acceleration vector is
, where
R
v is the velocity of particle.

43. A plank with a box on it at one end is gradually


raised about the other end. As the angle of
inclination with the horizontal reaches 30, the box
starts to slip and slides 4.0 m down the plank in 4.0 s.
The coefficients of
static and kinetic
friction between the
box and the plank will
be, respectively
(a) 0.5 and 0.6
(b) 0.4 and 0.3
(c) 0.6 and 0.6
(d) 0.6 and 0.5
44. In the spectrum of hydrogen, the ratio of the longest
wavelength in the Lyman series to the longest
wavelength in the Balmer series is
27
5
9
4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5
27
4
9

45. A particle is executing a simple harmonic motion.


Its maximum acceleration is a and maximum
velocity is b. Then, its time period of vibration will
be
(a)

b2
a

(b)

b2
2pb
(c) 2
a
a

(d)

a
b

solutions
1. (c) : Let f0 be the work function of the surface of

the material. Then,


According to Einsteins photoelectric equation,
the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted
photoelectrons in the first case is
hc
K max = f0
1
l
and that in the second case is
hc
2hc
K max = f0 =
f0
2
l
l
2
But Kmax = 3Kmax (given)
2

2hc
hc

f0 = 3 f0
l

l
2hc
3hc
f0 =
3f0
l
l
3hc 2hc
3f0 f0 =

l
l
hc
hc
2f 0 =
or f0 =
2l
l

2. (b) : Here,

Input signal, Vi = 2 cos 15t + p

and voltage gain, Av = 150


V
As Av = o
Vi
\ Output signal, Vo = AvVi
Since CE amplifier gives a phase difference of
p(=180) between input and output signals,

\ Vo = 150 2 cos 15t + + p

4p

= 300 cos 15t +

3
3. (d) : Current through resistor, i

= Current in the circuit


V0
V0
=
=
R2 + XC2
R2 + (1/wC )2

Voltage across capacitor, V = iXC


V0
1
=

R2 + (1/wC )2 wC
=

V0

R 2 w 2C 2 + 1
As Ca < Cb
\ ia < ib and Va > Vb
4. (b) :

Moment of inertia of the system about the axis of


rotation (through point P) is
I = m1x2 + m2(L x)2
By work energy theorem,
Work done to set the rod rotating with angular
velocity w0 = Increase in rotational kinetic energy
1
1
W = I w20 = [m1x 2 + m2 (L x )2 ]w20
2
2
dW
For W to be minimum,
=0
dx
1
i.e.
[2m1x + 2m2 (L x )(1)]w20 = 0
2
or m1x m2(L x) = 0
(... w0 0)
m2 L
or (m1 + m2)x = m2L or x =
m1 + m2
5. (d) : Force of attraction between the plates of the

parallel plate air capacitor is

Q2
2e0 A
where Q is the charge on the capacitor, e0 is the
permittivity of free space and A is the area of each
plate.
But Q = CV
e A
and C = 0
or e0 A = Cd
d
C 2V 2 CV 2
\ F=
=
2Cd
2d
6. (c) : The P-V diagram of an ideal gas compressed
V
from its initial volume V0 to 0 by several processes
2
is shown in the figure.
F=

Physics for you | September 15

15

Work done on the gas = Area under PV curve


As area under the PV curve is maximum for
adiabatic process, so work done on the gas is
maximum for adiabatic process.

density of the gas respectively and R is the universal


gas constant.
\ The molecular weight of A is
r RT
MA = A A
PA
and that of B is
r RT
MB = B B
PB
Hence, their corresponding ratio is
M A r A TA PB
=
M B rB TB PA
Here,

7. (b) : As beam of light is incident normally on

the face AB of the right angled prism ABC, so no


refraction occurs at face AB and it passes straight
and strikes the face AC at an angle of incidence
i = 45.
For total reflection to take place at face AC,
i > ic or sini > sinic
where ic is the critical angle.
1
But as here i = 45 and sin ic =
m
1
1
1
\ sin 45 > or
>
m
2 m
or m > 2 = 1.414
As mred (= 1.39) < m(= 1.414) while mgreen( = 1.44)
and mblue(= 1.47) > m (= 1.414), so only red colour
will be transmitted through face AC while green
and blue colours will suffer total internal reflection.
So the prism will separate red colour from the green
and blue colours as shown in the following figure.

8. (d) : According to an ideal gas equation, the

molecular weight of an ideal gas is


rRT

rRT
M=
as P =

M
P
where P, T and r are the pressure, temperature and

16

Physics for you | September 15

rA
3 T
= 1.5 = , A = 1 and
rB
2 TB

PA
=2
PB

MA 3 1 3
= (1) =
MB 2 2 4

9. (c) : The orbital speed of the satellite is

vo = R

g
( R + h)

where R is the earths radius, g is the acceleration


due to gravity on earths surface and h is the height
above the surface of earth.
Here, R = 6.38 106m, g = 9.8 m s2 and
h = 0.25 106 m
\ vo = (6.38 106 m)

(9.8 m s 2 )
(6.38 106 m + 0.25 106 m)

= 7.76 103 m s1 = 7.76 km s1


(... 1 km = 103 m)
hc
E
where the symbols have their usual meanings.
Here, E = 15 keV = 15 103 V
and hc = 1240 eV nm
1240 eV nm
\ l=
= 0.083 nm
15 103 eV

10. (c) : As l =

As the wavelength range of X-rays is from 1 nm to


103 nm, so this wavelength belongs to X-rays.
11. (b) : The kinetic energy acquired by a charged
particle in a uniform magnetic field B is

2mK
mv
q2 B2 R2
K=
as R = qB = qB
2m
where q and m are the charge and mass of the
particle and R is the radius of circular orbit.
\ The kinetic energy acquired by proton is

Kp =

q2p B2 R2p
2m p

and that by the alpha particle is


q2 B2 Ra2
Ka = a
2ma
2

q m p Ra
Thus, K a = a

Kp q p ma R p
2

qa m p Ra
or K a = K p

q p ma R p
mp 1
q
=
Here, K p = 1 MeV, a = 2,
qp
ma 4
Ra
=1
and
Rp
1
\ K a = (1 MeV)(2)2 (1)2 = 1 MeV
4

12. (a) : Two vectors A and B are orthogonal to each



other, if their scalar product is zero i.e. A B = 0.

Here, A = cos wt i + sin wt j

wt
wt
i + sin
j
and B = cos
2
2

wt
wt

\ A B = (cos wti + sin wt j) cos i + sin j

2
2
wt
wt
+ sin wt sin
2
2
( i i = j j = 1 and i j = j i = 0)

= cos wt cos

wt

= cos wt

(... cos(A B) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB)


But A B = 0 (as A and B are orthogonal to each other)
\ cos wt wt = 0

2
wt p
p
wt

=
or wt
cos wt = cos

2 2
2
2
p
wt p
or t =
=
w
2 2
13. (d) : The required torque is

t = NIABsinq
where N is the number of turns in the coil, I is the
current through the coil, B is the uniform magnetic
field, A is the area of the coil and q is the angle

between the direction of the magnetic field and


normal to the plane of the coil.
Here, N = 50, I = 2 A, A = 0.12 m 0.1 m = 0.012 m2
B = 0.2 Wb/m2 and q = 90 30 = 60
\ t = (50)(2 A)(0.012 m2)(0.2 Wb/m2) sin60
= 0.20 Nm
14. (c) : Here,
Speed of the automobile,
5
v = 54 km h 1 = 54 m s 1 = 15 m s 1
18
Radius of the wheel of the automobile, R = 0.45 m
Moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of
rotation, I = 3 kg m2
Time in which the vehicle brought to rest, t = 15 s
The initial angular speed of the wheel is
1

1500
100
v 15 m s
rad s 1 =
rad s 1
=
=
45
3
R 0.45 m
and its final angular speed is
wf = 0 (as the vehicle comes to rest)
\ The angular retardation of the wheel is
100
w f wi 0 3
100
rad s 2
a=
=
=
t
15 s
45
The magnitude of required torque is
100

t = I | a | = (3 kg m2 )
rad s 2
45

20
=
kg m2s 2 = 6.66 kg m2s 2
3
15. (c) : As both metal wires are of identical dimensions,
so their length and area of cross-section will be
same. Let them be l and A respectively. Then
The resistance of the first wire is
l
... (i)
R1 =
s1 A
wi =

and that of the second wire is


l
R2 =
s2 A

... (ii)

As they are connected in series, so their effective


resistance is
Rs = R1 + R2
l
l
=
+
s1 A s 2 A (using (i) and (ii))
=

1
l 1
+

A s1 s 2
Physics for you | September 15

... (iii)
17

If seff is the effective conductivity of the combination,


then
2l
... (iv)
Rs =
s eff A
Equating eqns. (iii) and (iv), we get
1
2l
l 1
= +
s eff A A s1 s 2
s + s1
2
= 2
s eff
s1s 2
2s1s 2
s eff =
s1 + s 2

16. (d) : The electric field E and potential V in a region


are related as

V V V
i+
j+
k
E =
y
z
x
Here, V(x, y, z) = 6xy y + 2yz

\ E = (6 xy y + 2 yz )i + (6 xy y + 2 yz )j
y
x

+ (6 xy y + 2 yz )k
z

= [(6 y )i + (6 x 1 + 2z )k + (2 y )k]
At point (1, 1, 0),

E = [(6(1))i + (6(1) 1 + 2(0))j + (2(1))k ]


= (6i + 5j + 2k )
17. (c) : Let the particles A and B collide at time t. For

their collision, the position vectors of both particles


should be same at time t, i.e.


r1 + v1t = r2 + v2t

r1 r2 = v2t v1t

= (v2 v1 ) t
... (i)


Also, | r1 r2 | = | v2 v1 | t

|r r |
or t = 1 2
| v2 v1 |

gRT
M
where g is the ratio of two specific heats, R is the
universal gas constant and T is the temperature of
the gas.
v=

Mv 2
RT
Here, M = 4.0 g mol1= 4.0 103 kg mol1,
v = 952 ms1, R = 8.3 JK1 mol1
and T = 273 K (at NTP)
\ g=

\ g=

(4.0 103 kg mol 1 )(952 ms 1 )2

= 1.6
(8.3 JK 1 mol 1 )(273 K)
By definition,
Cp
g=
or Cp = gCv
Cv
But g = 1.6 and Cv = 5.0 JK1 mol1
\ Cp = (1.6)(5.0 JK1 mol1)
= 8.0 JK1 mol1
19. (c) : For the conservation of angular momentum

about origin, the torque t acting on the particle


will be zero.

By definition, t = r F

Here, r = 2i 6 j 12 k and F = ai + 3j + 6 k
i j
k

\ t = 2 6 12
a 3
6
= i(36 + 36) j(12 + 12a) + k (6 + 6a)
= j(12 + 12a) + k (6 + 6a)

But t = 0
\ 12 + 12a = 0 or a = 1
and 6 + 6a = 0
or a = 1
20. (a) : The situation is shown in the figure.

Substituting this value of t in eqn. (i), we get




| r1 r2 |
r1 r2 = (v2 v1 )
| v2 v1 |


(v v )
r r
or 1 2 = 2 1
| r1 r2 | | v2 v1 |

18. (c) : Since 4.0 g of a gas occupies 22.4 litres at NTP,

so the molecular mass of the gas is


M = 4.0 g mol1
As the speed of the sound in the gas is

18

Physics for you | September 15

In figure A and B represent the edges of the slit AB


of width a and C represents the midpoint of the
slit.
For the first minimum at P,

asinq = l
... (i)
where l is the wavelength of light.
The path difference between the wavelets from A to
C is
a
1
Dx = sin q = (a sin q)
2
2

23. (d) : Let the speed of the ejection of the liquid

l
(using (i))
2
The corresponding phase difference Df is
2p
2p l
Df =
Dx =
=p
l
l 2
21. (c) : Here,
Volume of blood pumped by mans heart,
V = 5 litres = 5 103 m3 (... 1 litre = 103 m3)
Time in which this volume of blood pumps,
t = 1 min = 60 s
Pressure at which the blood pumps,
P = 150 mm of Hg = 0.15 m of Hg
= (0.15 m)(13.6 103 kg/m3)(10 m/s2)
(... P = hrg)
3
2
= 20.4 10 N/m
PV
\ Power of the heart =
t

(n + 1)v nv
v

=
2L
2L 2L
which is also the lowest resonant frequency
(n = 1).
Thus the lowest resonant frequency for the given
string
= 420 Hz 315 Hz = 105 Hz

(20.4 103 N/m2 )(5 103 m3 )


60 s

= 1.70 W

22. (d) : The situation is shown in the figure.

Let v be the velocity of the


ball with which it collides
with ground. Then according
to the law of conservation of
energy,
Gain in kinetic energy = loss in potential energy
1
1
i.e. mv 2 mv02 = mgh
2
2
(where m is the mass of the ball)

or

v 2 v02 = 2 gh

... (i)

Now, when the ball collides with the ground, 50%


of its energy is lost and it rebounds to the same
height h.
50 1 2
\
mv = mgh
100 2
1 2
v = gh or v2 = 4gh
4
Substituting this value of v2 in eqn. (i), we get
4 gh v02 = 2 gh

or

v02 = 4 gh 2 gh = 2 gh

or v0 = 2 gh
Here, g = 10 ms2 and h = 20 m
\ v0 = 2(10 ms 2 )(20 m) = 20 ms 1
through the holes be v. Then according to the
equation of continuity,
pR2V VR2
pR2V = npr2v or v =
=
npr 2
nr 2
24. (b) : For a string fixed at both ends, the resonant
frequencies are
nv
un =
where n = 1, 2, 3, .....
2L
The difference between two consecutive resonant
frequencies is
Dun = un+1 un =

25. (c) : [vc] = [hxry rz] (given)

... (i)
Writing the dimensions of various quantities in
eqn. (i), we get
[M0LT1] = [ML1T1]x[ML3T0]y[M0LT0]z
= [Mx + y Lx 3y + z Tx]
Applying the principle of homogeneity of
dimensions, we get
x + y = 0; x 3y + z = 1; x = 1
On solving, we get
x = 1, y = 1, z = 1

26. (c) : If pTh and pHe are the momenta of thorium


and helium nuclei respectively, then according to
law of conservation of linear momentum

0 = pTh + pHe or pTh = pHe


ve sign shows that both are moving in opposite
directions.
But in magnitude
pTh = pHe
If mTh and mHe are the masses of thorium and
helium nuclei respectively, then
p2
Kinetic energy of thorium nucleus is K Th = Th
2mTh
and that of helium nucleus is
K He =

2
pHe
2mHe

Physics for you | September 15

19

K Th pTh mHe
\
=
K He pHe mTh
But pTh = pHe and mHe < mTh
\ KTh < KHe or KHe > KTh
Thus the helium nucleus has more kinetic energy
than the thorium nucleus.
27. (a) :

When the electron moves from X to Y, the flux


linked with the coil abcd (which is into the page)
will first increase and then decrease as the electron
passes by. So the induced current in the coil will be
first anticlockwise and will reverse its direction (i.e.
will become clockwise) as the electron goes past the
coil.
28. (d) : Water will not overflow but will change its
radius of curvature.
29. (b) : The situation is shown in the figure.

Let fo and fe be the focal lengths of the objective and


eyepiece respectively.
For normal adjustment distance of the objective
from the eyepiece (tube length) = fo+ fe.
Treating the line on the objective as the object and
eyepiece as the lens.
\ u = (fo + fe) and f = fe
1 1 1
As
=
v u f
1
1
1
\

=
v ( fo + fe ) fe
f +f f
fo
1 1
1
=
= o e e =
v fe fo + fe
fe ( fo + fe ) fe ( fo + fe )
f (f + f )
or v = e o e
fo
fe ( fo + fe )
fo
f
I v
= e
Thus, = u =
fo
( fo + fe )
L
20

Physics for you | September 15

or

fo L
=
fe I

... (i)

\ The magnification of the telescope in normal


adjustment is
f
L
(using (i))
m= o =
fe I
30. (c) : The circuit is shown in the figure.

Resistance of the ammeter is


(480 W)(20 W)
RA =
= 19.2 W
(480 W + 20 W)
(As 480 W and 20 W are in parallel)
As ammeter is in series with 40.8 W,
\ Total resistance of the circuit is
R = 40.8 W + RA = 40.8 W + 19.2 W = 60 W
By Ohms law,
Current in the circuit is
V 30 V 1
I= =
= A = 0.5 A
R 60 W 2
Thus the reading in the ammeter will be 0.5 A.
31. (c) : The situation is shown in the figure.

Let v be speed of second block after the collision.


As the collision is elastic, so kinetic energy is
conserved.
According to conservation of kinetic energy,
1
1 v 2 1
Mv 2 + 0 = M + Mv 2
2
2 3 2
v2
v 2 = + v 2
9
or

v 2 9v 2 v 2 8 2
=
= v
9
9
9
8 2
8
2 2
v =
v =
v=
v
9
3
3
v 2 = v 2

Physics for you | September 15

21

32. (b) : The gravitational force on the satellite S acts

towards the centre of the earth, so the acceleration


of the satellite S is always directed towards the
centre of the earth.
33. (c) :

The potential difference across the resistance R is


V = 3.5 V 0.5 V = 3 V
By Ohms law,
The current in the circuit is
3V
V
I= =
R 100 W
= 3 102 A = 30 103 A = 30 mA
34. (d) :

2
2
n2 mv = 4 mv
r
r
n2 = 4 or n = 2
36. (c) : As, intensity I width of slit W
Also, intensity I square of amplitude A
I
W
A2
\ 1= 1= 1
I2 W2 A22
But
\

W1 1
=
W2 25

A12

A22

1
25

I max ( A1 + A2 )2
=
=
2
I min ( A1 A2 )2 A
1 1

A
2

37. (d) :

1
+ 1
5
1
1
5

2
2

6

5

4

5

36 9
=
16 4

(r / 2)
But (Fc)lighter = (Fc)heavier (given)

Let L and A be length and area of cross section of


each wire. In order to have the lower ends of the
wires to be at the same level (i.e. same elongation is
produced in both wires), let weights Ws and Wb are
added to steel and brass wires respectively. Then
By definition of Youngs modulus, the elongation
produced in the steel wire is
WL
W/ A

DLs = s
as Y =

Ys A
DL / L
and that in the brass wire is
WL
DLb = b
Yb A
But DLs = DLb (given)
Ws L Wb L
Ws Ys
\
=
or
=
Ys A Yb A
Wb Yb
Y
(given)
As s = 2
Yb

35. (c) : Let v be tangential speed of heavier stone. Then,

Centripetal force experienced by lighter stone is


m(nv )2
r
and that of heavier stone is
(Fc )lighter =

(Fc )heavier =

22

A1
1 1
=
=
A2
25 5

or

A1
A + 1
2

The current through the potentiometer wire is


E0
I=
(r + r1 )
and the potential difference across the wire is
E r
V = Ir = 0
(r + r1 )
The potential gradient along the potentiometer
wire is
E0r
V
k= =
L (r + r1 )L
As the unknown e.m.f. E is balanced against length
l of the potentiometer wire,
E0r l
\ E = kl =
(r + r1 ) L

(given)

2 mv 2

m(nv )2 2mv 2
=
r
(r / 2)

Physics for you | September 15

Ws 2
=
Wb 1

38. (c) : The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator

is

a=

T2
T1 T2

where T1 and T2 are the temperatures of hot and


cold reservoirs (in kelvin) respectively.
Here, a = 5, T2 = 20C = 20 + 273 K = 253 K
T1 = ?
253 K
\ 5=
T1 253 K
5T1 5(253 K) = 253 K
5T1 = 253 K + 5(253 K) = 6(253 K)
6
T1 = (253 K) = 303.6 K = 303.6 273
5
= 30.6C 31C
39. (a) : According to Einsteins photoelectric equation,
the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electron
is
hc
K max = f0
l
where l is the wavelength of incident light and f0 is
the work function.
Here, l = 500 nm, hc = 1240 eV nm
and f0 = 2.28 eV
1240 eV nm
\ K max =
2.28 eV
500 nm
= 2.48 eV 2.28 eV = 0.2 eV
The de Broglie wavelength of the emitted electron
is
h
l min =
2 mK max

As the velocity of source along the source observer


line is vscos60 and the observer is at rest, so the
apparent frequency observed by the observer is
v

u = u0
v vs cos 60

330 ms 1

= (100 Hz)
330 ms 1 (19.4 ms 1 ) 1
2

330 ms 1
= (100 Hz)

330 ms 1 9.7 ms 1

330 ms 1
= (100 Hz)
= 103 Hz
320.3 ms 1
41. (d) : Let r0 and rT be densities of glycerin at 0C
and TC respectively. Then,
rT = r0(1 gDT)
where g is the coefficient of volume expansion of
glycerine and DT is rise in temperature.
r
rT
= 1 gDT or gDT = 1 T
r0
r0
r r
Thus, 0 T = gDT
r0

Here, g = 5 104 K1 and DT = 40C = 40 K


\ The fractional change in the density of glycerin
r r
= 0 T = gDT = (5 104 K 1 )(40 K) = 0.020
r0

42. (a) : Here, R = 4 sin(2 pt )i + 4 cos(2 pt )j

where h is the Plancks constant and m is the mass


of the electron.
As h = 6.6 1034 J s, m = 9 1031 kg
and Kmax = 0.2 eV = 0.2 1.6 1019 J

The velocity of the particle is

dR d
v=
= [4 sin(2 pt )i + 4 cos(2 pt )j]
dt dt
= 8 p cos(2 pt )i 8 p sin(2 pt )j

Its magnitude is

| v | = (8 p cos(2 pt ))2 + (8 p sin(2 pt ))2

l min =

6.6 1034 J s

2(9 1031 kg )(0.2 1.6 1019 J)

6. 6
109 m = 2.8 109 m
2. 4
So, l 2.8 109 m
40. (d) : Here,
Frequency of source, u0 = 100 Hz
Velocity of source, vs = 19.4 ms1
Velocity of sound in air, v = 330 ms1
=

= 64 p2 cos2 (2 pt ) + 64 p2 sin2 (2 pt )
= 64 p2[cos2 (2 pt ) + sin2 (2 pt )]
= 64 p2

(as sin2q + cos2q = 1)

= 8p m/s
43. (d) : Let ms and mk be the coefficients of static and
kinetic friction between the box and the plank
respectively.
When the angle of inclination q reaches 30, the
block just slides,
Physics for you | September 15

23

m s = tan q = tan 30 =

1
3

= 0. 6

If a is the acceleration produced in the block, then


ma = mgsinq f k
(where f k is force of kinetic friction)
= mgsinq mkN
(as f k = mkN)
= mgsinq mkmgcosq
(as N = mgcosq)
a = g(sinq mkcosq)
As g = 10 ms2 and q = 30
\ a = (10 ms2)(sin30 mkcos30)
...(i)
If s is the distance travelled by the block in time t,
then
1
s = at 2
(as u = 0)
2
2s
or a =
t2
But s = 4.0 m and t = 4.0 s (given)
2(4.0 m) 1
\ a=
= ms 2
2
2
( 4. 0 s )
Substituting this value of a in eqn. (i), we get
1

ms 2 = (10 ms 2 ) 1 mk 3

2
2
2
1
= 1 3 mk
10
1
9
or
3 m k = 1 = = 0. 9
10 10
0.9
mk =
= 0. 5
3
44. (b) : The wavelength of a spectral line in the Lyman
series is
1
1 1
= R 2 2 , n = 2, 3, 4, .......
lL
1 n
and that in the Balmer series is
1
1
1
= R 2 2 , n = 3, 4, 5, .......
lB
2 n
For the longest wavelength in the Lyman series,
n=2
1
1 1
1 1
4 1 3R
=
\
= R 2 2 = R = R
lL
1 4
4 4
1 2
4
or l L =
3R

24

Physics for you | September 15

For the longest wavelength in the Balmer series,


n=3
1
1
1
1 1
\
= R 2 2 = R
4 9
2

lB
3
9 4 5R
= R
=
36 36
36
or l B =
5R
4
l L 3R 4 5R 5
Thus ,
=
=

=
l B 36 3R 36 27
5R
45. (b) : If A and w be amplitude and angular frequency
of vibration, then
a = w2A
...(i)
and b = wA
...(ii)
Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get

a w2 A
=
=w
b wA
Time period of vibration is
2p
2p
2 pb
T=
=
=
w (a / b)
a

nn

Haryana teen tops AiPMt


Vipul Garg, a 17-year-old from Haryanas Jind district, topped the
All India Pre-Medical Test (AIPMT) entrance examination 2015,
the results for which were announced on 17th August 2015.
Vipul, who is the first in his family to go to medical school and
has mostly relied on scholarships so far to get ahead, scored 695
marks out of 720.
My family worked very hard and faced lots of hardships to meet
my expenses. I scored cent per cent in Class X and was given a fee
waiver by the school for the remaining years. A private coaching
institute agreed to waive off the fee for me while I was preparing
for my medical entrance.
He was disappointed when the earlier AIPMT was cancelled. I
had done well and was sad. But then I realised it was a good
opportunity to work on my weak points and things I knew I had
difficulty doing in the first test. I had no idea I would top the
entrance, he said, adding he plans to become a cardiologist.
Occupying the second slot is 17-year old Khushi Tiwari from
Rajasthan, who was sure she would ace the examination. Khushi,
who always wanted to be a doctor like her parents, scored 688
out of 720.
Although, I have not decided on my specialisation, I know
I studied 14 hours a day to be able to get into Maulana Azad
Medical College, she said.
The Central Board of Secondary Education had re-conducted the
test on July 25 on direction from the Supreme Court after allegations
of irregularities surfaced in the first test held on May 3.
Courtesy : The Hindu

Series 1
Chapterwise Unit test : Units and Measurement | Kinematics
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

All questions are compulsory.


Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

1. Can a quantity have units but still be dimensionless?


2. A stone tied at the end of string is whirled in a circle.

If the string breaks, the stone flies away tangentially.


Why?

3. Express (3.0 104 1.7 106) with proper

significant figures.

4. Is the acceleration of a car greater when the

accelerator is pushed to the floor or when brake


pedal is pushed hard ?

5. Two straight lines drawn on the same x-t curve

make angles 30 and 60 with time axis. Which line


represents greater velocity? What is the ratio of the
two velocities?

6. If x = a + bt + ct2 where x is in metres and t in

seconds, find the units of b.

7. A ball is thrown vertically upwards. Draw its height-

time and velocity-time graph.

8. At what angle the two forces A + B and A B act so

that their resultant is

3 A2 + B 2 ?

9. The displacement of a particle is proportional to the

cube of time elapsed. How does the acceleration of


the body depend on time elapsed?

OR
Two balls of different masses (one lighter and other
heavier) are thrown vertical upwards with the same
speed. Which one will pass through the point of
projection in their downward direction with the
greater speed?
10. The lengths of two cylinders are measured to be

l1 = (5.62 0.01) cm and l2 = (4.34 0.02) cm.


Calculate difference in lengths with error limits.

11. The vernier scale of a travelling microscope

has 50 divisions which coincide with 49 main


scale divisions. If each main scale division is
0.5 mm, calculate the minimum inaccuracy in the
measurement of distance.

12. A man runs across the roof-top of a tall building and

jumps horizontally with the hope of landing on the


roof of the next building which is of a lower height
than the first. If his speed is 9 m s1, the (horizontal)
distance between the two buildings is 10 m and the
height difference is 9 m, will he be able to land on
the next building? (Take g = 10 m s2)

13. A boy throws a ball in air at 60 to the horizontal

along a road with a speed of 10 m s1 (36 km h1).


Another boy sitting in a passing by car observes the
ball. Sketch the motion of the ball as observed by
the boy in the car, if car has a speed of 18 km h1.
Give explanation to support your diagram.
Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

25

OR
A particle falling vertically from a height hits a
plane surface inclined to horizontal at an angle q
with speed vo and rebounds elastically (see figure).
Find the distance along the plane where it will hit
second time.

14. A car moving along a straight highway with speed of

126 km h1 is brought to a stop within a distance of


200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed
uniform), and how long does it take for the car to
stop?

15. There are two angles of projection for which the

horizontal range is the same. Prove that the sum of


the maximum heights for these two angles does not
depend upon the angle of projection.

16. An object is thrown vertically upward with some

speed. It crosses 2 points p, q which are separated by


h metre. If tp is the time between p and highest point
and coming back and tq is the time between q and
highest point and coming back, relate acceleration
due to gravity, tp , tq and h.
OR
Two ends of a train moving with a constant
acceleration passes a certain point with velocities
u and v. Show that the velocity with which the
middle point of the train passes the same point is

20. An artificial satellite is revolving around a planet

of mass M and radius R, in a circular orbit of


radius r. From Keplers third law about the period
of a satellite around a common central body, square
of the period of revolution T is proportional to
the cube of the radius of the orbit r. Show using

k r3
, where k is
R g
a dimensionless constant and g is acceleration due
to gravity.
OR
Figure gives a speed-time graph of a particle in one
dimensional motion along a constant direction.
Three equal intervals of time are shown. In which
interval is the average acceleration greatest in
magnitude? In which interval is the average speed
greatest? Choosing the positive direction as the
constant direction of motion, give the signs of v and
a in the three intervals. What are the accelerations
at the points A, B, C and D?
dimensional analysis, that T =

(u2 + v 2 ) .
2
17. The speed of sound, v through a medium may be

assumed to depend upon : (i) the density of the


medium, d and (ii) its modulus of elasticity, E.
Modulus of elasticity is a ratio of stress to strain and
stress is the force per unit area. Deduce by the method
of dimensions, the formula for the speed of sound.

18. Read the given passage and answer the following

questions.

Shyam goes to college with his sister Shreya in their


own car. The college is about 10 km from their home.
They drive on alternate days. Shreya is a very careful
driver, but Shyam is a rasher. He takes 3 minutes
lesser than Shreya in reaching the college. Shreya
advises Shyam to drive safely, but he hardly listens.
(i) What values are displayed by Shreya ? Do you
agree with her?
(ii) What is the difference between average speeds
of Shyam and Shreya if latter takes 15 minutes
to drive to the college ?
19. A projectile is fired at a certain angle with the

horizontal. Derive the equation of trajectory of the


projectile.
Also write expression for : (i) the maximum height
attained (ii) the time of its flight and (iii) the
horizontal range.

26

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

Speed

B
C

Time

solutions
1.

Yes, an angle is measured in radian but it has no


dimensions.

2.

When a stone is going around a circular path, the


instantaneous velocity of stone is acting tangentially
to the circle. When the string breaks, the centripetal
force stops to act. Due to inertia, the stone continue to
move along the tangent to circular path. That is why,
the stone flies off tangentially to the circular path.

3.

3.0 104 1.7 106 = (3.0 0.017) 104


= (3.0 0.0) 104
= 3.0 104

4.

Acceleration of a car is greater when brake pedal is


pushed hard, because car suddenly comes to rest,
i.e., the rate of change of velocity of car is large.

5.

The line which has greater slope has greater velocity.


Thus, the line which makes an angle of 60 with
time axis has greater velocity.

tan 30 1 / 3 1
=
=
tan 60
3
3
6. As L.H.S. represents distance, every term on R.H.S.
must represent distance.
[x ] [L]
\ [bt ] = [ x ] or [b ] =
=
= [LT1 ]
[t ] [ T ]
Therefore, b represents velocity and hence its unit
is m s1.
Ratio of two velocities =

7.

8.

The h-t graph for the motion is a parabola and is


shown in figure (i). The v-t graph for the motion
is a straight line as shown in figure (ii) because
acceleration is constant during the entire motion of
the body.

Here, P = A + B ; Q = A B
and R = 3A2 + B2
R2 = (A + B)2 + (A B)2 + 2(A + B) (A B) cos q
or 3A2 + B2 = 2(A2 + B2) + 2(A2 B2) cos q
1
or cos q =
2
\ q = 60

9.

Let x be the displacement at time t of an object in


motion. Given, x = k t3, where k is a constant of
proportionality.
dx
Velocity of object, v =
= 3 kt 2 and acceleration
dt
dv
of object, a =
= 3k 2t = 6 kt
dt
i.e., a t. It means acceleration time.
OR

Let u be the initial velocity of projection of body


and v be the velocity of the same body while passing
downwards through point of projection. The
displacement of body s = 0.
Using the relation v2 = u2 + 2as,
and u = u, v = ? ; a = g, s = 0, we have
v2 = u2 + 2 ( g) 0 = u2 or v = u
It means that the final speed is independent of mass
of the body. Hence, both the bodies will acquire
the same speed while passing through point of
projection.
10. Here, l1 = (5.62 0.01) cm

l2 = (4.34 0.02) cm
l = l1 l2 = 5.62 4.34 = 1.28 cm.
Dl = (Dl1 + Dl2) = (0.01 + 0.02) = 0.03
0. 03
Percentage error =
100 = 2. 34 %
1. 28
Hence, difference in lengths = (1.28 0.03) cm
= 1.28 cm 2.34 %

11. Given, 50 VSD = 49 MSD

1 VSD =

49
MSD
50

1 MSD = 0.5 mm
In vernier callipers,
Minimum inaccuracy in the measurement of
distance by vernier callipers = vernier constant
= 1 MSD 1 VSD
49
1
= 1 MSD
MSD =
MSD
50
50
1
=
0.5 mm = 0.01 mm
50
12. Suppose man is at building A and wants to land on
building B.
Horizontal speed of man, vx = 9 m s1

Vertical speed of man, vy = 0


Distance between buildings, x = 10 m
Difference between height of the buildings, h = 9 m
Suppose t is the time taken by the man to fall
vertically downward by a height h,
Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

27

h = v yt +

1 2
gt
2

9=0t +

1
10 t 2
2

9
= 1.34 s
5
If distance covered by the man along x-axis during
this time t is x, then
x = vxt = 9 1.34 = 12.06 m
Here, x > x
So, man will land successfully from building A to
building B.

5t 2 = 9 t =

= 36 km h1
The ball is thrown at angle of 60 with the
horizontal.
Horizontal speed of the ball, ux = ucos60
1
= 36 = 18 km h 1
2
Vertical speed of the ball, uy = usin60

13. Initial speed of the ball, u = 10 m s

3
= 18 3 km h 1
2
Speed of the car, v = 18 km h1

an angle q with the horizontal direction, then


Horizontal range, R =

uy u
60

Case (i) : If q = a, let R = R1 and H = H1, then


u2 sin 2a
(i)
R1 =
g
u2
sin2 a
2g
Case (ii) : If q = (90 a), let R = R2
and H = H2, then
and H1 =

R2 =

Since, ux = v, so boy sitting in the car will observe


only the vertical motion of the ball. Sketch of
motion is shown in the figure.
14. Here,

u = 126 km h 1 =

126 1000
60 60

m s1 = 35 m s1 ;

v = 0, s = 200 m, a = ? and t = ?

We know, v2 = u2 + 2as
\ 0 = (35)2 + 2 a 200
2

( 35 )
49
=
= 3.06 m s2
a=
2 200
16
As, v = u + at
49
\ 0 = 35 +
t
16
or

28

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

(ii)

u2 sin 2 (90 a)
g

u2
u2
sin(180 2a) =
sin 2a
g
g

u2
u2
sin2 (90 a) =
cos2 a
2g
2g
From (i) and (iii), R1 = R2
From (ii) and (iv);
H2 =

H1 + H 2 =

ux= 5 m s1

u2
sin 2q
g

2
2
and maximum height, H = u sin q
2g

uy

15. If a projectile is projected with velocity u, making

= 36

uy

35 16

80
= 11.43 s
49
7
Negative sign shows that acceleration is negative,
which is called retardation i.e. car is uniformly
retarded at a = 3.06 m s2.
or t =

(iii)
(iv)

u2
u2
(sin2 a + cos2 a) =
2g
2g

16. Let u be the velocity of the object while crossing

point p and v be its velocity while crossing point q


as shown in figure. A is the highest point of vertical
motion of object. As per question, the time taken by
tp
and the time
the object in going from p to A =
2
tq
taken by the object in going from q to A = .
2
Taking vertical upward motion of object from
p to A, we have
tp
u = u, v = 0, a = g , t =
2
As, v = u + at
tp
gt
\ 0 = u + ( g ) or u = p
(i)
2
2

Taking vertical upward motion of object from q to


A, we have,
t
u = v, v = 0, a = g, t = q
2
As, v = u + at
tq
tq
\ 0 = v + ( g )
or v = g
2
2
Taking vertical upward motion of
object from p to q, we have,
u = u, v = v, a = g, s = h
As, v2 = u2 + 2as
\ v2 = u2 + 2( g)h
g 2t 2p g 2tq2
2
2
or 2 gh = u v =

4
4
8h
or g =
(t 2p tq2 )
OR
Let x be the total length of the train, V be the velocity
of the middle point of the train while passing a
certain point and a be the uniform acceleration
of the train. Taking the motion of the train when
middle point is passing from the given point, we
have
x
u = u, v = V, s = ; a = a
2
Using, v2 = u2 + 2 as, we have
2ax
(i)
V 2 = u2 +
= u2 + ax
2
Taking the motion of train when the last end of
train is passing from the given point, then
u = u, v = v, a = a, s = x
Now, we have, v2 = u2 + 2ax

v 2 u2
or ax =
2
Putting this value in (i), we get
V 2 = u2 +

v 2 u2 u2 + v 2
=
2
2

or V =

(u2 + v 2 )
2

17. We are given that,

E=
=

Stress
Strain

Force/ Unit area

Change in configuration/ Original configuration

or E =

MLT2 / L2
= [ML1 T2 ]
1

Let v da Eb
or v = k daEb
(i)
where a, b are constants.
Writing the dimensional formula of the various
quantities on both the sides,
[M0L1T1] = [ML3]a [ML1T2]b, we get
[M0L1T1] = Ma + b L3a b T2b]
Applying the principle of homogeneity of
dimensions, we get
a + b = 0, 3a b = 1 and 2b = 1
1
Clearly, b =
2
1
Also, a = b =
2
From eqn (i),
E
v = kd 1/ 2 E1/ 2 = k
d
18. (i) Shreya displays safety concerns for her brother.
Rash driving can lead to any unfortunate incident.
We agree with Shreya that driving must be careful
and safe.
(ii) Average speed of Shreya,
10 km
Distance
v1 =
=
= 40 km h 1
Time taken 15 / 60 hr
\

Time taken by Shyam to reach the school


= 15 3 = 12 minute.
Average speed of Shyam,

10 km
Distance
=
= 50 km h 1
12 / 60 hr
Time
v2 v1 = 50 40 = 10 km h1
v2 =

19. Suppose a projectile is fired with velocity u at an

angle q with the horizontal. Let it reach the point


(x, y) after time t. Then
Components of initial velocity,
ux = u cos q, uy = u sin q
Components of acceleration at any instant,
ax = 0, ay = g
Position after time t,
x
x = (u cos q) t t =
u cos q
1
y = (u sin q) t gt 2
(i)
2
Putting value of t in (i)
2
x 1 x

y = usinq
g
u cos q 2 u cos q
y = x tan q

2u cos2 q

x2

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

29

Maximum height, H =
Time of flight, T =

2u y
g

Horizontal range, R =

u2y
2g
=

u2 sin2 q
2g

2u sin q

2ux u y

g
=

u2 sin 2q

g
g
Maximum horizontal range is attained at q = 45
and its value is
u2
g
Velocity after time t,
vx = u cos q, vy = u sin q gt
Rmax =

OR

Since the collision of particle with inclined plane is


elastic, so its rebound speed is same but direction of
velocity is changed.
After rebounding, motion of the particle is projectile
on inclined plane.
Let T = time taken by the particle to hit the plane
second time.

2v 1
2v
4v 2
= v0 sin q 0 + ( g sin q) 0 = 0 sin q
g
g 2
g
20. According to Keplers third law,

T2 r3 T r3/2
Also, T depends on g and R.
Let, T r3/2 gx Ry
where x and y are exponents of g and R
respectively.

T = kr3/2 gx Ry
where k is dimensionless constant of proportionality.
Writing dimensions of the physical quantities on
both sides
[M0L0T1] = [L]3/2 [LT2]x [L]y

[M0 L0 T1] = [M0L(3/2 + x + y)T2x]


Using the principle of homogeneity of dimensions
3
x+y+ =0
(i)
2
2x = 1
(ii)
1
From eqns. (i) and (ii), x = , y = 1
2
k r3
T = kr 3/ 2 g 1/ 2 R 1 T =
R g
which is required quantity.

(i)

Consider motion along perpendicular to inclined


plane,
y = 0, uy = v0 cosq, ay = g cosq, t = T
1
y = u yt + a yt 2
2
1
0 = (v 0 cos q)T + ( g cos q)T 2
2
T=

2v0
g

Consider motion along inclined plane,


2v
x = L, ux = v0sinq, ax = gsinq, t = T = 0
g
1
\ x = ux t + a x t 2
2
30

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(v)

OR
The magnitude of the average acceleration is
given by
Change in speed
=
Time interval
i.e. average acceleration in a small interval of
time is equal to the slope of (v-t) graph in that
time interval.
As the slope of (v-t) graph is maximum in the
interval 2 as compared to intervals 1 and 3,
hence the magnitude of average acceleration is
greatest in interval 2.
The average speed is greatest in the interval 3
as peak D is at maximum on speed axis.
v > 0 i.e. positive in all the three intervals.
The slope is positive in intervals 1 and 3, so
a i.e. acceleration is positive in these intervals
while the slope is negative in interval 2, so
acceleration is negative in it. So, a > 0 i.e.
positive in intervals 1 and 3 and a < 0 i.e.
negative in interval 2.
As slope is zero at points A, B, C and D, so the
acceleration is zero at all the four points.
nn

Class
XI

ACCELERATED LEARNING SERIES

Unit

Rotational Motion | Gravitation | Properties of Solids and Liquids


ROtatIOnal MOtIOn

Centre of Mass of n-particles System

Centre of Mass

The centre of mass of a system of particles is the point


that moves as though
all the mass of the system is concentrated there and
all external forces are applied there.
Centre of Mass of a two Particle System

In figure (a), two particles of


masses m1 and m2 are
separated by distance d and
the origin coincide with the
particle of mass m1. The
position of the centre of mass
(com) of this two particles is
given by
m2
y
xcom =
d
m1 + m2

xcom
m1

com

m2

d
(a)

For a system of n-particles of masses m1, m2, m3, ...., mn


having the position vectors r1, r2 , ....., rn respectively


with respect to coordinate system, the position of the
centre of mass is given by a position vector
n

mi ri

m r + m2r2 + .....mnrn i =1
Rcom = 1 1
=
m1 + m2 + ..... + mn
M
where, M is total mass of the system.
The coordinates of centre of mass is given by
n

mi xi

xcom =

i =1

mi yi

i =1
, ycom =
M

mi zi

xcom

In figure (b), in which


m1
m2
x
the coordinate system O
com
x1
d
has been shifted leftward.
x
The position of the centre
2
(b)
of mass is
m x + m2 x2
xcom = 1 1
m1 + m2
Similarly for y and z-axis
m y + m2 y2
m z + m2 z2
ycom = 1 1
and z com = 1 1
m1 + m2
m1 + m2

and z com = i =1
M
Centre of Mass of Rigid Body (or continuous
distribution of mass
Solid bodies contain so many particles (atoms) that we
can treat them as a continuous distribution of matter.
The particles then become differential mass elements
dm, the sum become integrals, and the coordinates of
the centre of mass are defined as
1
1
xcom = xdm , ycom = ydm
M
M
1
and z com = zdm
M
where M is the mass of the body.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

31

KEY POINT
The position of the centre of mass of a system is
independent of the choice of coordinate system.
The position of the centre of mass depends on the
shape of the body and the distribution of its mass.
Hence it may lie within or outside the material of
the body.

SELF CHECK

1. Distance of the centre of mass of a solid uniform


cone from its vertex is z0. If the radius of its base is
R and its height is h then z0 is equal to
5h
3h 2
h2
3h
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4R
8
8R
4
(JEE Main 2015)
Velocity of the Centre of Mass of a System of
n-particles

Velocity of centre of mass is given by

m v + m2v2 + ... + mnvn

vcom = 1 1
m1 + m2 + ... + mn
n
n

mi vi mi vi
= i =1

mi

= i =1
M

i =1

acceleration of the Centre of Mass of a System of


n-particles

Acceleration of centre of mass is given by

m a + m2a2 + ... + mnan

acom = 1 1
m1 + m2 + ... + mn
n
n

m
a
i i mi ai
= i =1

mi

= i =1
M

i =1

If total external force acting on the system is zero, then


the total linear momentum of the system is conserved.
Also, when the total external force acting on the system
is zero, the velocity of centre of mass remains constant.
torque

Torque is the turning or twisting action on a body, about


the axis of rotation due to a force.

If a force F is acting at any point in the body whose


position vector relative to any arbitrary point on the

axis of rotation is r then torque of the force on the


body about the axis of rotation is given by

t=r F
32

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

Also, | t | = rF sin q

where q is the angle between r and F .


Torque is a vector quantity. Its SI unit is N m.
Torque has the same dimensions as that of work i.e.
[ML2T2]. But both are different. Work is a scalar
quantity whereas torque is a vector quantity.
By sign convention, anticlockwise torque is taken as
positive and clockwise torque is taken as negative.
Work done by torque

Work done by torque t,

W = t q , where q = angular displacement.



For variable torque, dW = t dq
angular Momentum
Angular momentum of a particle about a given point is
defined as

L=r p

where, r = position vector of the particle with respect


to the given point, p = linear momentum of the particle.

Direction of L can be determined by using the rule


for vector product. Angular momentum is a vector
quantity. Its S I unit is kg m2 s 1. Its dimensional formula
is [ML2T1].

SELF CHECK

2. A bob of mass m attached to an inextensible string


of length l is suspended from a vertical support. The
bob rotates in a horizontal circle with an angular
speed w rad s1 about the vertical. About the point
of suspension
(a) angular momentum changes both in direction
and magnitude.
(b) angular momentum is conserved.
(c) angular momentum changes in magnitude but
not in direction.
(d) angular momentum changes in direction but
not in magnitude.
(JEE Main 2014)
Conservation of angular Momentum

When there is no net


external torque acting on a particle,

dL
then we can put
= 0 L = constant
dt
Therefore, the angular momentum of the particle remains
unchanged in the absence of an external torque.
Relationship
Momentum

between

torque

and

angular

Rate of change of angular momentum of a body is equal


to the external torque acting upon the body.

dL
i.e., text =
dt

SELF CHECK

3. A hoop of radius r and mass m rotating with an


angular velocity w0 is placed on a rough horizontal
surface. The initial velocity of the centre of the hoop
is zero. What will be the velocity of the centre of the
hoop when it ceases to slip?
rw 0
rw 0
rw 0
(a) rw0
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
2
3
(JEE Main 2013)
Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies

A rigid body is in mechanical equilibrium, if


it is in translational equilibrium i.e. the total external
force on it is zero. i.e. SFi = 0.
it is in rotational equilibrium, i.e., the total external
torque on it is zero, i.e. Sti = 0.
Moment of Inertia

The property of a body by virtue of which it opposes any


change in its state of rest or of rotation is defined as its
moment of inertia. The moment of inertia of a particle
is given by
I = mr2
where m is the mass of the particle and r is the distance
of the particle from axis of rotation.
Moment of inertia of a system of particles depends on
Axis of rotation
Mass of the system
Distribution of mass in the body
About a particular axis of rotation, moment of inertia of
a rigid body is constant. Moment of inertia plays same
role in rotational motion as mass plays in translational
motion.
KEY POINT
Moment of inertia is a scalar quantity. Its SI unit is
kg m2 and its dimensional formula is [ML2T0].

Radius of gyration of a body about an axis of rotation


may also be defined as the root mean square distance of
the particles from the axis of rotation
r12 + r22 + ... + rN2
N
theorems of Moment of Inertia
Theorem of perpendicular axes: The moment of inertia
of a planar lamina about an axis perpendicular to its
plane is equal to the sum of its moments of inertia about
two perpendiculzar axes concurrent with perpendicular
axis and lying in the plane of the body.
Iz = Ix + Iy
where x and y are two perpendicular axes in the plane
and z axis is perpendicular to its plane.
Theorem of parallel axes : The moment of inertia of a
body about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of
inertia of the body about a parallel axis passing through
its centre of mass and the product of its mass and the
square of the distance between the two parallel axes.
I = ICM + Md2
where ICM is the moment of inertia of the body about
an axis passing through the centre of mass and d is the
perpendicular distance between two parallel axes.
Moment of inertia of some regular bodies about
specific axis is given in the table :
i.e., k =

S.
No.

1.

Radius of Gyration

It is defined as the distance from the axis of rotation


at which, if whole mass of the body were supposed to
be concentrated, the moment of inertia would be same
as with the actual distribution of the mass of body into
small particles.
I
M
The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is
equal to the product of mass of the body and square of
its radius of gyration about that axis. i.e., I = Mk2.
The SI unit of radius of gyration is metre and its
dimensional formula is [M0LT0].
Radius of gyration, k =

2.

Body

Axis of rotation

Moment of
inertia (I)

about an axis
passing through
its centre and MR2
perpendicular to
its plane

Uniform
circular ring about a diameter
of mass M
and radius R about a tangent in
its own plane
about a tangent
perpendicular to
its plane
about an axis passing
through its centre
and perpendicular
to its plane
Uniform
circular disc about a diameter
of mass M
and radius R about a tangent in
its own plane
about a tangent
perpendicular to
its own plane

1
MR2
2

3
MR2
2

2MR2
1
MR2
2

1
MR2
4
5
MR2
4
3
MR2
2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

33

3.

4.

5.

6.

2
2
Solid sphere about its diameter 5 MR
of radius R
7
and mass M about a tangential MR2
axis
5
Hollow
about its diameter
sphere
of
radius R and about a tangential
mass M
axis

2
MR2
3
5
MR2
3

about its own axis

1
MR2
2

Solid
cylinder
of length l,
radius R and
mass M

Hollow
cylinder of
mass
M,
length l and
radius R

about an axis
l 2 R2
passing through
M +

its centre and


12 4
perpendicular to
its own axis
about the diameter
l 2 R2
of one of the faces M +
4
3
of cylinder
about its own axis MR2

about an axis
passing through
R2 l 2
its centre and M +
2 12
perpendicular to
its own axis

7.

about an axis
passing through
2
its centre and ML
perpendicular to 12
Thin rod of the rod
length L
about an axis
passing through
ML2
one end and
3
perpendicular to
the rod

8.

about an axis
Rectangular
passing through
2
2
lamina
of
its centre and M l + b
length l and
12
perpendicular to
breadth b
its plane

SELF CHECK

4. Consider a uniform square plate of side a and mass


m. The moment of inertia of this plate about an axis
perpendicular to its plane and passing through one
of its corners is
34

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

(a)
(c)

2
ma 2
3
1
ma 2
12

5
ma 2
6
7
(d)
ma 2
12

(b)

(AIEEE 2008)

Kinematic Equations of Rotational Motion

The equations of motion with uniform acceleration have


rotational counterparts which are, by comparison,
...(i)
w = w0 + at
1 2
...(ii)
q = w 0t + at
2

w02

...(iii)
w =
+ 2aq

where w0 is the initial angular velocity and w is the final
angular velocity (both in rad s1) after the body has
rotated through angular displacement q (in rad) with
constant angular acceleration a (in rad s2) in a time
interval t (in s).
Analogy between translational motion and
rotational motion
1.

Translational motion
Displacement s

2.

Velocity v =

3.

4.
5.

Acceleration
dv
a=
dt
Mass M
Force F = Ma

6.

Work dW = Fds

ds
dt

Rotational motion
Angular
displacement q
Angular velocity
dq
w=
dt
Angular acceleration
dw
a=
dt
Moment of inertia I
Torque t = Ia
Work dW = tdq

Kinetic energy of a Kinetic energy of a


rotational motion
translational motion
2
Mv
I w2
KT =
KR =
2
2
8. Power P = Fv
Power P = tw
9. Linear momentum
Angular momentum
p = Mv
L = Iw
Equations of
10. Equations of
rotational motion
translational motion
(i) w = w0 + at
(i) v = u + at
1 2
1 2
(ii) s = ut + at
(ii) q = w0t + at
2
2
2
2
2
2
(iii) v u = 2as
(iii) w w0 = 2aq
a
(iv)
(iv) snth = u + (2n 1)
a
2
qnth = w0 + (2n 1)
2

7.

a Rolling Rigid Body

1
Kinetic energy of rotational motion, K R = I w2 .
2
Kinetic energy of a rolling body = translational kinetic
energy (KT) + rotational kinetic energy (KR)
K2
1
1
1
= Mv 2 + I w2 = Mv 2 1 +

2
2
2
2
R
When a body rolls down an inclined plane of inclination
q without slipping its velocity at the bottom of incline
2 gh
where h is the height of the
is given by v =
K2
1+
R2
incline. Its acceleration down the inclined plane is given
g sin q
.
by a =
K2
1+
R2
Time taken by the body to reach the bottom is given by
t=

K2
2l 1 +

R2

where l is the length of the inclined plane.


g sin q

KEY POINT
The motion of a rigid body, which is not pointed
or fixed in some way, is either purely translational
or a combination of translational and rotational
motions.
Angular displacement in the anticlockwise
direction is positive and one in the clockwise
direction is negative.
GRaVItatIOn

It holds good for long distances like interplanetary


distances and also for short distances like interatomic
distances.
The interaction means that both the particles
experience forces of equal magnitude in opposite

directions. If F1 , F2 are the forces exerted on particle 1
by particle 2 and on particle 2 by particle 1, respectively

then F1 = F2 . Since the forces F1 and F2 are exerted


on different bodies, they are known as actionreaction pair.
It is a conservative force. Therefore, the work
done by the gravitational force on a particle is
independent of the path described by the particle.
It depends upon the initial and final positions of the
particle. Therefore, no work is done by the gravity if
a particle moves in a closed path.
If a particle A is acted upon by n particles say the net
force exerted on it must be equal to the vector sum
of the forces due to all the surrounding particles.
i =n

FA = Fi
i =1

where Fi is force acted on the particle A by the ith


particle.

SELF CHECK

5. Four particles, each of mass M and equidistant from


each other, move along a circle of radius R under
the action of their mutual gravitational attraction.
The speed of each particle is
(a)

Universal law of Gravitation

Every particle in this universe attracts every other


particle with a force that is proportional to the product
of their masses and inversely proportional to the square
of the distance between them.
The gravitational force F between two particles of
masses m1 and m2, distance r apart is given by
mm
F =G 1 2
r2
where G is a constant, called the universal gravitational
constant, and assumed to have the same value
everywhere for all matter.
Characteristics of the Gravitational Force
Gravitational force is always attractive and directed
along the line joining the particles.
It is independent of the nature of the medium
surrounding the particles.

(c)

1 GM
(1 + 2 2 ) (b)
2 R
2 2

GM
R

(d)

GM
R
GM
(1 + 2 2 )
R
(JEE Main 2014)

Keplers laws of Planetary Motion

The sun has eight planets and the earth is one of them.
The planets closer to the sun moves in nearly circular
orbits whereas the farther planets move in elliptical
orbits. some planets have satellites orbiting around them.
For example the moon is the earths satellite. It is a natural
satellite. The earth has many artificial satellite orbiting it.
The orbital motion of planets and satellites obey certain
laws known as Keplers laws of planetary motion.
First law (law of orbits)

The orbits of the planets are elliptical with sun at one


of its foci.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

35

Second law (law of areas)

KEY POINT

The radial line connecting the planet and the sun sweeps
out equal areas in equal time intervals.

dA
remains constant for a planet.
Areal velocity =
dt
Angular momentum
( L ) of a planet is related with areal

dA

dA
velocity dt by the relation L = 2m
dt
The area covered by the radius vector in dt seconds
=

The value of acceleration due to gravity is

independent of the shape, size, mass etc. of the


body but depends upon mass and radius of the
earth or planet due to which there is a gravity
pull.
The value of the acceleration due to gravity on the
moon is about one sixth of that on the earth and
on the sun is about 27 times that on the earth.
The value of acceleration due to gravity is
minimum at planet Mercury and maximum at
planet Jupiter.

1 2
r dq.
2

\ The areal velocity = 1 r 2 dq = 1 r 2w = 1 rv.


2

dt

KEY POINT
Keplers second law follows from the law of
conservation of angular momentum.
According to Keplers second law, the speed of the
planet is maximum, when it is closest to the sun
and is minimum when the planet is farthest from
the sun.

Variation of acceleration due to gravity (g)

third law (law of periods)

The square of the period of revolution is proportional to


the cube of the semi-major axis of the orbit.
i.e., T2 r3
\ For two planets with time period, T1, T2 and semimajor axis r1 and r2

r3
= 1
T22 r23
acceleration Due to Gravity
It is defined as the acceleration of a particle caused by
the gravitation force, at the point under consideration.
According to Newtons second law,
F = ma
If the force on body is due to gravity of earth, then
acceleration in the body is called acceleration due to
gravity. It is denoted by g, i.e. a = g, \ F = mg
Acceleration due to gravity is a vector quantity. It is
directed towards the centre of earth. Its SI unit is m s2.
Its dimensional formula is [M0LT2].
The value of g on the surface of earth is taken to be
9.8 m s2 and it varies with altitude, depth, shape and
the rotation of earth.

T12

Relationship between g and G

4
G pRe3r
4
g=
= 3
= pGRe r
2
2
3
Re
Re
where Me is the mass of the earth, Re is the radius of
the earth and r is the uniform density of the material
of the earth.
GMe

36

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

Due to altitude (h) : The acceleration due to gravity


at height h above the surface of earth is given by
2

GMe
GMe
h
gh =
= g 1 + g =

Re
(Re + h)2
Re2

2h
For h << Re, g h = g 1
Re
When we move above the surface of earth g goes on
decreasing.
Due to depth (d): The acceleration due to gravity at
a depth d below the surface of earth is given by
R d

GMe
d
gd =
(Re d ) = g e
= g 1

Re
Re
Re3
At the centre, d = Re \ gd = 0.
The value of g decreases with depth also. It is
maximum at the earths surface and becomes zero
at the centre of the earth.
For h << Re, the decrease of the acceleration due
to gravity with height is twice as compared to that
with depth.
If a body is taken above the surface of earth, the
value of acceleration due to gravity varies inversely
as the square of the distance from the centre of
the earth. But if the body is taken inside the earth,
acceleration due to gravity decreases linearly with
distance from the centre of the earth.
Due to rotation of earth : The acceleration due to
gravity at latitude l is given by
gl = g Re w2 cos2l
where w is the angular speed of the earth.
At the equator, l = 0
gl = ge = g Rew2cos20 = g Re2
At the poles, l = 90
gl = gp = g Rew2cos290 = g

The value of acceleration due to gravity is minimum


at the equator and maximum at the poles. Thus g
increases as we move from equator to the pole.
gp ge = g (g Rew2) = Rew2

Due to shape of the earth : Earth is not a perfect


sphere but it is an ellipsoid. The earths radius is
21 km larger at the equator than at the poles. Thus
the earth has an equatorial bulge and is flattened
at the poles. Both, rotation and equatorial bulge
contribute additively to keep the g smaller at the
equator than at the poles.

Gravitational Potential

Gravitational field around a material body can be

described not only by gravitational intensity vector E,


but also by a scalar function, the gravitational potential
V. The gravitational potential at any point may be
defined as the potential energy per unit mass of a test
mass placed at that point.
U
i.e., V =
m
where U is the gravitational potential energy of the test
mass m.
Thus, if the reference point is taken at infinite distance,
the potential of a point in the gravitational field is equal
to the amount of work done by the external agent per unit
mass in bringing a test mass from infinite to that point.
GM
i.e., V =
r
Here, V is the gravitational potential due to a point mass
M at a distance r from it.
Gravitational potential is a scalar quantity. Its
dimensional formula is [M0L2T2].
Unit of gravitational potential in SI system is
J kg1 and in CGS system it is erg g1.
Gravitational potential due to shell
The gravitational potential due to a spherical shell of
radius R and mass M at a point distant r from the centre
of the shell is given as follows :
at a point outside the shell is V = GM
r
GM
at a point on the surface of shell is V =
R
GM
at a point inside the shell is V =
R
Gravitational potential due to a uniform solid sphere
outside the sphere at a distance r from the centre is
GM
V =
r

inside the sphere at a distance r from the centre is


3GM R2 r 2
V =

R3 2
6
dV
The field and the potential are related as, E =
dr
Gravitational Potential Energy
The gravitational potential energy of a body at a point
in a gravitational field of another body is defined as the
amount of work done in bringing the given body from
infinity to that point.
The gravitational potential energy between two bodies
of masses M and m separated by distance r is given by
GMm
U =
r
where U is taken to be zero as r .
Gravitational potential energy is a scalar quantity. Its
dimensional formula is [ML2T2] and SI unit is J.
Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass m at
height h above the surface of the earth is given by
GMe m
Uh =
(Re + h)
Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass m on
the surface of the earth is given by
GMe m
Us =
Re
The change in potential energy when a body of mass m
is moved vertically upwards through a height h from
the surface of the earth is given by
1
1
DU = U h U s = GMe m

Re Re + h
GM

GMe mh
mgh
e
=
=
As 2 = g

h
h
Re

Re2 1 + 1 +
Re Re
For h < < Re, DU = mgh.

SELF CHECK

6. From a solid sphere of mass M and radius R, a


R
is removed, as shown
spherical portion of radius
2
in the figure. Taking gravitational potential V = 0 at
r = , the potential at the centre of the cavity thus
formed is
(G = gravitational constant)
(a)
(c)

2GM
3R
GM
2R

2GM
R
GM
(d)
R (JEE Main 2015)
(b)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

37

7. Which of the following most closely depicts the


correct variation of the gravitational potential V(r)
due to a large planet of radius R and uniform mass
density?
(figures are not drawn to scale)
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

GMe
As g = 2
Re

When the satellite is orbiting close to the surface of


earth, i.e., h < < Re, then
g
= gRe
Re

The orbital speed of a satellite is independent of the mass


of the satellite. The orbital speed of a satellite depends upon
the mass and radius of the earth/planet around which
the revolution of satellite is taking place. The direction of
orbital speed of a satellite at an instant is along the tangent
to the orbital path of satellite at that instant.
Time period of a satellite: It is the time taken by satellite
to complete one revolution around the earth and it is
given by T = 2 p

(Re + h)3 2 p (Re + h)3


=
GMe
Re
g

For a satellite orbiting close to the surface of the earth


i.e. h < < Re
T = 2p
38

Re
= 84.6 min.
g

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

Angular momentum of a satellite

Kinetic energy of a satellite,

A satellite is a lighter body which is revolving


continuously in an orbit around a comparatively much
larger body. e.g. earth is a satellite of sun and moon in
turn is a satellite of earth.
Orbital speed of a satellite: It is defined as the minimum
speed required to put the satellite into a given orbit
around earth.
Orbital speed of satellite, when it is revolving around
earth at a height h is given by

vo = Re

Re

GM
= [m2GMr ]1/2
r
Angular momentum of a satellite depends on both, mass
of the satellite (m) and mass of the planet (M). It also
depends upon the radius of the orbit (r) of the satellite.

Satellite

GMe
g
= Re
Re + h
Re + h

1/3

T 2 R2 g
e
h=
2
4p

L = mvo r = mr

(JEE Main 2015)

vo =

Height of satellite above the earths surface

1
1 GMe m | U |
K = mvo2 =
=
2
2 (Re + h)
2
Potential energy of a satellite,
U=

GMe m
Re + h

Total energy (mechanical) of a satellite


E = K +U =

GMe m
2(Re + h)

For satellite orbiting very close to the surface of earth


GMe m
i.e., h < < Re then E =
2Re
Kinetic energy of a satellite is equal to negative of total
energy while potential energy is equal to twice the total
energy, i.e. K = E, U = 2E
Binding energy of a satellite,
EB = E =

GMe m
2(Re + h)

SELF CHECK

8. What is the minimum energy required to launch a


satellite of mass m from the surface of a planet of mass
M and radius R in a circular orbit at an altitude of 2R?
5GmM
GmM
(a)
(b)
6R
3R
2GmM
GmM
(c)
(d)
3R
2R
(JEE Main 2013)
Geostationary satellite : A satellite which revolves
around the earth with the same angular speed in the
same direction as is done by the earth around its axis is
known as geostationary or geosynchronous satellite.
The height of a geostationary satellite is about
36000 km.

KEY POINT
A geostationary (geosynchronous communication)
satellite moves in a circular orbit in the equatorial
plane at an approximate distance of 4.22 104 km
from the earths centre.
The orbit of a geostationary satellite is known as
parking orbit. Its orbital velocity is about 3.1 km s1.

Polar satellite : It is that satellite which revolves in polar


orbit around earth.
A polar orbit is that orbit whose angle of inclination with
equatorial plane of earth is 90. The polar satellites are
low altitude satellites. They go around the poles of the
earth from north to south direction whereas the earth
rotates around its axis from west to east direction.
Escape Speed

The escape speed on the earth (or any planet) is


defined as the minimum speed with which a body has
to be projected vertically upwards from the surface of
earth (or any other planet) so that it just crosses the
gravitational field of earth (or of that planet) and never
returns on its own. Escape speed ve is given by
2GM
ve =
R
where M = Mass of the earth/planet
R = Radius of the earth/planet
2G volume density
ve =
R
2

2G 4 3
8 prGR
pR r =
R 3
3
For earth, ve = 11.2 km s1
If a body is projected from a planet with a speed v which
is smaller than the escape speed ve (i.e. v < ve), then the
body will reach a certain height may either move in an
orbit around the planet or may fall back to the planet.
If speed of projection (v) of the body from the surface
of a planet is greater than the escape speed (ve) of that
planet, the body will escape out from the gravitational
field of that planet and will move in the interstellar space
with speed v and v is given by
or

ve =

v = v 2 ve2
KEY POINT
The escape speed depends upon the mass and
radius of the earth/planet from the surface of
which the body is to be projected.
The escape speed is independent of the mass
and direction of projection of the body from the
surface of earth/planet.

Weightlessness

It is a situation in which the effective weight of the body


becomes zero. An astronaut experiences weightlessness
in a space satellite.
PROPERtIES OF SOlIDS anD lIqUIDS
Elasticity

The property by virtue of which a body regains its


original size and shape after the removal of deforming
force is called elasticity and the deformation caused
is called elastic deformation. If a body regains its
original size and shape completely after the removal of
deforming force, it is said to be perfectly elastic body.
Quartz fibre and phosphor bronze are the examples of
nearly perfectly elastic bodies. The property by virtue of
which a body does not regain its original size and shape
even after the removal of the deforming force is called
plasticity. If a body does not have any tendency to regain
its original size and shape even after the removal of
deforming force, it is said to be perfectly plastic body.
Putty and paraffin wax are the examples of nearly
perfectly plastic bodies.
KEY POINT
No body is perfectly elastic or perfectly plastic. All
the bodies found in nature lie between these two
limits.
Stress

When a deforming force is applied to a body, it changes


the shape or size of the body by changing the normal
positions of the molecules or atoms of the body. As
a result, an internal restoring force comes into play,
which tends to bring the body back to its initial shape
or size. This internal restoring force acting per unit area
is called stress.
restoring force
i.e., Stress =
area
The unit of stress in SI system is N m2 or pascal (Pa)
and in CGS system is dyne cm2.
The dimensional formula of stress is same as that of
pressure i.e. [ML1T2].
Type of stress : Stress is of two types :
Normal stress
Tangential or shearing stress
Normal Stress : When a deforming force acts normally
over an area of a body, then the internal restoring force set
up per unit area of the body is known as normal stress.
Normal stress can be subdivided into following
categories :
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

39

Tensile stress: If there is an increase in the length


or extension of the body in the direction of force
applied, the stress set up is known as tensile stress.
Compressive stress: If there is a decrease in length
or compression of the body due to force applied, the
stress set up is known as compressive stress.
Hydraulic stress: When a solid body undergoes
a change in volume without any change in
its geometrical shape on applying the force
perpendicular to every point on the surface of
body, then the restoring force per unit area in the
body is known as hydraulic stress. Hydraulic stress
is generally possible when a solid spherical body is
placed in a fluid under high pressure.
Tensile or compressive stress can also be termed as
longitudinal stress.
Tangential or shearing stress: When a deforming force,
acting tangentially to the surface of a body produces a
change in the shape of the body without any change in
volume, then the stress set up in the body is known as
tangential stress or shearing stress.

Strain

When a deforming force is applied on a body, there is


a change in the shape or size of the body. The body is
said to be strained or deformed. The ratio of change in
dimension to the original dimension is called strain.
change in dimensions
i.e. Strain =
original dimension
Strain being the ratio of two similar quantities is a
unitless and dimensionless quantity.
Strain is of three types :
change in length DL
Longitudinal strain =
=
original length
L

change in volume DV
=
original volume
V
Shearing strain : When there is change in shape
of a body without change in its volume, the strain
produced is known as shearing strain. If a body
is acted upon by an external force tangential to a
surface of the body and the opposite surface is being
kept fixed, then the angle through which the line
perpendicular to the stationary surface gets turned
is known as angle of a shear f or shearing strain.
Volumetric strain =

Hookes law

Hookes law states that the extension produced in the


wire is directly proportional to the load applied within
elastic limit. That is within elastic limit, extension load
applied. Later on it was found that this law is applicable to
all types of deformations such as compression, bending,
40

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

twisting etc, and thus a modified form of Hookes law


was given as stated below.
Within elastic limit, the stress developed is directly
proportional to the strain produced in a body, that is
Stress Strain
or Stress = E Strain
where E is constant and known as modulus of
elasticity.
Modulus of Elasticity

According to Hookes law, within elastic limit,


Stress
E=
= a constant
Strain
where E is known as the coefficient of elasticity or, the
modulus of elasticity of a body.
It depends upon the nature of material of the body and
the manner in which the body is deformed.
types of Modulus of Elasticity

Corresponding to the three types of strain, there are


three types of modulus of elasticity as described below.
Youngs modulus of elasticity : It is defined as the
ratio of normal stress to the longitudinal strain
within the elastic limit.
normal stress
F / pr 2 mgL
=
=
Thus, Y =
longitudinal strain
l/L
pr 2l
Normal stress is constant over any area of crosssection. Youngs modulus is numerically equal to
the stress which will double the length of a wire.
Bulk modulus of elasticity : It is defined as the ratio
of normal stress to the volumetric strain, within the
elastic limit.
normal stress
Thus, K =
volumetric strain
P
PV
\ K =
=
DV / V
DV
Modulus of rigidity : It is defined as, the ratio of
tangential stress to the shearing strain, within the
elastic limit. It is also called shear modulus of rigidity.
tangential stress
Thus, h =
shearing strain
F/A F
h=
=
q
Aq
The values of moduli of elasticity are independent of the
magnitude of the stress and strain. They depend only on
the nature of the material of the body.
For a given material there can be different moduli of
elasticity depending on the type of stress applied and
the strain resulting.

The moduli of elasticity have same dimensional formula


and units as that of stress since strain is dimensionless,
i.e., the dimensional formula for Y, B and h is [ML1T2]
while the SI unit of Y, B and h is N m2 or Pa and the
CGS unit is dyne cm2.
Youngs modulus of a rigid body is infinity.
Greater the value of Youngs modulus of a material,
larger is its elasticity. Therefore steel is more elastic than
rubber.
The reciprocal of bulk modulus is known as
compressibility.
1
Compressibility =
B
The SI unit of compressibility is N1 m2 and CGS unit
is dyne1 cm2.
Bulk modulus is relevant for solids, liquids and gases.
Bulk modulus of gases is very low while that for liquids
and solids is very high. i.e. Bsolid > Bliquid > Bgas
For gases, bulk modulus are of two types:
Isothermal bulk modulus Biso = P (pressure exerted
by the gas)
Adiabatic bulk modulus Bad = gP where g = CP/CV.
Bad
\
= g > 1 ; Bad > Biso
Biso
Therefore adiabatic bulk modulus is greater than
isothermal bulk modulus.
h is the characteristic of solid materials only as the
liquids and gases do not have fixed shape. h for liquid
is zero.

Breaking force = Breaking stress Area of cross


section of the wire.
Work done in a stretched wire,
1
W = stress strain volume
2
1 F DL
1
=

AL = F DL
2A L
2
1
= load elongation
2
This work done is stored in the wire as its elastic potential
energy or strain energy.
Elastic potential energy stored per unit volume of a
stretched wire,
1
1
u = stress strain = Y (strain)2
2
2
Pressure
It is defined as the thrust acting per unit area on the
surface in contact with liquid.
thrust (F ) F
i.e. P =
=
area (A) A
It is a scalar quantity. Its dimensional formula is
[ML1T2]. Its SI unit is N m2. It has been named
as pascal (Pa) in the honour of French scientist
Blaise Pascal.
For a point at a depth h below the surface of a liquid
of density r, hydrostatic pressure P is given by
P = P0 + hrg
where P0 represents the atmospheric pressure.

KEY POINT
Youngs modulus is defined only for solids, but not
for liquids and gases.

lateral strain
Dr / r
=
longitudinal strain DL / L
where L is the original length of the wire, DL the increase
in length, r is the original radius and Dr is the change in
radius. s has no units and dimensions.
1
Theoretically, s lies between 1 and + .
2
1
+
.
Practically s lies between zero and
2
Relations among elastic constants (Y, B, h and s)
Y = 3B(1 2s)
Y = 2h(1 + s)
3B 2h
s=
2h + 6 B
Poissons ratio (s) :

9 1 3
= +
Y B h

The pressure P0 + hrg is also known as absolute


pressure.
Pressure depends on the depth of the point below
the surface (h), nature of liquid (r) and acceleration
due to gravity (g) while it is independent of the
amount of liquid, shape of the container or crosssectional area considered. So if a given liquid is
filled in vessels of different shapes to same height,
the pressure at the base in each vessel will be the
same, though the volume or weight of the liquid in
different vessels will be different.

PA = PB = PC but WA < WB < WC


PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

41

Pascals law

Stokes law

It states that pressure in a fluid at rest is same at all


points which are at the same height. A change in
pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every point of the fluid and the walls
of the containing vessel.
Hydraulic lift : It is used to lift heavy loads such as car
at the service station. It is based on the Pascals law.
It consists of two pistons which are separated by the
space filled with a liquid as shown in the figure.

When a sphere of radius r moves with a velocity v


through a fluid of viscosity h, the viscous force opposing
the motion of the sphere is given by
F = 6phrv
Importance of Stokes law

This law is used in the determination of electronic


charge with the help of milikans experiment.
This law accounts the formation of clouds.
This law accounts why the speed of rain drops is
less than that of a body falling freely with a constant
velocity from the height of clouds.
This law helps a man coming down with the help
of parachute.

terminal Velocity

A piston of small cross-section A1 is used to exert


a force F1 directly on the liquid. The pressure
P = F1/A1 is transmitted throughout the liquid to
the larger cylinder attached with larger piston of
area A2 which results in an upward force of P A2.
FA
F2 = PA2 = 1 2
A1
Hydraulic brakes in automobiles is based on the
Pascals law.

Viscosity

When a fluid flows such that a velocity gradient is set


up within it, force act within the fluid so as to prevent
the velocity gradient from existing. This force is due to
property called viscosity.
dv
Thus, F = h A
dz
(The negative sign is put to account for the fact that the
viscous force is opposite to the direction of motion.)
where h is a constant called coefficient of viscosity, its
CGS unit is poise. Dimensions is [ML1T1]. The SI unit
of viscosity is poiseuille (Pl).
1 Pl = 10 poise
Effect on viscosity

42

Effect of temperature : On increasing temperature


viscosity of a liquid decreases.
Effect of pressure : On increasing pressure viscosity
of liquid increases but viscosity of water decreases.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

If for a sphere, viscous force become equal to the net


weight acting downward, the velocity of the body
become constant and is known as terminal velocity and
is given by,
2 rs
vc = r 2
g
9 h
Streamline Flow

When a liquid (fluid) flows, such that each particle of


the liquid passing a point moves along the same path
and has the velocity as its predecessor then the flow is
called streamline flow. It is also called laminar flow.
turbulent Flow

When the velocity at a point in the liquid changes with


time, the flow is called unsteady flow. The unsteady flow
is called turbulent when there are bends in the path of a
fast moving liquid.
Critical Velocity

The critical velocity is that velocity of liquid flow, upto


which its flow is streamlined and above which its flow
becomes turbulent.
kh
vc =
rr
Reynold number : Reynold number is a pure number
which determines the nature of flow of liquid through a
pipe. According to Reynold, the critical velocity vc of a
liquid flowing through a tube of diameter D is given by
N h
rDvc
vc = R
or NR =
rD
h
where h is the coefficient of viscosity of the liquid, r is
the density of liquid and NR is a constant called Reynold
number.

If the value of Reynold number lies between 0 to 2000,


the flow of liquid is streamline or laminar. For values of
NR above 3000, the flow of liquid is turbulent and for
values of NR between 2000 to 3000, the flow of liquid is
unstable changing from streamline to turbulent flow.

SELF CHECK

9. If it takes 5 minutes to fill a 15 litre bucket from a


2
water tap of diameter
cm then the Reynolds
p
number for the flow is (density of water = 103 kg/m3
and viscosity of water = 103 Pa.s) close to
(a) 5500 (b) 11,000 (c) 550 (d) 1100
(JEE Main 2015)
Bernoullis theorem

It states that in a streamline flow of incompressible


and non-viscous fluid through a tube of non-uniform
cross-section, the sum of the pressure energy per unit
volume, the potential energy per unit volume and the
kinetic energy per unit volume is same at every point
in the tube,
1
i.e., P + rgh + rv 2 = constant
2
This equation is known as Bernoullis equation. It
represents conservation of mechanical energy in case of
moving fluids.
If the liquid is flowing through a horizontal tube, then
h is constant, then Bernoullis theorem states that
1
P + rv 2 = a constant
2
applications of Bernoullis theorem
Bunsens burner
Atomiser or sprayer
Aerofoil or lift on aircraft wing
Blowing off the roof during storm
Curved motion of a spinning ball (Magnus effect)
Venturimeter
Surface tension

The free surface of a liquid contracts so that its exposed


surface area becomes minimum i.e., it behaves as if it
were under tension, some what like a stretched elastic
membrane. This property is known as surface tension.
The surface tension of a liquid varies with temperature
as well as dissolved impurities, etc. When soap is mixed
with water, the surface tension of water decreases.
Surface tension of a liquid is measured by the normal
force acting per unit length.
F
i.e., S = .
L

Surface tension is a scalar quantity.


SI unit of surface tension is N m1.
Dimensions of surface tension is [ML0T2].
Surface Energy

It is defined as the amount of work done against the


force of surface tension in increasing the liquid surface
of a given area at a constant temperature.
i.e., surface energy = work done
= surface tension increase in
surface area of the liquid
The SI unit of surface energy is joule and CGS unit is erg.
When a bigger drop splits into smaller drops, energy is
required to break it but when smaller drops coalesce to
form a bigger drop energy is released.
Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius r, surface
tension S is, W = 4pr2S.
Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius r, surface
tension S is, W = 2 4pr2S = 8pr2S
Work done in increasing the radius of a liquid drop
from r1 to r2 is W = 4 pS (r22 r12 )
Work done in increasing the radius of a soap bubble
from r1 to r2 is W = 8 pS (r22 r12 )
When n number of smaller drops of a liquid, each of
radius r, surface tension S are combined to form a bigger
drop of radius R, then R = n1/3r
The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2 = 4pn2/3r2. It is
less than the area of n smaller drops.
Work done in breaking a liquid drop of radius R into n

equal small drops W = 4pR2 (n1/3 1)S


where S is the surface tension.

SELF CHECK

10. A thin liquid film formed


between a U-shaped wire and
a light slider supports a weight
FILM
of 1.5 102 N (see figure). The
length of the slider is 30 cm
and its weight negligible. The
surface tension of the liquid
w
film is
(a) 0.1 Nm1
(b) 0.05 Nm1
(c) 0.025 Nm1
(d) 0.0125 Nm1
(AIEEE 2012)
11. Work done in increasing the size of a soap bubble
from a radius of 3 cm to 5 cm is nearly (Surface
tension of soap solution = 0.03 N m1)
(a) 4p mJ
(b) 0.2p mJ
(c) 2p mJ
(d) 0.4p mJ
(AIEEE 2011)
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

43

Excess Pressure

angle of Contact

The pressure on the concave side of the liquid surface is


always greater than the pressure on the convex side. The
difference of pressure is known as excess pressure.
Excess pressure inside a liquid drop is given by
2S
P=
r
Excess pressure inside a soap bubble is given by
4S
P= .
r
Excess pressure inside an air bubble in a liquid is given
by
2S
P=
r
When an air bubble of radius r is at depth h below the
free surface of liquid of density r and surface tension S,
then the excess pressure inside the bubble,
2S
P = + hrg
r
If r1 and r2 are the radii of curved liquid surface, then
excess pressure inside the liquid surface is given by

It is defined as the angle between the tangents to solid


and liquid surfaces at a point of contact inside the
liquid. It depends on the nature of solid and liquid. The
angle of contact is different for different pairs of solids
and liquids. Angle of contact does not depend upon
the inclination of the solid surface to the liquid surface.
Angle of contact increases with increase in temperature
of liquid. Angle of contact decreases on adding soluble
impurity to a liquid.
The value of angle of contact lies between 0 and 180.
The value of angle of contact for pure water and glass
(without grease) is zero.
For all those liquids which wet the solid surface and
which rise up in a capillary tube, the angle of contact is
an acute angle (q < 90), e.g. water and glass.
For all those liquids which do not wet a solid surface and
which depress in a capillary tube, the angle of contact is
an obtuse angle (q > 90). e.g. glass and mercury.
For all those liquids which neither rise nor get depressed
in a capillary tube, the angle of contact is right angle
(q = 90). e.g. silver, and water.

1 1
P =S +
r1 r2
When two bubbles of different sizes are in communication
with each other, air passes from smaller one to larger
one and larger one grows at the expense of smaller one.
This happens due to pressure inside the smaller bubble
being higher than that inside the larger bubble.
When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 coalesce to
form a new soap bubble of radius r, under isothermal
conditions then r = r12 + r22 .
When two soap bubbles of radii r1 and r2 are in contact
with each other and r is the radius of the interface, then
rr
r= 12 .
r2 r1
The total pressure inside an air bubble of radius r at a
depth h below the surface of liquid of density r is
2S
P = P0 + hrg +
r
where P0 is the atmospheric pressure and S is the surface
tension of liquid.
KEY POINT
If a small drop of water is squeezed between two
parallel glass plates so that a very thin layer of large
area is formed then the pressure inside the water
layer is less than the pressure on the plates by (2S/d)
(where d is the distance between the plates).
44

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

Capillarity

The phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid in a capillary


tube is known as capillarity.
The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by
2S cos q 2S
r

h=
=
cos q =
rrg
Rrg
R
where S is the surface tension of the liquid, is the angle
of contact, r is the density of liquid, r is the radius of
capillary tube, R is the radius of the meniscus and g is
the acceleration due to gravity.
If q > 90, i.e., meniscus is convex, h will be negative,
i.e., the liquid will fall in a capillary tube.
If q = 90, i.e., meniscus is plane, h = 0, so no
phenomenon of capillarity.
If q < 90, i.e., meniscus is concave, h will be positive,
i.e., the liquid will rise in the capillary.
If a capillary tube is of insufficient length as compared
to height to which liquid can rise in the capillary tube,
then the liquid rises upto the full length of capillary
tube but there is no overflowing of the liquid in the
form of fountain. It is so because the liquid meniscus
adjusts its radius of curvature so that hR = a constant
i.e. hR = hR.
Heat

It is a form of energy that flows from one body to another


by virtue of temperature difference between them.
The SI unit of heat is joule.

The practical unit of heat is calorie.


1 kcal = 103 cal
1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5C to 15.5C.
Joules mechanical equivalent of heat :
Joule found that when mechanical work is converted
into heat, the ratio of work done (W) to heat produced
(Q) always remains the same and constant.
W
i.e.
= constant = J or W = JQ
Q
The constant J is called Joules mechanical equivalent of
heat. J is not a physical quantity but a conversion factor
involved when work is converted into heat or vice-versa.
The value of J = 4.186 J cal1
1 calorie = 4.186 joule.
temperature

It is a measure of degree of hotness or coldness of the


body.
Relationship between Different Temperature Scales
If TC, TF, TR and TK are the temperatures of a body
on Celsius, Fahrenheit, Reaumur and Kelvin scales
respectively, then
TC 0 TF 32 TR 0
T 273.15
=
=
= K
100 0 212 32 80 0 373.15 273.15
T
T 32 TR TK 273.15
=
=
or C = F
5
9
4
5
KEY POINT
Celsius and Fahrenheit scales show the same
reading at 40 i.e. 40C = 40F
thermometer

It is an instrument used to measure the temperature of


a body.
Different types of thermometers are as follows :
Liquid thermometers
Gas thermometers
Resistance thermometers
Thermoelectric thermometers
Pyrometers
Vapour pressure thermometers
Bimetallic thermometers
Magnetic thermometers
thermal Expansion

The increase in the dimensions of a body due to the


increase in its temperature is called thermal expansion.
Thermal expansion is present in solids, liquids and gases.
In the case of solids the increase will be in length, area and
volume. In liquids and gases only expansion in volume is

possible as they do not possess any fixed shape. In the


case of gases the state of a gas at any instant is dependent
on its volume, pressure and temperature. Hence a gas can
be heated at constant volume or at constant pressure. The
property of thermal expansion of substance is different
for different substances and it also depends on the state
of the substance viz, solid, liquid or gas.
thermal Expansion in Solids

Thermal expansion in solids is of three types :


Linear expansion : The increase in length is called
linear expansion.
Area expansion or superficial expansion :
The increase in area is called area expansion or
superficial expansion.
Volume expansion or cubical expansion : The
increase in the volume is called volume expansion
or cubical expansion.
Coefficient of linear expansion : It is defined as the
increase in length per unit original length per degree
rise in temperature.
Increase in length
a=
Original length Rise in temperature
L L0
a= T
or LT = L0 (1 + aDT )
L0 DT
Coefficient of area expansion : It is defined as the
increase in surface area per unit original surface area
per degree rise in temperature.
Increase in area
b=
Original area Rise in temperature
A A0
b= T
or AT = A0 (1 + bDT )
A0 DT
Coefficient of volume expansion : It is defined as the
increase in volume per unit original volume per degree
rise in temperature.
Increase in volume
g=
Original volume Rise in temperature
V V0
g= T
or VT = V0 (1 + gDT )
V0 DT
Relation between a, b and g
The three coefficients of thermal expansion are related as
b g
a= = .
2 3
The units of a, b and g are the same. They are measured
in C1 or K1. The value of a, b and g depend on the
nature of the material of the solid.
When temperature increases (during summer), the
length of the pendulum increases due to which the time
period increases and the clock will lose time and run
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

45

slow. On the other hand, when temperature decreases


(during winter season), the length of the pendulum
decreases due to which the time period decreases and
the clock will gain time and run fast.
1
The loss or gain in time Dt = a(DT )t
2
where a is the coefficient of linear expansion.
DT = change in temperature and t = time interval in
which we have to find loss or gain of time.
Bimetallic strip : A bimetallic strip consists of two
strips of equal length but of different metals, riveted
together keeping one over the other. When such a
bimetallic strip is heated, it bends with metal of greater
a on outer side, i.e., convex side.
Expansion in Liquids

When a liquid is heated its volume changes. When a


liquid is heated, the containing vessel also expands and
hence the measured increase in volume of the liquid is
the apparent increase in volume. The real increase in
volume of the liquid is equal to the sum of the apparent
increase in the volume of the liquid and the increase in
volume of the containing vessel.
A liquid has two coefficients of expansion :
Coefficient of real expansion
Coefficient of apparent expansion
Coefficient of real expansion
Real increase in volume
gr =
Original volume Rise in temperaature
Coefficient of apparent expansion
Apparent increase in volume
ga =
mperature
Original volume Rise in tem
gr = ga + gg, where gg is coefficient of volume expansion
of the container.
Anomalous Expansion of Water

Generally matter expands on heating and contracts on


cooling. In case of water, it expands on heating if its
temperature is greater than 4C. In the range 0C to
4C, water contracts on heating and expands on cooling,
(i.e., its coefficient of volume expansion in this range
is negative). This behaviour of water in the range from
0C to 4C is called anomalous expansion.
Water has a maximum density a 4C.
Specific Heat or Specific Heat Capacity

It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the


temperature of unit mass of the substance through 1C.
1 DQ
The specific heat of a substance is given by s =
m DT
where m is the mass of the substance and DQ is the heat
required to change its temperature by DT.
48

PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

The SI unit of specific heat is J kg1 K1.


The practical unit of specific heat is cal g1 C1.
Specific heat depends on the nature of the substance
and its temperature.
Specific heat for hydrogen is maximum (= 3.5 cal g1 C1)
and for water, it is 1 cal g1 C1. For all other substances,
the specific heat is less than 1 cal g1 C1.
Gas has two types of Molar Specific Heats

Molar specific heat at constant volume (CV)


Molar specific heat at constant pressure (CP)

Change of State

Matter normally exists in three states, i.e., solid, liquid


and gas. A transition from one of these states to another
is known as change of state.
Melting : The change of state from solid to liquid is
known as melting.
Fusion : The change of state from liquid to solid is
known as fusion.
Melting point : The temperature at which the solid
and liquid states of the substance are in thermal
equilibrium with each other is called its melting point.
It is the characteristic of the substance. It also depends
on pressure. The melting point of a substance at standard
atmospheric pressure is called its normal melting point.
Vaporisation : The change of state from liquid to vapour
is known as vaporisation.
Boiling point : The temperature at which the liquid and
the vapour states of the substance co-exist is called its
boiling point. It is the characteristic of the substance.
It also depends on pressure. The boiling point of a
substance at standard atmospheric pressure is called
its normal melting point.
Sublimation : The change from solid state to vapour
state without passing through the liquid state is known
as sublimation.
Latent Heat

It is defined as the amount of heat required to change


the state of a unit mass of the substance at a constant
temperature.
Q
The latent heat of a substance is given by L =
m
where m is the mass of a substance.
The SI unit of latent heat is J kg1 while practical unit
is cal g1.
Latent heat of fusion : It is the amount of heat required
to change unit mass of the solid into liquid at constant
temperature e.g. latent heat of fusion of ice = 80 cal g1.

Latent heat of vaporisation : It is the amount of heat


required to change unit mass of the liquid into vapour
at constant temperature. e.g. latent heat of vaporisation
of water = 540 cal g1.
Principle of Calorimetry

When two bodies at different temperatures are placed


in contact with each other then heat will pass from
the body at higher temperature to the body at lower
temperature until both reach a common temperature.
i.e. heat lost by one body = heat gained by the other.
Principle of calorimetry obeys law of conservation of
energy.
Conduction

If a metal spoon is put in a cup of hot tea, after some time


its other end also becomes warm. Heat is transferred
from one end of the spoon to the other end due to
molecular vibrations within the spoon. This process is
called thermal conduction. In this process there is no
movement of mass.
In the beginning of conduction process, a part of heat
is absorbed at every cross-section and the remaining
part is transported to the next section. But after time
a steady-state is reached and the temperature of all the
parts of the conductor becomes constant.
Convection

Convection is that method of heat transfer in which


the heat is carried from one place to another by actual
movement of heated matter. This process can occur
only in fluids. If the heated matter is forced to move
by some agent (like a fan) then the process is known
as forced convection. If the matter flows on its own
due to difference of pressure it is known as natural or
free convection.
Radiation

Radiation is that method of heat transfer which does


not require any material medium. In this process heat
energy is transferred in the form of electro-magnetic
waves. The properties of radiation are similar to those
of light.
It travels with the velocity of light (3 108 m s1
in vacuum).
It shows all the properties of light, i.e. reflection,
interference, polarization etc.
It obeys inverse square law.
Wiens Displacement Law

The wavelength corresponding to highest intensity lm


is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.

Thus

b
T
where b (= 2.89 103 meter kelvin) is known as the
Wiens constant.
lm =

Stefans law

The energy emitted per second per unit area of a


black body is proportional to the fourth power of
corresponding absolute temperature. Thus, the energy
of thermal radiation emitted per unit time by a black
body of surface area A is given by
Q = sAT4
where s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4 is a universal constant,
known as Stefans constant.
For a non-black body
Q = esAT4, where e is the emissivity of that body.
For a body kept in surroundings of temperature
T0, the net loss of thermal energy per unit time
DQ = esA(T4 T04) as the body absorbs esAT04 energy
during the same period.
Newtons Law of Cooling

It states that the rate of cooling of a body is proportional


to the excess temperature of the body over the
surroundings
dQ
= K (T T0 )
dt
where T0 is the temperature of the surrounding medium
and T is the temperature of the body.

SELF CHECK

12. Three rods of Copper, Brass and Steel are welded


together to form a Y-shaped structure. Area of crosssection of each rod = 4 cm2. End of copper rod is
maintained at 100C where as ends of brass and steel
are kept at 0C. Lengths of the copper, brass and steel
rods are 46, 13 and 12 cms respectively. The rods
are thermally insulated from surroundings except
at ends. Thermal conductivities of copper, brass and
steel are 0.92, 0.26 and 0.12 CGS units respectively.
Rate of heat flow through copper rod is
(a) 6.0 cal/s
(b) 1.2 cal/s
(c) 2.4 cal/s
(d) 4.8 cal/s
(JEE Main 2014)
ANSWER kEYS (SELF CHECk)
1. (d)
2. (d)
3. (d)
4. (a)
5. (a)
6. (d)
7. (b)
8. (b)
9. (a)
10. (c)
11. (d) 12. (d)
PHYSICS FOR YOU | September 15

49

1. A tank with a square base of area 2.0 m2 is divided


into two compartments by a vertical partition in
the middle. There is a small hinged door of face
area 20 cm2 at the bottom of the partition. Water
is filled in one compartment and an acid of relative
density 1.5 in the other, both to a height of 4 m.
The force necessary to keep the door closed is
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 10 N (b) 20 N (c) 40 N (d) 80 N
2. Two bodies, each of mass M, are kept fixed with
a separation 2L. A particle of mass m is projected
from the midpoint of the line joining their centres,
perpendicular to the line. The gravitational constant
is G. The minimum initial velocity of the mass m to
escape the gravitational field of the two bodies is
GM
GM
(a) 4
(b) 2
.
L
L
2GM
(c)
(d) None of these
L
3. A particle undergoes uniform circular motion.
About which point on the plane of the circle, will
the angular momentum of the particle remain
conserved?
(a) Centre of the circle
(b) On the circumference of the circle
(c) Inside the circle
(d) Outside the circle
4. Two thin uniform circular rings each of radius
10 cm and mass 0.1 kg are arranged such that
they have common centre and their planes are
perpendicular to each other. The moment of
inertia of this system about an axis passing through
common centre and perpendicular to the plane of
either of the rings in kg m2 is
(a) 15 103
(b) 5 10 3
4
(c) 15 10
(d) 18 104
5. A metal cylinder of length L is
subjected to a uniform compressive
force F as shown in the figure.
The material of the cylinder has
Youngs modulus Y and Poissons
ratio s. The change in volume of
the cylinder is
50

Physics for you | September 15

(1 s)FL
sFL
(b)
Y
Y
(1 2s)FL
(1 + 2s)FL
(c)
(d)
Y
Y
6. The cylindrical tube of spray pump has a crosssection of 8 cm2, one end of which has 40 fine holes
each of area 108 m2. If the liquid flows inside the
tube with a speed of 0.15 m min1, the speed with
which the liquid is ejected through the holes is
(a) 50 m s1
(b) 5 m s1
1
(c) 0.05 m s
(d) 0.5 m s1
(a)

7. A launching vehicle carrying an artificial satellite of


mass m is set for launch on the surface of the earth
of mass M and radius R. If the satellite is intended to
move in a circular orbit of radius 7R, the minimum
energy required to be spent by the launching vehicle
on the satellite is (Gravitational constant = G)
13 GMm
GMm
(a)
(b)
14 R
R
GMm
GMm
(c)
(d)
7R
14 R
8. A uniform disc of radius R lies in xy plane with its
centre at origin. Its moment of inertia about the axis
x = 2R and y = 0 is equal to the moment of inertia
about the axis y = d and z = 0. Find the value of d
interms of R.
4
15
R (d) R
3
2
2
9. A body of area 1 cm is heated to a temperature 1000
K. The amount of energy radiated by the body in 1 s
is (Stefans constant s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4)
(a) 5.67 J (b) 0.567 J (c) 56.7 J (d) 567 J
(a)

17
R (b)
2

13 R (c)

10. Two spheres each of mass M and radius R are


separated by a distance of r. The gravitational
potential at the midpoint of the line joining the
centres of the spheres is
GM
2GM
(a)
(b)
r
r
GM
4GM
(c)
(d)
2r
r

11. A child is standing with his two arms outstretched at


the centre of a turntable that is rotating about its central
axis with an angular speed w0. Now, the child folds his
hands back so that moment of inertia becomes 3 times
the initial value. The new angular speed is
w
w
(a) 3w0 (b) 0
(c) 6w0
(d) 0
6
3
12. Two bodies have their moments of inertia I and
2I respectively about their axis of rotation. If their
kinetic energies of rotation are equal, their angular
momenta will be in the ratio
(a) 1 : 2

(b)

2 : 1 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 2 : 1

13. A square gate of size 4 m 4 m is hinged at topmost


point. A fluid of density fills
Hinge
the space left of it. The force
which acting 1 m from
1m
lowest point can hold the
gate stationary is
256
256
128
128
g (b)
g (c)
g
(a)
g (d)
3
9
3
9
14. A coin of mass m and radius r, having moment of
inertia I about the axis passing through its centre
and perpendicular to its plane, is beaten uniformly
to form a disc of radius 2r. What will be the moment
of inertia of the disc about the same axis?
(a) I
(b) 2I
(c) 4I
(d) 16 I
15. A spherical ball is F
P
dropped in a long column
Q
of viscous liquid. Which
of the following graphs
R
represent respectively
the variation of
(i) gravitational force with time
(ii) viscous force with time
(iii) net force acting on the ball with time?
(a) Q, R, P
(b) R, Q, P
(c) P, Q, R
(d) P, R, Q

16. A planet revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit


of eccentricity e. If T is the time period of the planet,
then the time spent by the planet between the ends
of the minor axis and major axis close to the sun is
Tp
2e

1
(a)
(b) T
2e
p

(c)

Te
2p

1
e
(d) T

4 2p

17. A rigid bar of mass M is supported symmetrically


by three wires each of length L. Those at each end
are of copper and the middle one is of iron. The
ratio of their diameters, if each is to have the same
tension, is equal to
Ycopper
Yiron
(b)
(a)
Ycopper
Yiron
(c)

2
Yiron

2
Ycopper

(d)

Yiron
Ycopper

18. Two strips of metal are riveted together at their


ends by four rivets, each of diameter 6 mm. Assume
that each rivet is to carry one quarter of the load.
If the shearing stress on the rivet is not to exceed
6.9 107 Pa, the maximum tension that can be
exerted by the riveted strip is
(a) 2 103 N
(b) 3.9 103 N
3
(c) 7.8 10 N
(d) 15.6 103 N
19. A solid cylinder of radius R made of a material
of thermal conductivity K1 is surrounded by a
cylindrical shell of inner radius R and outer radius
2R made of a material of thermal conductivity K2.
The two ends of the combined system are maintained
at two different temperatures. Then there is no loss
of heat across the cylindrical surface and the system
is in steady state. The effective thermal conductivity
of the system is
K1 K 2
(a) K1 + K2
(b)
K1 + K 2
K
+ 3K 2
3K1 + K 2
(b)
(d) 1
4
4
20. Three uniform spheres of mass M and radius R each
are kept in such a way that each touches the other
two. The magnitude of gravitational force on any of
the spheres due to other two is
(a)
(c)

3 GM 2
2 R2
3GM 2

(b)
(d)

3 GM 2
2 R2

3 GM 2
4 R2

R2
21. A circular platform is mounted on a frictionless
vertical axle. Its radius R = 2 m and its moment of
inertia about the axle is 200 kg m2. It is initially at
rest. A 50 kg man stands on the edge of the platform
and begins to walk along the edge at the speed of
1 m s1 relative to the ground. Time taken by the
man to complete one revolution is
p
3p
s
s (c) 2p s (d)
(a) p s
(b)
2
2
Physics for you | September 15

51

22. Three particles of masses 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg are situated


in the xy plane at the corners of an equilateral triangle
of side b with mass 1 kg at the origin and 2 kg on the
x-axis The coordinates of the centre of mass are
3 3b 7b
7b 3 3b
,
, 0
(a) 0, ,
(b)

12 12
12 12
7b 3 3b
, 0
(c) ,
12 12

7b
3 3b
(d) , 0,

12
12

y
23. Four holes of radius R each are cut
from a thin square plate of side
4R and mass M, as shown in
x
figure. The moment of inertia
of the remaining portion about
z-axis is
4 p
p
(a)
(b) MR2
MR2
3 4
12
8 5p
4 p
2
(c) MR2
(d) MR
3 6
3 8
24. A point P lies on the axis of a
a
ring of mass M and radius a,
P
at a distance a from its centre O
a
O. A small particle starts
from P and reaches O under
gravitational attraction only. Its speed at O will be

(a)

2GM
a

(b)

2GM
1
1

a
2

2GM
( 2 1) (d) zero
(c)
a
25. What will be the total pressure (in N m2) inside a
spherical air bubble of radius 0.2 mm at a depth of
2 m below the surface of a liquid of density 1.1 g cm3
and surface tension 50 dyne cm1? Atmospheric
pressure is 1.01 105 N m2. (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 1.235 105
(b) 1.112 105
5
(c) 1.215 10
(d) 1.122 105
26. How many grams of ice at 14C is needed to cool
200 gram of water from 25C to 10C?
(Take specific heat of ice = 0.5 cal g1C1 and latent
heat of ice = 80 cal g1.)
(a) 14 g (b) 31 g (c) 50 g (d) 80 g
27. A mass M is divided into two parts xm and (1 x)m.
For a given separation, the value of x for which
the gravitational attraction between the two pieces
becomes maximum is
52

Physics for you | September 15

(a)

1
2

(b)

3
5

(c) 1

(d) 2

28. A rod of length L is composed of a uniform length


1
L of wood whose mass is mw and a uniform
2
1
length L of brass whose mass is mb. The moment
2
of inertia I of the rod about an axis perpendicular to
the rod and through its centre is equal to
(a) (mw + mb)

L2
12

(c) (mw + mb)

L2
3

L2
6
L2
(d) (mw + mb)
2
(b) (mw + mb)

29. A block of ice at 8C is slowly heated and converted


to steam at 100C. Which of the following curves
represents the phenomena qualitatively?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

30. Match the Column I with Column II.


Column I

Column II

(A) The shape of rubber (p) Youngs modulus of


heel changes under
elasticity is involved
stress
(B) In a suspended bridge, (q) B u l k m o d u l u s o f
there is a strain in the
elasticity is involved
ropes by the load of
the bridge
(C) In an automobi l e (r) Modulus of rigidity
tyre, when air is
is involved
compressed, the shape
of tyre changes
(D) A s o l i d b o d y i s (s) A l l t h e m o d u l i
subjected to a
of elasticity are
deforming force
involved
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

A q, B r, C s, D p
A p, B q, C r, D s
A r, B q, C p, D s
A r, B p, C q, D s

SolutionS
1. (c) : The situation is as shown in the figure.

4 m Water

Acid

Door

For compartment containing water,


h = 4 m, w = 103 kg m3
Pressure exerted by the water on the door at the
bottom is
Pw = whg = 103 kg m3 4 m 10 m s2
= 4 104 N m2
For compartment containing acid,
a = 1.5 103 kg m3, h = 4 m
Pressure exerted by the acid on the door at the
bottom is
Pa = ahg = 1.5 103 kg m3 4 m 10 m s2
= 6 104 N m2
\ Net pressure on the door = Pa Pw
= (6 104 4 104) N m2
= 2 104 N m2
Area of the door= 20 cm2 = 20 104 m2
\ Force on the door
= 2 104 N m2 20 104 m2
= 40 N
Thus, to keep the door closed the force of 40 N must
be applied horizontally from the water side.
2. (b) : The situation is as shown in the figure.
v

m
2L

Applying the law of conservation of mechanical


energy, we get
GMm GMm 1 2

+ mv = 0 + 0
L
L
2
1 2 2GMm
4GM
GM
mv =
=2
v=
L
2
L
L

3. (a) : Here, L = mvr

The direction of L (about the centre) is


perpendicular to the plane containing the circular
path. Both magnitude

L
and direction of the
angular momentum of

p= mv
r
the particle moving in
O
a circular path about its
centre O is constant.

4. (c) : Because both the rings have common centre


and their planes are mutually perpendicular, hence,
an axis which is passing through the centre of one
of the rings and perpendicular to the plane of its
plane, will be along the diameter of other ring.
Hence, moment of inertia of the system about the
given axis is
2 1
2 3
2
I = ICM + Idiameter = MR + MR = MR
2
2
3
= (0.1 kg )(0.1 m)2 = 15 104 kg m2
2
5. (d) : Volume of the cylinder, V = pr2L
DV D(pr 2 L)
=
=
Volumetric strain
V
pr 2 L
2
DV pr DL + 2 pr L Dr DL 2Dr
=
+
...(i)
=
L
r
V
pr 2 L
Dr
sDL
(Dr / r )
or
=
Poissons ratio, s =
r
L
(DL / L)
Dr
On substituting this value of
in eq. (i), we get
r
DV DL
...(ii)
=
(1 2s)
V
L
DL
F
(F / pr 2 )
or
=
Youngs modulus, Y =
L
(DL / L)
pr 2Y
DL
On substituting this value of
in eq. (ii), we
L
get
DV
F
(1 2s)
=
V
pr 2Y
DV
F
=
(1 2s)
2
pr L pr 2Y
FL
DV =
(1 2s)
Y
6. (b) : According to equation of continuity,
a1v1 = a2v2
0.15
\ (40 108 ) v1 = 8 104
60
8 104 0.15
or v1 =
= 5 m s 1
8
40 10 60
7. (b) : The energy of the satellite on the surface of
the earth is
GMm
GMm
Es = KE + PE = 0 +
=

R
R
The energy of the satellite in an orbit of radius r is
1
GMm
Eo = mvo2 +

2
r

1 GM GMm
GM
= m

As vo =

2 r
r
r

GMm
=
2r
Physics for you | September 15

53

The minimum energy required to be spent by the


vehicle on the satellite is
DE = Eo Es
GMm GMm
( r = 7R)
=

2(7 R)
R
GMm GMm 13 GMm
=
+
=
14 R
R
14 R
8. (a) :

y=d
z=0

Initial moment of inertia = Ii


Final moment of inertia If = 3Ii
According to the law of conservation of angular
momentum, we get
Li = Lf
Ii wi = If wf
I
I
Iw
w f = i i = i wi = i wi ( If = 3Ii)
If
3Ii
If
w w
= i = 0 ( wi = w0)
3
3
12. (c) : As K R = K R
1

x = 2R
y=0

The axis x = 2R, y = 0 is in z direction as shown in


figure. Using theorem of parallel axes,
1
9
I1 = m R2 + m(2 R)2 = m R2
2
2
The axis y = d, z = 0 is shown as dotted line in figure.
Again, using the theorem of parallel axes,
1
I2 = m R2 + md 2
4
As I2 = I1
(Given)
1
2
2 9
2
\
m R + md = m R
4
2
17
2 9 1
md = m R2 = m R2
2 4
4
17
d=
R
2
9. (a) : Here, A = 1 cm2 = 104 m2
T = 1000 K, t = 1 s
s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4
According to Stefan-Boltzmann law, energy radiated
by a body is
E = sAT4t = 5.67 108 104 (1000)4 1 = 5.67 J
10. (d) :

M R

r/2

r/2
r

Let P is the midpoint of the line joining the centres


of the spheres.
The gravitational potential at point P is
4 GM
GM GM
2GM 2GM
VP =

=
r /2 r /2
r
r
r
11. (b) : Here,
Initial angular speed, wi = w0
54

Physics for you | September 15

1
1
\
I w2 = I w2
2 1 1 2 2 2
w
I
or 1 = 2
w2
I1
L1 I1w1 I1
=
=
L2 I2w2 I2
L1
1
1
=
=
2
L2
2

(i)
I2
I
= 1
I1
I2

(Using (i))

13. (b) : Side of square gate, a = 4 m


Consider an elementary strip of thickness dy of
fluid at distance y from the point O.
Area of the strip = ady
Force acting on the elementary strip at a distance
y from O
O
dF = (gy) (ady)
y
Torque due to dF about O
dy
dt = y (dF)
F
dt = (gy2a)dy
Net torque due to fluid
a=4

y3
t = (gay )dy = ga = 256g clockwise
3
3 0
0
Torque due to applied force
t = F 3 anticlockwise
256
256g
g
For equilibrium, F 3 =
F=
9
3
14. (c) : Moment of inertia of a coin of mass m and
radius r about the axis passing through the centre of
mr 2
mass and perpendicular to its plane is I =
.
2
Moment of inertia of disc of mass m and radius 2r
about the axis passing through the centre of mass
and perpendicular to its plane is
2

I =

m(2r )2
= 4I
2

Physics for you | September 15

55

15. (c) : Gravitational force remains constant on the


falling spherical ball. It is represented by straight
line P. The viscous force (F = 6phrv) increases
as the velocity increases with time. Hence, it is
represented by curve Q. Net force = gravitational
force viscous force. As viscous force increases,
net force decreases and finally becomes zero. Then
the body falls with a constant terminal velocity. It
is thus represented by curve R.
A
16. (d) :
B

As areal velocity of a planet around the sun is


constant. Therefore, the desired time is
area ABS
t AB =
time period
area of ellipse
If a = semi-major axis and b = semi-minor axis of
ellipse, then area of ellipse = pab
1
Area ABS = (area of ellipse)
4
Area of triangle ASO
1
1
= p ab (ea) (b)
4
2
p (ab) 1

4 2 eab
T = T 1 e
\ t AB =
4 2p
p ab

17. (b) : The situation is as shown in the figure.


Let T be tension in each wire.
As the bar is supported symmetrically by the three
wires, therefore extension in each wire is same.
F/A
As Y =
Copper
Copper
Iron
DL/L
T
T
T
If D is the diameter
of the wire, then
M
4F L
F / p(D /2)2
Y =
=
DL/L
p D 2 DL
As per the conditions of the problem, F(tension),
length L, and extension DL is same for each wire.
1
1
\ Y
2 or D
Y
D
Dcopper
Yiron
\
=
Diron
Ycopper
18. (c) : Radius of a rivet,
6
r = mm = 3 mm = 3 103 m
2
56

Physics for you | September 15

Maximum stress = 6.9 107 Pa


Maximum load on a rivet
= Maximum stress Area of cross-section
= 6.9 107 p (3 103)2 = 1950 N
.. . Maximum tension that can be exerted by rivet
strip = 4 1950 N = 7.8 103 N
19. (d) :

T2

T1
K2

K1

2R

Area of cross-section of inner cylinder = pR2


Area of cross-section of outer shell
= p(2R)2 pR2 = 3pR2
Rate of heat flow in inner cylinder
K pR2 (T1 T2 )
H1 = 1
L
Rate of heat flow in outer shell
K 3pR2 (T1 T2 )
H2 = 2
L
Rate of heat flow in the combined system
K 4 pR2 (T1 T2 )
H=
L
At steady state,
H = H1 + H2
\

K 4 pR2 (T1 T2 ) K1pR2 (T1 T2 ) K 2 3pR2 (T1 T2 )


=
+
L
L
L

K + 3K 2
4K = K1 + 3K2 or K = 1
4

20. (d) : The situation is as shown in the figure.


A
2R
B

2R
FCA

60

2R FCB C

Gravitational force on sphere C due to sphere A is


GM M GM 2
FCA =
=
along CA
(2R)2
4 R2
Gravitational force on sphere C due to sphere B is
GM M GM 2
FCB =
=
along CB
(2R)2
4 R2
These two forces are equal in magnitude and
inclined at an angle 60.
\ The total gravitational force on sphere C due
to other two spheres is

mR2

M
(16R2 + 16R2 ) 4
+ m( 2R)2
2

12
M
2
2 8
2 10 p
= 32R 10mR = MR
MR2
12
3
16
8 5p
2
I = MR
3 8

2
2
Ftotal = FCA
+ FCB
+ 2FCA FCB cos 60
2

GM 2 GM 2
GM 2
=
+
+2

4 R2 4 R2
4 R2
=

GM 2 1


4 R2 2

3GM 2

4 R2
21. (c) : As the system is initially at rest, therefore,
initial angular momentum Li = 0.
According to the principle of conservation of
angular momentum, final angular momentum,
Lf = 0.
\ Angular momentum of man
= Angular momentum of platform in opposite
direction
i.e., mvR = Iw
mvR 50 1 2 1
or w =
=
= rad s 1
I
200
2
Angular velocity of man relative to platform is
v 1 1
wr = w + = + = 1 rad s 1
R 2 2
Time taken by the man to complete one revolution is
2p 2p
T=
=
= 2p s
wr
1
22. (c) : The coordinates of
points A, B and C are
(0, 0, 0), (b, 0, 0) and
b b 3
2, 2 ,

Y
C
b

3 kg
b

0 respectively.
B
A
X

b
2 kg
1 kg
Now as the triangle is in XY plane,
i.e., Z coordinate of all the masses
is zero, so ZCM = 0.
1 0 + 2 b + 3(b / 2) 7b
=
Now, XCM =
1+ 2 + 3
12
1 0 + 2 0 + 3 3 (b / 2) 3 3b
YCM =
=
1+ 2 + 3
12
So, the coordinates of centre of mass are
7b 3 3b
12 , 12 , 0

23. (d) : If M is mass of the square plate before cutting


the holes, then mass of each hole,
M
p
m=
pR2 = M
2
16
16R
\ Moment of inertia of remaining portion about
the given axis is
I = Isquare 4Ihole

24. (b) : Gravitational potential at P,


GM
GM
VP =
=
2a
a2 + a2
GM
Gravitational potential at O, VO =
a
Let m be mass of the particle and v be the velocity of
it while reaching O.
According to law of conservation of mechancial
energy, we get
(PE)at P = (KE)at O + (PE)at O
GM m 1 2 GM m
\
= mv +

a
2a 2
or
or

2GM 2 GM 2GM
1

=
1

a
a
2 a
2
2GM
1
v=
1

a
2
v2 =

25. (a) : Here, r = 0.2 mm = 0.2 10 3 m = 2 10 4 m,


h = 2 m, = 1.1 g cm3 = 1.1 103 kg m3,
S = 50 dyne cm1 = 50 103 N m1,
Pa = 1.01 105 N m2
Total pressure inside the bubble = atmospheric
pressure + pressure due to column of liquid + excess
pressure
2S
= Pa + hg +
r
2 (50 103 )
= 1.01 105 + 2 1.1 103 10 +
2 104
5
4
= 1.01 10 + 2.2 10 + 500 = 1.235 105 N m2
26. (b) : Heat lost by water in cooling from 25C to
10C,
Q1 = msDT = 200 1 (25 10) = 3000 cal
Heat gained by m g of ice at 14C to change into
water at 10C,
Q2 = (msDT)ice + mL + (msDT)water
= m 0.5 14 + m 80 + m 1 10 = 97m cal
By principle of calorimetry, Q1 = Q2
or 97m = 3000
3000
or m =
g = 31 g
97
27. (a)
28. (a)
29. (a)
30. (d) : A r, B p, C q, D s

Physics for you | September 15

57

smooth surface

1. A uniform ladder rests in


equilibrium with its lower end
on a rough horizontal plane
and its upper end against a
smooth vertical wall as shown
in figure. Find the maximum
inclination q of the ladder to
the vertical.

2. What is the magnitude of


the maximum couple C
A
which may be applied to
R O
the cylinder if it is not to
B
spin. The cylinder has a
weight W, radius R and the
coefficient of friction m is
W
same at A and B as shown
in figure.

ladder

3. A short semicircular right cylinder of radius r and


weight W rests on a horizontal surface and is pulled
at right angle to its geometric axis by a horizontal
force F applied at B of the front edge. Find the angle
q that the flat face will make with the horizontal
plane just before sliding begins if the coefficient
of friction at the line of contact A is m as shown in
figure.

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

FRICTION

4. One end of a heavy


Ring D
C
uniform rod AB can slide
A
along a rough horizontal
rod CD to which it is

attached by a ring, B and


B
C are joined by a string.
If ABC is a right angle and a is the angle between
AB and vertical when the rod is on the point of
sliding, find the coefficient of friction between ring
and horizontal rod CD as shown in figure.
5. Figure shows a small block of mass m kept at the left
end of a larger block of mass M and length L. The
system can slide on a horizontal surface. The system
is started moving towards right with an initial
velocity v. The coefficient of friction between the
bigger block and floor is m and that between two
blocks is m/2.
L
Find the time
m
elapsed
before
v
M
the smaller block
separates from
the bigger block.
6. Figure shows that two blocks in contact are sliding
down an inclined surface of inclination q = 30. The
friction coefficient between the block of mass
m = 2 kg and the incline is m1 = 0.20 and that
between the block of
mass M = 4 kg and
m
M
the incline is m2 = 0.30.
Find the acceleration

of 2 kg block.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

58

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

SOLUTIONS

1. Free body diagram of ladder is shown in figure.


NB

W
NA

F(r r sin q) = W

NA

Under the equilibrium condition,


SFV = 0 = W NA NA = W

SFH = 0 = NB mNA
NB = mNA = mW
(using (i))
StA = 0 = NB AB cosq W AG sinq
\ W AGsinq = NB ABcosq

...(i)

AB
sin q = mW AB cos q
2

sin q
= 2m or tan q = 2m or q = tan 1(2m)
cos q
2. Free body diagram of cylinder is shown in figure.
Under the equilibrium
NA
condition of cylinder,
SFV = mNA + NB = W ...(i)
C
O
SFH = 0 = NA mNB
NA A
W
NA = mNB
...(ii)
Putting (ii) in (i), we get,
NB
B
(m2 + 1)NB = W
NB
W
NB = 2
m +1

NA =

mW

1+ m
Taking moment about O, StO = 0
mNA R + mNB R = C
...(iii)
mR[NA + NB] = C
Putting NA and NB, we get
m(1 + m)WR
W
mW
+
= C or C =
mR
2
2
1 + m2
1 + m 1 + m
3. Free body diagram is shown in figure.
N

\ sin q =

4r
sin q
3

F
4W
F+
3

...(iv)

Putting (iii) in (iv), we get


sin q =

sin q =

mW
4W
mW +
3
3m
3m
q = sin 1
3m + 4
3m + 4

4. Let W be the weight of rod AB acting at its centre


of gravity G. Let N be the resultant of N and mN,
then N is inclined to N at an angle l given by
m = tanl. Three forces, tension T, weight W of
rod and resultant reaction N meet at O. Then
AOG = l, BOG = 90 a and BGO = a.
Applying trigonometrical theorem
(m + n)cotq = mcota ncotb.
N

(using (ii))

O
G

N
D

...(i)
...(ii)
...(iii)

Taking moment about point A,


F (AD) = W (GD)
F(OA OD) = W(GD)

F = mN
and SFV = 0 = N W N = W
Putting (ii) in (i), F = mW

A
W

Let N is the resultant of normal force N and friction


force mN and l is the friction angle, i.e. m = tan l.
Under equilibrium, SFH = 0 = F mN

B
90

N
N

From DAOB, we have


(BG + AG)cota = AG cotl BG cot (90 a)
2 cota = cotl tana
(Q AG = BG)
cot l = 2 cot a + tan a =
\ cot l =
m=

2 + tan2 a
tan a
tan a

2 + tan2 a

2
+ tan a
tan a

tan l =

tan a

2 + tan2 a
( m = tanl)

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

59

5.

m
/2N1

/2N1

mA
N2

mg N1
FBD of m

Mg
FBD of M

MA
N2

From free body diagram of upper block


N1 = mg
m
N = ma
2 1
From free body diagram of lower block
N2 = N1 + Mg
mA

...(i)

m N1
m mg
mg
+a=
+a=
+a
2 m
2 m
2

Putting the value of N1, N2 and A in (iv), we get,


m

m
mg + M g + a

2
2

a
N

...(iii)

m
...(iv)
N + MA
2 1
From (i) and (iii), N2 = mg + Mg = (M + m)g

m(m + M )g =

6. From free body diagram of mass m,


N1 = mgcosq
ma = mgsinq m1N1 N
From free body diagram of mass M,
N2 = Mgcosq
Ma = Mgsinq + N m2N2

...(ii)

mN 2 =

From (ii), A =

m M + m

g
2 M
1
2L
4ML
As L = at 2 t =
=
m(M + m)g
2
a

a=

N1

1N1

mg N1

Mg

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physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

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...(iii)
...(iv)

N2

Putting values of N1 and N2 and adding equations


(ii) and (iv), we get
(M + m)a = (M + m)g sinq (m1m + m2M)gcosq
(M + m) g sin q (m1m + m2 M )g cos q
a=
M +m
Here, M = 4 kg, m = 2 kg, q = 30, m1 = 0.20,
m2 = 0.30, g = 10 m s2
\ a = 2.7 m s2
nn

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...(ii)

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integer tyPe Questions class-Xi


1. The loss of pressure when a fluid flows through a pipe
is given by P = kral vbdch, where d and l are diameter
and length of the pipe respectively, r and h are the
mass density and coefficient of viscosity of the fluid,
v is the mean velocity of flow through the pipe and
k is a numerical constant. The value of a + b c is
2. The acceleration of a marble in a certain fluid is
proportional to the speed of the marble squared
v 2
for v > 0. If
and is given (in SI units) by a =
3
the marble enters this fluid with a speed of 1.50 m s1,
how long will it take before the marbles speed is
reduced to half of its initial value (in s)?
3. A 2 kg block is
A
gently pushed from R = 1.5 m
B
rest at A and it

R
slides down along
the fixed smooth
circular surfaces as shown in figure. If the attached
spring has a force constant k = 20 N m1, what is
unstretched length of spring (in m) so that it does
not allow the block to leave the surface until angle
with the vertical is q = 60?
4. A disc of mass m is
k
connected to an ideal spring
of force constant k. If disc
is released from rest, what
is maximum friction force

on disc during subsequent


motion. Assuming friction is sufficient to put it in
rolling. (Take, mass of disc = 1 kg, radius of disc
= 10 cm, angle of incline = 37.)
5. A cubical container with side 2 m has a small hole
with a cap at point C as shown. The water level is

upto point D. (Here, BC = 0.5 m and BD = 1.5 m).


If container is given an
A
acceleration of 8 m s2
D
and the hole is opened
simultaneously.
The
C
amount of water that will
spill out of the container is
B
200 a litre. Find the value
2m
of a.
6. A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m and area of
cross-section 0.04 m2 is placed coaxially on a thin
metal disc of mass 0.4 kg and of the same crosssection. The upper face of the cylinder is maintained
at a constant temperature of 400 K and the initial
temperature of the disc is 300 K. If the thermal
conductivity of the material of the cylinder is
10 W m1 K1 and the specific heat of the material
of the disc is 600 J kg1 K1, it takes 30 n ln 2 s for
the temperature of the disc to increase to 350 K?
Assume, for the purpose of calculation, the thermal
conductivity of the disc to be very high and the
system to be thermally insulated except for the
upper face of the cylinder.
7. A solid copper cube and sphere, both of same mass
and emissivity are heated to same initial temperature
and kept under identical conditions. The ratio of
1

3
their initial rate of the fall of temperature is p .

Find the value of p.

8. n moles of an ideal gas at 27C are expanded


isothermally to five times its volume and then
heated at this constant volume to raise its pressure
equal to initial pressure (before expansion). If heat
given to the system in the process is 83.14 kJ then
C
find the value of n. The = p of the gas is 1.42.
Cv
[Take ln5 = 1.61]
Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

61

9. Two identical wires are stretched by the same


tension of 100 N, and each emits a note of frequency
200 Hz. The tension in one wire is increased by
1 N. Calculate the number of beats heard per second
when the wires are plucked.

4 MJ. Find the additional energy (in MJ) that


should be given to the satellite so that it escapes
from the gravitational field of earth. Assume earths
gravitational force to be the only gravitational force
on the satellite and no atmospheric resistance.

10. The potential energy function for the force between


two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximately
a
b
given by U (x ) =
6
12
x
x
where a and b are constants and x is the distance
between the atoms. If the dissociation energy of the
b2
, then
molecule is D = [U (x = ) Uequilibrium] =
pa
find the value of p.

15. The rate at which ice would melt in a wooden


box 2.0 cm thick and of inside measurements
200 cm 120 cm 120 cm assuming that the external
temperature is 30C and coefficient of thermal
conductivity of wood is 0.0004 cal s1 cm1C1, is
approximately b g s1. Find the value of b.

11. Three aircrafts make a turn


60
0
in the horizontal plane at
60
0
uniform speed, moving
60
0
along concentric circular
trajectories that are shown
3 2 1
in figure. The aircrafts move
such that they are at constant distance of 600 m from
each other at any time. The aircraft closest to the
centre moves in a circle of radius R = 600 m. The
aircraft 2 is moving at a speed of v2 = 720 km h1.
The acceleration of third aircraft is 10a m s2. Find
the value of a.
12. A massless rod of length L is
A
C
suspended by two identical
strings AB and CD of equal
lengths. A block of mass m
B
D
O
L
is suspended from point
m
O such that BO is equal to
L
. Further it is observed that the frequency of 1st
n
harmonic in AB is equal to 2nd harmonic frequency
in CD. Find the value of n.
13. An open organ pipe containing air resonates in
fundamental mode due to a tuning fork. The
measured values of length l(in cm) of the pipe and
radius r(in cm) of the pipe are l = 94 0.1, r = 5 0.05.
The velocity of the sound in air is accurately known. The
maximum percentage error in the measurement of
the frequency of that tuning fork by this experiment
is given by a2%. Find the value of 10 a.
14. The gravitational potential energy of a satellite
revolving around the earth in circular orbit is
62

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

solutions

1. (3) : Given, P = kral vbdch


Considering dimensions on both sides
[P] = [kral vbdch]
or [ML1 T2] = [ML3]a [L] [LT1]b [L]c [ML1 T1]
Equating the dimensions on both sides, we get
a + 1 = 1 ; 3a + 1 + b + c 1 = 1 ; b 1 = 2
On solving these equations, we get
a = 0, b = 1, c = 2
a + b c = 0 + 1 ( 2) = 3
2. (2) : Given a =

v 2
3

dv
dt
dv v 2
=
or 2 =
3
v
3
dt
On integrating both sides,
0.75

1.5

1
= dt
2
3 0
v

dv

0.75

t
1
1
1 t
=

=
v
3
0
.
75
1
.5 3
1. 5
1 3
or t =
= 2s
1. 5
3. (1) : When the block has fallen by 60,
1 2
1
mv = mgR(1 cos q) v = 2 gR = gR
2
2
Applying Newtons law of motion along the radial
direction

mv 2
x = 0. 5 m
R
Extension in spring = 0.5 m
Natural length = (R x) = 1 m
4. (2) : Let maximum extension of spring be xm.
From work-energy theorem
mg cos q + kx =

kxm

1 2
mgxm sinq = kxm
2
2mg sinq
k
At lower extreme position
kxm mg sinq f = ma
Also, a = Ra

or xm =

mgcos f

mR2
a
2
mg sin q 1 10 3 / 5
Thus, f =
=
=2 N
3
3
5. (6) :
P
and fR =

2m
Q

mgsin

...(i)
...(ii)
...(iii)

dT
eA 4
=
(T T04 ) . Here e is same, m is
dt
ms
same, both are of copper and both are heated upto
same temperature and kept under same conditions,
so (T 4 T 40 ) is same initially. But (T 4 T40 ) will
not remain same for both every time.
dT

A
dt
dT
dt

cube = Acube
Asphere
dT
dt

sphere

7. (6) :

C
R 0.5 m

3M
4
For sphere, r R3 = M ; R =
3
4 r

Here, tanq = a/g = 8/10 = 4/5


RB = PQ QB tanq = 2 2 4/5 = 0.4 m
PQ + BR
2
Volume of water contained, Vf =
4 m

2
2

Initial volume of water, Vi = BD 4 m


Amount of water spilled = Vi Vf
= (4BD 2PQ 2BR) m3
= 2(2BD PQ BR) 1000 litre
= 2(3 2 0.4) 1000 = 1200 litre = 200a litre
a = 6
6. (8) : If in any time dt, the temperature of disc is
increased by dT. Then amount of heat supply will
be (ms dT) in time dt, so rate of heat supply will
dT
be ms and it will be equal to the rate of heat

dt
dT KA(T0 T )
=
supply by conduction. ms
dt
L
where T is the temperature of disc at any time t,
T0 = 400 K
350 dT
t KA

=
dt
300 T T
0 msL
0
350
KAt
= ln(T0 T )
300
msL
KAt
= [ln(400 350) ln(400 300)]
msL
1
KAt
msL
50 KAt
= ln or t =
= ln
ln 2,
or

msL
2
msL
KA

100
0.4 600 0.4
t=
ln 2 = 240 ln 2 s = 8 30 ln 2 s
10 0.04
n=8

1/3

2 /3

3M
Asphere = 4 R2 = 4

4 r
M
rL3 = M; L =
r

For cube,

M
Acube = 6L2 = 6
r

1/3

2/3

2/3

M
dT
6
1/3
dt
Acube
6

cube
r
=
=
=

2/3
Asphere
dT

3M
dt
4

sphere
4 r

p=6
8. (3) : As DQ = DU + DW
For isothermal process, DU1 = 0
DW1 = nRT0 ln(Vf /Vi), where T0 = 300 K
DQ1 = nRT0 ln 5 J (Q Vf = 5Vi)
For isochoric process, DW2 = 0
DU2 = nCvDT
DQ2 = nCvDT, DT = T T0,
PV P 5V
=
T = 1500 K
T0
T

DQ2 = n

R
1200 J
1

Now, DQ1 + DQ2 = 83.14 103 J


On solving, we get n = 3
9. (1) : The frequency of the fundamental note emitted
by each wire before the tension change occurs is
u=

1 T
2L

1/2

...(i)

1/2
du 1 1 T
1

=
dT 2L 2

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

63

du 1 T
=
dT 4 L

1/2

12. (5) : Frequency of first harmonic in AB


= Frequency of second harmonic in CD

1/2

2
or du = 1 T
2

dT

4 LT T
du u

=
dT 2T
u DT
Hence, Du
2 T

1 T
=
4 LT

1/2

(Using (i))

where Du is the frequency difference induced in the


string as a result of change in tension DT. In other
words, Du is the number of beats observed if the
strings tension is changed by an amount DT. Using
the given data,
200 1
Du =
= 1 Hz
2 100
a
b

x12 x 6
dU 12a 6b
F=
=

dx x13 x 7

10. (4) : U =

b
b2
=
2a
4a
b

60

or

5
= 1 or n = 5
n

a = 0.4. Hence 10a = 4


14. (2) : Total energy of the satellite

60

60

1000
3600 = 1 rads 1
1200
6

720

1
a3 = R3 = (1800) = 50 m s2
6

As 10a = 50
a=5
64

4
1
=1
n
n

0.1 + 1.2 0.05


Du

=
100 = 0.16% = a2 %
u 100
.
94
+
1
2

max

11. (5) :
Angular velocity of all aircrafts will be same.

L
L
= T2(L )
n
n
4mg mg 1
=
1
or
5n
5 n

T1

For maximum % error

b2 b2
= 0 =
4a 4a

v2
=
R2

For rotational equilibrium about O,


Torque due to T1 about O
= Torque due to T2 about O

v
Du
Dl + 1.2Dr
100 =
100
u
l + 1.2r

D = U(x = ) Uequilibrium

mg
4mg
and T2 =
5
5

Here Dv = 0 (given)

1/6

2a
b

... (ii)

v
where e = end correction = 0.6r
2(l + 2e)
v
v
u=
=
2(l + 2 0.6r ) 2(l + 1.2r )
Du Dv D(l + 1.2r ) Dv Dl + 1.2 Dr
=

u
v
l + 1.2r
v
l + 1.2r

12a 6b

=0
x13 x 7
2a
x6 =
b

T1 =

...(i)

13. (4) : u =

F=

U equilibrium =

1 T1 1 T2
=
2l l

or T1 = 4T2
For translational equilibrium,
T1 + T2 = mg
From (i) and (ii), we get

or

At equilibrium,

x = 2a
b
U(x = ) = 0

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

= PE + KE = 4 MJ + | PE | = 2 MJ
2

Energy required = 2 MJ
15. (9) : Area of all the six faces, A
=(2 120 120 + 4 200 120) = 124800 cm2
x = 2 cm, T1 T2 = 30 0 = 30C,
K = 0.0004 cal s1 cm1 C1
Q = mL =

KA(T1 T2 )t
x

Rate of melting of ice,

m KA(T1 T2 ) 0.0004 124800 30


= 9.36 g s1.
=
=
t
xL
2 80
b = 9.36 9

Series 4
CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER : Ray Optics | Wave Optics
Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.


(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section
E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

section-A
1. Which is more readily seen at a distance, a white
2.
3.

4.

5.

blotting paper or a polished mirror? Why?


Will a star twinkle if seen from space (say moon or
a spacecraft)?
When an unpolarised light is incident on a plane
glass surface, what should be the angle of incidence
so that the reflected and refracted waves are
perpendicular to each other?
What focal length should the reading spectacles
have for a person for whom the least distance of
distinct vision is 50 cm?
Calculate the distance that a beam of light of
wavelength 500 nm can travel without significant
broadening , if the diffracting aperture is 3 mm
wide.
section-b

6. How is a wavefront different from a ray? Draw the

geometrical shape of the wavefronts when (i) light


diverges from a point source, and (ii) light emerges
out of convex lens when a point source is placed at
its focus.
7. How will the angular separation and visibility of
fringes in Youngs double slit experiment change

when (i) screen is moved away from the plane of the


slits, and (ii) width of the source slit is increased?
8. Show that a light ray will pass through an equilateral
glass prism (m = 1.5) if the angle of incidence is
greater than 30.
9. Explain why does a convex lens behave as a
converging lens when immersed in water (m = 1.33)
and as a diverging lens when immersed in carbon
disulphide (m = 1.63). The refractive index of lens
material is 1.52.
10. A fish, looking up through the water sees the
outside world contained in a circular horizon. If
4
the refractive index of water is
and the fish is
3
30 cm below the surface, then calculate the radius
of the circle.
OR
Show that a convex lens produces an N times
magnified image when the object distances from
f

. Here, f is the
the lens have magnitudes f

N
magnitude of the focal length of the lens.
Hence, find the two values of object distance for
which a convex lens of power 2.5 D will produce an
image that is 4 times as large as the object?
physics for you | september 15

65

section-c
11. A slide of 35 mm 23 mm is placed at a distance

of 21 cm from a convex lens of focal length 20 cm.


Where should a screen be placed on the other side
of the lens so as to form a sharp image of the slide?
What are the dimensions of the image formed on
the screen? Also, find the areal magnification.
12. The radius of curvature of the convex surface of a
planoconvex lens is 12 cm and its refractive index
is 1.5.
(a) Find the focal length of planoconvex lens.
(b) The plane surface of planoconvex lens is silvered
so that it begins to behave as a concave mirror.
Find the focal length of the mirror so formed.
13. A parallel beam falls on a solid glass sphere at
normal incidence. Prove that the distance of the
image from the outer edge in terms of refractive
R(2 m)
.
index m and radius R of sphere is
2(m 1)

distance is measured to be 30.0 cm. What is the


refractive index of the liquid?
17. Discuss the action of a prism, a convex lens and a
concave mirror, when a plane wavefront is incident
on each of them.
18. Three polarisers are arranged as shown in figure.
Polariser
Io

14. An astronomical telescope uses two lenses of powers

10 D and 1 D.
(i) State with reason, which lens is preferred as
objective and which as eye-piece.
(ii) Calculate the magnifying power of the telescope,
if the final image is formed at the near point.
(iii) How do the light gathering power and resolving
power of a telescope change, if the aperture of
the objective lens is doubled?
15. A person looking at another person wearing a shirt
with a pattern comprising vertical and horizontal
lines is able to see the vertical lines more distinctly
than the horizontal ones. What is this defect due to?
How is such a defect of vision corrected?
16. White light reflected at perpendicular incidence
from a soap film has, in the visible spectrum, an
interference maximum at 6000 and a minimum
at 4500 with no minimum in between. If m = 4/3
for the film, what is the thickness of the film?
OR
Figure shows an equiconvex
lens (of refractive index 1.50)
in contact with a liquid layer
on top of a plane mirror. A
small needle with its tip on
the principal axis is moved
along the axis until its inverted
image is found at the position
of the needle. The distance of the needle from
the lens is measured to be 45.0 cm. The liquid is
removed and the experiment is repeated. The new
66

physics for you | september 15

19.

20.
21.

22.

Second
polariser

Analyser

(90-)

(a) What is the intensity of the transmitted light


through analyser in terms of the incident light
(I0) and the angle (q) between the first and the
second polariser ?
(b) What happens if the second polariser is rotated ?
(c) When is the light not transmitted through the
system?
(d) For what value of q will the transmitted intensity
be maximum?
Light of wavelength 589 nm is used to view an object
under a microscope. The aperture of the objective
has a diameter of 0.900 cm.
(a) Find the limiting angle of resolution.
(b) Using visible light, what is the maximum limit
of resolution for this microscope?
(c) Suppose water (m = 1.33) fills the space between
the object and objective. What effect would this
have on the resolving power?
A diffraction grating can as well be called an
interference grating. Discuss.
A lens is held directly above a coin lying on a table and
forms an image of it. After the lens has been moved
vertically downwards a distance equal to its focal
length, it forms another image of the coin equal in
size to previous image. If the diameter of the coin is
4.0 cm, what is the diameter of the coins image?
A thin equiconvex lens of glass of refractive index
mg = 3/2 and of focal length 0.3 m in air is sealed into
an opening at one end of a tank filled with water,
mw = 4/3. On the opposite of the lens a mirror is placed
inside the tank, on the tank wall perpendicular to
the lens axis as shown in figure. The separation
between the lens and the mirror is 0.8 m. A small
object is placed outside the tank infront of the lens
at a distance 0.9 m from the lens along its axis. Find
the position (relative to the lens) of the image of the
object formed by the system.

0.9 m
=1

0.8 m
w = 4/3

O g = 3/2
Lens

Water

section-D
23. Mr. Lohiya, a retired professor of physics was

walking with his grandson. It was last week of


December and so it was dark around 5.30 pm. The
streetlights were on and the yellow light flooded the
area around. The boy asked professor why yellow
lights were used when white light were brighter. The
professor answered that during foggy days the tiny
droplets act as prisms splitting white light into its
constituent colours and thus reducing the clarity.
(i) What phenomena was the professor referring
to? Why does it happen?
(ii) Give one application of prism.
(iii) What values of the boy reflect from the
conversation?
section-e

24. Explain the phenomenon of total internal reflection.

State two conditions that must be satisfied for total


internal reflection to take place. Derive the relation
between the critical angle and the refractive index
of the medium. Draw ray diagrams to show how
a right angled isosceles prism can be used to
(i) deviate ray through 180, and (ii) to invert it.

OR
A spherical surface of radius of curvature R and
of refractive index m2 is placed in a medium of
refractive index m1 where m1 < m2. The surface
produces a real image of an object kept infront
of it. Using appropriate assumptions and sign
conventions, derive a relationship between the
object distance, image distance, R, m1 and m2. Under
what conditions this surface diverge a ray incident
on it?
25. (a) Using Huygens principle, draw a diagram to
show propagation of a wavefront originating
from a monochromatic point source and
explain briefly.
(b) Derive Snells law of refraction using Huygens
principle.
OR
(a) What are coherent sources of light? State two
conditions for two light sources to be coherent.

(b) Derive a mathematical expression for the width


of interference fringes obtained in Youngs
double slit experiment with the help of a suitable
diagram.
26. (a) What is plane polarised light? The polaroids are
placed at 90 to each other and the transmitted
intensity is zero. What happens when one more
polaroid is placed between these two, bisecting
the angle between them? How will the intensity
of transmitted light vary on further rotating the
third polaroid?
(b) If a light beam shows no intensity variation
when transmitted through a polaroid which
is rotated, does it mean that the light is
unpolarised? Explain briefly.
OR
What is meant by diffraction? Draw a graph to
show the relative intensity distribution for a single
slit diffraction pattern. Obtain an expression for the
diffraction of the first minimum and first maximum
in the diffraction pattern.
solutions
1. A white blotting paper is more readily visible from a

distance than a polished mirror because the surface


of white blotting paper provides irregular reflection
and hence light spreads in all possible directions and
one can see the paper from a distance. A polished
mirror gives rise to only regular reflection and
can be seen only in the direction of reflected rays.
Hence, it cannot be seen from a distance easily.
2. No, a star will not appear twinkling if seen from free
space because there will be no atmospheric refraction.
The star will appear to be shining continuously.
3. The unpolarised light is incident on a plane glass
surface at an angle i such that tan i = m, where
m is refractive index of glass. In that case, the
reflected and refracted waves are perpendicular
to each other and the reflected light is completely
plane polarised.
4. The reading matter placed at 25 cm from the correct

lens should produce the virtual image at 50 cm.


Therefore,
u = 25 cm, v = 50 cm
By thin lens formula,
1 1
1
1
1
= =

v u
50 25
f
1
1 + 2
=
=
50
50
or f = + 50 cm
physics for you | september 15

67

The positive sign shows that the corrective lens


must be a convex lens of focal length 50 cm.
5. Here d = 3 mm = 3 103 m,
l = 500 nm = 500 109 m
The distance upto which a beam of light can travel
without significant broadenning is called Fresnel
distance and its value is given by
(3 10 3 )2
d2
=
= 18 m.
l
500 10 9
6. A wavefront is a surface obtained by joining all
points vibrating in the same phase. A ray is line
drawn perpendicular to the wavefront in the
direction of propagation of light wave.
The wavefront of light emerging from a point source
are spherical as shown in figure (a). When a point
source is placed at the focus of a convex lens, the
emerging light has plane wavefronts, as shown in
figure (b).
DF =

Ray S
S

For water (mm = 1.33), (mg mm) is positive and


hence, fm is positive. It means that the lens behaves
as a converging lens.
However, for carbon disulphide (mm = 1.63),
(mg mm) is negative and hence, fm is negative. It
means that the lens behaves as a diverging lens.
4
10. As per question, mw =
and h = 30 cm.
3

Dl
d

l
b
=
d
D
(i) When the screen is moved away from the
slits, the distance D increases. Fringe width
b increases but angular separation q remains
unchanged.
(ii) The interference pattern becomes less and
less sharp. When the source slit becomes so
l
s
wide that the condition
<
(Here, s is the
d
S
width of the source slit and S its distance from
the plane of the two slits) is not satisfied, the
interference pattern disappears. But the angular
width q remains unchanged.
sin i
8. From Snells law, m =
.
sin r
If the light is incident at 30, then
physics for you | september 15

90
ic

Figure (b)

Angular separation, q =

68

glass-air interface. If i < 30, then i > ic and the ray


will suffer total internal reflection at the second face
and will not emerge through the prism.
9. For a convex lens (mg = 1.52), focal length f has
positive sign. When it is immersed in a medium of
refractive index mm, its focal length changes to fm,
where
(m g 1) m m
f
fm =
(m g m m )

Figure (a)

7. Fringe width, b =

0. 5
sini
sin 30
=
=
= 0.33
1
.5
m
1. 5
1
or r = sin (0.33) 19
Angle of incidence at second face,
i = A r = 60 19 = 41 which is just less than the

1
1
critical angle 42 = sin 1 = sin 1 for

m
1. 5

sinr =

ic

As shown in figure the fish can see the outside world


contained in a circular cone of semi-vertical angle
1
1
ic = sin1 or sinic =
mw
mw
r
But sinic =
2
r + h2
1
r
\
=
2
2
m
w
r +h

r=

r=

h
m 2w 1
30 cm
2

4
3 1

30 cm

OR

7
9

= 34.0 cm

Linear magnification produced by a lens is given


by

v
f
=
u
u+ f
Here, m = N (the positive sign is for virtual image
and negative sign for real image).
f
\ N =
u+ f
m=

f
N
f
f

u = f
or |u| = f
N
N
Thus, the desired result is proved.
As power, P = 2.5 D,
1
1
=
m = 0.4 m = 40 cm and N = 4
\
P
2. 5
\ Two values of the object distance,
f
40
u=f
= 40
= 50 cm and 30 cm
N
4
u+f=

11. Here, f = + 20 cm, u = 21 cm and size of the slide,

h1 h2 = 35 mm 23 mm
1 1
1
From the lens formula, = , we have
v u
f

1 1
20 21
1
1
1
1
= + =
=
=
+
u f
420
(21) (+20) (21 20)
v
v = 420 cm or 4.2 m
Let the dimension of the image formed on the
screen be h1 h2.
h
v
Then, from the relation, m =
= , we have
h
u
420 cm
v
h1 =
h1 =
35 mm
(21 cm)
u
= 700 mm = 70.0 cm
420 cm
v
and h2 =
h2 =
23 mm
(21 cm)
u
= 460 mm = 46.0 cm
Thus, the dimensions of image formed on the screen
is 70 cm 46 cm. The negative sign signifies that
the image is inverted.
hh
Areal magnification, m = 1 2
h1h2
(70 cm) (46 cm)
=
= 400
(35 mm) (23 mm)
12. (a) For the plano-convex lens, we have

R1 = +12 cm, R2 = and m = 1.5


Hence, its focal length f is given by
1
= (m 1) 1 1
f
R1 R2

1
1 0. 5
1
= (1.5 1)
=
=
24
(
+
12
)

12

f = +24 cm
(b) If plane surface of the lens is
silvered, then a light ray after
passing through the lens will
be incident on plane polished
12 cm
surface (behaving as a plane
mirror), which will reflect it
back through the lens again.
Hence, power P of the entire arrangement is
given by
P = PL + PM + PL
where PL is the power of the lens and PM is the
power of the plane mirror.
1
1
1
1
Now PL =
=
=
=
D
24 cm
fL
0.24 m
0.24
1
1
and PM =
= =0

fM
1
1
2
1
+0+
\ P=
=
=
D
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.12
As the arrangement behaves as a concave mirror
of focal length F,
1
Hence, P =
F
1
1

= or F = 0.12 m = 12 cm
F
0.12
13. Figure shows the refraction of a parallel beam of

light through a glass sphere of refractive index m at


normal incidence.
For refraction at first surface from air to glass,
m1 = 1, m2 = m, u = , R = +R
Air, = 1
S
Glass
A

Air, = 1
B

I
u

m m1
m
m2
1 = 2
R
u
v
mR
1
m
m 1
\

=
or v =
m 1

v
R
This image formed at I acts as virtual object for
second surface. For refraction at second surface
from glass to air,
u = BI = AI AB = v 2R
mR
mR 2R(m 1) 2 m
=
2R =
=
R
m 1
m 1
m 1
As

physics for you | september 15

69

Now m1 = m, m2 = 1, R = R
m
1 m
1

=
\
R
v u
m 1
m (m 1)
1
or

=
R
R (2 m)
v
1
m 1 m (m 1)
or
=
+
v
R
R (2 m)
2(m 1)
(m 1)(2 m + m)
=
=
R(2 m)
R(2 m)
R(2 m)
\ v =
2(m 1)
14. (i)The lens of power 1 D should be used as objective

because of its larger focal length and the lens of


10 D should be used as eyepiece because of its
smaller focal length.
1
(ii) Here, f0 =
= 1 m = 100 cm,
1D
1
fe =
= 0.1 m = 10 cm
10 D

f0
f
1+ e = 100 1 + 10 = 14.
fe D
10 25
(iii) Light gathered Area of the objective of a
telescope
D 2
i.e.,
Q
or Q D2
4
When aperture (D) is doubled, light gathering
capacity increases 4 times.
Resolving power of a telescope D
When aperture (D) is doubled, resolving power
also gets doubled.
15. The given defect is called astigmatism. It arises
because the curvature of the cornea plus eye lens
refracting system is not the same in different planes.
The eye lens is usually spherical, i.e., has the same
curvature in different planes but the cornea is not
spherical in case of an astigmatic eye. In the present
case, the curvature in the vertical plane is enough,
so sharp images of vertical lines can be formed on
the retina. But the curvature is insufficient in the
horizontal plane, so horizontal lines appear blurred.
This defect can be corrected by using a cylindrical
lens with its axis along the vertical. Clearly, parallel
rays in the vertical plane will suffer no extra
refraction, but those in the horizontal plane can get
the required extra convergence due to refraction
by the curved surface of the cylindrical lens if
the curvature of the cylindrical surface is chosen
appropriately.
\

70

|m| =

physics for you | september 15

16. Here l1 = 6000 = 6 107 m

4
3
For normal incidence, the condition for (n + 1)th
maximum is
2mt
1
1
2mt = n + l1 or n + =
(i)
l1
2
2
The condition for (n + 1)th minimum is
2mt
2mt = (n + 1)l2 or n + 1 =
(ii)
l2
Subtracting (i) from (ii), we get
l l2
1
= 2mt 1 1 = 2mt 1

2
l 1l 2
2 l1

l2 = 4500 = 4.5 107 m, m =

t=

6 10 7 4.5 10 7
l 1l 2
=
4
4m(l1 l 2 )
4 (6 4.5) 10 7
3

27
107 m = 3.375 107 m.
8
OR
Distance of the needle from the lens in the first case
= focal length F of the combination of the convex
lens and plano-concave lens formed by the liquid
i.e., F = 45 cm
and in the second case
= focal length of the convex lens
i.e., f1 = + 30 cm
The focal length f2 of the plano-concave lens is
given by
1
1 1
=
+
F
f1 f 2
=

or

1 1
23
1
1
1 1
=
=
=
=

F f1
90
90
f2
45 30

\
f2 = 90 cm
Now for the equiconvex lens, we have
R1 = R, R2 = R, f1 = 30 cm, m = 1.5
Using Lens makers formula
1
1
1
= (m 1)
f
R1 R2
1
1 1
2
= (1.5 1) + = 0.5
R R
30
R
or R = 0.5 2 30 cm = 30 cm
For plano-convex lens, f2 = 90 cm
For concave surface, R1 = R = 30 cm,
For plane surface, R2 =
1
As
= (m 1) 1 1
R R
f2
1
2
\

1
1
1
= (m 1)

90
30
1
30
or
m 1 =
=+
3
90
1
or
m = 1 + = 1.33.
3
17. Behaviour of prism : Since the speed of light in glass
is smaller than that in air, therefore, the lower part
C of the plane wavefront which travels through the
greatest thickness of the glass prism is slowed down
the most and the upper part A, which travels through
the minimum thickness of the glass prism, is slowed
down the least. This explains the tilting of a plane
wavefront after refraction through a glass prism.
\

Incident
wavefront
A
B

Refracted
wavefront
A

Behaviour of a convex lens : The central part B of


the plane wavefront travels through the greatest
thickness of the lens and is, therefore, slowed
down the most. The marginal parts A and C of the
wavefront travel through a minimum thickness of
the lens and are, therefore, slowed down the least. So
the emerging wavefront is spherical and converges
to a focus F.
Refracted
wavefront
A
B
C

B
C

Behaviour of concave mirror : The central part B of the

incident wavefront has to travel the greatest distance


before getting reflected compared to the marginal
parts A and C. Therefore, the central portion B of
the reflected wavefront is closer to the mirror than
the marginal portions A and C. Hence the reflected
wavefront is spherical and converges to a focus.
Incident
wavefront
A
B
C

Refracted
wavefront
F

A
B
C

polariser, I1 = I0/2.
Intensity of transmitted light through second
polariser I2 = I1cos2q = (I0/2)cos2q
Intensity of transmitted light through analyser,
i.e., I3 = I2cos2(90 q)
= [(I0/2)cos2q]cos2(90 q)
= (I0/2)cos2qsin2q
= (I0/8)sin22q
(b) Since I3 depends on q, rotating the second
polariser will change the light intensity.
(c) If q = 0 and 90, then I3 = 0
(as sin 0 = cos90 = 0)
Thus, for q equal to 0 and 90, no light will be
transmitted through the system.
(d) I3 is maximum when q = 45.

19. (a) Here, l = 589 nm = 589 109 m

Incident
wavefront
A

18. (a) Intensity of transmitted light through the first

a = 0.900 cm = 0.900 102 m


589 10 9 m
l
Dq = 1.22 = 1.22
rad
0.900 10 2 m
a
= 7.98 105 rad
(b) To obtain the smallest angle corresponding
to the maximum limit of resolution, we have
to use the shortest wavelength in the visible
spectrum. Violet light (l = 400 nm) gives us a
limiting angle of resolution of
400 10 9 m
Dq = 1.22
rad
0.900 10 2 m
= 5.42 105 rad
(c) Wavelength of light in water,
589 nm
l
lw = a =
= 443 nm
m
1.33
443 10 9 m
Dq = 1.22
rad
0.900 10 2 m

= 6.00 105 rad


Since Dq in this case is less than that in case (a),
resolving power increases.
20. A diffraction grating is an arrangement consisting
of a large number of parallel slits of the same width
separated by equal opaque spaces. It consists of a
well-polished metal or glass surface upon which
equidistant, fine and parallel lines are ruled by a
diamond point. The number of lines may vary from
15,000 to 40,000 per inch. The problem of studying
the diffraction of a grating is essentially the problem
of finding the resultant due to interference of a large
number of secondary distrubances issuing from
physics for you | september 15

71

the various transparent slits separated by opaque


equidistant fine diamond rulings. Thus, we can call
a diffraction grating as an interference grating.
21. Case I : Object distance = u, focal length = f and
image distance = v
1
1 1
=
By lens formula,
f
v u
1
1
u f
1 1
= + or =
v
f
uf
v u
So, m1 =

v=

uf
u f

f
v
=
u f
u

Case II : If lens has been moved by f vertically down,


then object distance, u = (u f),
f
1
1
1
= +
\
v (u f )
f
or

1
u f f
=
v
f (u f )

f (u f )
v =
(u 2 f )

So,

m2 =

As
\

v
f
=
(u f )
(u 2 f )

m1 = m2
f
f
=
(u 2 f )
(u f )
u 22ff = u + f

3
2u = 33ff or u = f
2
f
\
m1 =
=2
3
ff
2
Hence, diameter of coins image, D = 2 4 = 8 cm
22. Let us trace the path of light from the object.
First it is refracted at surface S1 (air to glass), next
refraction takes place at surface S2 (glass to water),
then reflection at the mirror. It is reflected back and
refracted through surfaces S2 and S1 once again in the
order of their appearance. The given parameters are
u = 0.9 m, m = 1, mg = 3/2, mw = 4/3
Using lens makers formula,
mg m 1
1
1
=

m
R
R
f
1
2
1
1. 5 1 2
=
or R = 0.3 m
1 R
0. 3
72

physics for you | september 15

As
\
or

m m mw m g
mw m
= g
+
v u
R
R
(3 / 2) 1 (4 / 3) (3 / 2)
4/3
1
=
+

0. 3
( 0.3)
v
0.9
v = 1.2 m

The image formed is real, to the right of the lens and


behind the mirror. It is a virtual object at a distance
0.4 m for the mirror. Now the mirror forms an
image in front of it. This image is an object for the
lens system.
m mw m m g
m mw
= g

+
v u
R
R
(3 / 2) (4 / 3) 1 (3 / 2)
1
4/3
=
+

0. 3
( 0.3)
v (0.4)
\

v = 0.9 m = 90 cm

23. (i) Dispersion, which happens as speed of each

colour is different when they enter glass.


(ii) Studying and analysing the spectrum of distant
light sources.
(iii) Curiosity, research mindedness, awareness.
24. Refer point 6.4 page no. 371 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
OR
Refer point 6.5(5((i), (ii))) page no. 372 (MTG Excel
in Physics).
25. Refer point 6.11(1, 5) page no. 444 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
OR
Refer point 6.13(7, 9) page no. 448 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
26. Refer point 6.15 page no. 453 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
OR
Refer point 6.14 page no. 449 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
nn
Learning gives creativity,
creativity leads to thinking,
thinking provides knowledge,
knowledge makes
you great
-A P J Abdul Kalam

To be able to apply this Work Energy Theorem (WET)


we need to understand first of all, what actually work
stands for!
Let us begin by taking two small examples of motion
1. An object moves under the action of a force acting
along the direction of motion. The path obviously is a
straight line.

For object A the speed (hence KE) increases whereas for


object B the speed decreases.
2. An object moves under the action of a force of
constant magnitude but always perpendicular to path,
as in uniform circular motion (UCM).


Fdr cosq = m vdv F dr = m vdv
Integrating
both sides we get,

r2
v

F dr = m vdv

r1

1
1
...(i)
= mv 2 mu2 = change in KE = DKE
2
2
Hence the quantity on left, i.e., the line integral of the
dot product of force with instantaneous displacement is
said to be the work done by force.

\ Work done by any force (F ) in moving a mass from



r1 to r2 is,

r2


WF = F dr

r1

Such a force which is incapable of changing the KE of


the object is always perpendicular to the direction of
motion.
Now, whenever we talk of work being done by a force,
we check whether the force is capable of changing the
kinetic energy of the mass (or system of masses) which
can happen only if the applied force has a component
which is parallel to the direction of motion.
Now with this understanding, let us see how do we
define work.
Consider an object moving in a curved
path and at an

instant, the net force acting on it is F, when the velocity

is v.

The tangential component of F, i.e., Ft = Fcosq is


responsible for changing the KE.
\ Ft = mat
(where at = tangential acceleration)
dv
dv
F cos q = m = mv
dt
dr

Coming back to the equation derived, F was the vector


sum of all forces acting on the object.
Hence equation (i) becomes
work done by all forces = change in kinetic energy
Wall forces = DKE
This equation is work energy theorem.
Before we proceed further with this theorem, let us
see further examples of work done by forces in various
situations.
Work done by a constant force
A force is constant only if its magnitude as well as
direction remains constant which is possible only if
all the three components of force are each individually
constants.

^
\ If F = Fx i^ + Fy ^j + Fz k and,

^
dr = dx i^ + dy ^j + dzk , then,

dWF = F dr = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz
\ WF = dWF =
WF =

r2 = x2 ^
i + y2 j^ + z2^
k


F dr

r1 = x1^
i + y1 j^ + z1k^

x2

y2

z2

x1

y1

z1

Fxdx + Fydy + Fzdz

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

73

But since, Fx, Fy and Fz are constants, they can be taken


out of integration.
\ WF = Fx

x2

y2

x1

y1

dx + Fy

z2

dy + Fz dz
z1

WF = FxDx + FyDy + FzDz


Apart from memorizing the result, let us try to
understand the above expression.
If we treat the components of force Fx, Fy and Fz as three
independent forces, then work done by Fx is Fx Dx which
is force multiplied with displacement in the direction of
the force or displacement multiplied with force in the
direction of displacement. Let us try to apply this for
a physical situation where an object is moved from A
to B in a curved path and one constant force F acts on
the object at all instants at an angle q with the line AB

Before we start solving questions, we need to take a look


at the classification of forces once.

Conservative ForCes
These are those forces for which the work done is
independent of path and depends only on initial
and final positions.

Hence for all the 3 paths, if its a conservative force,


W1 = W2 = W3
The work done by these forces in a closed path is
always necessarily zero.
We always associate a scalar quantity known as potential
energy (PE) with these forces and the work done by
conservative forces is the negative of the change in PE.
WC = DPE
74

as shown.

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

\ WF = (Fcosq) l or F(lcosq)
Now, to be able to apply WET we follow these basic
steps.

PE can be seen as a stored form of energy which depends


on the relative configuration of the system.
Example: Gravitational force (mg), spring force,
electrostatic force etc.
Gravitational Potential energy

If an object of mass m is at a height h (<< Re) above the


surface of earth, its PE is
U(h) = mgh + U0

where U0 = PE at surface of earth which is generally


taken to be zero until and unless specified otherwise.
spring Potential energy

If a spring is elongated or compressed with respect to its


undeformed natural length by an amount x, the stored
1
PE is kx 2.
2

When the mass M reaches the man,


its speed is gl. Find the work done
by man, assume that the rope does
not fall down as it is being pulled
but rather it stays at the same level
platform from which it is being
pulled?
Soln.:

Hence,
Work done by gravity,
Wg = DPEg = mg(Dh); where Dh = change in height.
Work done by spring,
1
1

Wsp = DPEsp = kx22 kx12


2

2
where x1 and x2 are initial and final elongation/
compression in spring.
non Conservative ForCes
These are those category of forces for which work
done is path dependent.
Generally we put dissipative forces (i.e., forces which
extract energy out of the system) in this category.
Example: Friction
external ForCes
These are forces which act as a push or a pull on the
object under consideration.
Example: Tension (T) of string, normal reaction (N) etc.
Note : When observing from accelerated frame, pseudo
force can also be thrown in this category.
Now let us apply, whatever we have learnt here.
Q1.

The mass is released from rest. Find the distance


travelled by it on rough surface before coming to rest.
Soln.: Let the distance be x.
mg, fK(= mmg), N are the forces acting but N is
incapable of performing work.
Hence, Wg + Wf = DKE
DPEg + Wf = 0
(mgh) + (mmgx) = 0
h
\ x=
m
Q2. A rope of mass m, length l is used to pull a mass M
as shown.
76

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

The COM of the rope is raised by l/2 whereas the


block by l. Hence
1
Wg + Wext = DKE = Mv 2 0
2
l
1

mg + Mgl + Wext = M ( gl)


2

2
M
m
3

Wext =
+ gl
2
2
Q3. If a constant force F starts acting as shown then find,

(i) maximum elongation in spring


(ii) maximum speed of mass.
Soln.: As the spring starts stretching, spring force,
opposite to F starts increasing in magnitude but
till its value is less than F, the objects speed will
increase till a maximum value after which spring
force will become greater than applied force hence
the block will start decelerating.
Hence we divide the motion into two parts-

Applying WET between O and B,


Wext + Wsp = DKE
Fxmax DPEsp = 0
1 2

Fxmax kxmax
0 = 0
2

2F
...(i)
k
Interestingly, the elongation at equilibrium is,
when, kxe = F
F
xe =
k
\ xmax = 2xe
Applying WET between O and A
1 2
Wext + Wsp = DKE = mvmax
0
2
1 2
1
Fxe kxe2 0 = mvmax
2
2
F
vmax =
...(ii)
mk
Equations (i) and (ii) obtained above can be
memorized as standard results and be used in
various problems but the limitation to the result is
that the results are applicable only if 1. The block starts from natural length of spring.
2. Speed at natural length position is zero.
3. F is constant.
Q4. The spring is released from natural
length of spring. Find the minimum
value of m so that on being released, it
is able to lift the mass off ground.
xmax =

Soln.:

Soln.: (i) Comparing before and after situations -

If we notice, the difference just is that the centre of


l
mass (COM) of BC portion is lifted up by
.
2n
\ W + W = DKE
g

ext

DPE + Wext = 0
m l mgl
Wext = DPE = g = 2
n 2n 2n
(ii) Similarly,

Comparing the two situations, what we see that it


appears as if the COM of the portion on the table
l 1
has come down by 1 + .
2 n
Hence, Wg = DKE
1
DPE = mv 2
2
1 l 1
1 2

mv = m 1 g 1 +
2
n 2 n
1

v = gl 1 2
n
Q6. The string is initially unstretched. Find the
maximum value of F for which m2 does not slip
over the surface.

2mg
Clearly, xmax =
k
\ For block M, to lift off,
kxmax Mg m

Soln.:
M
2

Q5. A chain of mass m and length


l is overhanging a smooth
horizontal table such that
l/n part of it hangs below the
surface of table.
Find - (i) Work done by external agent to lift the
chain completely over table.
(ii) Speed of the chain when it just becomes
vertical.

2(F f k ) 2(F mm1 g )


=
k
k
And block m2 wont slip if, kxmax f 2 lim
mm2 g
2(F mm1g) mm2g F
+ mm1 g
2
nn
Clearly, xmax =

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

77

Solution Set-25

1. From DABC
80
4 ...(i)
tan q =
=
300 15
From DAPO
20
...(ii)
tan q =
h
From eqns (i) and (ii)
4 20
20 15
=
h=
= 75 cm
15 h
4
2. Suppose there is n moles of gas.
For process BC (isochoric), energy given out by the
gas,
nR
Qisochoric = nCV DT =
(T T )
1 B C
For the process DA, V T i.e., P = constant.
Wisobaric = nRDT = nR TA TD = nR TB TC
Q
1
\ Required ratio = isochoric =
=4
Wisobaric 1

CP
= C = 1.25
V

3. When prism is in air, refractive index of prism


60 + 45
sin

4 2
8
m=
; m=
m=
5 1
5
60
sin

2
When prism is placed in liquid of refractive index
m then
60 + 30
sin
sin 45

8
8 1
2
; m =
=
=
5 m
sin 30
60
5 2
sin
2
4. Image formation due to convex lens
1
1
1
30 36

=
v=
= 180 cm
v 36 30
6
This image will act like a virtual object for mirror
and after reflection from mirror its image (shown
by I2) will be formed at 80 cm below optical axis of
convex lens.
For concave lens, this image will be object at a
position of 15 cm below the lens.
For final image formed by concave lens
1 1 1
1
5
=

=
20 15 f
f
300
78

physics for you | September 15

1
1 1
= (m 1)
R R
f
5
3 2
or
= 1
300 2 R
300
R=
= 60 cm
5
5. We have f1 = 50 cm and f2 = 100 cm
Let the real distance between A and B be x. Also let
refractive index of liquid be m. Then
1
1 2
1 3 1
1
= 1 =

f1
2
R1 R2
R1 R2 f1
Also,

1
1 3
1
= 1
f1 2m R1 R2

1 2 3 2m and 1 = 2 3 2m
=
f2 f2 2m
f1 f1 2m
Now, for A we have
1 1 2 3 2m

=
200 x 50 2m
1
1
2 3 2m

=
+
...(i)
x 200 50 2m
Also, for B we have
1 1 2 3 2m


=
100 x 100 2m

1
1
2 3 2m
=
+
x 100 100 2m
From (i) and (ii), we get
2(3 2m) 1
1 2(3 2m)
+
=
+
100(2m) 100 200 50(2m)
so

...(ii)

12 6
=
10 5
6. Area covered by line joining planet and sun in time
dt is
1
dS = x 2dq
2
dS 1 2 dq 1 2
= x
= x w
Areal velocity =
dt 2 dt 2
where x = distance between planet and sun and
w = angular speed of planet about sun.
From Keplers second law, areal velocity of planet
is constant.
m=

At farthest position,
dS 1
A=
= (2R r )2 w
dt 2
1
1
= (2R r )[(2R r )w] = (2R r )v
2
2
2A
or v =
2R r
Here, A = 4.4 1016 m s1, R = 2 1012 m, r = 1.8 1012 m
\ v = 40 km s1
7. If temperature is increased by DT then
Dl
Dl = laDT DT =
la
Dl
\ E1 = (Al )sDT = Als
la
Dl
When stretched, stress = Y
l

8.

Y (Dl )2 A
1 Dl Dl
E2 = Y Al =
2 l l
2l
E1
AlsDl 2l
2sl
So,
=
=
= 500
E2 al Y (Dl )2 A a(Dl )Y

Let the refractive index of middle prism be m.


Refraction at point A,
sin 30 = 1.5 sin q
... (i)
Refraction at point B,
1.5 sin (60 q) = m sin x
... (ii)
Refraction at point C,
m sin (60 x) = 1.5 sin (60 q)
... (iii)
From eqns. (ii) and (iii)
x = 30
\ 1.5 sin (60 q) = m sin 30
[Using (ii)]
Now, q 20 [from eqn. (i)]
1.5 sin(60 20)
\ m=
= 1.93
sin 30
9. R = 10 cm

Applying Snells law


sin q 3
6

=
r = 53 Using sin q =
sin r 4
10

By sine law in DABC,


sin(r q) sin( r )
=
10
(10 + x )
10 + x
4
\
=
10
5(sin r cos q cos r sin q)
4
=
4 4 3 3
5
5 5 5 5
200
10 + x =
7
200 70 130
X
x=
=
cm = cm \ X = 130
7
7
7
10. Process 1-2
Since V T, thus P = constant
DQ1 = nCP DT
5
5
= 1 R (T0 2T0 ) = RT0
2
2
DW1 = RT0
Process 2-3
Since temperature is constant, thus process is
isothermal PV = constant
\ DU = 0 DQ2 = DW2 = RT0ln2
Process 3-4
Since V T, thus P = constant
5
\ DQ3 = RT0
2
\ DW3 = RT0
Process 4-1
Since temperature is constant, thus, PV = constant
\ DQ4 = DW4 = 2RT0ln2
Net work done, DW = DW1 + DW2 + DW3 + DW4
= RT0 ln2
5
Heat supplied, DQ = DQ3 + DQ4 = RT0 + 2RT0 ln 2
2
RT0 ln 2
Work done
100%
Efficiency =
=
Heat supplied 5 RT + 2RT ln 2
0
2 0
ln 2
=
100% 18%
2.5 + 2ln2
nn

1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

Solution Senders of Physics Musing


sET-25
Trishala Gupta (Delhi)
Deep Anand Basumatary (Assam)
Subham Bakli
sET-24
Imran Hussain (Mumbai)
Rajat Tripathi (Uttrakhand)
Sucheta Nain (Jaipur)
physics for you | September 15

79

chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
sysTEM of PArTicLEs AND roTATioNAL MoTioN

1. The total torque about pivot A provided by the


forces shown in the figure, for L = 3.0 m, is

(a) 210 N m
(c) 95 N m

(b) 140 N m
(d) 75 N m

2. The moment of inertia of a sphere of mass M and


radius R about an axis passing through its centre is
2
MR2. The radius of gyration of the sphere about
5
a parallel axis to the above and tangent to the sphere
is
7
3
(a) R
(b) R
5
5
7
(d) 3 R
R
5
5
3. If the earth suddenly changes its radius x times the
present value, the new period of rotation would be
(a) 6x2 hr
(b) 12x2 hr
2
(c) 24x hr
(d) 48x2 hr
(c)

4. The ratio of angular momentum of earth for its


orbital motion and its daily rotation is
(a) much greater than 1
(b) smaller than 1
(c) equal to 1
(d) slightly greater than 1
5. The moment of inertia of uniform circular disc of
radius R and mass M about an axis passing from the
80

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

edge of the disc and normal to the disc is


1
7
(a) MR2
(b) MR2
2
2
3
(c) MR2
(d) MR2
2
6. Two solid spheres (A and B) are made of metals of
different densities rA and rB respectively. If their
masses are equal, the ratio of their moments of
inertia (IIA/IIB) about their respective diameter is
r
(a) B
r
A
(c)

2/3

rA
rB

r
(b) A
r
B
(d)

2/3

rB
rA

7. Four particles each of mass m are lying symmetrically


on the rim of a disc of mass M and radius R. Moment
of inertia of this system about an axis passing
through one of the particles and perpendicular to
plane of disc is
(a) 16mR2

(b) (3M + 16m)

R2
2

R2
(d) zero
2
8. A rigid body rotates about a fixed axis with variable
angular velocity equal to (a bt) at time t where
a and b are constants. The angle through which it
rotates before it comes to rest is
(c) (3m + 12M )

a2
(a)
b

(b)

a2
4b

(d)

(c)

a2
2b
a2

2b2

9. Two solid cylinders P and Q of same mass and same


radius start rolling down a fixed inclined plane
from the same height at the same time. Cylinder P
has most of its mass concentrated near its surface,
while Q has most of its mass concentrated near the
axis. Which statement(s) is (are) correct?
(a) Both cylinders P and Q reach the ground at the
same time.
(b) Cylinder P has larger linear acceleration than
cylinder Q.
(c) Both cylinders reach the ground with same
translational kinetic energy.
(d) Cylinder Q reaches the ground with larger
angular speed.
10. A uniform rod of length 1 m is bent at its midpoint
to make 90 angle. The distance of the centre of
mass from the centre of the rod is
(a) 36.1 cm
(b) 25.2 cm
(c) 17.7 cm
(d) zero

11. A force F = ai + 3j + 6k is acting at a point

r = 2i 6 j 12k . The value of a for which angular


momentum about origin is conserved is
(a) 1
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) zero

(c) The acceleration vector points to the centre of


the circle.
(d) The velocity and acceleration vectors are
perpendicular to each other.
15. An athlete throws a discus from rest to a final
angular velocity of 15 rad s1 in 0.270 s before
releasing it. During motion, discus moves a circular
arc of radius 0.810 m. Acceleration of discus before
it is released is
(a) 45 m s2
(b) 182 m s2
2
(c) 187 m s
(d) 192 m s2
soLuTioNs

1. (d) :

Resolve the 90 N, 80 N and 70 N forces into x and y


components. The line of action of 90 N, 50 N, and
x-components of the 80 N and 70 N forces pass
through the pivot point A, therefore they cause no
rotation.
\ The total torque about point A is

12. A wire of length l and mass m is bent in the form

L
L
= (80 sin 30) (60) + (70 cos 60)(L)
2
2

of a rectangle ABCD with AB = 2. The moment of


BC

inertia of this wire frame about the side BC is


11 2
8
(a)
ml
(b)
ml 2
252
203
5
7
(c)
(d)
ml 2
ml 2
136
162
13. A circular plate of uniform
thickness has a diameter of
56 cm. A circular portion of
diameter 42 cm is removed
O2
O O1
from one edge as shown in
figure. The centre of mass
28 cm
of the remaining portion
21 cm
from the centre of plate
will be at
(a) 5 cm
(b) 7 cm
(c) 9 cm
(d) 11 cm

14. Which of the following statements is false for a


particle moving in a circle with a constant angular
speed?
(a) The velocity vector is tangent to the circle.
(b) The acceleration vector is tangent to the circle.

13
3
1
= (80) (60) + (70) (3)
22
2
2
= 60 90 + 105 = 75 N m
2
2. (c) : Given Ic = MR2
5
Using the theorem of parallel axes, moment of
inertia of the sphere about a parallel axis tangential
to the sphere is
2
7
I = Ic + MR2 = MR2 + MR2 = MR2
5
5
\

7
I = MK 2 = MR2
5

or

K=

7
R
5

3. (c) : As no torque is applied, angular momentum


L = I w = constant
2
2
or MR2 = constant
5
T
Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

81

i.e.,

R2 R2
R2
= constant or 1 = 2
T
T1 T2

R22

r
= B
rA

xR
T2 = 2 T1 = 1 24 hr = 24x 2 hr
R1
R1
4. (a) : For orbital motion of earth around the sun
2
L1 = I1 w1 = Mass (radius of orbit)2
T1
2
= 6 1024 (1.49 1011)2
365 24 60 60
40
2
1
= 2.66 10 kg m s
For rotation around its axis,
2
2
L2 = I2 w2 = MR2
T2
5
2
2
= 6 1024 (6.4 106 )2
5
24 60 60
= 7.1 1033 kg m2 s1

L1
>> 1
L2
1
2
5. (c) : I AB = MR
2
ICD = ?
Applying the theorem of parallel axes,
I CD = IAB + MR 2
1
3
= MR2 + MR2 = MR2
2
2
\

R
B

rA

4 3
4
RA = rB R3B
3
3
1/3

RA r B
=
RB rA
82

Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

(... MA = MB)

2 /3

(Using(i))

7. (b) : According to the theorem of parallel axes,


moment of inertia of disc about an axis passing
through K and perpendicular to plane of disc, is
1
3
= MR2 + MR2 = MR2
2
2
R
O

Total moment of inertia of the system


3
= MR2 + m(2R)2 + m( 2R)2 + m( 2R)2
2
R2
= (3M + 16m)
2
8. (b) : w = a bt
At time t = 0, w = w0 = a
dw
a=
=b
dt
Using w2 = w20 + 2aq

6. (a) : Moment of inertia of a solid sphere of mass M


and radius R about its diameter is
2
I = MR2
5
2
2
2
IA 5 M ARA M ARA
\
=
=
I B 2 M R2 M B RB2
5 B B
Mass(M )
Density, r =
Volume(V )
4 3
M = rV = r R
3
As per question, MA = MB
\

IA RA
=
IB RB

... (i)

0 = w20 + 2aq
w 2 a2
q= 0 =
2a 2b
9. (d) : Acceleration of a body rolling down a fixed
inclined plane of inclination q is
or

a=

g sin q

(i)
k2
1+ 2
R
As cylinder P has most of its mass concentrated
near its surface, while cylinder Q has most of its
mass concentrated near the axis, therefore, radius
of gyration,
kP > kQ
From (i), aP < aQ
Therefore, at bottom of incline, vP < vQ
or (wPR) < (wQR)
or wP < wQ
or wQ > wP
i.e., cylinder Q reaches the ground with larger
angular speed.

10. (c) : Rod POQ of length


l = 1 m = 100 cm is bent
at its midpoint O so that
POQ = 90 (see figure).
The mass of part PO of
length l/2 can be taken
to be concentrated at
its midpoint A whose
coordinates are (0, l/4) and
of part OQ of length l/2 at its midpoint B whose
coordinates are (l/4, 0). The centre of mass of these
two equal masses is at midpoint C between A and B.
The coordinates of C are (l/8, l/8).
2

l l
OC = (OE)2 + (CE)2 = +
8 8
100 cm
l
=
=
= 17.7 cm
32
32
11. (b) : Angular momentum, L = constant, when

=r F =0
i.e. (2i 6j 12k ) (ai + 3j + 6k ) = 0
\

or
12. (d) :

i j
k
2 6 12 = 0, which gives a = 1
a 3
6
AB
=2
BC

AB = DC =

l
3

l
6
m
Similarly, mAB = mDC =
3
m
and mBC = mAD =
6
\ Moment of inertia of the wire frame about the
given axis is
I = IAB + IAD + IDC + IBC
and

BC = AD =

1 m l
m l 1 m l
= + + +0

6 3 3 3 3
3 3 3
7
ml 2 ml 2 ml 2
+
+
=
ml 2
81
54
81 162
13. (c) : Let M be the mass of circular plate with centre O.
M
Mass per unit area =
(28)2
\ Mass of circular portion removed, with centre
O1
9
M
(21)2 = M
M1 =
2
16
(28)
=

9
7
M= M
16
16
Let O2 be its centre of mass, where OO2 = x.
Now, M1 OO1 = M2 OO2
9
7
M 7 = M x
16
16
Mass left, M2 = M M1 = M

x = 9 cm

14. (b) : For a particle moving in a circle with constant


angular speed, velocity vector is always tangent
to the circle and the acceleration vector always
points towards the centre of the circle or is always
along radius of the circle. Since, tangential vector
is perpendicular to radial vector therefore velocity
vector will be perpendicular to the acceleration
vector. But in no case acceleration vector is tangent
to the circle.
15. (a) : w = w0 + at or w = 0 + at
15
w
rad s 2
=
t 0.270
15
\ a = ra = 0.81
= 45 m s 2
0.270

or a =

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Physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

83

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. When water flows past two adjacent boats facing


upstream, why do the boats tend to pull together?
Aditya Kashyap (Haryana)

Ans. When the water is forced into the confining space


between the boats, it increases speed of the water waves.
The only way it can get the energy required for the
increased speed is to take it from the internal energy
associated with pressure. As a result, the water pressure
between the boats decreases. With normal pressure on
the exterior sides of the boats and this decreased pressure
on the interior sides, the boats are drawn together.
Q2. If you inspect a light bulb that has been operating for
a long time, a dark region appears on the inner surface
of the bulb. What is the origin of this dark region?
Kirti Gupta (U.P.)

Ans. The dark region is tungsten that vaporized from the


filament of the lightbulb and collected on the inner
surface of the glass. Many lightbulbs contain a gas that
allows convection to occur within the bulb. The gas near
the filament is at a very high temperature, causing it to
expand and float upward, due to Archimedes principle.
As it floats upward, it carries the vaporized tungsten
with it, so that the tungsten collects on the surface at the
top of the lightbulb.
Q3. Suppose a point charge + Q is in empty space. We
surround the charge with a spherical conducting
shell so that the charge is at the centre of the shell.
What effect does this have on the field lines from the
charge?
Shan Doshi (WB)
Ans. When the spherical shell is placed around the charge,
the charges in the shell adjust so as to satisfy the rules
for a conductor in equilibrium and Gausss law. A
net charge of Q moves to the interior surface of
the conductor, so that the electric field within the
conductor is zero (a spherical gaussian surface totally
within the shell encloses no net charge). A net charge of
+ Q resides on the outer surface, so that a Gaussian
surface outside the sphere encloses a net charge of
+ Q, just as if the shell were not there. Thus, the only
change in the field lines from the initial situation is the
absence of field lines within the conducting shell.
Q4. What makes evaporation different from boiling, in
terms of the latent heat of vaporisation? How is the
boiling point of water dependent upon atmospheric
pressure?
Shreya Singh (Delhi)
84

physics for you | SEPTEMBER 15

Ans. It might be useful to take both the questions together. The


heat required to convert liquid water into a gas is referred
to as latent heat. It represents the energy required to pull
molecules of water away from each other, overcoming
their mutual attraction. At low temperatures, only a
few molecules manage to escape, those whose thermal
velocities are at the upper end of the energy distribution of
molecules in the liquid. This is what causes evaporation.
As the temperature is raised, more and more molecules
acquire energies sufficient to escape from the liquid,
and therefore the rate of evaporation increases. When a
temperature that is high enough for most of the molecules
to escape the liquid is reached, the liquid begins to boil.
The temperature, which is a measure of kinetic energy
of the molecules, cannot increase any further, because
any increase in the energy of the molecules leads to their
escape from the system. At this point, heat just serves to
overcome the mutual attraction of the molecules.
The molecules attempting to escape the force of others
in the liquid have to face the pressure of the atmosphere
above, including that exerted by their companions that
escaped before them. This pressure keeps them close to
the liquid surface and many of them return. If, on the
other hand, the pressure outside is low, the molecules
escape to greater distances. Lowering the pressure
enables even those molecules to leave that have not
yet attained velocities that would be considered high
enough at normal pressure. Thus, at low pressure, the
liquid begins to boil at lower temperatures, because
molecules that are not very energetic can also overcome
the barrier. This is the reason that the boiling point of
water decreases at low pressure and, conversely, is raised
when the pressure is increased.

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An electrical conductor held at a
constant voltage, used to carry high
currents between different circuits in a
system. (6)
7
4. Tiny solid or liquid particles suspended
among the molecules of atmospheric
14
gases. (8)
8. The branch of mechanics concerned
with forces that change or produce the
motions of bodies. (8)
14. Interstellar clouds. (7)
15. A very strongly magnetized neutron
23
star that emits a uniform series of
equally speed electromagnetic pulses.
(6)
26
21. A heat engine that runs backward.
(12)
23. A device for continuous removal of
heat. (9)
25. Disk shaped region of small icy bodies
which ranges from about 30 to 100 AU from Sun.
(6, 4)
26. A collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved.
(9)
27. A measure of internal friction within a fluid. (9)
28. A unit of luminance equal to 1 candela per cm2. (5)
29. Unit of radiation dose. (3)
30. The collective name given to long-lived baryons
other than the proton and neutron. (7)
3.

Down

1.
2.
5.
6.
7.
9.

Unit of heat equivalent to a million billion. (4)


Smooth dark areas of moon. (5)
A copper-tin alloy used for metal, mirrors and
reflection diffraction gratings. (8)
A succession of waves of limited duration. (4, 5)
The peak of a wave disturbance. (5)
A mineral widely used for electrical insulation. (4)

2
5

3
6
8

10

11

12

13
15

16

17
18

19

20

21
22

24

25

27
28
29

30

10. A quantum number used in the theory of quarks


11.
12.
13.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
22.
24.

and hadrons. (5)


A hypothetical particle of time approximately equal
to 1024 s. (7)
Acronym for balanced unbalanced. (5)
The size of a vector quantity. (9)
An inverted U tube with one limb longer than the
other. (6)
The slow permanent deformation of a crystal or
other specimen under sustained stresses. (5)
The maximum value of stress that must be applied
to a material in order that it shall flow. (5, 5)
A term used to describe the way materials responds
to forces. (10)
An access point in an electronic circuit or network.
(4)
The prefix for 1018. (4)
A type of aerial used in radio astronomy. (4)

Physics for you | september 15

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Physics for you | september 15