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Vol. XXIII

No. 10

October 2015

Corporate Office :

Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,

Gurgaon -122 003 (Hr). tel : 0124-4951200

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

three years back, in collaboration with the scientists of other

laboratories.

Regd. Office

406, taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,

ring road, New Delhi - 110029.

Managing Editor

Editor

:

:

the Atlas and cMS collaborators of cerN have obtained the sharpest

picture of the Higgs boson for the first time. Now they are on the way

to study its properties, production, decay and how its interacts with

other particles.

Mahabir Singh

Anil Ahlawat (be, MbA)

contents

Physics Musing (Problem Set-27)

rial

JEE Workouts

11

Core Concept

15

20

23

Series 2

JEE Accelerated Learning Series

31

Brain Map

46

Bihar CECE

59

the standard model. the present studies have the best precision for

performing measurements for these particles. A lot of work is yet to be

done in the field of more familiar particles.

Krane had been able to measure the radius and the error of

determination for half a dozen well-known fundamental particles such

as electron, proton, etc. these values were theoretically verified by our

scientists.

this story of cerN has proved that with international cooperation,

discoveries are faster and their confirmation is also better when

more than one lab is attached to the working teams of the bigger

laboratories.

Exam Prep

66

73

74

75

Series 5

Crossword

85

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Editor : Anil Ahlawat

Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.

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Anil Ahlawat

Editor

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PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

Set 27

single oPtion correct tyPe

separation is 0.5 mm and the screen is 0.5 m from

the slit. For a monochromatic light of wavelength

500 nm the distance of third maxima from the

second minima on the other side is

(a) 2.75 mm

(b) 2.5 mm

(c) 22.5 mm

(d) 2.25 mm

2. A particle of mass m is projected from the surface

of earth with a speed v0 (v0 < escape velocity). The

speed of particle at height h = R (radius of earth) is

(a)

gR

(b)

v02 2 gR

(c)

v02 gR

(d)

v02 + 2 gR

confined to a cylindrical region of radius R. The

magnetic field is increasing at a constant rate of

dB

(tesla/second). An electron of charge e, placed at

dt

the point P on the periphery of the field experiences

an acceleration

2 m dt

(b)

1 eR dB

toward right

2 m dt

eR dB

toward left

m dt

(d) zero

(c)

makes an angle of 45 with the horizontal. After

another one second it is travelling horizontally.

The magnitude of its initial velocity and angle of

projection are

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 14.62 m s1, 60

(b) 14.62 m s1, tan1(2)

(c) 22.36 m s1, tan1(2)

(d) 22.36 m s1, 60

5. A simple pendulum is suspended from the ceiling

of a lift. When the lift is at rest its time period is T.

With what acceleration should the lift be accelerated

T

2

acceleration due to gravity)

(a) 4g

(b) g

(c) 2g

(d) 3g

inclined plane of angle q1 reaches the bottom in t1.

The same block released from rest from the top of

another smooth inclined plane of angle q2, reaches

the bottom in time t2. If the two inclined planes

have the same height, the relation between t1 and t2

is

1/2

sin q1

t

(a) 2 =

t1 sin q2

(c)

t2 sin q1

=

t1 sin q2

t

(b) 2 = 1

t1

(d)

of wire having a resistance R varies with time as

f = at2 + bt (a and b are positive constants). The

average emf and the total charge flowing in the loop

in the time interval t = 0 to t = t respectively are

(a) at + b,

at + bt

R

(b) at + b,

at + bt

2R

at2 + bt

at + b at2 + bt

,

(d) 2(at + b),

2R

2

R

8. Assuming all the surfaces to be frictionless, find

the magnitude of net acceleration of smaller

block m with respect to ground

(c)

10

2 5mg

(5m + M )

(b)

(c)

7 5mg

(5m + M )

t2 sin2 q1

=

t1 sin2 q2

2mg

(5m + M )

(a)

If ( A + B) and ( A B) respectively subtend angles a

AB sin q

2 AB sin q

(a)

(b)

A2 + B2 cos2 q

(c)

A2 sin2 q

2

A + B cos q

A2 B2 cos2 q

(d)

B2 sin2 q

A2 B2 cos2 q

forms an angle with any of the vectors. If the

magnitude of second vector is reduced to half

of initial magnitude without changing the angle

between the direction of new resultant vector and

first vector is also reduced to half, then the angle

between the two vectors is

(a) 120

(b) 60

(c) 90

(d) 45

nn

1. A monochromatic light of wave length 500 is

incident on two identical slits separated by a distance

of 5 104 m. The interference pattern is seen on a

screen placed at a distance of 1 m from the plane of

slits. A thin glass plate of thickness 1.5 106 m and

refractive index 1.5 is placed between one of the slits

and the screen. Find the intensity at the center of the

slit now.

2. A totally reflecting, small plane

mirror placed horizontally, faces a

parallel beam of light as shown in

the figure. The mass of the mirror

is 20 g. Assume that there is no

absorption in the lens and that 30%

of the light emitted by the source

goes through the lens. The power of the source

needed to support the weight of the mirror is

x 108 W. Find x. (Take g = 10 m s2)

3. A certain radioactive material can undergo three

different types of decay, each with a different decay

constant l, 2l, and 3l. Then, the effective decay

constant leff is equal to nl. What is the value of n?

4. A coil is connected to an alternating emf of voltage

24 V and of frequency 50 Hz. The reading on the

ammeter connected to the coil in series is 10 mA. If

a 1 mF capacitor is connected to the coil in series the

ammeter shows 10 mA again. What would be the

approximate reading on a dc ammeter (in A) if the

coil was connected to a 180 V dc voltage supply?

(Take p2 = 10)

5. A metal disc of radius 25 cm rotates with a constant

angular velocity 130 rad s1 about its axis. Find the

potential difference in nV between the centre and

absent.

6. Figure shows a potentiometer circuit for

determining the internal resistance of a cell. When

switch S is open, the balance point is found to be at

76.3 cm of the wire. When switch S is closed and

the value of R is 4.0 W, the balance point shift to

60.0 cm. Find the internal resistance of cell C.

20 cm. When an object is moved from a distance of

25 cm in front of it to 50 cm, the magnification of its

m

image changes from m25 to m50. The ratio 25 is

m50

8. An a-particle and a proton are accelerated from rest

by a potential difference of 100 V. After this, their

de Broglie wavelengths are la and lp respectively.

lp

The ratio

, to the nearest integer, is

la

9. When two identical batteries of internal resistance

1 W each are connected in series across a resistor R,

the rate of heat produced in R is J1. When the same

batteries are connected in parallel across R, the rate

is J2. If J1 = 2.25J2 then the value of R in W is

Physics for you | OctOber 15

11

dN (t )

versus t.

a student plots a graph of ln

dt

dN (t )

is the rate of radioactive decay at time t.

Here

dt

If the number of radioactive nuclei of this element

decreases by a factor of p after 4.16 years, the value

of p is

points A and B in the given circuit. If the capacitors

have no charge initially, at what time (in seconds)

does the voltage across them become 4 V?

[Take : ln5 = 1.6, ln3 = 1.1]

m I

the magnetic field at P due to this loop is k 0 ,

48 px

find the value of k.

solutions

the slit. Path difference between waves reaching this

point,

dy

Dx =

(m 1)t

D

At the centre of slit y = 0

\ Dx = (m 1)t

2p

2p

Dx = (m 1)t

Phase difference =

l

l

p

l

2

6

5000 1010

3p

= 4 I0 cos2 = 0

2

of radius of curvature 20 m along its optical

50

25

m

axis is observed to move from

m to

7

3

in 30 seconds. What is the speed of the object in

km per hour ?

13. A large glass slab (m = 5/3) of thickness 8 cm is

placed over a point source of light on a plane

surface. It is seen that light emerges out of the top

surface of the slab from a circular area of radius

R cm. What is the value of R ?

14. Three charges q1 = 3 mC, q2 = 3 mC and q3 are kept

at the vertices of a triangle as shown in the figure.

If the net force acting on q1

2

1

given as 1 + mC.

n

Find the value of n.

15. A steady current I goes through a wire loop

12

are emitted from source. Then power of source is

P = nhu

But only 30% of the photons go towards mirrors.

Then force exerted on mirror is

30 h 3 nhu 3 P

F = 2

=

n =

5c

100 l 5 c

This force should be equal to weight of mirror, so

3P

= 20 103 g

5c

5 3 108 20 103 10

or P =

= 1 108 W

3

\ x=1

different decay constants

So, leff = l l + 2l + 3l = 6l, hence n = 6.

2

2

4. (1) : Z = (wL) + R =

24

10 103

R2 + (wL)2 = R2 + wL

wC

1

(wL) = wL +

wC

1

1

L= 2 =

2w C 2 100 p 100 p 106

= 5 H;

(2400)2 = (500p)2 + R2

7. (6) : Magnification, m =

20

=4

m25 =

20 25

= 10 326 180, I = 1 A

5. (3) : Centripetal force required for circular motion

of electron is generated by radial electric field caused

by the redistribution of the electron in the disc.

2

F = eE = mrw2 or E = mrw

e

From dV = E dr,

mw2

r dr

or dV =

e

V2

mw2 R

r dr

or dV =

V1

e 0

or V1 V2 =

2 2

31

m50 =

8.

m

2

20

12

=

\ 25 = = 6

20 50 3

m50 2

h

l=

6. (1) :

, la =

2m p q pV

lp

la

2mK

[ kinetic energy, K = qV ]

2mqV

lp =

mw R

=

2e

(2)(1.6 1019 )

f

f +u

h

2m p q pV

ma qa

mpq p

h

2ma qaV

2ma qaV

h

(4m p )(2q p )

mpq p

= 8 =2 2 3

9. (4) :

resistance. Let l = AJ be the balance length when

switch S is open. When a resistance R is introduced

by closing the switch a current begins of flow

through the cell C and resistance R. The potential

difference between the terminals of the cells

falls and the balance length decreases to l = AJ.

The terminal resistance of the cell is given by

E V

r=

I

where V is the terminal voltage of C and I is

the current in the circuit involving C and R.

V

Also I = .

R

E

\ r = 1 R

V

But E = l .

V l

\

60.0

l

In series,

2e

R

Rate of heat produced in R is J1 =

R + 2

In parallel

Rate of heat produced in R is

2

2e

e

R

J2 =

R =

1

2R + 1

R +

2

\

2R + 1

2e 2 R + 1

=

J 2 R + 2 2e

R+2

J1

J1 = 2.25J2

Physics for you | OctOber 15

13

2R + 1

2R + 1

or 1.5 =

\ 2.25 =

R+2

R+2

or 1.5R + 3 = 2R + 1 0.5R = 2

2

\

R=

=4W

0. 5

10. (8) : According to radioactive decay

N = N0elt

dN

= lN 0e lt

dt

dN

= lN 0 e lt

dt

dN

= lN 0 e lt

dt

Taking natural logarithms of both sides of above

equation, we get

dN

= ln(lN 0 ) lt

ln

dt

dN

= lt + ln(lN 0 )

dt

Comparing the above equation with equation of a

straight line i.e. y = mx + c, we get

34

From graph, slope = l =

64

1

or l = year 1

2

0.693

Half life T1/2 =

= 2 0.693 years =1.386 years

l

4.16 years is approximately 3 half lives

Nuclei will decay by a factor of 23 = 8

\ p=8

ln

resistors is

(2 MW) (2 MW)

R=

= 1 MW

(2 MW) + (2 MW)

The equivalent capacitance of the two parallel

capacitors is

C = 2 mF + 2 mF = 4 mF

The corresponding equivalent diagram is as shown

in the figure.

=4s

t/t

Since V(t) = V0(1 e )

Here, V(t) = 4 V, V0 = 10 V

\ 4 = 10(1 et/t)

6 3

10et/t = 6 or e t /t = =

10

5

t

= ln 3 ln 5

t

t

or

= ln 5 ln 3 = 1.6 1.1 = 0.5

t

or t = (0.5)(4 s) = 2 s

12. (3) : Focal length of a convex mirror,

R 20

= m = 10 m

2 2

For first object

25

v1 = + m, f = + 10 m

3

1 1 1

Using mirror formula + =

v u f

1

1 1

1 1

3

+ =

\

or

=

(25 / 3) u1 10

u1 10 25

u1 = 50 m

For second object

50

v2 = + m, f = + 10 m

7

1

1 1

\

+

=

v2 u2 f

1

1

1

1

1

7

or

+

=

=

(50 / 7) u2 10

u2 10 50

f =

u2 = 25 m

From figure,

sin c =

14

25

m s 1

30

25 18

1

=

km h 1 = 3 km h

30 5

1 3

=

m 5

R2 + 82

...(i)

...(ii)

....Contd. on page no. 84

Centre of Mass

The centre of mass (COM) for any given system of masses

represents that particular point for the entire system whose

motion is not dependent upon the point of application of

force but rather what matters is how much force has been

applied and in which direction the force has been applied,

and not where it has been applied.

To understand this better, let us consider three cases of

a uniform rod being hit at three different points.

F

C

vc

vc

Let m1, m2, .... mn, be point masses with position vectors

mi ri

m r + m2r2 + ..... + mnrn =

rCOM = 1 1

mi

m1 + m2 + ..... + mn

mi xi

mi y i

mi z i

, y COM =

,z

=

mi

mi COM mi

where (xi , yi , zi) are the x, y and z co-ordinates of the

ith mass.

Note : They are co-ordinates and hence + or has to be

taken care of.

where x COM =

vc

points of the rod is different in all the three cases but

there, at point C (in this case the geometrical centre)

whose motion is identical in all the three cases. This

point C is the COM.

Hence, one more definition of COM is also prevalent

amongst most books which says it is one such point for

the entire system of given masses where the entire mass

may be assumed to be concentrated.

Mathematically, the location of COM is calculated as

shown :

becomes

dm r

rCOM =

dm

Now, with the formula being known, let us calculate the

location of COM for some standard configuration.

15

shown and from there we have taken x and y axis for

simplification of calculation.

m x + m2 x2 m1 (r1 ) + m2 (+r2 )

\ xCOM = 0 = 1 1

=

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

m1r1 = m2r2

Hence greater the mass, lesser its distance from COM.

Thus COM is shifted more towards heavier mass.

also, r1 + r2 = r

m1

m1

...(i)

r1 =

r , r2 =

r

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

Clearly, if the masses been equal, the COM would be

located midway on the Line of Symmetry (LOS). Hence

if we can find any LOS for the given system then draw it

and the COM will lie on this LOS.

If there are two or more LOS, then their point of

interaction gives COM.

Q1. Locate the COM of the system shown in the figure.

is cut out touching the periphery as shown. Locate

the COM.

the COM of 2 is known as well as combined 1 + 2

is known.

Let us assume the COM of the given figure (part 1

in our diagram) at a distance x from the combined

COM.

For 1 + 2 combined system

their respective COM will be at their geometric

centre and mass being proportional to length, we

can see the same figure as shown below

m x + m2 x2

xCOM = 1 1

=0

m1 + m2

m1x1 + m2x2 = 0

But since the disc is uniform, m A (area)

\ A1x1 + A2x2 = 0

p[(2R)2 R2] (x) + (pR2)(R) = 0

x = R/3

COM of non-uniform rod with linear mass density linearly

dependent on distance measured from one end

A

dx

proportional to distance measured from one end A. To

locate COM, we choose an elemental mass dm where,

dm = ldx

= (ax + b)dx

16

xCOM =

xdm = 0

dm l (ax + b)dx

al 3 bl 2

+

2al 2 + 3bl

= 32 2 =

3(al + 2b)

al

+ bl

2

2al 2 + 3bl

...(ii)

\ xCOM =

3(al + 2b)

Note : If the linear mass density is given to be

proportional to distance being measured from one end,

l(x) = ax i.e., b = 0

2l

\ xCOM =

3

COM of a thin uniform semicircular ring

COM

R

Rsin = y

LOS

p

\ yCOM =

m

dm = R Rd = md

dmy = 0

dm

2R

p

A quarter ring is identical from y-axis as well as x-axis

hence,

2R

2R

\ OC = 2

xCOM = yCOM =

p

p

COM of a uniform semicircular disc

Let us divide the entire disc, into small triangular strips

as below :

\ yCOM =

2

(ax + bx)dx

will lie at centroid, i.e., at 2R from common vertex.

3

Joining all the point masses, we have a ring of radius

2R

r=

3

2r 2 2R 4 R

...(iv)

\ yCOM = = =

p p 3 3p

COM of a thin uniform hollow hemisphere

m

d R sin

p

m

R

2R

sin d =

p

p

...(iii)

C

45 COM

45

O

LOS

OC = ?

a half ring as shown in the figure below

m

\ dm =

(2 p R sin )(Rd)

2 pR2

\ yCOM =

dmy

dm

p /2

m sin d R cos

= 0

=

R

2

p /2

m

sin 2 d =

R

2

...(v)

shells.

Physics for you | OctOber 15

17

DrCOM = 0

COM

r

y= r

2

dr

plank of mass M whose lower surface is smooth.

3m 2

M

(2 pr 2dr ) =

r dr

2 3

3

R

pR

3

r

The COM of this element is at .

2

dm =

\ yCOM =

dmy

dm

3m 2

r

dr

2

R3 r

=0

3R

8

...(vi)

distance moved by plank.

Soln.: Even though we understand that the plank

would recoil towards left due to friction force

of mans foot, we assume the plank to be shifting

towards right for simplification of calculation.

memorized.

Motion of COM

mi ri

rCOM =

mi

\ Velocity of COM,

dri

mi

dr

dt = mi vi

vCOM = COM =

mi

mi

dt

\ vCOM =

m1 + m2 + ...... + mn

Where M = m1 + m2 + ..... + mn

dpCOM

dv

dv

dv

\

= m1 1 + m2 2 + ........ + mn n

dt

dt

dt

dt

= m1a1 + m2a2 + ............ + mnan

= F1 + F2 + .......... + Fn

which is the vector sum of all the forces acting on

the combined system which is the rate of change of

momentum of COM. This proves that for COM, the net

force is important and not the point of application of

force.

This gives us one important conclusion, if there is no

net external force in any direction for combined system,

the linear momentum of the system in this direction

cannot be changed. And specifically speaking, if the

COM was initially at rest and due to internal forces,

objects start moving, then they move such that COM

does not move.

18

Fhorizontal = 0 DxCOM = 0

m1Dx1 + m2Dx2 = 0 m(x + l) + Mx = 0

ml

x=

m + M

\ Negative sign signifies that plank moves opposite to

ml

.

assumed direction by a distance | x | =

m+ M

This result gives us the answer without calculations in

few questions as shown here.

m

m

R

M

Smooth

R

mR

|x| =

m+M

M

x

Smooth

m

lsin

mlsin

|x| =

m+M

Acceleration of COM

dvi

m

i

dv

dt = mi ai

aCOM = COM =

mi

mi

dt

\ aCOM =

m1 + m2 + ..... + mn

=

Q5.

m1

m2

Q6. F1

m1

m2

F2

Feff

m2

x2

1

Feff (x1 +x2 ) = k(x1 +x2 )2

2

2(m2 F1 + m1F2 )

2F

xmax = x1 + x2 = eff =

k

(m1 + m2 )k

Smooth

m x + m2 x2

1

\ SCOM = aCOMt 2 = 1 1

m1 + m2

2

1 2

Ft m1x1 = m2 x2

2

1 F 2 m1

t

x1

x2 =

2 m2

m2

m2

At maximum elongation v1 = v2 = 0

\ Using work energy theorem,

1

Feff x1 + Feff x2 = DPE = k(x1 +x2 )2

2

m1 F

force starts acting on m1 as shown. In a time t, m1

displaces by x1 then find the displacement of m2?

F

Soln.: aCOM =

= constant

m1 + m2

m1

x1

total mass

k

Feff

Q7.

(i) aCOM

(ii) Net force acting on the combined system.

Soln.:

Smooth

spring is initially in its natural length.

(Assume F2 > F1)

F2 F1

towards right.

Soln.: aCOM =

m1 + m2

include a pseudo force for both, as shown below

F F m F + m1F2

\ F1eff = F1 + m1 2 1 = 2 1

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

F F m2 F1 + m1F2

F2eff = F2 m2 2 1 =

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

F1eff = F2eff = Feff

With respect to COM, equal and opposite forces act

on the two objects.

Clearly,

m m1

a2 = a1 = 2

g =a

m1 + m2

m (a ) + m2 (a2 )

aCOM = 1 1

m1 + m2

2

m m1

= 2

g

m1 + m2

Fnet = (m1 + m2 ) aCOM =

(m2 m1 )2 g

(m1 + m2 )

nn

19

ROTATIONAL MOTION

1. Determine the moment of inertia about the x-axis

of the solid spherical segment of mass M.

O

R/2 R/2

and hemisphere of radius r

fixed on the same base rests on

a table, the hemisphere being

in contact with the table. Find

the maximum height of the

cone, so that the combined

body may stand upright.

3. Consider the motion of the cylinder of mass m and

radius r moving up a plane inclined at angle q to

the horizontal. To begin with, cylinder rotates with

angular velocity wo about its axis when gently placed

on the plane so that its initial translational velocity

is zero. Find the distance moved by cylinder before

sliding stops.

o

force F = 60 N. Determine the angle q for translation.

What is the accompanying acceleration?

a mass of 4 kg and a length of 500 mm being pushed

0m

50

the acceleration of A in terms of the gravitational

acceleration. Neglect the mass of the pulleys shown

in figure.

6. A boy is pushing

a ring of mass

2 kg and radius

0.5 m with a stick as

Ground

shown in figure.

The stick applies a force of 2 N on the ring and rolls

it without slipping with an acceleration of 0.3 m s2.

The coefficient of friction between the ground and

the ring is large enough that rolling always occurs

and coefficient of friction between the stick and the

ring is x/10. Find the value of x?

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

20

SOLUTIONS

about the diameter.

Mass of spherical segment,

M = Density Volume of segment

Consider a small disc of radius y and thickness dx

as shown in figure.

Mass of small disc, dm = rpy2dx

...(i)

M

M

M

r=

= R

= R

V

2

2

2

py dx p(R x )dx

R /2

r=

M

3

5p R /24

R /2

24 M

...(ii)

5pR3

A

R

y

x

O x

1

1

dI = dm y 2 = rpy 4dx

2

2

I=

rp

2

R /2

y 4 dx =

3

Distance of centre of gravity of cone from bottom,

y2 = r + h/4.

Centre of gravity of combined body

W y + W2 y2

y= 1 1

W1 + W2

2p

5r 1

h

rg r 3 + rg pr 2h r +

3

8 3

4

y=

2p 3

1 2

rg

r + rg pr h

3

3

For stable equilibrium, y r

2 p 3 5r rg 2 h

r +

pr h r +

3

8

3

4

r

2p 3

1

r + rg pr 2h

rg

3

3

\ h2 3r2 h 1.732 r

rg

dx

B

x2 + y 2 = R 2

1

\ I = dI = rp

2

rp

2

(using (i))

(R2 x 2 )2 dx

R /2

of the cylinder slides downward (backward) with

respect to the plane; hence, the frictional force acts

upwards (forward) as shown in figure. The equation

of translational motion is mmgcosq mgsinq = ma

(R 4 2R2 x 2 + x 4 )dx

R /2

R

24 pM 4

2R2 x 3 x 5

=

+

R x

(using (ii))

3

5

10 pR3

R /2

53

2

Solving, we get, I =

MR

200

therefore its centre of gravity will lie on this axis.

Now consider two parts of the body, hemisphere

and cone. Let the bottom of the hemisphere be the

axis of reference as shown in figure.

2p 3

Weight of hemisphere, W1 = rg

r .

3

Distance of centre of gravity of hemisphere from

5

bottom y1 = r

8

or a = g(mcosq sinq)

Velocity of cylinder after time t is

v = at = g (mcosq sinq)t

Frictional force produces a torque.

Hence, t = (mmgcosq)r = Ia

...(i)

...(ii)

=

...(iii)

1 2

r

mr

2

Angular velocity decreases with angular retardation

a with time t,

\ w = wo at

...(iv)

or a =

21

we have v = wr, i.e. rolling begins at time t = T.

v

w = = wo aT

r

g (m cos q sin q)T

= wo aT

r

2mg cos qT g (m cos q sin q)T

=

wo

r

r

wo r

or T =

g (3m cos q sin q)

The distance moved by the cylinder before sliding

stops is

1

S1 = aT 2

2

wor

1

= g (m cos q sin q)

2

g (3m cos q sin q)

\ S1 =

2mg T = 2ma2

...(i)

Equation of motion for body B is

2T mg = ma1

...(ii)

Length of the rope L = y1 + (y1 l) + (y2 l)

+ 2 (half of circumference)

or 2y1 + y2 = constant

Differentiating twice w.r.t. t, we get,

d 2 y2

+

= 0 2a1 + a2 = 0

dt 2

dt 2

Acceleration of body A = 2 Acceleration of body B

From equation (i),

2mg T = 2ma2 = 4ma1

...(iii)

Solving (ii) and (iii), we get

a1 = g/3, a2 = 2a1 = 2g/3

2

2g

3

6. There is no slipping between ring and ground.

Hence f2 is not maximum.

\

d 2 y1

Acceleration of body A =

Angular acceleration, a = 0

and linear acceleration = a

Applying the equation SFH = ma 60 = 4a

\ a = 15 m s2

...(i)

SFV = 0 RA = 4g = 39.24 N

...(ii)

Taking moment about G, we get,

60 0.25sinq RA 0.25cosq = 0

39.24

tan q =

= 0.654

60

q = tan1 (0.654) q = 33.18

figure.

y1

a1

T

T

T

T

2T

T

T

A 2m

2mg

mg

22

y2

a2

N

mg 1

N2

f1

f2

Therefore, f1 is maximum.

1

Now, I = mR2 = 2(0.5)2 = kg m2

2

N1 f2 = ma

or N1 f2 = 2 0.3 = 0.6 N

Rt

R

a=Ra=

= R( f2 f1 ) = R2 ( f2 f1 ) / I

I

I

...(i)

or 0.3 =

(0.5)2 ( f2 f1 )

1/ 2

or f2 f1 = 0.6 N

...(ii)

N1 = 2 N

...(iii)

x

Further, f1 = mN1 = N1

10

Solving these four equations, we get, x = 4

...(iv)

nn

Series

22

Series

Work, Energy and Power| System of Particles and Rotational Motion

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

A light body and a heavy body have the same

kinetic energy. Which one will have the greater

momentum?

Find the radius of gyration of a hollow sphere

rotating about its diameter.

Why are rockets given a conical shape?

About 4 1010 kg of matter is converted into energy

in the Sun each second. What is the power output of

the Sun?

A rigid spherical body is spinning around an axis

without any external torque. Due to change in

temperature, the volume increases by 1%. What will

be the percentage change in angular velocity?

What is the tension in rod of length L and mass M

at a distance y from F1 when the rod is acted on by

two unequal forces F1 and F2 (F2 < F1) at its ends?

A sphere of mass m moving with a velocity u hits

another stationary sphere of same mass. If e is the

coefficient of restitution, what is the ratio of the

velocities of two spheres after the collision?

A particle is projected making an angle of 45 with

horizontal having kinetic energy K. What is the

kinetic energy at highest point ?

A sphere of radius r is rolling without sliding. What

is the ratio of rotational kinetic energy and total

kinetic energy associated with the sphere?

OR

rotating at a speed of 1800 rpm. Find the torque

acting.

11. An object of weight W hangs from a rope that is

tied to other ropes that are fastened to the ceiling as

shown in figure. The upper ropes make angles q and

with the horizontal. Find the tensions T1, T2 and

T3 in the three ropes.

T1

T2

T3

W

the direction of each ball makes an angle of 30

with the original line of motion. Find the speeds of

the two balls after the collision. Is the kinetic energy

conserved in the collision process?

13. A solid cylinder rolls up an inclined plane of angle

of inclination 30. At the bottom of the inclined

plane, the centre of mass of the cylinder has a speed

of 5 m s1. (a) How far will the cylinder go up the

plane? (b) How long will it take to return to the

bottom ?

Physics for you | OctOber 15

23

15.

16.

17.

18.

24

space.

(b) passengers are thrown forward from their seats

when a speeding bus stops suddenly.

(c) It is easier to pull a lawn mower than to push it.

A student holds two dumbbells without stretched

arms while standing on a turntable. He is given a

push until he is rotating at a rate of 0.5 rps. Then the

student pulls the dumbbells towards his chest. What

is the new rate of rotation? Assume the dumbbells

are originally 60 cm from his axis of rotation and

are pulled into 10 cm from the axis of rotation. The

mass of the dumbbells is such that the student and

dumbbells have equal angular momentum when at

60 cm distance.

A locomotive of mass m starts moving so that its

velocity varies according to the law v = k s , where

k is constant, and s is the distance covered. Find the

total work performed by all the forces which are

acting on the locomotive during the first t second

after the beginning of motion.

OR

Two discs of moment of inertia I1 and I2 about

their respective axes (normal to the disc and

passing through the centre) and rotating with

angular speeds w1 and w2 are brought into contact

face to face with their axes of rotation coincident.

(a) What is the angular speed of the two-disc system?

(b) Show that the kinetic energy of the combined

system is less than the sum of the initial kinetic

energies of the two discs. How do you account for

this loss in energy? (Take w1 w2).

If 28 1023 molecules of a gas strike a surface of

area 14 cm2 normally per second with velocity of

500 m s1 and rebound in the opposite direction

with the same speed, find the pressure exerted by

the gas on the surface if mass of each molecule is

5 1023 g.

Sam went to shopping mall to purchase certain

goods .There he noticed an old lady struggling with

her shopping. Immediately he showed her the lift

and explained to her how it carries the load from

one floor to the next. Even then the old lady was

not convinced. Then Sam took her in the lift and

showed her how to operate it. That old lady was

very happy.

(a) What values does Sam possess?

(b) An elevator can carry a maximum load of

1800 kg in moving up with a constant speed of

2 m s1. The frictional force opposing the motion is

4000 N. Determine the minimum power delivered

by the motor to the elevator in watts as well as in

horse power.

Physics for you | OctOber 15

the lowest point A such that it completes a semicircular trajectory in the vertical plane with the

string becoming slack only on reaching the topmost

point, C as shown in figure. Obtain an expression

for (a) v0 ; (b) the speeds at points B and C; (c) the

ratio of the kinetic energies at B and C (KB/KC).

Comment on the nature of the trajectory of the bob

after it reaches the point C.

OR

Prove the result that the velocity v of translation of a

rolling body (like a ring, disc, cylinder or sphere) at

the bottom of an inclined plane of a height h is given

by

2 gh

v2 =

(1 + k 2 / R2 )

using dynamical consideration (i.e., by

consideration of forces and torques). Note k is the

radius of gyration of the body about its symmetry

axis, and R is the radius of the body. The body starts

from rest at the top of the plane.

20. A particle of mass m slides from the top of the

surface of sphere of radius r. It loses contact and

strikes the ground. At what distance below the top,

the particle will lose contact with the surface? At

what distance from the initial position the particle

strikes the ground?

OR

A small mass slides down an inclined plane of

inclination q with the horizontal. The coefficient

of friction, = 0x, where x is the distance through

which the mass slides down and 0 is a constant. Find

the distance covered by the mass before it stops. What

is the maximum speed over this distance?

solutions

1. When porcelain objects are wrapped in paper or

much increased during jerk while transportation.

Dp

, as Dt increases, F decreases.

Dt

Hence, force on the porcelains is reduced during

transportation, and saves them from breakage.

Since F =

p2

, \ p = 2mK .

2. Kinetic energy, K =

2m

Since K is same for both bodies, p m , i.e., the

heavier body has more momentum than the lighter

body.

3. The moment of inertia of a hollow sphere about its

2

diameter = MR2

..(i)

3

If K is the radius of gyration, then moment of inertia

of a body = MK2

...(ii)

From (i) and (ii)

2

2

MR2 = MK 2 \ K = R

3

3

4. Rockets are given a conical shape because conical

It also helps to maintain its direction.

5. Energy liberated per second by the conversion of

4 1010 kg of matter, i.e.,

E = mc2 =[(4 1010) (3 108)2] J = 3.6 1027 J

Power output of the Sun = energy (work) liberated

per second

= 3.6 1027 J s1 = 3.6 1027 W

6. Angular momentum of spherical body,

2

2

Q I = 5 MR

2

L = I w = MR2 w

5

Also, volumeV =

4 3

R or

3

2 3V

\ L= M

5 4

2 /3

3V

R2 =

4

2 /3

\ w V 2/3

7.

dw

2 dV

100% =

100%

w

3 V

So, the angular velocity decreases by 0.67%.

F1

T

A

y

B

F2

(F F )

a= 1 2

M

Mass of the part (say AB) of length y,

M

m= y

L

If T is the tension in AB, then

M

F1 T = ma =

L

y

(F F )

y 1 2 = (F1 F2 )

M

L

or T = F1 (F1 F2 )

y

y

y

= F1 1 + F2

L

L

L

8. Here, u1 = u, u2 = 0

\ e=

v2 v1 v2 v1

=

u1 u2

u0

or v2 v1 = e u

By the law of conservation of momentum,

mu + m 0 = mv1 + mv2

or v1 + v2 = u

Adding (i) and (ii),

2v2 = u + eu = u (1 + e)

u(1 + e)

or v2 =

2

Again, from (ii),

u(1 + e) u(1 e)

v1 = u v2 = u

=

2

2

Divide eqn (iii) by eqn (iv)

...(i)

...(ii)

...(iii)

...(iv)

v2 1 + e

=

.

v1 1 e

1

2

Velocity at the highest point, u'

u

= horizontal component of u = u cos 45 =

2

Hence KE at the highest point,

1

K = mu 2

2

1 u

1 1

K

K = m

= mu2 = .

2

2 2

2 2

KE at highest point will be half of the initial kinetic

energy.

1

10. Translational kinetic energy, ET = mv 2

2

1

and Rotational kinetic enegy ER = I w2

2

Physics for you | OctOber 15

25

1

1

Total energy, E = ET + ER = mv 2 + I w2

2

2

1 2 1 2 2 v2

= mv + mr 2

2

2 5

r

1

1

7

= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2

2

5

10

1 2

mv

ER

2

\

= 5

= .

7

E

7

mv 2

10

OR

Here, N = 1800 rpm, P = 100 hp = 100 746 W

Angular velocity,

2 1800

w = 2 N =

= 60 rad s 1

60

Now power = tw or 100 746 = t 60

746 100

= 395.9 N m

60

11. The free body diagram for the forces acting at O, is

shown here.

t=

From Fx = 0,

T2 cos T1cosq = 0

From Fy = 0,

T1 sin q + T2 sin W = 0

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

T cos q

T1 sin q + 1

sin = W

cos

or T1 (sin q + cos q tan ) =W

W

or T1 =

(sin q + cos q tan )

Similarly, T2 =

W

(sin + cos tan q)

and T3 = W

26

...(i)

...(ii)

12.

= m 9 + m 0 = 9m

...(i)

Final momentum of A and B after collision along

X-axis

= mv1 cos 30 + mv2 cos 30

m 3

(v1 + v2 )

2

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

=

...(ii)

m 3

(v1 + v2 ) = 9m

2

or (v1 + v2 ) = 6 3

...(iii)

Applying the law of conservation of momentum

along Y-axis,

mv1 sin 30 = mv2 sin 30

or v1 = v2

...(iv)

From eqns. (iii) and (iv),

v1 = v2 = 3 3 m s 1

1

81

Initial KE = m(9)2 = m = 40.5 m

2

2

1 2 1 2 1

Final KE = mv1 + mv2 = m(v12 + v22 )

2

2

2

1

2

2

= m[(3 3 ) + (3 3 ) ] = 27m

2

KE lost in the collision 40.5 m 27 m = 13.5 m

So, kinetic energy is not conserved.

1

2

(a) As the cylinder goes up the plane, it acquires

potential energy at the expense of its KE of

translational and rotational motion. Let the cylinder

go up the plane upto height h. Then according to

principle of conservation of energy, we have,

1 2 1 2

mv + I w = mgh

2

2

or

1 2 1 1 2 v2

mv + mr 2 = mgh

r

2

2 2

[... v =rw]

3 2

mv = mgh

4

3v 2 3 (5)2

\ h=

=

= 1.913 m

4g

4 9. 8

Suppose that the cylinder covers a distance S along

the incline in reaching height h on the plane. Then,

h

h

1.913

sin q = or S =

=

= 3.826 m

S

sin q sin 30

(b) For a cylinder rolling down an inclined plane,

linear acceleration.

2

2

a = g sin q = 9.8 sin 30 = 3.27m s 2

3

3

1

1

Now S = v0t + at 2 = 0 + at 2 {Q v0 = 0}

2

2

2S

\ t=

= 1.53 s

a

or

The ground offers an equal reaction in the opposite

direction, on the feet of the horse. The forward

component of this reaction is responsible for motion

of the cart. In empty space, there is no reaction and

hence a horse cannot pull the cart and run.

(b) This is due to inertia of motion. When the

speeding bus stops suddenly, lower part of the

bodies in contact with the seats stop. The upper part

of the bodies of the passengers tend to maintain the

uniform motion. Hence the passengers are thrown

forward.

(c) While pulling a lawn mower, force is applied

upwards along the handle. The vertical component

of this force is upwards and reduces the effective

weight of the mower, as shown in figure (i). While

pushing a lawn mower, force is applied downward

along the handle. The vertical component of this

force is downwards and increases the effective

weight of the mower, as shown in figure (ii). As the

effective weight is lesser in case of pulling than in

case of pushing, therefore, pulling is easier than

pushing.

total mass m, Ld1 = mr12w.

If Ls1 is the initial angular momentum of the student,

then initial angular momentum of the system,

L1 = Ls 1 + Ld 1 = Ls 1 + mr12 w1

...(i)

Final angular momentum of the system,

...(ii)

From the law of conservation of angular momentum

L1 = L2

...(iii)

From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),

...(iv)

Ls2 + mr22 w2 = Ls 1 + mr12 w1

Since the angular momentum of the student is

proportional to his rate of spin,

w

...(v)

Ls 2 = 2 Ls 1

w1

From eqns. (iv) and (v),

w2

2

2

w Ls 1 + mr2 w2 = Ls1 + mr1 w1

1

or

w2 2

2

2

2

w mr1 w1 + mr2 w2 = mr1 w1 + mr1 w1

1

= 2mr12 w1

(Q Ls 1 = Ld 1 = mr12 w1 )

or

2r 2

2(0.6)2

w2 = 2 1 2 w1 =

(0.5)

2

2

(0.6) + (0.1)

r1 + r2

= 0.97 rps

16. Given: v = k s

k

1

dv

k ds

k

k s = k2

=

=

v =

2

dt 2 s dt 2 s

2 s

Force on the locomotive,

F =m

Again,

dv 1 2

= mk

dt 2

dv k 2

=

dt 2

or

dv =

k2

dt

2

k2

t +c

2

where c is the constant of integration.

Suppose v = 0 at t = 0. Then, c = 0

Integrating, v =

k2

t or

2

k 2t

or ds =

dt

2

\ v=

ds k 2t

=

2

dt

27

k 2t 2

+ c

4

k 2t 2

Suppose s = 0 at t = 0. Then, c = 0 \ s =

4

Work done = Fs

1

k 2t 2 mk 4t 2

= mk 2

=

2

4

8

OR

(a) Total initial angular momentum of the discs,

L1 = I1w1 + I2w2

Moment of inertia of the two disc system = (I1 + I2)

If w is the angular speed of the combined system,

then, final angular momentum of the system,

L2 = (I1 + I2)w

As no external torque is acting, therefore, according

to principle of conservation of angular momentum,

we have,

(I1 + I2)w = I1w1 + I2w2

I w +I w

or w = 1 1 2 2

I1 + I2

1

1

(b) Initial KE of two discs, E1 = I1w12 + I 2 w22

2

2

1

2

Final KE of the system, E2 = (I1 + I 2 )w

2

1

1

1

2

2

\ E1 E2 = I1w1 + I 2 w2 (I1 + I 2 )w2

2

2

2

Putting the value of w from part (a) and solving,

we get,

Integrating, s =

E1 E2 =

I1 I 2 (w1 w2 )2

2(I1 + I2 )

140 kg m s-1

= 140 kg m s-2

1s

But rate of change of momentum is equal to the

applied force = 140 kg m s2 = 140 N

By Newton's third law of motion this must also be

the magnitude of the force exerted by the molecules

on the surface.

\ Force exerted by molecules on surface = 140 N

Area of surface = 14 cm2 = 14 104 m2

force

140

Pressure on surface =

=

area 14 104

=

= 105 N m2

18. (a) Sam is sympathetic and also has the attitude of

helping others. He has patience.

(b) The downward force on the elevator is F= mg + f

= (1800 10) + 4000 = 22000 N. The motor must

supply enough power to balance this force.

Hence P = F.v = 22000 2 = 44000 W = 59 hp

(1hp = 746 W)

19. (a) Two external forces act on the bob are gravity

and tension (T) in the string. At the lowest point

A, the potential energy of the system can be taken

zero. So at point A,

is less than the sum of the initial rotational KE of

the two discs. Note that there is loss of KE in the

process. This loss of energy is due to dissipation of

energy due to frictional contact of the two discs. It

may be noted that angular momentum is conserved

in the process as torque due to friction is only an

internal torque.

17. Let the direction in which the molecules rebound

after striking the surface be taken as positive.

Momentum of each molecule after striking the

surface =mv2 = 5 1026 kg 500 m s1

Momentum of each molecule before striking the

surface = mv1 = 5 1026 kg ( 500 m s1)

28 1023 molecules strike the surface per second.

Change in momentum of the molecules striking the

surface in 1 second

= 28 1023 [(5 1026 500) 5 1026 ( 500)] kg m s1

= 28 1023 5 1026 1000 kg m s1

= 140 kg m s1

28

1

E = mv02

...(i)

2

If TA is the tension in the string at point A, then

mv02

...(ii)

L

At the highest point C, the string slackens, so the

tension TC becomes zero. If vC is the speed at point

C, then by conservation of energy,

1

E = K + U or E = mvC2 + 2 mgL ...(iii)

2

mvC2

Also, mg =

...(iv)

L

2

or mvC = mgL

...(v)

TA mg =

1

5

E = mgL + 2mgL = mgL

...(vi)

2

2

From equations (i) and (vi), we get

m

5

...(vii)

mgL = v02 or v0 = 5 gL

2

2

(b) From equation (iv), we have

vC = gL

The total energy at B is

1

E = mv B2 + mgL

...(viii)

2

From equations (i) and (viii), we get

1 2

1

mv B + mgL = mv02

2

2

1 2

1

mv B + mgL = m 5 gL

[using (vii)]

2

2

v B = 3 gL

(c) The ratio of kinetic energies at B and C is

1 2

K B 2 mv B 3

=

=

KC 1 2 1

mvC

2

OR

Consider a body of mass M and radius R rolling down

a plane inclined at an angle q with the horizontal, as

shown in figure. It is only due to friction at the line

of contact that body can roll without slipping. The

centre of mass of the body moves in a straight line

parallel to the inclined plane.

The external forces on the body are

(i) The weight Mg acting vertically downwards.

(ii) The normal reaction N of the inclined plane.

(iii) The force of friction acting up the inclined plane.

equation of motion for the body can be written as

N mg cos q = 0

F = ma = mg sin q f

As the force of friction f provides the necessary

torque for rolling, so

a

t = f R = I a = mk2

R

or

f =m

k2

a

R2

where k is the radius of gyration of the body about

its axis of rotation. Clearly

k2

ma = mg sin q m

a

R2

g sin q

or a =

(1 + k 2 / R2 )

Let h be height of the inclined plane and s the

distance travelled by the body down the plane. The

velocity v attained by the body at the bottom of the

inclined plane can be obtained as follow:

v2 u2 = 2as

or

v2 02 = 2

or

v2 =

or

v=

g sin q

(1 + k 2 / R2 )

2 gh

2

1+ k / R

s

h

Q s = sin q

2 gh

(1 + k 2 / R2 )

20. The particle of mass m is initially at A. At the point

P where the particle loses contact with the surface

of the sphere, normal reaction is zero and the only

force acting on the particle is its weight mg acting

vertically downwards, as shown in figure.

provides the necessary centripetal force,

mv 2

mg cos q =

r

or v 2 = rg cos q

...(i)

OQ (r h)

As cos q =

=

,

OP

r

v2 = (r h)g

...(ii)

Since the velocity v has been acquired by the particle

after falling through a height h,

Physics for you | OctOber 15

29

...(iii)

v = 2 gh

From eqns. (ii) and (iii),

2gh = (r h)g

r

\ h=

3

From eqns. (iii) and (iv),

...(iv)

2 gr

...(v)

v=

3

If x is the horizontal and y is the vertical distance

covered by the particle as it hits the ground at C

after time t,

x = (v cos q)t

...(vi)

1 2

and y = (v sin q)t + gt

...(vii)

2

From eqns. (vi) and (vii),

y = x tan q +

gx 2

...(viii)

2v 2 cos2 q

r 5

It is clear that, y = 2r h = 2r = r ,

3 3

r h r r /3 2

cos q =

=

= ,

r

r

3

and tan q = sec2 q 1 = (3 / 2)2 1 =

5

2

5

gx 2

5

r =x +

3

2 2(2 gr / 3)(2 / 3)2

or

27 x 2 + (8 5r )x (80 / 3)r 2 = 0

i.e., x =

8 5r + 320r 2 + 2880r 2

2 27

(neglecting negative root)

=

= 0.72r

54

54

If s is the distance from the initial position where

the particle strikes the ground at C,

s = BC = BD + DC = rsin q + x

or

x=

5

= r + 0.72r = 0.75r + 0.72r 1.5r

3

OR

distance x [as shown in figure].

30

ma = mg sin q f

= mg sin q 0x mg cos q

[Q f = R = (0x)mg cos q]

or a = g(sin q 0x cos q)

...(i)

dv dv dx dv

=

=

v,

dt dx dt dx

v dv = a dx = g (sin q 0 xcos q) dx

As a =

or v v dv = ( g sin q) x dx (0 g cos q) x x dx

0

0

0

2

2

x

v

or

= ( g sin q)x 0 g cos q

2

2

or v2 = (2g sin q)x (0g cos q)x2

...(ii)

If the mass comes to rest after covering a distance s,

then if x = s, v = 0.

From eqn. (ii),

(2g sin q)s (0g cos q)s2 = 0

or s[2g sin q (0g cos q)s] = 0

As s 0, 2g sin q (0g cos q)s = 0

2 g sin q

2

or s =

=

...(iii)

tan q

0 g cos q 0

When v = vmax ,

dv d

a=

= (v ) = 0

dt dt max

If x = x0, for a = 0, from eqn. (i)

g(sin q x0 cos q) = 0

or x0 cos q = sin q

tan q

or x0 =

...(iv)

0

tan q

Putting v = vmax and x = x0 =

in eqn. (ii),

0

2

vmax

or

tan q

tan q

= (2 g sin q)

(0 g cos q)

2

vmax

=

g

2g

sin q tan q sin q tan q

0

0

g

sin q tan q

0

or vmax =

g

sin q tan q

0

nn

Class

XI

Unit

thermodynamics

transformation of heat energy into other forms of energy

and vice versa. In thermodynamics, the collection of

objects on which attention is being focused is called

the system, while everything else in the environment is

called the surroundings.

thermal equilibrium

volume, mass, composition etc., which characterize a

system, do not change with time, the system is said to

be in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Zeroth Law of thermodynamics

with a third system C, then A and B will be in thermal

equilibrium with each other.

heat

environment because of a temperature difference that

exists between them. It is a scalar quantity. Its SI unit is

joule. It is path dependent.

Work

W = dW =

Vf

Vi

temperature of the system also change. It is a scalar

quantity. Its SI unit is joule. It is path dependent. In P-V

diagram (indicator diagram) the area under P-V curve

represents work done.

internal energy

the system due to molecular motion and molecular

configuration. Change in internal energy is path

independent and depends only on the initial and final

states of the system. The internal energy of an ideal gas is

only dependent upon temperature whereas that of a real

gas it is a function of both temperature and volume.

thermodynamic variables

(P), volume (V) and temperature (T) etc. which are used

to describe the state of the system. The relation between

these variables is called equation of state. Heat and work

are not thermodynamic variables. Thermodynamic

variables are of two kinds, extensive and intensive.

Internal energy U, volume V, total mass M are extensive

variables. Pressure P, temperature T and density r are

intensive variables.

first Law of thermodynamics

PdV

state i to state f.

principle of conservation of energy. Imagine a gaseous

system for which pressure, volume and temperature are

related by certain equation of state and is undertaken

through a process. If DQ, DU and DW represent the heat

Physics for you | OctOber 15

31

done by the system respectively. During the process the

first law of thermodynamic states that

DQ = DU + DW

Sign Convention

Heat absorbed by the system is taken as positive while

the heat lost by the system is taken as negative.

Work done by the system is taken as positive while work

done on a system is taken as negative.

The increase in internal energy of the system is taken

as positive while decrease in internal energy is taken as

negative.

dP

P

= g

dV

V

In an adiabatic expansion temperature of the gas will fall

(T2 < T1) while in adiabatic compression temperature of

the gas will rise (T2 > T1).

isothermal Process

throughout the process. Hence PV = constant as T

is constant. Work is done at the same rate as heat is

supplied, hence there is no increase of internal energy.

Due to this, DU = 0 and thus DQ = DW.

Work done during an isothermal process,

V

P

W = mRT ln 2 = mRT ln 1

V1

P2

point on the curve is given by

dP P

=

dV V

KEY POINT

In an isothermal expansion the gas absorbs heat and

does work and in an isothermal compression work

is done on the gas by the environment and heat is

released.

adiabatic Process

or occurs in a system that is so well insulated that no

transfer of energy as heat occurs between the system

and its environment.

Equation of adiabatic process,

PVg = constant

TVg 1 = constant

sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and

the complete conversion of the heat into work.

Clausius statement : No process is possible whose sole

result is the transfer of heat from a colder object to a

hotter object.

Reversible process : A reversible process is one which

can be retraced in the opposite direction.

A quasi-static isothermal expansion of an ideal gas in a

cylinder fitted with a frictionless movable piston is an

example of a reversible process.

Irreversible process : An irreversible process is

one which cannot be retraced back in the opposite

direction.

All spontaneous processes of nature are irreversible

processes. e.g. transfer of heat from a hot body to a

cold body, diffusion of gases, etc. are all irreversible

processes.

SELF CHECK

V

c

through a reversible

b

cycle a b c d has

the V-T diagram shown

d

a

below. Process d a

T

and b c are adiabatic.

The corresponding P-V diagram for the process is

(all figures are schematic and not drawn to scale)

P

(a)

C

where, g = P is called adiabatic exponent.

CV

Work done during an adiabatic process

W=

(PV

(T T )

1 1 P2V2 )

= mR 1 2

(g 1)

g 1

point on the curve is given by

32

a

d

(b)

V

P

(c)

(d)

b

V

process ABC as shown in figure. The process BC is

adiabatic. The temperatures at A, B and C are 400 K,

800 K and 600 K respectively.

B

800 K

P

A

400 K

600 K

C

V

(a) The change in internal energy in the process BC

is 500 R.

(b) The change in internal energy in whole cyclic

process is 250 R.

(c) The change in internal energy in the process

CA is 700 R.

(d) The change in internal energy in the process AB

is 350 R.

(JEE Main 2014)

3. The above p-v diagram represents the

thermodynamic cycle of an engine, operating with

an ideal monoatomic gas. The amount of heat,

extracted from the source in a single cycle is

p

2p0

p0

(a) 4p0v0

13

(c) p0v 0

2

carnot engine

v0

(b) p0v0

2v0

11

(d) p0v 0

2

(JEE Main 2013)

between two temperatures T1 (source) and T2 (sink).

Carnot cycle : Carnot engine works in series of

operations. The operations consist of an isothermal

expansion and then adiabatic expansion. Further

operations are isothermal compression and adiabatic

compression so that the working substance is back at

the initial state at the end of each cycle. This cycle of

operations is called Carnot cycle.

The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by

T2

T1

The efficiency of Carnot engine depends on the

temperature of source (T1) and temperature of the

sink (T2) , but does not depend upon the nature of the

working substance.

Carnot theorem : No heat engine operating between two

given temperatures can be more efficient than a Carnot

engine operating between the same two temperatures.

h = 1

SELF CHECK

heat from a source maintained at a temperature of

500 K. It is desired to have an engine of efficiency

60%. Then, the intake temperature for the same

exhaust (sink) temperature must be

(a) 1200 K

(b) 750 K

(c) 600 K

(d) efficiency of Carnot engine cannot be made

larger than 50%

(JEE Main 2012)

kinetic theory of gases

equation of ideal gas or Perfect gas

temperature T of a gas is given by

PV = nRT

= kBNT

Where n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the

universal gas constant, its value, R = 8.31 J mol1 K1 and

kB is Boltzmanns constant.

R

kB =

NA

Here, NA is Avogadros constant or Avogadros number.

kB = 1.38 1023 J K1 and NA = 6.022 1023 per mol.

While deriving the ideal gas equation, the following two

assumptions are used :

(i) The size of the gas molecules is negligibly small.

(ii) There is no force of attraction amongst the molecules

of the gas.

ideal gas Laws

volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional

to the pressure.

1

or PV = constant.

V

P

Physics for you | OctOber 15

33

of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its

absolute temperature.

V T or V/T = constant.

Gay Lussacs law or Regnaults law : It states that at

constant volume, pressure of the given mass of a gas is

directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

P T or P/T = constant.

Avogadros law : It states that at same temperature and

pressure, equal volumes of all the gases contain equal

number of molecules.

N1 = N2, if P, V and T are the same.

Grahams law of diffusion : It states that at constant

pressure and temperature, the rate of diffusion of a gas is

inversely proportional to the square root of its density,

1

Rate of diffusion

, if P and T are constant.

r

Daltons law of partial pressure : It states that the total

pressure exerted by a mixture of non-reactive ideal

gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure which

each would exert, if it alone occupied the same volume

at the given temperature.

P = P1 + P2 + P3 + .....

kinetic theory of gases

properties of gases e.g., pressure, temperature etc. to

the microscopic properties of gas molecules e.g. speed,

momentum, kinetic energy of molecules etc. The kinetic

theory of gases is based on the following assumptions :

The intermolecular forces are negligible during a

collision.

The volume of the molecules themselves can be

neglected compared with the volume occupied by

the gas.

The time occupied by a collision is negligible

compared with the time spent by a molecule between

collisions and between collisions a molecule moves

with uniform velocity.

ideal gas

obeys the gas laws.

Following are the characteristics of the ideal gas :

The size of the molecule of a gas is zero, i.e.,

each molecule of a gas is a point mass with no

dimensions.

There is no force of attraction or repulsion amongst

the molecules of the gas.

Equation of an ideal gas : PV = RT = kBNT

34

molecules, R is the universal gas constant and kB is the

Boltzmann constant.

R

kB =

NA

NA is the Avogadros number.

m N

Here, m =

=

M NA

where m is the mass of the gas containing N molecules,

M is the molar mass.

rRT

Another form of an ideal gas equation P =

M

where r is the density of the gas.

kinetic theory of an ideal gas

exerted by an ideal gas is given by

1

P = mn v 2

3

where n is the number density (number of molecules

per unit volume), m is the mass of molecule and v 2 is

the mean square speed.

KEY POINT

The internal energy of an ideal gas is equal to its

the temperature of the ideal gas.

Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas

depends only on its absolute temperature. It is

independent of pressure, volume and nature of

the ideal gas.

Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature

Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas is

1

3

E = mv 2 = k BT

2

2

Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas depends

only on its absolute temperature. It is independent of

pressure, volume and nature of the ideal gas.

At a given temperature, the average kinetic energy per

molecule of all the gases is same.

Average kinetic energy per mole of a gas is

3

E = RT

2

Relation between pressure and kinetic energy of gas

2

PV = E

3

Absolute zero of temperature : Absolute zero of

temperature may be defined as that temperature at

which the velocity of the gas molecules become zero.

temperature. The value of absolute zero for an ideal gas

is 273C. This definition is true only in the case of an

ideal gas.

different type of speed of gas molecules

Root mean square speed,

v rms =

3RT

3k BT

=

M

m

pM

pm

Most probable speed, v mp =

2RT

2k BT

=

M

m

degree of freedom

given by f = 3N K

where

N = Number of atoms in the molecule

K = Number of independent relations between atoms

of a molecule

Relation between g and degree of freedom (f)

2

g =1+

f

Law of equipartition of energy

temperature, T, the total energy is distributed equally

in different energy modes of absorption, the energy in

each mode being equal to (1/2) kBT. Each translational

and rotational degree of freedom corresponding

to one energy mode of absorption and has energy

(1/2)kBT. Each vibrational frequency has two modes

of energy (kinetic and potential) with corresponding

energy equal to

1

2 k BT = k BT .

2

specific heat capacity

Monatomic Gases

The molecule of a monatomic gas has only three

translational degrees of freedom.

The total internal energy of a mole of such a gas is given

by

3

3

U = k BT NA = RT

2

2

The molar specific heat at constant volume, CV is

dU 3

CV =

= R

dT 2

5

CP = R

2

C

5

Ratio of specific heats, g = P =

CV 3

Diatomic Gases

A diatomic gas molecule treated as a rigid rotator like a

dumbbell has 5 degrees of freedom: 3 translational and

2 rotational.

The total internal energy of a mole of such a gas is given

by

5

5

U = k BT NA = RT

2

2

The molar specific heats are given by

5

CV (rigid diatomic) = R

2

7

C P (rigid diatomic) = R

2

7

g (rigid diatomic) =

5

If the diatomic molecule is not rigid but has in addition

a vibrational mode, then

7

5

U = k BT + k BT NA = RT

2

2

7

9

9

CV = R, C P = R, g =

2

2

7

Polyatomic Gases

In general, a polyatomic gas molecule has 3 translational,

3 rotational degrees of freedom and a certain number

(f ) of vibrational mode. The total internal energy of a

mole of such a gas is given by

3

3

U = k BT + k BT + f k BT NA = (3 + f )RT

2

2

CV = (3 + f )R, CP = (4 + f )R

(4 + f )

g=

(3 + f )

Note : CP CV = R.

This relation is known as Mayers relation. It is true for

any ideal gas whether monatomic, di or polyatomic.

mean free Path

two successive collisions and is given by

1

l=

2npd 2

where n is the number density and d the diameter of the

molecule.

Physics for you | OctOber 15

35

pressure (P) as

k BT

l=

2 pd 2P

KEY POINT

square velocity of its molecules.

The mean free path is of great significance

in understanding transport phenomena like

diffusion, viscosity, and thermal conduction.

SELF CHECK

closed chamber. As the gas undergoes an adiabatic

expansion, the average time of collision between

molecules increases as V q, where V is the volume of

C

Cv

(a) g +1

2

(b) g 1

2

(c) 3g + 5

6

(d) 3g 5

6

(in J kg1 K1) of aluminium at room temperature

can be estimated to be (atomic weight of aluminium

= 27)

(a) 25

(b) 410

(c) 925

(d) 1850

(JEE Main 2015)

osciLLations

Periodic and oscillatory motions

regular interval of time is called periodic motion. The

time interval after the motion is repeated is called time

period or period of motion. A periodic motion can be

either rectilinear or closed or open curvilinear.

Physics for you | OctOber 15

Periodic function

f (t) = f (t + T)

where T is the time period of the periodic function.

Any periodic function can be expressed as a superposition of sine and cosine functions of different time periods with suitable coefficients

sinwt, coswt and sinwt + coswt are the periodic

2p wt

. e and log(wt) are non

functions with a period

w

periodic functions.

simple harmonic motion (shm)

that a molecule applies on the walls of a closed

container depends on T as T q. A good estimate for

q is

1

(a) 2

(b) 1

(c)

(d) 1

2

4

(JEE Main 2015)

36

towards a fixed point which may or may not be on the

path of motion.

Oscillatory motion : A periodic motion in which body

moves to and fro (or back and forth) along the same path

about a fixed point (called mean or equilibrium position)

is called oscillatory or vibratory motion. Oscillatory

or vibratory motion is a constrained periodic motion

between two fixed limits (called extreme positions) on

either side of mean position.

to and fro (or up and down) about a mean position under

a restoring force, which is always directed towards the

mean position and whose magnitude at any instant is

directly proportional to the displacement of the particle

from the mean position at that instant.

i.e., F x or F = kx

where k is known as the force constant. The negative

sign shows that restoring force F is always directed

towards the mean position.

The SI unit of k is N m1 and its dimensional formula is

[ML0T2].

Examples of simple harmonic motion :

Motion of bob of a simple pendulum.

Motion of a block connected to spring.

KEY POINT

Every oscillatory motion is periodic but every

motion is a periodic, but it is not oscillatory.

Every periodic motion is not simple harmonic

motion. Only that periodic motion governed by

the force law F = kx is simple harmonic.

Geometrical interpretation of simple harmonic

motion : Simple harmonic motion is the projection

of a uniform circular motion on a diameter of the

reference circle.

moves to and fro (or up and down) about a mean

position along a straight line, then its motion is called

linear simple harmonic motion. e.g., motion of a block

connected to spring.

Angular simple harmonic motion : When a system

oscillates angularly with respect to a fixed axis, then its

motion is called angular simple harmonic motion. e.g.,

motion of bob of a simple pendulum.

Comparison between linear SHM and angular SHM

Linear SHM

Angular SHM

1. Restoring force

Restoring torque

F = kx

t = Cq

where k is the restoring where C is the restoring

force constant

torque constant

i.e., restoring force per i.e., restoring torque per

unit displacement.

unit twist

2. Acceleration

k

a= x

m

Angular acceleration

=

C

q

I

body

inertia of a body

3. The differential equation The differential equation

of angular SHM is

of linear SHM is

2

d x

d 2q

2

+

w

=

0

+ w 2q = 0

x

dt 2

dt 2

k

C

where w 2 =

where w 2 =

m

I

displacement in simple harmonic motion

from its mean position is given by

x = Acos(wt + f)

...(i)

y = Asin(wt + f)

...(ii)

where A is the amplitude (maximum displacement on

either side of mean position) of motion, the argument

(wt + f) is the phase of the motion, f is the initial phase

or phase constant (or phase angle) and w is the angular

frequency.

If s is the span of a particle executing SHM, its amplitude

s

A=

2

SELF CHECK

x(t) = a sinwt and y(t) = a sin2wt. Its trajectory will

look like

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Velocity in simple harmonic motion

dx

v=

= wA sin(wt + f)

dt

v = w A2 x 2

In SHM, velocity is maximum at the mean position and

minimum at the extreme positions.

The maximum value of velocity is called velocity

amplitude in SHM and is given by vm = Aw.

The direction of velocity of a particle in SHM is either

towards or away from the mean position and the velocity

varies simple harmonically with the same frequency as

that of the displacement.

In SHM, the graph between velocity and displacement

v2

x2

is an ellipse as 2 2 + 2 = 1

Aw

A

1

If w = 1 rad s , then the graph will be a circle.

acceleration in simple harmonic motion

dv d 2x

a=

=

= w 2 A cos(wt + f)

dt dt 2

a = w2x

In SHM, acceleration is proportional to the displacement

and is always directed towards the mean position

acceleration is maximum at the extreme positions and

minimum at the mean position.

The maximum value of acceleration is called

acceleration amplitude in SHM and is given by

am = w2A.

In SHM, the acceleration varies simple harmonically

with the same frequency as that of the displacement.

The graph between acceleration and displacement is a

straight line which passes through the origin and has

slope (w2).

Physics for you | OctOber 15

37

and acceleration in simple harmonic motion

by x = Acos(wt + f)

dx

Velocity, v =

= wA sin(wt + f)

dt

p

= wA cos (wt + f) +

2

dv

Acceleration, a =

= w 2 A cos(wt + f)

dt

= w 2 A cos[(wt + f) + p]

From above, we get that

Phase of displacement = (wt + f)

p

Phase of velocity = (wt + f) +

2

Phase of acceleration = (wt + f + p)

Thus, we conclude that, the velocity in SHM is leading

the displacement by a phase p/2 radian. The acceleration

in SHM is leading the displacement by a phase p radian.

The acceleration in simple harmonic motion is leading

the velocity by a phase p/2 radian.

energy in simple harmonic motion

1

1

Kinetic energy K = mv 2 = mw 2 A2 sin 2(wt + f)

2

2

1

= mw 2(A2 x 2)

2

Kinetic energy of a particle executing SHM is periodic

with period T/2. It is zero at extreme positions and

maximum at mean position.

The potential energy of a particle in SHM is given by

1

1

U = kx 2 = kA2 cos 2(wt + f)

2

2

1

= mw 2 A2 cos 2(wt + f)

2

Potential energy of a particle executing SHM is periodic

with period T/2. It is zero at the mean position and

maximum at the extreme positions.

Total energy of a particle in SHM is given by

E=K+U

1

1

= mw 2 A2 sin 2(wt + f) + mw 2 A2 cos 2(wt + f)

2

2

1

= mw 2 A2

2

In SHM, total energy remains constant at all instants

and at all displacements. It depends upon the mass,

amplitude and frequency of vibration of the particle.

38

of its kinetic energy and at the extreme positions, total

energy is in the form of its potential energy.

The average value of kinetic energy or potential energy of

a particle in SHM in a time of one complete oscillation,

1

< K > = < U > = mw 2 A2.

4

But the average value of total energy of a particle in

SHM in one complete oscillation,

1

< E > = mw 2 A2.

2

If frequency of oscillation in SHM is u, then

frequency of oscillation of KE = frequency of oscillation

of PE = 2u.

In SHM, the frequency of oscillation of total energy is

zero.

Graphical variation of energy of SHM

E

KE

TE

PE

A A

2

A A

2

oscillating on a smooth horizontal surface as shown in

the figure below.

When the block is displaced through a distance x

towards right, it experiences a net restoring force

F = kx towards left.

The negative sign shows that the restoring force is always

opposite to the displacement. That is, when x is positive,

F is negative, the force is directed to the left. When x is

negative, F is positive, the force always tends to restore

the block to its equilibrium position x = 0.

F = kx

Applying Newtons second law,

d 2x

F = m 2 = kx

...(i)

dt

d 2x k

+ x =0

dt 2 m

Comparing equation (i) with, F = ma

or

a=

we get,

d 2x

= w 2x

2

dt

m

k

or T = 2p

k

m

Note : The time period is independent of the amplitude.

For a given spring constant, the period increases with

the mass of the block that means more massive block

oscillates more slowly. For a given block, the period

decreases as k increases. A stiffer spring produces

quicker oscillations.

Note : Gravity does not influence the time period of the

spring-mass system, it merely changes the equilibrium

position.

w2 =

of mass, shape and material of bob and it is also

independent of the amplitude of oscillation provided it

is small.

Time period of a simple pendulum depends on L as

T L , so the graph between T and L will be a parabola

while between T2 and L will be a straight line.

Time period of a simple pendulum depends on

T = 2p

1 1

g +

L Re

Special cases :

If L > > Re, then

When two springs are joined in series, the equivalent

stiffness of the combination may be obtained as

6.4 106

Re

= 2p

= 84.6 min

g

9. 8

If L = Re , then

1 1

1

= +

k k1 k2

When two springs are joined in parallel, the equivalent

stiffness of the combination is given by k = k1 + k2

T = 2p

T = 2p

6.4 106

Re

= 2p

= 60 min

2g

2 9. 8

second pendulum.

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and lift is

accelerating downwards with an acceleration a, then its

time period is given by

L

g a

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and lift is

accelerating upwards with an acceleration a, then its

time period is given by

T = 2p

T = 2p

simple Pendulum

T = 2p

L

.

g

acceleration due to gravity.

increase in g, T will decrease or vice versa.

If the length of a simple pendulum is comparable with

the radius of earth (Re), then time period T is given by

L

g +a

moving upwards or downwards with constant velocity v,

then its time period is given by

T = 2p

L

g

freely falling with acceleration g, then its time period

is given by

Physics for you | OctOber 15

39

L

=

gg

T = 2p

(c)

is accelerating horizontally with an acceleration a, then

its time period is given by

T = 2p

L

2

( g +a )

a trolley which is moving down an inclined plane of

inclination q, then the time period is given by

T = 2p

L

g cos q

oscillates in a non-viscous liquid of density s(s < r),

then its time period is given by

T = 2p

L

s

1 r g

SELF CHECK

sectional area A has time period T. When an

additional mass M is added to its bob, the time

period changes to TM. If the Youngs modulus of

1

the material of the wire is Y then

is equal to

Y

(g = gravitational acceleration)

2

2

(a) 1 TM A (b) 1 T A

T Mg

TM Mg

(c)

T 2 A

T 2 Mg

M

(d)

M 1

Mg

A

T

T

10. For a simple pendulum, a graph is plotted between

its kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE)

against its displacement d. Which one of the

following represents these correctly?

(graphs are schematic and not drawn to scale)

E

KE

(a)

E

d

(b)

PE

40

PE

KE

KE

PE

(d)

d

PE

KE

a constant amplitude which does not change with time,

its oscillations are called undamped oscillations.

The energy of the system executing undamped

oscillations remains constant and is independent of

time.

The dissipative forces (i.e., frictional or viscous forces)

are not present in the system executing undamped

oscillations.

Damped oscillations : When a system oscillates with

a decreasing amplitude with time, its oscillations are

called damped oscillations.

The energy of the system executing damped oscillations

will go on decreasing with time but the oscillations

of the system remain periodic. The dissipative forces

or damping forces are active in the oscillating system

which are generally the frictional or viscous forces.

The damping force is given by Fd = bv,

where, v is the velocity of the oscillator and b is damping

constant. Negative sign shows that damping force acts

opposite to the velocity at every moment.

The SI unit of b is kg s1.

The differential equation of damped harmonic oscillator

is given by

d 2x

dx

m 2 + b + kx = 0

dt

dt

The displacement of the damped oscillator at any instant

t is given by

x = Ae bt /2m cos(wt + f)

where w is the angular frequency of the damped

oscillator is given by

k

b2

m 4m2

If the damping constant b is small, then w w, where w

is the angular frequency of the undamped oscillator.

The mechanical energy E of the damped oscillator at

any instant t is given by

1

E = kA2e bt /m

2

Maintained oscillations : Due to the damping forces,

the amplitude of oscillator will go on decreasing with

w =

system at the same rate at which it is dissipating the

energy, then the amplitude of such oscillations would

become constant. Such oscillations are called maintained

oscillations.

forced oscillations and resonance

its own natural frequency, without the help of any

external periodic force, its oscillations are called free

oscillations.

Forced or driven oscillations : When a system oscillates

with the help of an external periodic force, other than

its own natural angular frequency, its oscillations are

called forced or driven oscillations.

The differential equation of forced damped harmonic

oscillator is given by

d 2x

dx

+ b + kx = F0 cos w dt

2

dt

dt

where wd is the angular frequency of the external force.

The displacement of the forced damped harmonic

oscillator at any instant t is given by

x = Acos(wdt + f)

F0

where A = 2 2

{m (w w 2d )2 + w 2db 2}1/2

m

F0

( )

wb

m (w 2 w d2 )2 + d

m

1/2

v 0

and tanf =

wd x0

where w is the natural angular frequency of the

oscillator, x0 and v0 are the displacement and velocity

of the oscillator at time t = 0, when the periodic force

is applied.

Special cases :

Case I. For small damping driven frequency is far from

natural frequency

wd2b2 << m(w2 wd2)2

F

\ A=

m(w 2 w d2 )

Case II. When driven frequency is close to natural

frequency

m(w2 wd2) 0

F

\ A=

2p w db

SELF CHECK

11. A simple harmonic oscillator of angular frequency

2 rad s1 is acted upon by an external force F = sint N.

If the oscillator is at rest in its equilibrium position

at t = 0, its position at later times is proportional to

1

1

(a) sin t + sin 2t

(b) sin t + cos 2t

2

2

1

1

(c) cos t sin 2t

(d) sin t sin 2t

2

2

(JEE Main 2015)

12. A pendulum with time period of 1 s is losing energy

due to damping. At certain time its energy is 45 J.

If after completing 15 oscillations, its energy has

become 15 J, its damping constant (in s1) is

1

1

ln 3

(a)

(b)

ln 3

15

30

(c) 2

(d)

1

2

is made to oscillate by external force whose frequency

is equal to the natural frequency of the system. At

resonance, the amplitude of the system is maximum. It

is a special case of forced oscillation.

Condition for resonance is = d.

WaVes

energy and momentum from one place to the other

without the transport of matter.

Waves can be one, two or three dimensional according

to the number of dimensions in which they propagate

energy. Wave moving along strings are one dimensional,

surface waves or ripples on water are two dimensional,

while sound or light waves travelling radially out from

a point source are three dimensional waves. Waves are

of two types :

Mechanical waves : The waves which require some

material medium for their propagation are called

mechanical waves. Sound waves, seismic waves, waves

in strings and springs are examples of mechanical waves.

Elasticity and inertia of medium play an important role

in propagation of mechanical waves.

Non-mechanical waves : The waves which do not

require any material medium for their propagation

are called non-mechanical waves. All electromagnetic

Physics for you | OctOber 15

41

non-mechanical.

Any wave whether mechanical or non-mechanical, can

be divided into two groups :

Longitudinal waves : Particles of the medium oscillate

in the direction of wave motion. They are propagated

as compression and rarefaction and are also known as

pressure waves. Waves in springs and sound waves in

air are example of longitudinal waves.

Transverse waves : In this case the oscillations are at

right angles to the direction of wave motion or energy

propagation. Waves in strings are transverse. These are

propagated as crests and troughs.

A transverse wave travels through a medium in the

form of crests and troughs.

A longitudinal wave travels through a medium in the

form of compressions and rarefactions. At places of

compression the density and pressure are maximum,

while at places of rarefaction those are minimum.

Transverse waves can be polarised whereas longitudinal

waves cannot be polarised. Hence, transverse or

longitudinal nature of a wave can be decided on the

basis of polarisation.

KEY POINT

Transverse waves can propagate only in medium

with shear modulus of elasticity such as solids and

strings, but not in fluids.

Longitudinal waves need bulk modulus of elasticity

and therefore possible in all media, solids, liquids

and gases.

Ultrasonic waves in air produced by a vibrating quartz

crystal are longitudinal waves.

Waves produced in a cylinder containing a liquid

by moving its piston back and forth are longitudinal

waves.

In case of a vibrating tuning fork the waves in the prongs

are transverse while in the stem are longitudinal.

Some waves in nature are neither transverse nor

longitudinal but a combination of the two. e.g. waves

produced by a motorboat sailing in water is a combination

of both longitudinal and transverse waves.

Various terms related to Wave motion

of an oscillating particle of the medium from the mean

position. It is denoted by symbol A.

Wavelength : It is defined as the distance travelled by

the wave during the time, the particle of the medium

completes one oscillation about its mean position.

42

consecutive points in the same phase of wave motion. It

is denoted by symbol l.

In case of transverse wave

l = distance between two consecutive crests and

troughs.

In case of longitudinal waves

l = distance between two consecutive compressions

and rarefactions.

Time period : It is defined as the time taken by a particle

to complete one oscillation about its mean position. It is

denoted by symbol T.

Frequency : It is defined as the number of oscillations

made by the particle in one second. It is denoted by

symbol u.

1

u=

T

Wave speed or speed of a wave : It is defined as the

distance travelled by the wave in one second. It is

denoted by symbol v and is given by

v = ul

....(i)

As the speed of a wave is related to its wavelength and

frequency by the equation (i) but it is determined by the

properties of the medium.

Intensity of a wave : It is defined as the amount of

energy flow per unit area per unit time in a direction

perpendicular to the propagation of wave. It is denoted

by the symbol I and is given by

I = 2p2u2A2rv

where u is the frequency, A is the amplitude, v is the

velocity of the wave, r is the density of the medium.

The SI unit of intensity is W m2.

Dimensional formula of intensity of a wave is

[ML0T3].

Energy density : It is defined as amount of energy flow

per unit volume. It is denoted by symbol u and is given

by

u = 2p2A2u2r

where u is the frequency, A is the amplitude and r is the

density of the medium.

The SI unit of energy density is joule/m3.

Dimensional formula of energy density is [ML1T2].

equation of Plane Progressive Wave

positive direction of x-axis is given by

y (x, t) = Asin(wt kx + f)

where y = displacement of a particle at time t

A = amplitude of the wave,

1

T

k = propagation constant or angular wave number

2p

=

l

f = phase constant or initial phase.

Phase of the wave is the argument (wt kx + f) of the

oscillatory term sin(wt kx + f).

w

Wave velocity, v = .

k

It depends only on the nature of the medium in which

the wave propagates.

dy

Slope of the wave,

= kA cos(wt kx + f)

dx

Particle velocity,

dy

= wA cos(kx wt + f)

vparticle =

dt

w dy

=

k dx

or vparticle = wave velocity slope of the wave

d2y

Particle acceleration, a = 2 = w 2 y

dt

Equation of plane progressive wave travelling along

negative direction of x-axis is given by

y = Asin(wt + kx + f)

The differential equation of one dimensional progressive

wave is given by

w = angular frequency = 2pu = 2p

2

2 y

2 y

=

v

t 2

x 2

difference and time difference

difference, Path

2p

path difference

l

2p

Phase difference =

time difference

T

A path difference of l corresponds to a phase difference

of 2p radian.

To calculate phase difference between two waves, the

equation of both waves must be in sine form or in

cosine form.

Phase difference =

terms of the longitudinal displacement of the particles

of the medium or in terms of excess pressures produced

due to compression or rarefection. The first type is

called the displacement wave and the second type the

pressure wave.

Equation of displacement wave

y = Asin(wt kx)

Equation of pressure wave

P = Pmcos(wt kx)

Here Pm = amplitude of pressure wave.

speed of transverse Wave

given by

T

v=

m

where T is the tension in the string, m is the mass per

unit length of the string called linear density.

Speed of a transverse wave in a solid is given by

h

v=

r

where h is the modulus of rigidity, r is the density of a

solid.

speed of Longitudinal Wave

E

v=

r

where E is the modulus of elasticity and r is the density

of the medium.

Speed of a longitudinal wave in a metallic bar is given

by

Y

v=

r

where Y is the Youngs modulus and r is the density of

material of a metallic bar.

Speed of a longitudinal wave in a fluid is given by

B

v=

r

where B is the bulk modulus and r is density of a fluid.

Newtons formula : Newton assumed that propagation

of sound wave in gas is an isothermal process. Therefore,

according to Newton, speed of sound in gas is given by

P

r

where P is the pressure of the gas and r is the density

of the gas.

According to the Newtons formula, the speed of sound

in air at N.T.P. is 280 m s1. But the experimental

value of the speed of sound in air at N.T.P. is

332 m s1. Newton could not explain this large difference.

Newtons formula was corrected by Laplace.

Laplaces correction : Laplace assumed that propagation

of sound wave in gas is an adiabatic process. Therefore,

v=

43

by

gP

v=

r

According to Laplaces correction the speed of sound in

air at N.T.P. is 331.3 m s1. This value agrees fairly well

with the experimental values of the speed of sound in

air at N.T.P.

Speed of sound in a gas, v =

g

v .

3 rms

a way that each wave represents its separate motion

individually, then the resultant displacement of particle

of the medium at any time is equal to the vector sum

of the individual displacements. This phenomenon is

known as principle of superposition of waves.

If y1 , y2 , y3 , ...., yn are the displacements at a point due

to the n waves, then the resultant displacement at that

point is given by

y = y1 + y 2 + y 3 + .... + y n

The superposition of waves give rise to following three

phenomena :

Interference

Stationary waves

Beats

reflection of Waves

between two media occurs as follows :

A travelling wave, at a rigid boundary or a closed end

is reflected with a phase reversal of p but the reflection

at an open boundary takes place without any phase

change.

Let the incident wave be represented by

yi = Asin(wt kx)

For reflection at a rigid boundary, the reflected wave is

represented by

yr = Asin (wt + kx + p) = Asin(wt + kx)

For reflection at an open boundary, the reflected wave

is represented by

yr = A sin(wt + kx)

An echo can be cited as an example of reflection of

sound from a distant object such as hill or cliff. If there

is a sound reflector at a distance d from the source, the

time interval between original sound and its echo at the

site of source will be

44

d d 2d

t= + = .

v v v

Now as persistence of ear is (1/10) s, echo of a sharp or

momentary sound (such as clap) will be heard if

1

2d 1

v

t>

or

> , i.e., d >

10

v 10

20

If a person standing between two parallel hills fires a

gun and hears the first echo after t1 s, the second echo

after t2 s, and v is the velocity of sound, then the distance

between the two hills is given by

s1 + s2 = (vt1/2) + (vt2/2) = [v(t1 + t2)/2]

KEY POINT

The concept of rarer and denser media for a wave

density. Lesser the velocity, denser is the medium

and vice versa.

Interference of waves : When two waves of same

frequency or wavelength having constant phase

difference travelling with same speed in the same

direction superpose on each other, they give rise to an

effect called interference of waves.

Condition for constructive interference

Phase difference = 2n where n = 0, 1, 2, ...

l

Path difference =

f = nl where n = 0, 1, 2,..

2p

Condition for destructive interference

Phase difference = (2n + 1) where n = 0, 1, 2, ...

l

1

Path difference =

f = n + l .

2p

2

where n = 0, 1, 2 ....

KEY POINT

The phenomenon of interference is based on

conservation of energy.

stationary Waves

amplitude travel in opposite directions at same speed,

their superposition gives rise to a new type of waves

known as stationary waves or standing waves. Energy

does not propagate in this type of wave hence, it is

named as stationary wave.

Stationary waves are of two types

Longitudinal stationary waves

Transverse stationary waves

Longitudinal stationary waves : It is produced in organ

pipe and resonance tube.

string and sonometer.

Equation of a stationary wave is given by

y = (2Asinkx)coswt

Stationary waves are characterised by nodes and

antinodes.

Nodes are the points for which the amplitude is

minimum whereas antinodes are the points for which

the amplitude is maximum.

In a stationary wave nodes and antinodes are formed

alternately and distance between them is l/4.

At antinodes, displacement and velocity is maximum.

At nodes, displacement and velocity is zero.

Distance between two consecutive nodes or antinodes

is l/2. Distance between a node and adjoining antinode

is l/4.

Vibrations in a stretched string of Length l fixed at

Both ends

T

v=

m

where T is the tension of the string, m is the mass per

unit length of the string.

Fundamental mode or first mode,

l1 = 2L

Fundamental frequency

v

v

1 T

u1 = =

=

l1 2L 2L m

This frequency is called first harmonic.

Second mode, l2 = L

Frequency u2 =

v v

= = 2u1

l2 L

overtone.

Third mode, l = 2L

3

3

Frequency

v 3v

u3 =

=

= 3u1

l 3 2L

This frequency is called

third harmonic or

second overtone.

n

n

th

Frequency of n mode

un =

v nv

n T

where n = 1, 2, 3, ....

=

= nu1 =

l n 2L

2L m

th

th

This frequency is called n harmonic or (n 1)

overtone.

p T

Note : In general, u p =

,

2L m

where p = number of loops.

Laws of vibrating stretched string :

The fundamental frequency of a stretched string is given

1 T

by u =

.

2L m

1

when T and m are constants.

L

Law of tension, u T when L and are

constants

1

Law of mass, u

when L and T are constants

m

Note : If r is the density of the material of the string and

D is the diameter of string, then mass per unit length,

Law of length, u

pD 2r .

4

1

4T

1

T

=

.

\ u=

2L pD 2r LD pr

m=

experimentally by using a sonometer.

meldes experiment

vibrate in a direction parallel to the length of string.

In the longitudinal mode when fork completes one

vibration, the string completes only half the vibration.

So, the frequency of the string is one half of that of the

fork.

uL =

p T

L m

in a direction perpendicular to the length of the string.

In the transverse mode of vibration when fork completes

one vibration, the string also completes one vibration.

So, the frequency of the string is equal to the frequency

of the fork.

uT =

u

p T

= L.

2L m

2

that in the longitudinal mode.

Physics for you | OctOber 15

45

James Clerk Maxwell made great strides in helping to understand electromagnetism and

BRAIN

produced a unified model of electromagnetism. His research in kinematics and electricity laid

ELECTROMAGNETIC

WAVE

Displacement

current

It is the current which is

produced when electric field

and hence electric flux

changes with time.

Amperes

circuital law

The line integral of magnetic

field around any closed path in

vacuum is equal to m0 times the

total current passing through

that closed path.

Properties of

electromagnetic waves

Do not deflected by electric and magnetic

field.

l Travel with speed of light in vacuum.

l Frequency does not change when it goes from

one medium to another, but its wavelength

changes.

l Transverse in nature.

l Do not require any material

medium for propagation

l

ELECTROMAGNETIC

WAVE

only a conduction current but a

displacement current, associated with a

changing electric field, also produces a

magnetic field

accelerated charge as coupled electric and magnetic field

oscillating perpendicular to each other and to the direction of

propagation of wave.

Y

Maxwells four

equations

X

B

Direction of propagation

Magnitude of

and

are related as

space is given by

Electromagnetic

spectrum

The orderly distribution of

e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w av e s i n

accordance with their

wavelength or frequency

into distinct groups.

l

Modified

Amperes law

Radiowaves

Used in radio

communication

.

Microwaves

Radar communication

Analysis of fine details

of molecular and

atomic structure.

l

l

Infrared

Useful for elucidating

molecular structure.

Us e f u l f o r h a z e

photography.

Visible light

Detected by stimulating

nerve endings of human

retina.

Can cause chemical

reaction.

Radio

Microwave

Infrared

Visible

102 to 101

101 to 103

103 to 106

8 107 to 4 107

Ultraviolet

Can cause many chemical

reactions, e.g., the tanning of

the human skin.

Ionize atoms in atmosphere,

resulting in the ionosphere.

l

l

l

l

Ultraviolet

3.5 107 to 1.5 107

X-rays

Penetrate matter (e.g., radiography)

Ionize gases

Cause fluorescence

Cause photoelectric emission from

metals

X-rays

108 to 1011

l

l

Gamma rays

In the treatment of

cancer and tumours

To produce nuclear

reaction

Gamma rays

1010 to 1014

is open.

In a closed organ pipe, the closed end is always a node

while the open end is always an antinode.

Fundamental mode,

or first mode 1 = 4L

where L is the length

of the pipe.

Fundamental frequency

1 =

v

v

=

1 4L

This frequency is called first harmonic.

Second mode,

4L

3

Frequency,

2 =

2 =

v 3v

=

= 31

2 4L

third harmonic or 1st overtone.

Third mode, = 4L

3

5

Frequency,

v 5v

=

= 51

3 4L

This frequency is

called fifth harmonic

or second overtone.

1 : 2 : 3 = 1 : 3 : 5

Only odd harmonics are present.

3 =

Frequency, n =

4L

(2n 1)

v v(2n 1)

=

= (2n 1)1

n

4L

where n = 1, 2, 3, ....

This frequency is called (2n 1)th harmonic

or (n 1)th overtone.

Vibration of An open organ Pipe

In an open organ pipe, at both ends there will be

antinodes.

48

Fundamental mode

or first mode, 1 = 2L

where L is the length of

the pipe.

Fundamental frequency

v

v

1 = =

1 2L

where v is the speed of sound in air.

This frequency is called first harmonic.

Second mode, 2 = L

Frequency,

v v

2 =

= = 21

2 L

This frequency is called

second harmonic or first overtone.

2L

Third mode, 3 =

3

v 3v

Frequency, 3 =

=

= 31

3 2L

This frequency is

called third harmonic

or second overtone.

1 : 2 : 3 = 1 : 2 : 3

Hence in open pipe all harmonics are present, whereas

in a closed pipe only odd harmonics are present.

For nth mode, n = 2L

n

v nv

Frequency, n =

=

= n1 , where n = 1, 2, ...

n 2L

overtone.

The fundamental frequency of an open organ pipe is

twice that of a closed organ pipe of the same length.

If an open pipe of length L is half submerged in water,

it will become a closed organ pipe of length half that

of open pipe as shown in figures (a) and (b). So its

frequency will become

v

v

vC =

=

= vO .

4(L / 2) 2L

i.e., equal to that of open pipe, i.e., frequency will remain

unchanged.

End correction

exactly at the open end but a little outside. This is called

the end correction. This is denoted by e and is given by

e = 0.6r

where r is the radius of the pipe. If L is the length of pipe

then for closed pipe L is replaced by L + e while for open

pipe L is replaced by L + 2e.

Due to the end correction

the fundamental frequency

of a closed organ pipe is

given by

v

v

C =

=

4[L + e] 4[L + 0.6r]

Due to the end correction, the fundamental frequency

of an open pipe is given by

v

v

O =

=

2[L + 2e] 2[L + 1.2r]

Speed of sound in air at room

temperature using resonance tube

is given by

v = 2(L2 L1)

where,

= frequency of the tuning fork

L1 = first resonance length

L2 = second resonance length

End correction e =

L2 3L1

2

SELF CHECK

the number of possible natural oscillations of air

column in the pipe whose frequencies lie below

1250 Hz. The velocity of sound in air is 340 m s1.

(a) 4

(b) 12

(c) 8

(d) 6

(JEE Main 2014)

Beats

frequencies travelling with same speed in the same

direction superpose on each other, they give rise to

beats.

Beat frequency : It is defined as number of beats heard

per second.

Beat frequency = no. of beats/sec = (1 2)

= difference in frequencies.

The phenomenon of beats is used to determine

frequency of a tuning fork.

The phenomenon of beats is used in tuning of

musical instruments.

The phenomenon of beats is used in detecting the

presence of dangerous gases in mines.

The phenomenon of beats is used in radio reception

in many ways.

Tuning fork is a source of sound of single frequency and

frequency of a tuning fork of arm length L and thickness

d in the direction of vibration is given by

d Y

Y

d

= 2 v = 2

v = r

r

L

L

the material of the tuning fork.

KEY POINT

Loading a tuning fork with wax decreases its

frequency.

Dopplers Effect

in relative motion, there is an apparent change in the

frequency of sound as heard by the observer. This

phenomenon is known as Dopplers effect.

According to Dopplers effect the apparent frequency

heard by the observer is given by

v vo

=

v vs

where vs, vo and v are the speed of source, observer and

sound relative to air.

The upper sign on vs (or vo) is used when source

(observer) moves towards the observer (source) while

lower sign is used when it moves away.

If the wind blows with

speed vw in the direction

of sound, v is replaced by v

+ vw in the above equation.

If the wind blows with

speed vw in a direction

opposite to that of sound,

v is replaced by v vw in

the above equation.

Physics for you | OctOber 15

49

stationary outside, as shown in the figure.

v

At A, max =

v vs

v

At C, min =

v + vs

Beat frequency = max min.

There is no Doppler effect at B and D.

When an observer is revolving in a circle with a

stationary source outside, as shown in the figure.

(v + vo )

v

(v vo )

At C, min =

v

Beat frequency = max min.

There is no Doppler effect at B and D.

If source and observer both are stationary i.e.

vs = vo = 0 then = . Similarly, if source and observer

both are moving in the same direction with same speed,

At A, max =

no relative motion between the source and the observer

then there is no Doppler effect.

SELF CHECK

14. A train is moving on a straight track with speed

20 m s1. It is blowing its whistle at the frequency of

1000 Hz. The percentage change in the frequency

heard by a person standing near the track as the

train passes him is (speed of sound = 320 m s1)

close to

(a) 18%

(b) 24%

(c) 6%

(d) 12%

(JEE Main 2015)

1

15. A bat moving at 10 m s towards a wall sends a

sound signal of 8000 Hz towards it. On reflection it

hears a sound of frequency f. The value of f in Hz is

close to (speed of sound = 320 m s1)

(a) 8258

(b) 8516

(c) 8000

(d) 8424

(JEE Main 2015)

AnswEr kEys (sElf chEck)

1. (a)

6. (b)

11. (d)

3. (c)

8. (c)

13. (d)

4. (b)

9. (c)

14. (d)

5. (a)

10. (d)

15. (b)

nn

of a perpetual motion

machine? A perpetual motion machine is

a hypothetical device that would produce useful

energy out of nothing. This is generally accepted as being

impossible, according to laws of physics. In particular, perpetual

motion machines would violate either the first or the second law of

thermodynamics.

A perpetual motion machine that violates the first law of thermodynamics

is called a machine of the first kind. In general, the first law says that you

can never get something for nothing. This means that without energy

input, there can be no change in internal energy, and without a change

in internal energy, there can be no work output. Machines of the first

kind typically use no fuel or make their own fuel faster than they use

it. If this type of machine appears to work, look for some hidden

source of energy.

A machine of the second kind does not attempt to make energy

out of nothing. Instead, it tries to extract either random

molecular motion into useful work or useful energy from

some degraded source, such as outgoing radiant energy.

The second law of thermodynamics says this cannot

happen any more than rocks can roll uphill

on their own. This just does not

happen.

50

2. (a)

7. (c)

12. (a)

volume. Find the rise in temperature, the original

temperature being 27C and g = 1.5.

(a) 200 K (b) 300 K (c) 500 K (d) 600 K

2. The bottom of a dip on a road has a radius R. A

rickshaw of mass M, left a little away from the bottom,

oscillates about this dip. Then the expression for the

time period of oscillation is

R2

(a) T = 2p

g

g

(b) T = 2p

R

R

(d) T = 2p gR

g

3. A cyclic process ABCA is shown in V T diagram,

is performed with a constant mass of an ideal gas.

Which of the following graphs in figure represents

the corresponding process on a P V diagram.

(c) T = 2p

O

A

(a) P

(b) P

B

C

A

B

(c) P

C

V

(d) P

pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same

temperature and the same volume V. The mass of

gas in A is mA and that in B is mB. The gases in each

cylinder are now allowed to expand isothermally to

the same final volume 2V. The changes in pressure in

A and B are found to be DP and 1.5 DP respectively.

Then

(a) 4 mA = 9 mB

(b) 2 mA = 3 mA

(c) 3 mA = 2 mB

(d) 9 mA = 4 mB

7. A person carrying a whistle emitting continuously

a note of 272 Hz is running towards a reflecting

surface with a speed of 18 km h1. The speed of

sound in air is 345 m s1. The number of beats heard

by him is

(a) 4

(b) 6

(c) 8

(d) 3

origin with the same amplitude and frequency. At a

certain instant, they are found at distance r/3 from

the origin on opposite sides but their velocities

are found to be in the same direction. The phase

difference between the two particles is

(a) cos1(2/3)

(b) cos1 (4/9)

1

(c) cos (7/9)

(d) cos1 (5/9)

C

V

in their fundamental notes. The tensions, lengths,

diameters and the densities of the two wires are in

the ratio 8 : 1, 36 : 35, 4 : 1 and 1 : 2 respectively. If

the note of the higher pitch has a frequency 360 Hz,

the number of beats produced per second is

(a) 5

(b) 15

(c) 10

(d) 20

and other by air, respectively. If the pressure and

temperature of these balloons are same, then the

number of molecules per unit volume is

(a) more in the He filled balloon

(b) same in both balloons

(c) more in air filled balloon

(d) in the ratio of 1 : 4

9. Equations of a stationary wave and a travelling wave

are y1 = asin kx coswt and y2 = asin (wt kx). The phase

p

3p

difference between two points x1 = and x 2 =

3k

2k

are f1 and f2 respectively for the two waves. The

ratio f1/f2 is

(a) 1

(c)

3

4

5

6

6

(d)

7

(b)

51

combustion. Assuming that 2% of this energy is

utilized for mechanical purpose, find the mass of

coal required per hour for running a 10 metric hp

engine. (1 metric hp = 735.5 W, 1 cal = 4.186 J)

(a) 35.2 kg

(b) 45.2 kg

(c) 73.5 kg

(d) 63.5 kg

11. An ideal gas has a specific heat at a constant

pressure, CP = (5/2)R. The gas is kept in a closed

vessel of volume 0.0083 m3 at a temperature of

300 K and a pressure of 1.6 106 N m2. If

2.49 104 J amount of heat energy is supplied to the

gas. Find the final pressure of the gas.

(a) 2.4 106 N m2 (b) 3.6 106 N m2

(c) 4.2 106 N m2 (d) 8.3 106 N m2

12. An aeroplane is going towards east at a speed of

510 km h1 at a height of 2000 m. At a certain

instant, the sound of the plane heard by an observer

on ground appears to come from a point vertically

above him. Where is the plane at this instant? Speed

of the sound in air = 340 m s1.

(a) 425 m (b) 530 m (c) 833 m (d) 920 m

13. The displacement y of a wave travelling in

x-direction is given by

p

y = 10 4 sin 600t 2x +

3

where x and y are in metres and t is in second. The

speed of wave motion in m s1 is

(a) 300 (b) 600

(c) 1200 (d) 200

14. Starting from the origin, a body oscillates simple

harmonically with a period of 2 s. After what time

will its kinetic energy be 75% of the total energy?

1

1

1

1

s (b) s

(a)

(c) s

(d) s

6

3

4

12

15. The displacement of a particle varies with time as

x = 12sinwt 16sin3wt (in cm). If its motion is

simple harmonic then its maximum acceleration is

2

(a) 12w2

(b) 192 w

(c) 36 w2

(d) 144 w2

0.1 kg has a total energy of 10 J. Its displacement

from the mean position is 1 cm when it has equal

kinetic and potential energies. The amplitude A and

frequency u of vibration of the vibrator are

500

(a) A = 2 cm, u =

Hz

p

1000

(b) A = 2 cm, u =

Hz

p

1

500

(c) A =

cm, u =

Hz

p

2

1

1000

cm, u =

Hz

(d) A =

p

2

19. A wave travelling along the x-axis is described

by the equation y(x, t) = 0.005 cos(ax bt). If the

wavelength and the time period of the wave are

0.08 m and 2.0 s respectively, then a and b in

appropriate units are

p

(a) a = 12.50 p, b =

2. 0

(b) a = 25.00 p, b = p

0.08

2. 0

(c) a =

, b=

p

p

0.04

1. 0

, b=

(d) a =

p

p

20. A Carnot engine whose sink is at 300 K has

an efficiency of 40%. By how much should the

temperature of source be increased so as to increase

its efficiency by 50% of original efficiency?

(a) 380 K

(b) 275 K

(c) 325 K

(d) 250 K

21. An air column in a pipe which is closed at one end,

will be in resonance with the vibrating body of

frequency 166 Hz, if the length of the air column is

(a) 0.5 m

(b) 1.0 m

(c) 1.5 m

(d) 2.0 m

16 g of oxygen. The ratio CP /CV of the mixture is

(a) 1.4

(b) 1.54 (c) 1.59 (d) 1.62

compressed adiabatically until its temperature rises

from 27C to 97C. The heat produced in the gas

(g = 1.5) is

(a) 250.6 cal

(b) 276.7 cal

(c) 298.5 cal

(d) 320 cal

relation V = KT2/3. Calculate work done when the

temperature changes by 60 K?

(a) 10R (b) 30R (c) 40R

(d) 20R

pressure. The ratio of DQ : DU : DW is

(a) 5 : 3 : 2

(b) 7 : 5 : 2

(c) 2 : 3 : 5

(d) 2 : 5 : 7

52

Initial temperature and volume of gas are

T and V respectively. If gas expands to 27V, then its

temperature will become

(a) T

(b) 9T

T

(c) 27T

(d)

9

25. Mean free path of a gas molecule is

(a) inversely proportional to number of molecules

per unit volume

(b) inversely proportional to diameter of the

molecule

(c) directly proportional to the square root of the

absolute temperature

(d) directly proportional to the molecular mass

26. The amplitude of a damped oscillator becomes half

in one minute. The amplitude after 4 minutes will

1

times the original, then x is

be

x

(a) 32

(b) 24

4

(c) 3

(d) 23

27. The efficiency of Carnots heat engine is 0.5 when

the temperature of the source is T1 and that of sink

is T2. The efficiency of another Carnots heat engine

is also 0.5. The temperature of source and sink of

the second engine are respectively

T

(a) 2T1, 2T2

(b) 2T1, 2

2

(c) T1 + 5, T2 5

(d) T1 + 10, T2 10

28. What is the change in internal energy of one mole

of a gas, when volume changes from V to 2V at

constant pressure P?

R

(b) PV

(g 1)

gPV

PV

(c) (g 1)

(d) (g 1)

where g is the ratio of specific heats of the gas at

constant pressure to that at constant volume.

(a)

inside water. The speed of sound in water is

1500 m s1 and in air it is 300 m s1. The frequency

of sound recorded by an observer who is standing

in air is

(a) 200 Hz

(b) 3000 Hz

(c) 120 Hz

(d) 600 Hz

Column I

Column II

helium gas at constant

volume (when R is

gas constant)

3R

of oxygen at constant

volume

Molar specific heat (iii)

of carbondioxide at

constant volume

7

R

2

3

R

2

hydrogen at constant

pressure

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5

R

2

A (ii), B (iii), C (iv), D (i)

A (iii), B (iv), C (i), D (ii)

A (iv), B (i), C (ii), D (iii)

SolutionS

Final volume, V2 = V/4

Here, initial temperature,

T1 = 27C = (273 + 27) K = 300 K and g = 1.5

Let T2 be the temperature after compression.

Since the change in adiabatic,

T1V1g1 = T2V2g1

g 1

1. 5 1

V

V

T2 = T1 1 = 300

V /4

V2

= (300 K)(4)1/2 = (300 K) 2 = 600 K

Rise in temperature = T2 T1 = 600 K 300 K

= 300 K

or

centre. As shown in figure, let the rickshaw of mass

M be at A at any instant.

C

R

Road

Mg sin

A

Mg

Mg

cos

Physics for you | OctOber 15

53

is F = Mg sin q.

If q is small and measured in rad, sin q q and

F Mg q

Displacement of the rickshaw, i.e., OA = Rq.

Force constant,

force

F

Mg q Mg

k=

=

=

=

displacement OA

Rq

R

Inertia factor = M

inertia factor

Time period, T = 2p

spring factor

or

T = 2p

M

Mg / R

or T = 2p

3. (a) : From A to B, V T or

R

g

V

= constant

T

PV

= R = constant \ P is constant

T

(A B is a straight line parallel to volume axis)

From B to C, volume V is constant (B C is a straight

line parallel to pressure axis).

From C to A, temperature T is constant.

\ PV = constant (Boyles Law)

1

Thus, C A is a curve such that P .

V

T 8 l 36 d1 4 1 1

= ; =

4. (c) : Here, 1 = , 1 =

,

T2 1 l2 35 d2 1 2 2

As

u2 = 360 Hz, u2 = ?

l d T2 1

u

Now, 2 = 1 1

u1 l2 d2 2 T1

u2 36 4 1 1 36

=

=

u1 35 1 8 2 35

So, u2 > u1. When u2 = 360 Hz, u1 = 350 Hz

Number of beats per second = u2 u1 = 360 350

= 10

\

waves. Then

x1 = r sin wt

...(i) and x2 = r sin (wt + f) ...(ii)

r

1

Given that = r sin wt or sin wt =

...(iii)

3

3

r

and = r sin (wt + f) or sin (wt + f) = 1 / 3

3

or sin wt cos f + cos wt sin f = 1/3

1

1

or

cos f + (1 1 / 9) sin f =

3

3

7

On solving, we get cos f = 1 or

9

and f = p or cos1 (7/9)

54

v1 = r w cos wt and v2 = rw cos (wt + f)

If we put f = p, we find that v1 and v2 are of opposite

signs. So, f = p is not true as per question.

Hence f = cos1(7/9).

6. (c) : As the expansion of gases is isothermal,

1

therefore, T = constant and P .

V

Volume of gas is increasing, pressure would

decrease.

In container A

DP = (PA)i (PA)f

n RT nART nART

...(i)

= A

=

V

2V

2V

In container B

1.5 DP = (PB)i (PB)f

n RT nBRT nBRT

...(ii)

= B

=

V

2V

2V

From (i) and (ii)

DP

2

m

nA

=

=

\ n m

As n =

M

nB 1.5 DP 3

mA nA 2

=

=

or 3 mA = 2 mB

mB n B 3

7. (c) : Original frequency of whistle, u = 272 Hz.

Apparent frequency of whistle striking the wall

(listener) when person (source) is moving towards

the wall with velocity vs = 18 km h1 = 5 m s1 is

v

345

(i)

u =

u=

272

v vs

345 5

On reflection, wall acts as source and person act as

listener moving towards the source. Therefore,

v + vL

(345 + 5) 345

u =

u =

272 = 280

v

345

340

\ No. of beats per second = u u = 280 272 = 8

8. (b) : Assuming the balloons have the same volume,

as PV = nRT, if P, V and T are the same, n, the

number of moles present will be the same, whether

it is He or air. Hence, number of molecules per

unit volume will be same in both the balloons.

9. (d) : Equation of a stationary wave is

y1 = asinkx coswt

and equation of progressive wave is

y2 = asin(wt kx)

= a(sinwt coskx coswt sinkx)

p

3p

At x1 = and x 2 =

3k

2k

sin kx1 or sin kx2 is zero.

3p p 7p

Dx = x 2 x1 =

=

2k 3k 6k

7p

2p

p

As Dx = , therefore,

> Dx > .

6k

k

k

l

2p

But

= l. So, l > Dx > 2 .

k

In case of a stationary wave, phase difference

between any two points is either zero or p.

7p 7

\ f1 = p and f 2 = kDx = k

= p

6k 6

f1

p 6

=

=

f2 7

7

p

6

10. (b) : Power of the engine = 10 metric hp

= (10 735.5) W = 7355 W

Work required to run the engine for one hour

= 7355 3600 J

Amount of heat required

7355 3600 J

=

= 6325 kcal

4.186 Jcal 1

\

coal is used for mechanical purpose and one kg of

coal generates 0.7 104 kcal, mass of coal required

to run the engine for one hour

6325 kcal

100

=

= 45.2 kg

4

1

2

0.7 10 kcal kg

(As 2/100 = output/input, input = output 100/2)

11. (b) : Given,

P = 1.6 106 N m2, V = 0.0083 m3, T = 300 K

According to gas equation, PV = nRT

6

PV (1.6 10 )(0.0083) 16

or n =

=

=

RT

8.3 300

3

5

3

RR=

R

As CP CV = R, CV = CP R =

2

2

Let dT be the rise in temperature when 2.49 104 J

of heat energy is supplied to the gas at constant

volume.

So, 2.49 104 = nCVdT

2.49 10 4

2.49 10 4 J

or dT =

K = 375 K

=

8 8. 3

(16 / 3) (3 / 2)R

()

= (300 + 375)K = 675 K

Since the gas is heated at constant volume,

()

P T

=

P T

6

2

PT (1.6 10 N m )(675 K)

=

T

300 K

= 3.6 106 N m2

12. (c) : Let O be the observer and A be the position of

plane vertically above him. So, AO = 2000 m. The

sound waves that reach the observer are emitted

when the plane is at A. During the time sound

waves travel from A to O (with velocity v), the

plane moves eastwards through a distance AB with

vp

B

A

velocity vp,

AO

AB

\

=

v

vp

2000 m v

vp

or AB = AO

v

or

P =

But vp = 510 km h1

O

= 510 (5/18) m s1 = (425/3) m s1,

and v = 340 m s1

Thus,

(425 / 3) ms 1 2500

=

AB = (2000 m)

m = 833 m

1

3

340 ms

p

4

13. (a) : Here, y = 10 sin 600t 2x +

3

Compare it with the standard equation of a

travelling wave

y = A sin 2pt 2px + f

T

l

2p

2p

p

= 600,T =

=

s

T

600 300

2p

2p

= +2, l =

=pm

l

2

l

p

v= =

= 300 m s 1

T p / 300

75

75 1 2 2

E=

ma w

100

100 2

1 2 2

75 1 2 2

\

ma w cos 2 wt =

ma w

2

100 2

3

3

p

or cos 2 wt = or cos wt =

= cos

4

2

6

p

p

p

1

or wt = or t =

=

= s

6

6w 6 (2p / 2) 6

x = 12 sin wt 16 sin3wt

= 12 sinwt 4(4 sin3wt)

[Q sin3q = 3sinq 4 sin3q

or 4 sin 3q = 3sinq sin3q]

\ x = 12 sinwt 4(3sinwt sin 3 wt)

Physics for you | OctOber 15

55

x = 4 sin 3wt

dx

velocity,v =

= 4 3w cos 3wt

dt

dv

acceleration, a =

= 12w 3w( sin 3wt )

dt

= 36w2 sin3wt

Maximum acceleration = 36 w2

or

Frequency, u =

1

K.E. = 5 = 0.1[A2 (1 10 2)2](106)

2

or A2 10 4 = 10 4

or A2 = 2 10 4 or A = 2 10 2 m = 2 cm

19. (b) : The wave travelling along x-axis is given by

y(x, t) = 0.005 cos(ax bt).

2p

Therefore a = k = . As l = 0.08 m.

l

2p

p

p

\ a=

=

a = 100.00 = 25.00 p.

0.08 0.04

4

2p

2p

w=

= b. As T = 2.0 s, b =

b=p

T

2. 0

\ a = 25.00 p, b = p

16

=4

4

16 1

For 16 g of oxygen, n2 =

=

32 2

For mixture of gases,

n1CV1 + n2CV2

f

where CV = R

CV =

2

n1 + n2

n1C P1 + n2C P2

f

where C P = + 1 R

n1 + n2

2

For helium, f = 3, n1 = 4

CP =

For oxygen, f = 5, n2 =

1

2

5 1 7

4 R + R

2 2 2 47

C P

\

=

= 1.62

=

CV

3 1 5 299

4

R

+

2 2 2

17. (c) : dW = PdV =

RT

dV

V

...(i)

2

As V = KT

\ dV =K T 1/3 dT

3

2 1/3

K

T

dT

dV

2 dT

\

= 3 2/3 =

V

3 T

KT

2/3

T2

From (i), W = RT

T1

dV

=

V

T2

2 dT

T

RT 3

T1

2

2

R (T2 T1) = R 60 = 40R

3

3

18. (a) : For a displacement x, the kinetic and potential

energies are,

1 2 2

1

K.E. = m(A2 x 2)w 2 and P.E. = mx w

2

2

10

Each of these =

= 5 J when x = 1 cm

2

1 2 2 1

\

mx w = 0.1 (1 10 2)2 w 2 = 5

2

2

10

2

or w =

= 106

0.1 10 4

or w = 103 = 1000 rad s1

2p

p

T=

=

s

w 500

W=

56

1 500 1 500

=

s =

Hz

p

p

T

T2

40 3

T

= 1 h = 1

=

h = 1 2 or

T1

100 5

T1

5

5

\ T1 = T2 = 300 = 500 K

3

3

Increase in efficiency = 50% of 40% = 20%

\ New efficiency, h = 40% + 20% = 60%

T2

60 2

\

= 1

=

100

5

T

1

5

5

\ T1 = T2 = 300 = 750 K

2

2

Increase in temperature of source

= T1 T1 = 750 500 = 250 K

closed pipe a longitudinal wave travels in the air

of the pipe from closed end to open end. When

l is wavelength, l is the length of pipe, u is the

frequency of note emitted and v is the velocity of

sound in air, then

v

u = , (fundamental note)

l

Given, u = 166 Hz, v = 332 m s1

332

\ l=

=2m

166

But, l = 4l

l 2

\ l = = =0.5 m

4 4

22. (b) : Here, initial temperature,

T1 = 27C = 273 + 27 = 300 K

Final temperature, T2 = 97 C = 273 + 97 = 370 K

57

on the gas is given by

R

W=

(T T ) 8.3 (370 300)

(1 g) 2 1 =

1 1. 5

2

or W = 11.62 10 J

\ Heat produced,

W 11.62 102

H=

=

= 276.7 cal

J

4. 2

5

7

23. (b) : For a diatomic gas, CV = R, C P = R

2

2

7

DQ = nC P DT = n R DT

2

5

DU = nCV DT = n R DT

2

DW = DQ DU = nR DT

\ DQ : DU : DW =

7 5

: : 1 or 7 : 5 : 2

2 2

According to ideal gas equation,

PV = nRT

K

1/3

\

V = nRT (say (k) = K)

1/3

V

nRT

or V 2/3 =

K

Hence, V1

V

2

V

27V

2/3

2/3

(k)1/3

(V )1/3

T1

T2

T1

or T2 = 9 T1 = 9T

T2

1

25. (a) : Mean free path, l =

2 pd 2n

where,

n = Number of molecules per unit volume

d = Diameter of the molecule

As PV = kBNT

k BT

N

P

\ l=

n= =

V k BT

2 pd 2P

where,

kB = Boltzmann constant

P = Pressure of gas

T = Absolute temperature of the gas

26. (b) : Amplitude of damped oscillation is

A = A0 ebt/2m

A

As, A = 0 , t = 1 minute,

2

58

A0

1 b/2m

b 1/2m

= A0 e

=e

e b/2m = 2

2

2

A0

When, A =

, t = 4 minutes

x

b/2m

A0

b 4/2m {Q e

= 2}

\

= A0 e

x

x = e 4b/2m = (e b/2m)4 = (2)4

27. (a) : Efficiency of Carnots heat engine,

T

h =1 2

T1

T

For first Carnots heat engine, 0.5 = 1 2

T1

T

For second heat engine, 0.5 = 1 2

T1

Efficiency remains the same when both T1 and T2

are increased by same factor.

Therefore, the temperature of source and sink of

second engine are

T1 = 2T1, T2 = 2T2

\

PV = nRT

When pressure is constant

PdV = nRdT

P(2V V) = nRdT

PV = nRdT

...(i)

CP

As g =

CV

C CV

\ g 1= P

CV

C P CV

or CV =

g 1

R

=

(Q C P CV = R)

g 1

nRdT

DU = nCV dT =

g 1

PV

DU =

(Using (i))

g 1

29. (d) : Frequency of sound wave, does not change

during refraction. Frequency of wave depends

upon the vibrator which produces the wave. It does

not depend on medium in which it is propogated.

The wavelength and velocity of the wave undergo

change during refraction.

\ The observer records the frequency as 600 Hz.

30. (c)

SECOND STAGE

BIHAR CECE

SOLVED PAPER 2015

on with another ball of mass M2 initially at rest.

In which of the following cases the transfer of

momentum will be maximum?

(a) M1 > M2

(b) M1 = M2

(c) M1 < M2

(d) Data is insufficient to predict it.

2. Two particles of equal masses have velocity

acceleration of the other particle is zero. The centre

of mass of the two particles moves in a

(a) circle

(b) parabola

(c) ellipse

(d) straight line

3. A body is kept on a horizontal disc of radius 2 m at

a distance of 1 m from the centre. The coefficient

of friction between the body and the surface of the

disc is 0.4. The speed of rotation of the disc at which

the body starts slipping is (g = 10 m/s2)

(a) 4 rad/s

(b) 2 rad/s

(c) 0.4 rad/s

(d) 2 rad/s

4. A wheel has moment of inertia 5 kgm2. If 105 J of

work is done in producing rotational kinetic energy,

then the wheel attains an angular speed equal to

(a) 200 rad/s

(b) 20 rad/s

(c) 100 rad/s

(d) 10 rad/s

5. A balloon has 5 g of air. A small hole is pierced into

it. The air escapes at a uniform rate with a velocity

of 4 cm/s. If the balloon shrinks completely in 2.5 s,

then the average force acting on the balloon is

(a) 2 dyne (b) 2 N (c) 8 dyne (d) 8 N

6. A body weighs 700 g on the surface of the earth.

How much will it weigh on the surface of a planet

1

whose mass is and radius is half that of earth?

7

(a) 200 g (b) 400 g (c) 350 g (d) 50 g

radius r, are kept in such a way that each touches

the other two. The magnitude of the gravitational

force on any sphere due to the other two is

(a)

Gm2

(b)

Gm2

r2

4r 2

2

Gm

Gm2

(c) 2 2

(d) 3

4r

4r 2

8. Which of the following statements is not correct

for the decrease in the value of acceleration due to

gravity?

(a) As we go down from the surface of the earth

towards its centre.

(b) As we go up from the surface of the earth.

(c) As we go from equator to the poles on the

surface of the earth.

(d) As the rotational velocity of the earth is

increased.

9. There are four point masses m each on the corners of

a square of side length l. About one of its diagonals,

the moment of inertia of the system is

(a) 2ml2

(b) ml2 (c) 4ml2

(d) 6ml2

10. Two cylinders A and B of radii r and 2r are soldered

coaxially. The free end of A is clamped and the free

end of B is twisted by an angle q. The twist produced

at the junction is

16

17

q

q (c) q

(a)

(b)

(d) zero

17

16

11. A thick rope of density r and length L is hung from

a rigid support. The increase in length of the rope

due to its own weight is (Y is Youngs modulus)

rL2 g

rL2 g

rL2 g

rLg

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2Y

4Y

Y

Y

12. The excess pressure inside the first soap bubble is

three times that inside the second bubble. Then the

ratio of the volumes of the first and second bubbles

is

(a) 1 : 3

(b) 3 : 1 (c) 1 : 27 (d) 27 : 1

Physics for you | OctOber 15

59

vertically inside a beaker of water. The surface

tension of water is 7.0 102 N/m. Water rises into

the capillary tube upto a height of 5 cm. The angle

of contact between the glass and water is (g = 10 m/s2)

1 5

1 4

(a) cos

(b) cos

5

7

4

1 2

1

(c) cos

(d) cos

7

7

14. A metal plate of area 500 cm2 is kept on a horizontal

surface with a layer of oil of thickness 0.5 mm

between them. The horizontal force required to

drag the plate with a velocity of 2 cm/s is

(coefficient of viscosity = 0.9 kg/m s)

(a) 180 N (b) 18 N (c) 0.018 N (d) 1.8 N

15. In motors, more viscous oil is used in summer than

in winter due to

(a) the rise in temperature in summer, the viscosity

of oil decreases.

(b) the rise in temperature in summer, the viscosity

of oil increases.

(c) the decrease in surface tension of oil.

(d) the increase in surface tension of oil.

16. Two vessels A and B are identical. A has 1 g

hydrogen at 0C and B has 1 g oxygen at 0C. Vessel

A contains x molecules and B contains y molecules.

The average kinetic energy per molecule in A is n

times the average kinetic energy per molecule in B.

The value of n is

(a) 16

(b) 8

(c) 32

(d) 1

17. An ideal gas having f degrees of freedom is

isobarically heated. The ratio of the work done by it

to the change in its internal energy will be

f

2

2

f 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

f 2

f

2

18. Pressure remaining constant, at what temperature

will the r.m.s. velocity of a gas be half of its value at

0C?

(a) 0C

(b) 32C (c) 273C (d) 204C

19. A diatomic gas undergoes same change of

temperature by two different processes (i) at

constant volume and (ii) at constant pressure. The

heat supplied in the two cases will be in the ratio of

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 3 : 5 (c) 5 : 7

(d) 7 : 5

20. An ideal gas A and a real gas B have their volumes

increased from V to 2V under isothermal conditions.

The increase in internal energy

(a) will be same in both A and B

60

(c) of B will be more than that of A

(d) of A will be more than that of B

21. For a certain gas g = 1.5, then for this gas

(a) CV = 3R

(b) CP = 3R

(c) CP = 5R

(d) CV = 5R

value of lm for moon is 14.46 micron. The surface

temperature of moon is

(a) 200 K

(b) 2000 K

(c) 20 K

(d) 200C

23. The temperature of equal masses of three different

liquids A, B and C are 12C, 19C and 28C

respectively. The temperature when A and B are

mixed is 16C, when B and C are mixed is 23C.

What is the temperature when A and C are mixed?

(a) 26.02C

(b) 22.60C

(c) 20.26C

(d) 21.62C

24. Which of the following constants is not related to

radiation?

(a) Solar constant

(b) Boltzmanns constant

(c) Stefans constant (d) Wiens constant

25. Air conditioners are good example of

(a) conduction

(b) convection

(c) radiation

(d) both conduction and radiation

26. A refrigerator works between 2C and 27C. To keep

the temperature of the refrigerated space constant,

660 calories of heat are to be removed every second.

The power required is

(a) 60 watt

(b) 55 watt

(c) 252 watt

(d) 231 watt

27. Two bodies A and B are placed in an evacuated

vessel maintained at a temperature of 27C. The

temperature of A is 327C and that of B is 227C.

The ratio of heat loss from A and B is about

(a) 9 : 4

(b) 6 : 5 (c) 36 : 25 (d) 3 : 2

28. For any given scale X, the ice point is 40 and the

steam point is 120. For another scale Y, the ice point

and steam point are 30 and 130 respectively. If X

reads 50, then Y would read

(a) 5

(b) 8 (c) 10

(d) 12

29. 56 tuning forks are so arranged in series that each

fork gives 4 beats per second with the previous one.

The frequency of the last fork is three times that of

the first. The frequency of the first fork is

(a) 52 Hz (b) 56 Hz (c) 60 Hz (d) 110 Hz

(a) steel

(b) ammonia

(c) air

(d) water

31. The equation of a wave is y = 60 cos (1800t 6x),

where y is in microns, t in seconds and x in metres.

The ratio of maximum particle velocity to the wave

velocity of wave propagation is

(a) 3.6

(b) 3.6 106

11

(c) 3.6 10

(d) 3.6 104

32. Two boys stand close to a long straight metal pipe,

at some distance from each other. One boy fires a

gun and the other hears two explosions with a time

interval of 1 s between them. If the velocity of sound

in metal is 3630 m/s and in air is 330 m/s, then the

distance between the two boys is

(a) 36.3 m

(b) 363 m

(c) 72.6 m

(d) 726 m

33. The lengths of two organ pipes open at both ends

are L and L + d. If they are sounded together, then

the beat frequency will be

2Vd

Vd

(a)

(b)

L(L + d )

L(L + d )

2L(L + d )

Vd

(c)

(d)

Vd

2L(L + d )

34. Two particles P and Q describe simple harmonic

motions of same amplitude a, frequency u along

the same straight line. The maximum distance

between the two particles is a 2 . The initial phase

difference between the particles is

(a) zero

(b) 45

(c) 60

(d) 90

35. A car with a horn of frequency 620 Hz travels

towards a large wall with a speed of 20 m/s. Velocity

of sound is 330 m/s. The frequency of echo of sound

of horn as heard by the driver is

(a) 700 Hz

(b) 660 Hz

(c) 620 Hz

(d) 550 Hz

36. When the length of a simple pendulum is decreased

by 600 mm, the period of oscillation is halved. The

original length of the pendulum was

(a) 800 mm

(b) 1000 mm

(c) 1200 mm

(d) 2400 mm

37. A particle of mass 0.2 kg moves with simple

harmonic motion of amplitude 2 cm. If the total

energy of the particle is 4 105 J, then the time

period of the motion is

3p

seconds

2

p

(c) p seconds

(d)

seconds

2

38. Which of the following cannot represent a travelling

wave?

(a) y = f(x vt)

(b) y = ym sin k(x + vt)

(c) y = (x vt)/(x + vt)

(a) 2p seconds

(b)

pitch?

(a) Lion

(b) Man

(c) Donkey

(d) Mosquito

40. It is possible to recognize a person by hearing his

voice even if he is hidden behind a solid wall. This

is due to the fact that his voice

(a) has a definite pitch

(b) has a definite quality

(c) has a definite capacity

(d) can penetrate the wall

41. The region surrounding a stationary electric dipole

has

(a) electric field only

(b) magnetic field only

(c) both electric and magnetic fields

(d) neither electric nor magnetic field

42. Five balls numbered 1 to 5 are suspended using

separate threads. Pairs (1, 2), (2, 4) and (4, 1) show

electrostatic attraction while pairs (2, 3), (4, 5) show

repulsion. Therefore, ball 1 must be

(a) neutral

(b) metallic

(c) positively charged (d) negatively charged

43. Two spherical conductors of radii 4 m and 5 m

are charged to same potential. If s1 and s2 be the

respective values of the surface density of charge on

the two conductors, then the ratio s1/s2 is

25

5

16

4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

16

4

25

5

10

44. Electric charge of

109 C are placed at each

3

of the four corners of a square of side 0.08 m. The

potential at the intersection of diagonals is

(a) 900 V

(b) 900 2 V

(c) 150 2 V

(d) 1500 2 V

Physics for you | OctOber 15

61

100 V and is joined to an uncharged condenser of

14 mF. The ratio of charges after connection and the

potential on 6 mF and 14 mF condensers respectively

will be

6

14

(a)

and 50 V

(b)

and 30 V

14

6

6

14

(c)

and 30 V

(d)

and 0 V

14

6

46. The effective capacitance between points A and B

will be

2 F 12 F

28

mF

(a)

9

2 F

B

(b) 5 mF

A

(c) 4 mF

2 F

(d) 18 mF

47. The radius of earth is 6400 km. Its capacitance will

be

(a) zero

(b) 7.1 104 F

4

(c) 6.4 10 F

(d) 6.4 106 F

48. Eight drops of mercury of equal radii and possessing

equal charges combine to form a big drop. The

capacitance of the bigger drop as compared to

capacitance of each individual drop is

(a) 16 times

(b) 8 times

(c) 2 times

(d) 32 times

49. A voltmeter reads 6 V at full scale deflection and

is graded as 3000 W/V. What resistance should be

connected in series with it so that it reads 12 V at

full-scale deflection?

(a) 1.8 104 W

(b) 3.6 104 W

4

(c) 5.4 10 W

(d) 7.2 104 W

50. In the given circuit, with steady current, the

potential drop across the capacitors must be

(a) V

R

V

V

(b)

C

V

2

2V

V

2V

2R

(c)

(d)

3

3

51. Eddy currents are produced in a material when it

is

(a) heated

(b) placed in a time varying magnetic field

(c) placed in an electric field

(d) placed in a uniform magnetic field

52. In the circuit, the voltmeter resistance is 10000 W

and the ammeter resistance is 2 W. The voltmeter

62

R is

(a) 118 W

R

A

(b) 122 W

V

(c) 10022 W

(d) 10018 W

53. A magnetic dipole of moment 0.72 Am2 is placed

horizontally with the north pole pointing south.

The magnetic field of earth is 18 mT. The neutral

point is at

(a) 0.1 m on axial line

(b) 0.2 m on equatorial line

(c) 0.2 m on axial line

(d) 0.16 m on equatorial line

54. A magnetizing field of 5000 A/m produces a

magnetic flux of 5 105 Wb in an iron rod of

0.5 cm2 area of cross-section. The permeability of

the rod is (in Wb A1 m1)

(a) 4 106

(b) 3 105

4

(c) 2 10

(d) 1 103

55. A uniformly charged spherical metal ball of mass

M, radius R and charge q is rotated with an angular

velocity w about one of its diameter. The ratio of its

magnetic dipole moment to the angular momentum

is

q

q

R

(a)

(b)

2M

2Mw

qw

q

(c)

(d)

2 MR

2M

56. Flux f (in Weber) in a closed circuit of resistance

10 W varies with time t (in seconds) according to

the equation

f = 6t2 5t + 1

The magnitude of the induced current in the circuit

at t = 0.25 s is

(a) 0.2 A

(b) 0.6 A

(c) 0.8 A

(d) 1.2 A

57. A transformer has an efficiency of 80%. It works at

4 kilowatt and 100 volts. If the secondary voltage is

240 volts, then the current in the secondary coil is

(a) 1.333 A

(b) 4 A

(c) 13.33 A

(d) 40 A

58. When inductance of 1 henry is connected to

200 volts 50 Hz source, the maximum value of the

current is

(a) 0.1 A (b) 0.9 A (c) 1 A

(d) 9 A

59. If in a moving coil galvanometer, a current i

produces a deflection q, then

(a) i tan q

(c) i q2

(b) i q

(d) i q

connected across a 100 volt D.C. supply. If this

heater is to be used with 200 V, 50 Hz A.C. supply,

the value of inductance to be connected in series

with it is

(a) 5.5 H

(b) 0.55 H

(c) 0.055 H

(d) 1.1 H

61. In an oscillating LC circuit the maximum charge

on the capacitor is Q. When the energy is shared

equally between the electric and the magnetic fields,

then the charge on the capacitor is

Q

(a) Q

(b)

2

Q

Q

(c)

(d)

3

2

62. A 16 mF capacitor is charged to 20 volts. The

battery is then disconnected and a pure 40 mH

coil is connected across the capacitor so that LC

oscillations are set up. The maximum current is the

coil is

(a) 0.2 A

(b) 40 mA

(c) 2 A

(d) 0.4 A

63. Which of the following statements about

electromagnetic waves is/are true?

1. Electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed

in any medium.

2. All electromagnetic waves can ionize living

cells.

3. All electromagnetic waves are transverse

waves.

(a) 3 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

64. Which of the following electromagnetic waves will

cause heating?

1. Radio waves

2. Infrared radiation

3. X-rays

(a) 2 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

65. A linearly polarized electromagnetic wave given

as E = E0 i cos(kz wt ) is incident normally on a

perfectly reflecting infinite wall at z = a. Assuming

that the material of the wall is optically inactive, the

reflected wave will be given as

(a) Er = E0 i sin(kz wt )

(b) Er = E0 i cos(kz wt )

(c) E = E i cos(kz + wt )

r

(d) Er = E0 i cos(kz + wt )

(a) The magnification produced by a convex mirror

is always less than one.

(b) A virtual, erect, same sized image can be

obtained using a plane mirror.

(c) A virtual, erect, magnified image can be formed

using a concave mirror.

(d) A real, inverted, same sized image can be

formed using a convex mirror.

67. A concave mirror of focal length f (in air) is

4

3

mirror in water will be

3

7

4

f (c) f

f

(a)

(b)

(d) f

4

3

3

68. A diamond sparkles because of its

(a) hardness

(b) emission of light by the diamond

(c) absorption of light by the diamond

(d) high refractive index.

69. By placing a convex lens of focal length equal to

15.0 cm between an object and a screen separated

by a distance of 75.0 cm, the sizes of the images

2

obtained are 6.0 cm and cm . The size of the

3

object must be

(a) 2.0 cm

(b) 4.0 cm

(c) 3.0 cm

(d) 1.5 cm

70. A glass cube is placed on a white paper having spots

of red, blue, yellow and green colour. Then, the one

that appears least raised is

(a) blue

(b) red (c) yellow (d) green

71. The refractive index of air is 1.0003. The thickness

of air column which has one more wavelength of

yellow light (l = 600 nm), than the same thickness

of vacuum is

(a) 0.02 mm

(b) 0.2 mm

(c) 2 mm

(d) 2 cm

72. Two convex lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are

separated co-axially by a distance d. The power of

the combination will be zero if

(a) d = (f1 + f2)

(b) d = (f1 f2)

(f f )

(c) d = f1 f2

(d) d = 1 2

2

Physics for you | OctOber 15

63

(a) 102 s

(b) 104 s

6

(c) 10 s

(d) 108 s

74. The first minimum of a single slit diffraction pattern

is observed at angle 2 with a light of wavelength

698 nm. The width of this slit is

(a) 2 mm

(b) 0.2 mm

(c) 0.02 mm

(d) 0.002 mm

75. When a thin sheet of transparent material of

thickness 4 103 mm is placed in the path of one

of the interfering beams in the Youngs double slit

experiment, it is found that the central bright fringe

shifts through a distance equal to four fringes.

Wavelength of light used is 5893 . The refractive

index of transparent material is

(a) 1.5893

(b) 1.2946

(c) 1.884

(d) 1.9853

76. The intensity at a point where the path difference

l

is

(l = wavelength of light) is I. If I0 is the

6

maximum intensity, then I/I0 is equal to

(a) 3 /2

(b) 1/2

(c) 3/4

(d) 1/ 2

glass with angle of incidence equal to the angle of

polarization. It suffers a deviation of 22 on entering

glass. The angle of polarization is

(a) 22

(b) 56

(c) 34

(d) 68

78. The photoelectric work function of a surface is

2.2 eV. The maximum kinetic energy of

photoelectrons emitted when light of wavelength

6200 is incident on the surface is

(a) 0.4 eV

(b) 1.2 eV

(c) 1.6 eV

(d) photoelectrons are not emitted

79. What potential must be applied on an electron

microscope so that it may produce an electron of

wavelength 1 ?

(a) 50 V

(b) 120 V (c) 150 V (d) 200 V

80. The de Broglie wavelength of thermal neutrons at

27C will be

(a) 1.77

(b) 1.77 mm

(c) 1.77 cm

(d) 1.77 m

81. If E and P are the energy and the momentum

of a photon respectively, then on reducing the

wavelength of photon

64

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

both P and E will increase

P will increase but E will decrease

P will decrease but E will increase

The time interval between 20% and 80% decay will

be

(a) 20 minutes

(b) 30 minutes

(c) 40 minutes

(d) 60 minutes

83. If the aluminium nucleus 13Al27 has nuclear radius

of about 3.6 Fermi, then the tellurium nucleus

125

will have nuclear radius nearly as

52Te

(a) 3.6 Fermi

(b) 6.0 Fermi

(c) 8.9 Fermi

(d) 16.7 Fermi

84. Consider the fusion reaction :

2

2

2

4

1

1

1H + 1H + 1H

2He + 0n + 1H

The atomic masses are 1H2 = 2.0141 amu, 1H1 =

1.00783 amu, 2He4 = 4.0026 amu 0n1 = 1.008665

amu. In producing 8.2 1013 J of energy by this

reaction, the mass of 1H2 fuel required is

(a) 1.433 101 kg

(b) 2.4 101 kg

1

(c) 1.433 10 g

(d) 2.4 101 g

85. A positronium atom undergoes a transition from

n = 4 to n = 2. The energy of the photon emitted in

this process is

(a) 1.275 eV

(b) 2.55 eV

(c) 3.4 eV

(d) 3.825 eV

86. The most suitable energy of neutrons which will

produce nuclear fission in a reactor is

(a) 200 MeV

(b) 2 MeV

(c) 40 eV

(d) 0.04 eV

87. A p-n junction diode is connected to a battery of

e.m.f. 5.5 V and external resistance 5.1 kW. The

barrier potential in the diode is 0.4 V. The current

in the circuit is

(a) 1.08 mA

(b) 0.08 mA

(c) 1 mA

5.5 V 5.1 k

(d) 1 A

88. Generally, the base of a transistor has a thickness of

the order of

(a) 106 m (b) 103 m (c) 0.1 mm (d) 1 cm

89. The circuit diagram shown performs the logic

funtion of

A

(a) XOR gate

Y

B

(b) AND gate

(c) NAND gate

(d) OR gate

e = 6 sin(106t + 4 sin103t). Then, the modulating

frequency is

(a) 1000 Hz

(b) 500 Hz

(c) 300 Hz

(d) 159 Hz

91. The dimensions of solar constant are

(a) [MLT2]

(b) [M0L0T0]

(c) [ML0T3]

(d) [M0LT3]

92. If x = (a b), the maximum percentage error in the

measurement of x will be

b

a

100

(a)

a b a b

b

a

+

100

(b)

a b a b

a b

(c) + 100

a

b

a b

(d) 100

a

b

93. A body of mass m kg is rotating in a vertical circle at

the end of a string of length r metre. The difference

in the kinetic energy at the top and bottom of the

circle is

1

(a) mgr (b) mgr (c) 2mgr (d) 4mgr

2

94. A long spring is stretched by 2 cm, its potential

energy is U. If the spring is stretched by 10 cm, the

potential energy stored in it will be

U

U

(a)

(b)

(c) 5U

(d) 25U

25

5

95. Two balls of different masses ma and mb are dropped

from two different heights a and b. The ratio of times

taken by the two to drop through these distances is

(a) a : b

(b) b : a

(c) a : b

(d) a2 : b2

96. A particle moves along x-axis obeying the equation

x = t(t 1)(t 2), where x (in metres) is the position

of the particle at any time t (in seconds). The

displacement when the velocity of the particle is

zero, is

5

5

2

2

m,

m

m,

m (b)

(a)

3 3

3 3

3 3

3 3

(c) 3 m, 3 m

(d) 5 m, 5 m

97. A projectile is given an initial velocity of i + 2 j . The

cartesian equation of its path is (g = 10 m/s2)

(a) y = 2x 5x2

(b) y = x 5x2

2

(c) 4y = 2x 5x

(d) y = 2x 25x2

If the coefficient of friction between the chain and

the table is 0.25, then the maximum fraction of the

length of the chain that can hang over one edge of

the table is

(a) 20%

(b) 25%

(c) 30%

(d) 40%

99. A body of mass M is resting on a rough horizontal

plane surface, the coefficient of friction being equal

to m. At t = 0, a horizontal force F = F0t starts acting

on it, where F0 is a constant. The time T at which

the motion starts is

(a)

mMg

F0

(b)

mF

Mg

(d)

Mg

mF0

F

F0

100. Force acting on a particle moving in a straight line

K

varies with the velocity of the particle v as F = .

v

where K is a constant. The work done by this force

in time t is

2Kt

K

(a) 2 t

(b) 2

v

v

(c)

(c) Kt

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

31.

36.

41.

46.

51.

56.

61.

66.

71.

76.

81.

86.

91.

96.

(b)

(b)

(b)

(d)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(d)

(c)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(c)

(a)

(d) 2Kt

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

32.

37.

42.

47.

52.

57.

62.

67.

72.

77.

82.

87.

92.

97.

(d)

(d)

(c)

(c)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(c)

(b)

(a)

Answer Keys

3.

(d) 4.

8.

(c) 9.

13. (b) 14.

18. (d) 19.

23. (c) 24.

28. (c) 29.

33. (d) 34.

38. (c) 39.

43. (c) 44.

48. (c) 49.

53. (c) 54.

58. (b) 59.

63. (a) 64.

68. (d) 69.

73. (d) 74.

78. (d) 79.

83. (b) 84.

88. (a) 89.

93. (c) 94.

98. (a) 99.

(a)

(b)

(d)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(d)

(d)

(d)

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(a)

(c)

(c)

(b)

(b)

(d)

(a)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

35.

40.

45.

50.

55.

60.

65.

70.

75.

80.

85.

90.

95.

100.

(c)

(a)

(a)

(c)

(b)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(c)

(d)

(c)

(d)

(b)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(d)

(c)

(c)

nn

Physics for you | OctOber 15

65

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

vg

Gravitation

vertices of an equilateral triangle of side L. They

revolve under the effect of mutual gravitational

force in a circular orbit, circumscribing the triangle

while preserving the equilateral triangle. Their

orbital velocity is

3GM

(a) GM

(b)

2L

L

2GM

3GM

(d)

3L

L

2. An earth satellite is moved from one stable circular

orbit to a farther stable circular orbit. Which one of

the following quantities increase?

(a) Linear orbital speed

(b) Gravitational force

(c) Centripetal acceleration

(d) Gravitational potential energy

(c)

planet in coplanar and concentric circular orbits of

radii R1 and R2 in the same direction respectively.

Their respective periods of revolution are 1 h and

8 h. If R1 = 104 km, their relative speed when they

are closest, in km h1 is

p

(a)

104

(b) p 104

2

(c) 2 p 104

(d) 4 p 104

4. Select the proper graph between the gravitational

potential (Vg) due to hollow sphere and distance (r)

from its centre.

vg

vg

(a)

r

66

(b)

vg

(c)

vg

(d)

vg

gravitational pull is (1/6) of the earth. It is due to

the fact that

(a) moon is the satellite of the earth.

(b) the radius of the earth is (8/6) of the moon.

(c) the radius of the earth is ( 8 / 6 ) of the moon.

(d) the radius of the moon is (6/8) of the earth.

6. The orbit of geostationary satellite is circular, the

time period of satellite depends on which of the

following factors?

(i) mass of the satellite

(ii) mass of the earth

(iii) radius of the orbit

(iv) height of the satellite from the surface of the earth

(a) (i) only

(b) (i) and (ii)

(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

7. R and r are the radii of the earth and moon

respectively, re and rm are densities of earth and

moon respectively. The ratio of the acceleration due

to gravity on the surfaces of the earth and moon is

r re

R re

(a) r r

(b) R r

m

m

R rm

r rm

(c)

(d) r r

R re

e

8. Three uniform spheres of mass M and radius R each

are kept in such a way that each touches the other

two. The magnitude of gravitational force on any of

the spheres due to other two is

3 GM 2

3 GM 2

(b)

(a)

2 R2

2 R2

(c)

3GM 2

R2

(d)

3 GM 2

4 R2

a height of 5R above the surface of the earth,

R being the radius of the earth. The time period of

another satellite in hours at a height of 2R from the

surface of the earth is

6

(a) 5

(b) 10

(c) 6 2

(d)

2

10. A satellite is orbiting around the earth with kinetic

energy K. What will happen if the satellites kinetic

energy is made 2K?

(a) Radius of the orbit is doubled

(b) Radius of the orbit is halved

(c) Period of revolution is doubled

(d) Satellite escapes away

11. The height at which the weight of a body becomes

1 th

16 , its weight on the surface of earth is

(R is the radius of the earth)

(a) 5R

(b) 15R (c) 3R

(d) 4R

12. A satellite is moving in a circular orbit at a

certain height above the earths surface. It takes

5.26 103 s to complete one revolution with a

centripetal acceleration equal to 9.32 m s2. The

height of the satellite orbit above the earths surface

is (Radius of earth = 6.37 106 m)

(a) 70 km

(b) 160 km

(c) 190 km

(d) 220 km

13. A synchronous satellite goes around the earth once

in every 24 h. What is the radius of orbit of the

synchronous satellite in terms of the earths radius?

(Given mass of the earth, Me = 5.98 1024 kg, radius

of the earth, Re = 6.37 106 m, Universal constant

of gravitation, G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2).

(a) 2.4 Re (b) 3.6 Re (c) 4.8 Re (d) 6.6 Re

14. Two satellites of earth, S1 and S2 are moving in the

same orbit. The mass of S1 is four times the mass of

S2. Which one of the following statements is true?

(a) The potential energies of earth and satellite in

the two cases are equal.

(b) S1 and S2 are moving with the same speed.

(c) The kinetic energies of the two satellites are

equal.

(d) The time period of S1 is four times that of S2.

15. The potential energy of gravitational interaction of

a point mass m and a thin uniform rod of mass M

and length l, if they are located along a straight line

at distance a from each other is

GMm a + l

ln

(a) U =

a

l

a + l

(c) U = GMm ln

a

l

GMm

(d) U =

a

mechanical ProPerties of solids

of thermal expansion a1 and a2 and Youngs

modulli Y1 and Y2 respectively are fixed between

two rigid massive walls. The rods are heated such

that they undergo the same increase in temperature.

There is no bending of the rods. If a1 : a2 = 2 : 3

the thermal stresses developed in the two rods are

equal provided Y1 : Y2 is equal to

(a) 2 : 3 (b) 1 : 1 (c) 3 : 2

(d) 4 : 9

17. When a wire of length 10 m is subjected to a force of

100 N along its length, the lateral strain produced is

0.01 103. The Poissons ratio was found to be 0.4.

If the area of cross-section of wire is 0.025 m2, its

Youngs modulus is

(a) 1.6 108 N m2 (b) 2.5 1010 N m2

(c) 1.25 1011 N m2 (d) 16 109 N m2

18. Two wires of the same material and length but

diameter in the ratio 1 : 2 are stretched by the same

force. The ratio of potential energy per unit volume

for the two wires when stretched will be

(a) 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 4 : 1

(d) 16 : 1

19. A wooden wheel of radius R is made

of two semicircular parts (see figure).

R

The two parts are held together by a ring

made of a metal strip of cross sectional

area A and length L.

L is slightly less than 2pR. To fit the ring

on the wheel, it is heated so that its temperature

rises by Dq and it just steps over the wheel. As it

cools down to surrounding temperature, it presses

the semicircular parts together. If the coefficient of

linear expansion of the metal is a, and its Youngs

modulus is Y, the force that one part of the wheel

applies on the other part is

(a) 2pAYaDq

(b) AYaDq

(c) pAYaDq

(d) 2AYaDq

20. A rod of length L and negligible mass is suspended

at its two ends by two wires of steel (wire A) and

aluminium (wire B) of equal lengths as shown in

the figure. The cross-sectional areas of wires A and

B are 1 mm2 and 2 mm2 respectively.

(YAl = 70 109 N m2 and Ysteel = 200 109 N m2)

1

1

(b) U = GMm

a a + l

Physics for you | OctOber 15

67

should be suspended at a distance of

1

(a) L from the wire A

3

1

(b) L from the wire B

2

2

(c) L from the wire B

3

2

(d) L from the wire A

3

21. A wire is suspended from the ceiling and stretched

under the action of a weight F suspended from its

other end. The force exerted by the ceiling on it is

equal and opposite to the weight.

(a) Tensile stress at any cross section A of the wire is F/A.

(b) Tensile stress at any cross section is zero.

(c) Tensile stress at any cross section A of the wire is 2F/A.

(d) Tension at any cross section A of the wire is 2F.

22. A steel rod of length 1 m and area of cross-section

1 cm2 is heated from 0C to 200C, without being

allowed to extend or bend. The tension produced in

the rod is

(Given : Youngs modulus of steel = 2 1011 N m2 and

coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 105 C1)

(a) 4 103 N

(b) 4 104 N

(c) 4 105 N

(d) 4 106 N

23. A mild steel wire of length

2L

and

cross-sectional

area A is stretched, well

within

elastic

limit,

horizontally between two pillars as shown in

the figure. A mass M is suspended from the

midpoint of the wire. Strain in the wire is

x

x2

x

(a)

(b)

(c) 2

(d) x

2

L

L

2L

2L

24. A spring is stretched by applying a load to its free

end. The strain produced in the spring is

(a) volumetric

(b) shear

(c) longitudinal and shear

(d) longitudinal.

25. A thick rope of rubber of density 1.5 103 kg m3

and Youngs modulus 5 106 N m2, 8 m in length

is hung from the ceiling of a room. The increase in its

length due to its own weight is (Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 9.6 102 m

(b) 9.6 105 m

7

(c) 9.6 10 m

(d) 9.6 m

26. The radii and Youngs moduli of two uniform wires

A and B are in the ratio 2 : 1 and 1 : 2 respectively.

Both wires are subjected to the same longitudinal

force. If the increase in length of the wire A is one

percent, the percentage increase in length of the

68

wire B is

(a) 1.0

(b) 1.5

(c) 2.0

(d) 3.0

Steel

Youngs modulii of steel and

m

brass wires in the figure are a, b, c

respectively. Then the corresponding

Brass

ratio of increase in their lengths

2m

would be

2

2ac

3a

3c

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) 2a c

2

2

b

b

2b c

2ab2

28. If the shear modulus of a wire material is

5.9 1011 dyne cm2 then the potential energy of

a wire of 4 103 cm in diameter and 5 cm long

twisted through an angle of 10, is

(a) 1.253 1012 J

(b) 2 1012 J

12

(c) 1.00 10 J

(d) 0.8 1012 J

29. The Poissons ratio of the material is 0.5. If a force is

applied to a wire of this material, there is a decrease

in the cross-sectional area by 4%. The percentage

increase in its length is

(a) 1%

(b) 2%

(c) 2.5%

(d) 4%

30. The stress-strain graph for

a metal wire is as shown

in the figure. In the graph,

the region in which

Hookes law is obeyed, the

ultimate strength and

fracture

points are

represented by

(a) OA, C, D

(b) OB, D, E

(c) OA, D, E

(d) OB, C, D

solutions

1. (a) :

F2

M

A

F

30

v

F1

L

v

N

L

B

M

AN

L/2

L

=

=

.

Let OA = r =

cos 30

3 /2

3

The gravitational force on mass M at A due to mass at B is,

GMM

F1 =

along AB.

L2

The gravitational force on mass M at A due to mass

at C is,

GMM

along AC.

F2 =

L2

Here, F1 = F2 =

GM 2

L2

These forces F1 and F2 are inclined at angle 60,

their resultant F is along AO, which is given by

F = [F12 + F22 + 2F1 F2 cosq]1/2

1/2

GM 2

1

GM 2

3GM 2

= 2 1 + 1 + 2 = 2

3=

2

L

L

L2

As this force is providing the required centripetal

force, so

Mv 2

3GM 2

=

r

L2

GM

On solving, we get v =

L

GM

2. (d) : Linear orbital speed, v =

r

GM m

Gravitational force on satellite, F =

r2

v2

Centripetal acceleration, ac =

r

GM m

Gravitational PE, U =

r

As r increases gravitational potential energy

becomes less negative, i.e., gravitational potential

energy increases, whereas speed, force and

acceleration will decrease.

3. (b) : Here,

T22

T12

R23

R13

2/3

2/3

gM

=

gE

2

RM

GM

RE2

2

8 RM

GM E

6. (d) : Orbital velocity, v0 = R + h

E

2 p(RE + h) 2 p(RE + h)3/2

Time period, T =

=

v0

(GM E )1/2

Thus, the time period of satellite is independent of

mass of satellite but depends on mass of the earth,

radius of the orbit (RE + h), height of the satellite

from the surface of the earth.

7. (a) : Acceleration due to gravity on the surface of

the earth is

GM

ge = 2

R

where M and R be mass and radius of the earth

Acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the

moon is

Gm

gm = 2

r

where m and r be mass and radius of the moon.

M

4

re =

or M = pR3re

4 3

3

pR

3

m

4

and rm =

or m = pr 3rm

4 3

3

pr

3

\

T

8

or R2 = R1 2 = 104 = 4 104 km

1

T1

Velocity of satellite S1,

2 pR1 2 p 104

v1 =

=

= 2 p 104 km h 1

T1

1

Velocity of satellite S2,

2 pR2 2 p 4 104

v2 =

=

= p 104 km h 1

T2

8

Relative velocity = v1 v2

= 2p 104 p 104 = p 104 km h1

4. (c)

G( M E / 8)

5. (c) : Here,

RE2

1

8

R

= or RE =

2

6 M

8 RM 6

2

3

2

g e M r R re r R re

= =

=

g m m R r rm R r rm

A

2R

B

(i)

RE2

where the subscripts M and E are for the moon and

the earth respectively.

g

1

(ii)

Given, M =

gE 6

2R

FCA

60

2R FCB C

GM M GM 2

FCA =

=

along CA

(2R)2

4 R2

Gravitational force on sphere C due to sphere B is

GM M GM 2

FCB =

=

along CB

(2R)2

4 R2

These two forces are equal in magnitude and

inclined at an angle 60.

\ The total gravitational force on sphere C due to

other two spheres is

2

2

Ftotal = FCA

+ FCB

+ 2FCA FCB cos 60

Physics for you | OctOber 15

69

GM 2 GM 2

GM 2 GM 2 1

2

=

+

+

4 R2 4 R2

4 R2 4 R2 2

=

3GM 2

4 R2

T2 r2

=

T1 r1

3/2

R + 2R

=

R + 5R

3/2

3

=

6

3/2

23/2

T2

1

24

24

= 3/2 or T2 = 3/2 =

= 6 2 hours

24 2

2 2

2

10. (d) : Kinetic energy of the satellite orbiting the

1

earth is K = mvo2 , where vo is the orbital velocity.

2

If vo is the new velocity when kinetic energy of the

satellite becomes double, then

1

1

1

mvo2 = 2K = 2 mvo2 = m( 2vo )2

2

2

2

\ v o = 2 vo

It is the escape velocity of the satellite from the

earth. Therefore the satellite will escape away when

its kinetic energy is made 2K.

11. (c) : Acceleration due to gravity at a height h from

the surface of earth is

g

gh =

2

....(i)

h

1 +

R

where g is the acceleration due to gravity at the

surface of earth and R is the radius of earth.

Multiplying by m (mass of the body) on both sides

in (i), we get

mg

mg h =

2

h

1 +

R

\ Weight of a body at height h, Wh = mgh

Weight of the body at the surface of earth, W = mg

1

According to question,Wh = W

16

1

1

\

=

16 h 2

1 +

R

2

h

h

or 1 + = 16 or 1 + = 4

R

R

h

or

= 3 or h = 3R

R

70

(R + h)3

GM

(R + h)3 T 2

= 2

GM

4p

Centripetal acceleration, a =

...(i)

or

\

(R + h)2 1

=

GM

a

or

GM

(R + h)2

...(ii)

5.26 103

( R + h) = 2 a =

9.32

2p

4p

R + h = 6.53 106 m

h = 6.53 106 m 6.37 106 m = 0.16 106 m

= 160 103 m = 160 km

13. (d) : Time period of satellite

T2

T = 2p

Also, g =

gRe2 =

T2 =

R3

GMe

GMe

Re2

GMe

...(i)

2 3

4p R

(Using (i))

gRe2

Substituting the given values in above equation, we get

4 (3.14)2 R3

(24 60 60)2 =

9.8Re2

or R = 6.6Re

14. (b) : Both, orbital speed of satellite (vo = GMe / r )

and time period of revolution of satellite,

1/2

4 p2 r 3

T=

are independent of mass of satellite.

GMe

Therefore orbital speed and time period of

revolution of both the satellites are same.

GMe m

The kinetic energy of a satellite, K =

and

2r

GMe m

potential energy of a satellite, U =

both

r

depend on mass of satellite.

\

15. (c) :

l

dx

a

x

M

l

M

Mass of element of length dx, dm = dx

l

The gravitational potential energy between this

element and point mass is

Mass per unit length of rod =

Gmdm

dU =

=

x

\ U =

GmM

l

a+l

M

Gm dx

l

dx

x

GmM a + l

or U =

ln

a

l

F/A

16. (c) : As, Y =

since the rods are fixed between

Dl / l

two rigid massive walls, their lengths are equal.

1

So Y

Dl

a lDT a2 3

Y Dl

Hence, 1 = 2 = 2

=

=

Y2 Dl1 a1lDT a1 2

Lateral strain

17. (a) : Poissons ratio =

Longitudinal strain

Lateral strain

Longitudinal strain =

Poissons ratio

0.01 103

=

...(i)

0.4

Normal stress

Youngs modulus, Y =

Longitudinal strain

F

or Y =

(Using (i))

0.01 103

A

0.4

100 0.4

=

= 1.6 108 N m 2

0.025 0.01 103

18. (d) : As the two wires are of the same material,

therefore their Young moduli are same.

DL

F

L

F

L

or 1 = 4

\ Y= 2

=

2

DL1 p(2r ) DL2

DL2

pr

Potential energy per unit volume of the wire is

1

u = stress strain

2

DL

1 F

DL

1 F

2

\ u1 =

1 and u2 =

2

2

2 p(2r )

L

2 pr

L

\

DL

u1 2r

= 1 = 4 4 = 16

u2 r DL2

increase in length L of metal ring is

DL

DL = aLDq or

= aDq

L

Let T be the tension developed in the

ring, then

T

T L

YADL

or T =

= YAaDq

A DL

L

Refer to figure shown here, if F is the force that one

part of the wheel applies on the other part, then

F = 2T = 2AYaDq

Y=

20. (d) :

wire A. Let TA and TB be tensions in the wire A

(steel) and wire B (aluminium) respectively.

T

\ Stress in wire A = A

AA

TB

AB

For equal stress in both the wires,

TA

T

= B

AA AB

Stress in wire B =

2

TA AA 1 mm

1

...(i)

=

=

=

2

2

TB

AB 2 mm

As the system is in equilibrium, taking moments

about C, we get

TAx = TB (L x)

L x TA

=

x

TB

L x 1

(Using (i))

=

x

2

21. (a) : When a wire is suspended from the ceiling

and stretched under the action of a weight (F)

suspended from its other end, the force exerted by

the ceiling on it is equal and opposite to the weight.

However, the tension at any cross-section A of the

wire is just F and not 2F. Hence, tensile stress which

is equal to the tension per unit area is equal to F/A.

22. (b) : Let DL be increase in the length of the rod due

to increase in temperature of the rod. Then

DL = LaDT

where, a is the coefficient of the linear expansion,

DT is the rise in temperature and L is the length of

the rod.

DL

\

= a DT

...(i)

L

Physics for you | OctOber 15

71

be cross-section area. Then

T/A

Y=

DL / L

DL

\ T =Y

A = Y a DT A

(Using (i))

L

11

2

Here, Y = 2 10 N m

a = 105C1

DT = 200C 0C = 200C

L = 1 m, A = 1 cm2 = 1 104 m2

\ T = 2 1011 N m2 105C1 200C

1 104 m2

= 4 104 N

23. (a) :

1/2

x2

2

2 1/2

DL = 2 (L + x ) 2 L = 2 L 1 + 2 2L

L

1 x2

= 2 L 1 +

2 L (Using binomial theorem)

2 L2

x2

=

L

DL

x2

\ Strain =

= 2

2L 2L

24. (c)

L

(LArg )

Fl

2

25. (a) : Using, Dl =

=

YA

YA

weight of wire acts at its centre of mass,

l

i.e., l =

2

L2 Arg L2rg

\ Dl =

=

2YA

2Y

2

8 1.5 103 10

=

= 9.6 102 m

6

2 5 10

26. (c) : Youngs modulus, Y =

DL

F

or

= 2

L pr Y

For the same force,

\

72

DLB

DL

= 2 A

LB

LA

DLB

DL

100 = 2 A 100 = 2%

LB

LA

Fl

ADl

Fl DlS FS lS AB YB

or Dl =

;

=

AY DlB FB lB AS YS

or

DlS 3 mg

1 1

3a

=

a 2 = 2

DlB 2 mg

b c 2b c

necessary to do the work

dW = tdq

10

p

p

and q = 10 =

=

rad

60 180 1080

q

W = t dq =

0

W=

pr 4 q dq pr 4 q2

=

2l

4l

11

W = 1.253 1012 J

29. (d) : Given, Poissons ratio = 0.5. It shows that

the density of material is constant. Therefore, the

change in volume of the wire is zero. Thus

V = A l = a constant

logV = logA + logl

Dl

DA

=

l

A

Dl

100 = (4) = 4%

or % increase in length =

l

30. (c) : In the region OA, the graph is linear showing

that stress is proportional to the strain. Thus, in this

region Hookes law is obeyed.

\

DV DA Dl

=

+ = 0 or

V

A

l

FL

pr 2 DL

DLB

2

2

LB

r Y 2 1

= A A = =2

DLA rB YB 1 2

LA

Physics for you | OctOber 15

tensile strength.

The point E on the graph is known as fracture point.

nn

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

answered?

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

burn up. But when space shuttles re-enter they do

not. Why?

Neetu Verma (UP)

Ans. Meteorites and comets do not generally land

unharmed at the surface of the Earth. In spite of their

random and uncontrolled entry, many a time, pieces

of meteorites do escape complete annihilation during

their trip through the atmosphere. The space shuttle,

on the other hand, is brought into the atmosphere

along a controlled and precisely calculated glide

path to reduce heating due to friction. In addition,

ablative coatings that dissipate heat through high

temperature sublimation protect the critical surfaces

of the shuttle. These coatings might be made of a

ceramic or composite material.

Q2. Why does water condense on the inside surface of

the car windshield during the monsoon?

order of the colors in the spectrum relative to the

direction of the original beam of white light. For a

prism, in which the separation of light is a result

of dispersion, the violet light will be refracted more

than the red light, so the order of the spectrum will be

from red, closest to the original direction, to violet.

For a diffraction grating, the angle of diffraction

increases with wavelength. Thus, the spectrum from

the diffraction grating will have colors in the order of

violet, closest to the original direction, to red.

Q4. Suction cups can be used to hold objects onto

surfaces. Why dont astronauts use suction cups to

hold onto the outside surface of the space shuttle?

Arjun Sharma (Haryana)

from under the cup when it is pressed against a

surface. When the cup is released, it tends to spring

back a bit, causing the trapped air under the cup to

expand. This expansion causes a reduced pressure

inside the cup. Thus, the pressure difference between

the atmospheric pressure on the outside of the cup

against the surface. For astronaut in orbit around the

Earth, almost no air exists outside the surface of the

spacecraft. Thus, if a suction cup were to be pressed

against the pressure outside surface of the spacecraft,

the pressure difference needed to press the cup to

the surface is not present. So suction cups do not get

stick to the surface of space shuttle.

get quite humid because of the moisture in the exhaled

breath of passengers. Also, the temperature inside

the car is higher than the outside and, sometimes,

because of heat leaking into the cabin from the

engine compartment. The rainwater cools the

windshield and the windows of the car. On touching

these glass surfaces, the inside air cools below the

dew point and condenses, which often blocks the

drivers view. In modern cars, the windshield is often

equipped with embedded elements (at the rear) and

hot air blower (at the front). If your car has neither,

try opening the windows just a little, to increase

the exchange of air, this should help equalise the

temperature and/or moisture content and should

clear the condensation.

Q3. White light enters through an opening in an opaque

box, exits through an opening on the other side of

the box, and a spectrum of colors appears on the

wall. How would one determine whether the box

contains a prism or a diffraction grating?

Rashmi Agarwal (Delhi)

Ajay Chauhan (Bihar)

Dibyakanti Kumar (WB)

Solution Senders (August 2015)

Sumit Sharma (Delhi)

Sahil Gupta (WB)

neha Gupta (UP)

Physics for you | OctOber 15

73

= 2 p Ax 3dx + Bx 4 dx

Solution Set-26

=

+

d

d

d

1 + 2

=

2

2 (a) : Thermal expansion of Cu = lacT

F l

Elastic contraction of Cu =

A Yc

F l

Net expansion of Cu = lacT

A Yc

F

Either steel plate is subjected to the tensile force

2

from the sides of the Cu plate.

F

l

Net expansion of steel = la sT +

2 A Ys

The plus sign is on account of the fact that there is

elastic expansion, of steel plates. Since the plates suffer

same net expansion

F l

F l

\ lacT

= la sT +

A Yc

2 A Ys

2 AYcYs (ac a s )T

Solving, we get F =

2Ys + Yc

9M

3. (b) : Mass per unit area of disc =

p

R2

Mass of removed portion of disc

2

9M

p R = M

2

3

pR

Moment of inertia of removed portion about an axis

passing through centre of disc and

3

R/

perpendicular to the plane of disc,

2R/3

using theorem of parallel axis is

O

R

2

2

M R

1

I1 =

+ M 2R = MR 2

3

2 3

2

When portion of disc would not

have been removed, then the moment of inertia of

9

complete disc about the given axis is I 2 = MR 2

2

So moment of inertia of the disc with removed portion,

about the given axis is

9

1

I = I2 I1 = MR 2 MR 2 = 4MR 2

2

2

4. (c) : Consider an elemental ring of thickness dx at a

distance x from its centre.

Area of this ring is 2pxdx

Moment of inertia of ring,

dI = (A + Bx)2pxdx x2

\ Moment of inertia of disc,

=

I = dI = ( A + Bx )2 px 3dx

74

Aa 4 Ba5

On solving, we get, I = 2 p

+

5

4

5. (b) : Frequency of fundamental note in an open

v

organ pipe u =

2L

Frequency just audible to a person of normal hearing

= 20 Hz

340

340

;L=

( v = 340 m s 1 )

= 8.5 m

\ 20 =

2L

40

1

1

1

6. (b) : As u , u , u

L

D

2L 2D

uA LB DB

=

B = A A

=4

uB LA DA A

LA DA

log(umax / umin )

log 2

Here, umax = 20000 Hz and umin = 20 Hz

log(20000 / 20)

N=

= 10

log 2

8. (b) : Frequency of nth harmonic or (n 1)th overtone

nv

must be just equal to or less than 20000 Hz

2L

7. (c): Number of octaves =

nv

=

= 18

= 20000 \ n =

v

330

2L

dq V

dq dR V

=

=

dt R

dR dt R

dq 5 V

=

dR 60 R

40 dR

dR

dq = 12V

q = 12V

= 12V ln2 = 120 ln2 C

R

R

20

NE

10. (b) : Here, I =

R + Nr

Let n cells are reversed

N

I (N 2n)E

N

n=

=

3=

3

3

R + Nr

(N 2n)

9. (b) : I =

nn

Solution Senders of Physics Musing

sET-26

1. Sayan Rakshit

2. Arnab Pauli (WB)

3. Pratim Majumdar (Gujarat) 4. Debdutta Bose

sET-25

1. Abinav Mittal (Haryana)

2. Sakshi Saxena (Delhi)

Series 5

CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER :

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter | Atoms and Nuclei

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section

E contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

section-A

from Na. Which metal has greater work function?

Which has higher threshold frequency ?

2. A radioactive isotope of silver has half-life of

20 minutes. What fraction of the original mass

would remain after one hour?

3. Write a typical nuclear reaction in which a large

amount of energy is released in the process of

nuclear fission.

4. The energy of an electron in the nth orbit of H-atom

is given by En = 13.6/n2 eV. Find the energy

required to take an electron from ground state to

the second excited state.

5. Define atomic mass unit. Write its energy equivalent.

section-b

proton ratio increases or decreases during

(i) alpha decay and

(ii) beta decay.

is 13.6 eV.

(i) What does the negative sign signify?

(ii) How much energy is required to take an electron

in this atom from the ground state to the first

excited state?

8. An electromagnetic wave of wavelength l is incident

on a photosensitive surface of negligible work

function. If the photoelectrons emitted from this

surface have the de Broglie wavelength l1, prove

2mc 2

that l =

l1 .

h

9. Which level of the doubly ionized lithium (Li++)

has the same energy as the ground state energy of

the hydrogen atom? Compare the orbital radii of

the two levels.

10. Red light however it is bright, cannot produce the

emission of electrons from a clean zinc surface,

but even weak ultraviolet radiation can do so; why?

OR

If 200 MeV energy is released in the fission of a

single nucleus 235

92U, how many fissions must occur

per second to produce a power of 1 kW?

Physics for you | OctOber 15

75

section-c

orbit of H-atom is 1/137 times the speed of light in

vacuum.

12. The deuteron is bound by nuclear forces just as

H-atom is made up of p and e bound by electrostatic

forces. If we consider the force between neutron

and proton in deuteron as given in the form of a

Coulomb potential but with an effective charge e:

1 e2

F=

4 p0 r

Estimate the value of (e/e) given that the binding

energy of a deuteron is 2.2 MeV.

13. (a) A monoenergetic electron beam with electron

speed of 5.20 106 m s1 is subjected to a

magnetic field of 1.30 104 T, normal to the

beam velocity. What is the radius of the circle

traced by the beam, given e/m for electron

equals 1.76 1011 C kg1.

(b) Is the formula you employ in (a) valid for

calculating radius of the path of a 20 MeV

electron beam? If not, in what way is it modified?

14. Find the height of potential barrier for a head-on

collision of two deuterons. The effective radius of

deuteron can be taken to be 2 fm. Note that height of

potential barrier is given by the Coulomb repulsion

between two deuterons when they just touch each

other.

15. (a) For what kinetic energy of a neutron will

the associated de Broglie wavelength be

1.40 1010m?

(b) Also find the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron,

in thermal equilibrium with matter having an

3

average kinetic energy of kT at 300 K.

2

16. An electron and a proton are accelerated through

the same potential. Which one of the two has

(i) greater value of de Broglie wavelength associated

with it and

(ii) less momentum? Justify your answer.

OR

(i) What characteristic property of nuclear force

explains the constancy of binding energy per

nucleon (BE/A) in the range of mass number A

lying 30 < A < 170?

(ii) Show that the density of nucleus over a wide

range of nuclei is constant independent of mass

number A.

76

2 m from the cathode of a photocell. The stopping

potential is found to be V0. If the distance of the

light source is halved, state with reason what changes

occur in

(i) stopping potential

(ii) photoelectric current, and

(iii) maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted.

18. Why are de Broglie waves associated with a moving

football not visible? The wavelength, l, of a photon

and the de Broglie wavelength of an electron have

the same value. Show that the energy of the photon

2lmc

times the kinetic energy of the electron,

is

h

where m, c and h have their usual meanings.

19. Write Einsteins photoelectric equation. State clearly

how this equation is obtained using the photon

picture of electromagnetic radiation.

Write the three salient features observed in

photoelectric effect which can be explained using

this equation.

20. Deuteron is a bound state of a neutron and a proton

with a binding energy B = 2.2 MeV. A g-ray of energy

E is aimed at a deuteron nucleus to try to break it

into a (neutron + proton) such that the n and p move

in the direction of the incident g-ray. If E = B, show

that this cannot happen. Hence, find how much bigger

than B must E be for such a process to happen.

21. (a) Using Bohrs second postulate of quantization

of orbital angular momentum show that the

circumference of the electron in the nth orbital

state in hydrogen atom is n times the de Broglie

wavelength associated with it.

(b) The electron in hydrogen atom is initially in

the third excited state. What is the maximum

number of spectral lines which can be emitted

when it finally moves to the ground state?

22. Find the energy equivalent of one atomic mass unit,

first in joule and then in MeV. Using this, express

the mass defect of 168O in MeV/c2.

section-D

On knowing about it all his coworkers started

avoiding him, fearing that it was contagious. Mr.

Raju felt very depressed. Mr. Rahul a close friend

immediately took Mr. Raju to radiologist who

examined him and said it was the begining stage

of cancer and it can be easily cured and he also

(i) What moral values did Mr. Rahul exhibit?

(ii) A radioactive substance X has a half life of

140 days. Initially it is 8 g. Find the time for this

substance X when it is reduced to 1 g.

section-e

spectra. Hence obtain an expression for radius of

orbit and the energy of orbital electron in hydrogen

atom.

OR

What do you mean by binding energy? Draw the

graph to show variation of binding energy per

nucleon with mass number. Explain the graph.

25. Describe Davisson and Germer experiment to

establish the wave nature of electrons. Draw a

labelled diagram of the apparatus used.

OR

(a) Describe in detail alpha particle scattering

experiment along with diagrams?

(b) How can you estimate the size of nuclei?

26. (i) Compare the properties of a-particles

b-particles and g-particles.

(ii) Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion.

In a fusion reaction

2

3

4

1 H + 1 H 2 He + n

Find the amount of energy (in MeV) released.

( ) = 2.014102 u

m ( ) = 3.016049 u m ( 24 H ) = 4.002603 u

2

(Given m

3

1H

2

1H

OR

State and explain the laws of radioactive

disintegration. Hence define disintegration constant

and half life period. Establish relation between

them.

solutions

from Cu than an electron from Na, Cu (4.65 eV)

has greater work function (f0) than Na (2.75 eV).

Since f0 = hu0, u0 = f0/h; u0 threshold frequency

(u0) for Cu is more than that for Na.

2. Number of half-lives,

n=

Half- life

60 min

=3

20 min

N 1 1

= = .

N0 2 8

\

3.

235

1

144

89

1

92 U + 0n 56Ba + 36 Kr + 3(0 n) + 200 MeV

In second excited state n = 3, so E3 =

13.6

32

= 1.51 eV

= 1.51 eV

Required energy is

E = E3 E1 = 1.51 + 13.6 or E = 12.09 eV

of the 126 C atom. 1 amu = 1.66 1027 kg.

In terms of energy, 1 amu = 931.5 MeV.

6. (i) 92U238 90Th234 + 2He4

Neutron to proton ratio before a-decay

238 92 146

=

=

92

92

Neutron to proton ratio after a-decay

234 90 144

=

=

90

90

As

144 146

>

90

92

a-decay.

(ii)

83 Bi

210

84 Po210 +

1e

+u

=

210 83 127

=

83

83

210 84 126

=

=

84

84

126 127

As

<

84 83

Thus, the neutron to proton ratio decreases in

b-decay.

7. (i) The negative sign signifies that the electron is

bound to the nucleus and the force is attractive.

So, energy has to be supplied to remove the

electron from the nucleus.

(ii) Energy of hydrogen atom in nth state is

13.6

En = 2 where, n = 1, 2, 3,

n

In the ground state, n = 1

Physics for you | OctOber 15

77

E1 =

13.6

= 13.6 eV

12

In the first excited state, n = 2

13.6

E2 = 2 = 3.4 eV

2

\ Required energy = E2 E1

= (3.4) (13.6) = 10.2 eV

8.

KE of the emitted electron = energy of X-ray

photon,

p2 hc

2mhc

1 2

= or p =

mv = hu or

2m l

l

2

h

h

hl

=

=

p

2mc

2mhc / l

hl

l12 =

2mc

2mc 2

l=

l1

h

Also, l1 =

or

or

9. As En = 13.6

Z2

n2

Z2

n2

= constant, i.e.,

Z12

n12

Z22

n22

For Li++, Z2 = 3

12

Thus,

or

12

(3)2

n22

n2 = 3

Further, as r =

r

0 n2 h2

p mZe

n r1 n12 / Z1

, =

Z r2 n22 / Z2

2

the same energy)

h2

0 2 = constant

pme

r1 (1) / 1 1

r

2 =3

=

=

r2 (3)2 / 3 3

r1

where the subscripts 1 and 2 stand for hydrogen

and Li++ respectively.

or

on the intensity but it depends on the frequency

and hence on the energy of photon of incident

light. If the energy of photon is greater than the

work function, the photoemission of electrons

results however weak the incident radiation may

78

the work function of zinc, so red light cannot emit

photoelectrons. The energy of photon of ultraviolet

light is greater than the work function of zinc,

so ultraviolet light can emit photoelectrons.

OR

Energy released in the fission of a single nucleus

of 235

92U

= 200 MeV = 200 (1.6 1013 J) = 3.2 1011 J

Energy required per second

= Power Time

= 1 kW 1 s = 1000 J

If n is the number of fissions required per second to

produce an energy of 1000 J,

1000J

n=

= 3.125 1013

3.2 1011 J

11. Speed of an electron in the innermost (n = 1) orbit

of H-atom is

2p ke 2 2p ke 2

.c

v=

=

h

ch

=

1

c=

c

137

12. We know that binding energy of

hydrogen atom in ground state,

me 4

(i)

E = 2 2 = 13.6 e V

8 0 h

Replacing e by e and m by m, reduced mass of

neutron proton,

M M M 1836m

m =

=

=

= 918 m

M+M 2

2

M = mass of neutron/proton

\ Binding energy, E =

918 me , 4

8 20 h2

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get

4

e 2.2 106

918 =

13.6

e

e

= (176.21)1/ 4 = 3.64

e

13. (a) Here, v = 5.20 106 m s1,

B = 1.30 104 T

e

Specific charge, = 1.76 1011 C kg 1 , = 90

m

centripetal force to the electron beam so that it can

follow a circular path. Thus

Force on an electron = Centripetal force due to

magnetic field on an electron

mv

v

mv 2

or r =

=

or evB sin 90 =

eB (e / m)B

r

5.20 106

=

m

1.76 1011 1.30 104

= 0.227 m = 22.7 cm.

(b) The formula for radius of circular path is not

valid at very high energies because such high energy

electrons have velocities comparable to the speed of

light.

In such situation we use relativistic formula for

mass of electron.

m0

m=

, where m0 is rest mass

v2

1 2

c

m0 v

mv

Radius, r =

=

eB

v 2 eB

1 2

c

14. For head on collision, distance between centres of

two deuterons = d = 2 radius

15

d = 4 fm = 4 10

Potential energy

9 109 (1.6 1019 )2

e2

J

U=

=

4 p0 d

4 1015

9 1.6 1.6 1014

=

keV = 360 keV

4 1.6 1016

As P.E. = 2 K.E. of each deuteron = 360 keV

360

\ K.E. of each deuteron =

= 180 keV

2

h

15. (a) de Broglie wavelength, l =

2mE

\ Kinetic energy (E) of neutron,

(6.63 1034 )2

h2

E=

=

2ml2 2 1.677 1027 (1.40 1010 )2

= 6.686 1021 J

=

(b)

80

6.686 1021

1.6 10

E=

19

3

kT

2

\

l=

2 mE

h

3 mkT

6.63 10 34

6.63 10 10

20.8

6.63 10 10

m

4.56

16. When a charged particle of charge, q and mass m is

the velocity acquired by the particle. Then

1 2

qV = mv or mv = 2qVm

2

h

h

1

=

(i) l =

or l

mv

2qVm

qm

q m

\ le = p p = e 1837me > 1

lp

qe me

e me

So, le > lp, i.e., greater value of de Broglie wavelength

is associated with electron as compared to proton.

(ii) Momentum of particle, p = mv =

\ p

Hence,

2qVm

qm

pe

qe me

me

e

=

=

<1

pp

q pmp

e 1837me

electron as compared to proton.

OR

(i) The constancy of the binding energy per nucleon

in the range 30 < A < 170 is a consequence

of the fact that the nuclear force is shortranged. Consider a particular nucleon inside a

sufficiently large nucleus. It will be under the

influence of only some of its neighbours, which

come within the range of the nuclear force.

If any other nucleon is at a distance more than

the range of the nuclear force from the particular

nucleon it will have no influence on the binding

energy of the nucleon under consideration. The

property that a given nucleon influences only

nucleons close to it is also referred to as saturation

property of the nuclear force.

(ii) Radius of nucleus, R = R0(A)1/3

where R0 = 1.2 1015 m and A is the mass number

of the nucleus

3

4

4

= p(R0 A1/3 )3 = pR03 A

3

3

Mass of the nucleus

Density of nucleus =

Volume of the nucleus

mA

m

3m

=

=

=

4 3

4 3 4 pR03

pR0 A

pR

3

3 0

As m and R0 are constants, therefore density of the

nucleus is independent of A and is constant.

Using m = 1.67 1027 kg, R0 = 1.2 1015 m

3 1.67 1027

=

= 2.3 1017 kg m 3

15 3

4 3.14 (1.2 10 )

17. Given that the source of frequency u > u0.

Distance of source from cathode of photocell = 2 m.

Stopping potential = V0

If distance of light source from cathode of photocell

is halved, intensity of light increases.

(i) Stopping potential will remain the same as it is

independent of the intensity of the source of

light.

(ii) Photoelectric current is directly proportional to

the intensity of incident light. So it will increase.

(iii) Maximum velocity of photoelectrons, emitted

remains unchanged, because it depends upon the

frequency of incident light, which is not changing.

h

18. de Broglie wavelength, l =

mv

Due to large mass of a football, the de Broglie

wavelength associated with the moving football

is very small, so its wave character is not visible.

de Broglie wavelength of an electron is

h

h

l = or p =

p

l

p2

Kinetic energy of the electron, K =

2m

h2

\ K=

...(i)

2ml2

hc

Energy of the photon, E = hu =

( l is same)

l

...(ii)

Divide (ii) by (i), we get

E hc 2ml2 2lmc

= 2 =

K l

h

h

or Energy of the photon

2lmc

=

kinetic energy of the electron

l

Kmax = hu f0

According to Plancks quantum theory, light

radiations consist of small packets of energy called

quanta. One quantum of light radiation is called a

photon.

Energy of a photon, E = hu

where h is Plancks constant and u is the frequency

of light.

When a photon falls on a photosensitive metal

surface, the energy of the photon (= hu) is spent

in two ways :

(i) A part of the energy of the photon is used in

liberating the electron from the metal surface

which is equal to the work function f0 of the

metal.

(ii) The rest of the energy of the photon is used in

imparting the maximum kinetic energy Kmax

to the emitted photoelectron.

If vmax is the maximum velocity of the emitted

photoelectron and m is its mass, then

Maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectron,

1 2

K max = mvmax

2

1 2

\ hu = f0 + mvmax

or K max = hu f0

2

This equation is called Einsteins photoelectric

equation.

The salient features observed in photoelectric effects

are :

(i) Kmax is independent of the intensity of incident

radiation.

(ii) Kmax depends upon the frequency of incident

radiation.

(iii) Below the threshold frequency no emission

of photoelectrons takes place, no matter how

intense the incident light is.

20. Applying principle of conservation of energy,

2

pn2 p p

E B = Kn + Kp =

(i)

+

2m 2m

From law of conservation of momentum,

pn + pp = E/c

when E = B,

from equation (i), pn = pp = 0

\ Process cannot take place.

For process to take place, let E be slightly bigger

than B so that E = B + l, (l << B.)

Physics for you | OctOber 15

81

2

pn2 p p

l=

+

2m 2m

1 2

l=

[ p p + ( p p E /c)2 ]

2m

E

E E2

pp =

2 ml

2

2c

4c 2c

discriminant must be positive.

E2 E2

2 ml 0

2

4c 2c

or

l=

E2

4mc 2

B2

4mc 2

quantization of angular momentum

mvnrn = n

nh

2pmvn

where h is the Plancks constant

...(i)

in hydrogen atom,

nh

2prn = 2p

(Using (i))

2pmvn

=n

h

mvn

h

mvn

(4)(4 1)

2

...(iii)

=6

OR

26. (i) Refer point 8.4(8, 9, 10), page no. 536 (MTG

Excel in Physics).

(ii) Refer point 8.5(4, 5), page no. 539 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

To convert it into energy units, we multiply it by

c2 and find that energy equivalent

82

Physics)

Refer point 8.1 Page No. 525 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

2prn = nl

(b) Number of spectral lines obtained due to

transition of electron from n = 4 to n = 1 is

N=

OR

Refer Point 8.3 (12, 13, 15) Page No. 534 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

...(ii)

l=

help, creating awareness.

(ii) N/N0 = (1/2)n

or, (1/8)n = (1/2)n

or, (1/2)3 = (1/2)n

Therefore n = 3

T = 3 140 = 420 days.

24. Refer Point 8.1 (4) Page No. 526 and Point 8.2

h

2p

or rn =

= 1.4924 1010 J

1.4924 1010

9

=

eV = 0.9315 10 eV = 931.5 MeV

19

1.602 10

or 1 amu = 931.5 MeV/c2

For 168O, Dm = 0.13691 amu = 0.13691 931.5 MeV/c2

= 127.5 MeV/c2

The energy needed to separate 168O into its

constituents is thus 127.5 MeV/c2.

2

1H

+ 13H

24 He + 10n

Loss in mass in the given nuclear reaction is

( ) ( ) (

) ( )

Dm = m 12 H + m 13 H m 24 He m 10 n

or Dm = 2.014102 + 3.016049

4.002603 1.00867

or Dm = 0.018878 u

So, energy released in the reaction is

E = Dmc2 = 0.018878 931.5 MeV

or E = 17.585 MeV

OR

Refer point 8.1 Page No. 525 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

nn

PRESS RELEASE

Cognizant, Infosys, TCS, Accenture and Wipro in 15-day placement drive

unprecedented 7,947 job offers to students from VIT

University, Vellore and Chennai campuses. The companies

present were Infosys, TCS, Wipro, Accenture and Cognizant.

Cognizant made the highest number of offers a total

of 1,914 to students from both the Vellore and Chennai

campuses. The number of jobs offered by Accenture were

1,472; TCS 1,864, Infosys 1,456 and Wipro 1,241. The average

salary package this year is 3 lakh to 3.5 lakh 10 per cent

higher than last year.

VIT Chancellor G Viswanathan announced the results of

the 15-day placement drive to thunderous applause from

the students at the auditorium. The placement process

happened from September 1-15, with each company taking

three days to conduct the interviews and group discussions.

At the Chennai campus, 84 students received offers from

all five companies. In all, 4,000 students participated in the

placement process.

Ruchika Mahajan, a final-year B.Tech Biomedical student who

received offers from Accenture and Wipro, said that the entire

process was very streamlined. It was a long 15 days, but we

received regular emails from the Placement and Training

(PAT) team, reminding us about the forms we needed to fill

and submit and the deadlines for them, she said.

Anisha Udawat, another final-year B.Tech Bioinformatics

student who received offers from Wipro, Accenture and

Infosys, said: Even though it was a long process, the end

result was totally worth it.

has offers in hand from Wipro, Accenture and Cognizant,

was of the same view. What we learnt the most from this

experience was patience. We were waiting all the time to

get interviewed, to see the results, and so on. Despite the

process being spread over 15 days, stress levels were always

high, he says, laughing.

In July, Super Dream companies the likes of PayPal,

Flipkart, Visa, Microsoft and Cisco, which offer a CTC of more

than 10 lakh per annum recruited more than 90 students

from VIT University.

Earlier this year, VIT University entered the Limca Book of

Records for placing the most number of students in a single

slot as part of its campus placement drive for the 2015

graduating batch.

We have broken our own record again this year. We will

be submitting this to the Limca Book of Records soon, said

Samuel Rajkumar, Director, Placement and Training Cell.

Vipin from Accenture, Rajiv Menon from Cognizant,

Vaijnath Balasubramanian from Infosys, Sudeep from

TCS and Viswanathan from Wipro were present along

with VIT Chancellor Dr. G. Viswanathan, Vice President

Sekar Viswanathan, Assistant Vice President Kadhambari

Viswanathan, Vice Chancellor Dr. V. Raju, Pro-Vice Chancellors

Dr. Anand A. Samuel, Dr. S. Narayanan, Director, Placement

and Training Dr. Samuel Rajkumar.

nn

Physics for you | OctOber 15

83

3

R

R2

9

=

or

= 2

5

25 R + 82

R2 + 82

16R2 = 9 8 8

988 38

\ R2 =

=

= 6 cm

16

4

that due to q3.

As q1 > 0, q2 < 0, the charge q3 should be positive

15. (7) :

1

1

PD 5x = 3x 4 x

2

2

12 x

\ PD =

5

QD = (PQ)2 (PD)2 = 9 x 2

144 x 2 9 x

=

25

5

9 x 16 x

=

5

5

Magnetic field at P due to current elements PQ

and PR is zero as the point P is on the conductor.

Therefore, magnetic field at P due to current

element QR is

I

B = 0 (sin 1 + sin 2 )

4 PD

and DR = 5x

tan =

\

F2

, F1 =

Kq1q2

16

F1

3 q3 16

=

4 9 q2

\ q3 =

, F2 =

Kq1q3

9

81 9

27

27

q2 (3) =

= C

64 8

64

64

2

1

= 1 + C

8

Hence n = 8

84

1

K = 4

B=

=

\

0 I 5 (9 x / 5) (16 x / 5)

+

4 12 x 3x

4x

0 I 5 3 4 7 0 I

+ =

48 x 5 5 48 x

k=7

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

across

computer storage and backup. (3)

6. Large groups of wind turbines. (4, 5)

8. Electricity produced in a power plant by

fission of uranium atom. (7)

9. Prefix for 1024. (5)

12. Electronic circuit having two stable

state. (8)

15. The most common type of battery. (3, 4)

17. The measure of gravity pulling on

mass. (6)

18. A variable that gives your location relative

to an origin. (8)

22. A device for measuring hardness of

matter. (11)

26. The variable parameter, by means of

which information is conveyed through

an electronic circuit or system. (6)

28. A device capable of making the

performance of mechanical work

easier. (7)

29. The current atomic model. (5)

Cut Here

4

5

6

8

9

10

12

11

13

15

14

16

17

19

18

20

22

21

23

24

25

26

27

28

Down

1. A ray that does not propagate in a plane

that contain both the object point and

optical axis. (4, 3)

2. A Kmeson. (4)

3. Used on a bicycle to generate electricity. (6)

4. Streams of positive ions produced in a discharge tube

by boring holes in the cathode. (5, 4)

5. The point on the celestial sphere that lies directly

above an observer. (6)

7. A material which darkens under electron bombardment

and recovers on heating. (9)

10. A set of quantum number that uniquely identify the

type of particle it is. (6)

11. Solid carbon dioxide, used as a refrigerant. (3, 3)

13. An a.c. component superimposed on a d.c. (6)

14. A form of differential manometer with two sealed

bulbs attached to the limbs. (10)

29

quantity. (5)

19. Familiar form of renewable energy. (3)

20. A glass mirror or metal mirror for producing

interference fringes in overlapping beams. (5, 6)

21. Sources of energy that is formed from the remains of

living organisms that were buried millions of years

ago. (6, 5)

23. The galaxy in which earth is located. (5, 3)

24. A mineral crystal that exhibit its dichroism. (10)

25. Having a low degree of reverberation with little or no

reflection of sound. (8)

27. An electronic circuit with a single output and one or

more inputs. (4)

85

86

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