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Vol. XXIII

No. 10

cErN discovers new properties of

October 2015

higgs boson, the fundamental particle

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Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,
Gurgaon -122 003 (Hr). tel : 0124-4951200
e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

iggs boson, the fundamental particle was discovered by cerN,


three years back, in collaboration with the scientists of other
laboratories.

Regd. Office
406, taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,
ring road, New Delhi - 110029.

Managing Editor
Editor

:
:

the Atlas and cMS collaborators of cerN have obtained the sharpest
picture of the Higgs boson for the first time. Now they are on the way
to study its properties, production, decay and how its interacts with
other particles.

Mahabir Singh
Anil Ahlawat (be, MbA)

contents
Physics Musing (Problem Set-27)

rial

JEE Workouts

11

Core Concept

15

Thought Provoking Problems

20

Ace Your Way CBSE XI

23

Series 2
JEE Accelerated Learning Series

31

Brain Map

46

Bihar CECE

59

All the measured properties of this particle are in agreement with


the standard model. the present studies have the best precision for
performing measurements for these particles. A lot of work is yet to be
done in the field of more familiar particles.
Krane had been able to measure the radius and the error of
determination for half a dozen well-known fundamental particles such
as electron, proton, etc. these values were theoretically verified by our
scientists.
this story of cerN has proved that with international cooperation,
discoveries are faster and their confirmation is also better when
more than one lab is attached to the working teams of the bigger
laboratories.

Solved Paper 2015


Exam Prep

66

You Ask We Answer

73

Physics Musing (Solution Set-26)

74

Ace Your Way CBSE XII

75

Series 5
Crossword

85

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Editor : Anil Ahlawat
Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

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Editor

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Physics for you | OctOber 15

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

Set 27
single oPtion correct tyPe

1. In a Youngs double-slit experiment the slit


separation is 0.5 mm and the screen is 0.5 m from
the slit. For a monochromatic light of wavelength
500 nm the distance of third maxima from the
second minima on the other side is
(a) 2.75 mm
(b) 2.5 mm
(c) 22.5 mm
(d) 2.25 mm
2. A particle of mass m is projected from the surface
of earth with a speed v0 (v0 < escape velocity). The
speed of particle at height h = R (radius of earth) is
(a)

gR

(b)

v02 2 gR

(c)

v02 gR

(d)

v02 + 2 gR

3. A uniform magnetic field of induction B is


confined to a cylindrical region of radius R. The
magnetic field is increasing at a constant rate of
dB
(tesla/second). An electron of charge e, placed at
dt
the point P on the periphery of the field experiences
an acceleration

Physics for you | OctOber 15

(a) 1 eR dB toward left


2 m dt
(b)

1 eR dB
toward right
2 m dt

eR dB
toward left
m dt
(d) zero
(c)

4. After one second the velocity of a projectile


makes an angle of 45 with the horizontal. After
another one second it is travelling horizontally.
The magnitude of its initial velocity and angle of
projection are
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 14.62 m s1, 60
(b) 14.62 m s1, tan1(2)
(c) 22.36 m s1, tan1(2)
(d) 22.36 m s1, 60
5. A simple pendulum is suspended from the ceiling
of a lift. When the lift is at rest its time period is T.
With what acceleration should the lift be accelerated
T

upwards in order to reduce its period to ? (g is the


2
acceleration due to gravity)
(a) 4g
(b) g
(c) 2g
(d) 3g

6. A block released from rest from the top of a smooth


inclined plane of angle q1 reaches the bottom in t1.
The same block released from rest from the top of
another smooth inclined plane of angle q2, reaches
the bottom in time t2. If the two inclined planes
have the same height, the relation between t1 and t2
is
1/2

sin q1
t
(a) 2 =
t1 sin q2
(c)

t2 sin q1
=
t1 sin q2

t
(b) 2 = 1
t1
(d)

7. The magnetic flux f through a stationary loop


of wire having a resistance R varies with time as
f = at2 + bt (a and b are positive constants). The
average emf and the total charge flowing in the loop
in the time interval t = 0 to t = t respectively are
(a) at + b,

at + bt
R

(b) at + b,

at + bt
2R

at2 + bt
at + b at2 + bt
,
(d) 2(at + b),
2R
2
R
8. Assuming all the surfaces to be frictionless, find
the magnitude of net acceleration of smaller
block m with respect to ground
(c)

10

Physics for you | OctOber 15

2 5mg
(5m + M )

(b)

(c)

7 5mg
(5m + M )

(d) none of these

t2 sin2 q1
=
t1 sin2 q2

2mg
(5m + M )

(a)

9. Vectors A and B include an angle q between them.




If ( A + B) and ( A B) respectively subtend angles a

and b with A , then (tana + tanb) is


AB sin q
2 AB sin q
(a)
(b)
A2 + B2 cos2 q

(c)

A2 sin2 q
2

A + B cos q

A2 B2 cos2 q

(d)

B2 sin2 q

A2 B2 cos2 q

10. Resultant of two vectors having same magnitude


forms an angle with any of the vectors. If the
magnitude of second vector is reduced to half
of initial magnitude without changing the angle
between the direction of new resultant vector and
first vector is also reduced to half, then the angle
between the two vectors is
(a) 120
(b) 60
(c) 90
(d) 45
nn

integer tyPe Questions class-Xii


1. A monochromatic light of wave length 500 is
incident on two identical slits separated by a distance
of 5 104 m. The interference pattern is seen on a
screen placed at a distance of 1 m from the plane of
slits. A thin glass plate of thickness 1.5 106 m and
refractive index 1.5 is placed between one of the slits
and the screen. Find the intensity at the center of the
slit now.
2. A totally reflecting, small plane
mirror placed horizontally, faces a
parallel beam of light as shown in
the figure. The mass of the mirror
is 20 g. Assume that there is no
absorption in the lens and that 30%
of the light emitted by the source
goes through the lens. The power of the source
needed to support the weight of the mirror is
x 108 W. Find x. (Take g = 10 m s2)
3. A certain radioactive material can undergo three
different types of decay, each with a different decay
constant l, 2l, and 3l. Then, the effective decay
constant leff is equal to nl. What is the value of n?
4. A coil is connected to an alternating emf of voltage
24 V and of frequency 50 Hz. The reading on the
ammeter connected to the coil in series is 10 mA. If
a 1 mF capacitor is connected to the coil in series the
ammeter shows 10 mA again. What would be the
approximate reading on a dc ammeter (in A) if the
coil was connected to a 180 V dc voltage supply?
(Take p2 = 10)
5. A metal disc of radius 25 cm rotates with a constant
angular velocity 130 rad s1 about its axis. Find the
potential difference in nV between the centre and

rim of the disc if the external magnetic field is


absent.
6. Figure shows a potentiometer circuit for
determining the internal resistance of a cell. When
switch S is open, the balance point is found to be at
76.3 cm of the wire. When switch S is closed and
the value of R is 4.0 W, the balance point shift to
60.0 cm. Find the internal resistance of cell C.

7. The focal length of a thin biconvex lens is


20 cm. When an object is moved from a distance of
25 cm in front of it to 50 cm, the magnification of its
m
image changes from m25 to m50. The ratio 25 is
m50
8. An a-particle and a proton are accelerated from rest
by a potential difference of 100 V. After this, their
de Broglie wavelengths are la and lp respectively.
lp
The ratio
, to the nearest integer, is
la
9. When two identical batteries of internal resistance
1 W each are connected in series across a resistor R,
the rate of heat produced in R is J1. When the same
batteries are connected in parallel across R, the rate
is J2. If J1 = 2.25J2 then the value of R in W is
Physics for you | OctOber 15

11

10. To determine the half life of a radioactive element,


dN (t )
versus t.
a student plots a graph of ln
dt
dN (t )
is the rate of radioactive decay at time t.
Here
dt
If the number of radioactive nuclei of this element
decreases by a factor of p after 4.16 years, the value
of p is

11. At time t = 0, a battery of 10 V is connected across


points A and B in the given circuit. If the capacitors
have no charge initially, at what time (in seconds)
does the voltage across them become 4 V?
[Take : ln5 = 1.6, ln3 = 1.1]

PQ = 3x, PR = 4x and QR = 5x. If the magnitude of


m I
the magnetic field at P due to this loop is k 0 ,
48 px
find the value of k.
solutions

1. (0) : Take a point at a distance y from the centre of


the slit. Path difference between waves reaching this
point,
dy
Dx =
(m 1)t
D
At the centre of slit y = 0
\ Dx = (m 1)t
2p
2p
Dx = (m 1)t
Phase difference =
l
l
p

Intensity, I = 4 I0 cos2 = 4 I0 cos2 (m 1)t


l

2
6

= 4 I0 cos2 p(1.5 1)1.5 10

5000 1010
3p
= 4 I0 cos2 = 0
2

12. Image of an object approaching a convex mirror


of radius of curvature 20 m along its optical
50
25
m
axis is observed to move from
m to
7
3
in 30 seconds. What is the speed of the object in
km per hour ?
13. A large glass slab (m = 5/3) of thickness 8 cm is
placed over a point source of light on a plane
surface. It is seen that light emerges out of the top
surface of the slab from a circular area of radius
R cm. What is the value of R ?
14. Three charges q1 = 3 mC, q2 = 3 mC and q3 are kept
at the vertices of a triangle as shown in the figure.
If the net force acting on q1

is F, the charge q3 is then


2

1
given as 1 + mC.
n
Find the value of n.
15. A steady current I goes through a wire loop

PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with

12

Physics for you | OctOber 15

(1) : Let n photons (each of frequency f) per second


are emitted from source. Then power of source is
P = nhu
But only 30% of the photons go towards mirrors.
Then force exerted on mirror is
30 h 3 nhu 3 P
F = 2
=
n =
5c
100 l 5 c
This force should be equal to weight of mirror, so
3P
= 20 103 g
5c
5 3 108 20 103 10
or P =
= 1 108 W
3
\ x=1

3. (6) : Effective decay constant will be the sum of all


different decay constants
So, leff = l l + 2l + 3l = 6l, hence n = 6.
2
2
4. (1) : Z = (wL) + R =

24
10 103

R2 + (wL)2 = R2 + wL

wC

1
(wL) = wL +
wC
1
1
L= 2 =
2w C 2 100 p 100 p 106

= 5 H;
(2400)2 = (500p)2 + R2

7. (6) : Magnification, m =

According to cartesian sign conventions


20
=4
m25 =
20 25

R = (2400)2 (5p 100)2 = 10 (24)2 25p2


= 10 326 180, I = 1 A
5. (3) : Centripetal force required for circular motion
of electron is generated by radial electric field caused
by the redistribution of the electron in the disc.
2
F = eE = mrw2 or E = mrw
e
From dV = E dr,
mw2
r dr
or dV =
e
V2
mw2 R
r dr
or dV =
V1
e 0
or V1 V2 =

2 2

31

m50 =
8.

m
2
20
12
=
\ 25 = = 6
20 50 3
m50 2
h

(3) : de Broglie wavelength l =

l=

= 3.0 109 V = 3.0 nV


6. (1) :

, la =

2m p q pV

lp

la

2mK

[ kinetic energy, K = qV ]

2mqV

lp =

(9.1 10 )(130) (0.25)


mw R
=
2e
(2)(1.6 1019 )

f
f +u

h
2m p q pV
ma qa
mpq p

h
2ma qaV
2ma qaV
h

(4m p )(2q p )
mpq p

= 8 =2 2 3

9. (4) :

Let e be the emf of the cell C and r its internal


resistance. Let l = AJ be the balance length when
switch S is open. When a resistance R is introduced
by closing the switch a current begins of flow
through the cell C and resistance R. The potential
difference between the terminals of the cells
falls and the balance length decreases to l = AJ.
The terminal resistance of the cell is given by
E V
r=
I
where V is the terminal voltage of C and I is
the current in the circuit involving C and R.
V
Also I = .
R
E
\ r = 1 R
V

But E = l .
V l
\

r = R l l = 4.0 76.3 60.0 1 W


60.0
l

In series,

2e
R
Rate of heat produced in R is J1 =
R + 2

In parallel
Rate of heat produced in R is
2

2e
e
R
J2 =
R =

1
2R + 1
R +
2
\

2R + 1
2e 2 R + 1
=

J 2 R + 2 2e
R+2
J1

According to given problem


J1 = 2.25J2
Physics for you | OctOber 15

13

2R + 1
2R + 1
or 1.5 =
\ 2.25 =

R+2
R+2
or 1.5R + 3 = 2R + 1 0.5R = 2
2
\
R=
=4W
0. 5
10. (8) : According to radioactive decay
N = N0elt
dN
= lN 0e lt
dt
dN
= lN 0 e lt
dt
dN
= lN 0 e lt
dt
Taking natural logarithms of both sides of above
equation, we get
dN
= ln(lN 0 ) lt
ln
dt
dN
= lt + ln(lN 0 )
dt
Comparing the above equation with equation of a
straight line i.e. y = mx + c, we get
34
From graph, slope = l =
64
1
or l = year 1
2
0.693
Half life T1/2 =
= 2 0.693 years =1.386 years
l
4.16 years is approximately 3 half lives
Nuclei will decay by a factor of 23 = 8
\ p=8
ln

11. (2) : The equivalent resistance of the two parallel


resistors is
(2 MW) (2 MW)
R=
= 1 MW
(2 MW) + (2 MW)
The equivalent capacitance of the two parallel
capacitors is
C = 2 mF + 2 mF = 4 mF
The corresponding equivalent diagram is as shown
in the figure.

Time constant of the circuit, t = RC = (1 MW)(4 mF)


=4s
t/t
Since V(t) = V0(1 e )
Here, V(t) = 4 V, V0 = 10 V
\ 4 = 10(1 et/t)
6 3
10et/t = 6 or e t /t = =
10
5
t
= ln 3 ln 5
t
t
or
= ln 5 ln 3 = 1.6 1.1 = 0.5
t
or t = (0.5)(4 s) = 2 s
12. (3) : Focal length of a convex mirror,

R 20
= m = 10 m
2 2
For first object
25
v1 = + m, f = + 10 m
3
1 1 1
Using mirror formula + =
v u f
1
1 1
1 1
3
+ =
\
or
=
(25 / 3) u1 10
u1 10 25
u1 = 50 m
For second object
50
v2 = + m, f = + 10 m
7
1
1 1
\
+
=
v2 u2 f
1
1
1
1
1
7
or
+
=
=
(50 / 7) u2 10
u2 10 50
f =

u2 = 25 m

13. (6) : sin c =

From figure,
sin c =
14

Physics for you | OctOber 15

25
m s 1
30
25 18
1
=
km h 1 = 3 km h
30 5

Speed of the object =

1 3
=
m 5

R2 + 82

...(i)

...(ii)
....Contd. on page no. 84

Centre of Mass
The centre of mass (COM) for any given system of masses
represents that particular point for the entire system whose
motion is not dependent upon the point of application of
force but rather what matters is how much force has been
applied and in which direction the force has been applied,
and not where it has been applied.
To understand this better, let us consider three cases of
a uniform rod being hit at three different points.
F
C

vc

vc

1. For discrete point masses

Let m1, m2, .... mn, be point masses with position vectors

r1 , r2 , .... rn then the position vector of COM is,

mi ri
m r + m2r2 + ..... + mnrn =

rCOM = 1 1
mi
m1 + m2 + ..... + mn

\ rCOM = x COM i^ + y COM j^ + z COM k^


mi xi
mi y i
mi z i
, y COM =
,z
=
mi
mi COM mi
where (xi , yi , zi) are the x, y and z co-ordinates of the
ith mass.
Note : They are co-ordinates and hence + or has to be
taken care of.
where x COM =

2. For continuous mass distribution


vc

The diagram clearly shows, that the motion of different


points of the rod is different in all the three cases but
there, at point C (in this case the geometrical centre)
whose motion is identical in all the three cases. This
point C is the COM.
Hence, one more definition of COM is also prevalent
amongst most books which says it is one such point for
the entire system of given masses where the entire mass
may be assumed to be concentrated.
Mathematically, the location of COM is calculated as
shown :

Choose an elemental mass dm, the position vector of

whose COM is r , then the COM of the entire system


becomes

dm r

rCOM =
dm
Now, with the formula being known, let us calculate the
location of COM for some standard configuration.

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

Physics for you | OctOber 15

15

COM of a two point mass system

Let us take COM to be somewhere in between as


shown and from there we have taken x and y axis for
simplification of calculation.
m x + m2 x2 m1 (r1 ) + m2 (+r2 )
\ xCOM = 0 = 1 1
=
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
m1r1 = m2r2
Hence greater the mass, lesser its distance from COM.
Thus COM is shifted more towards heavier mass.
also, r1 + r2 = r
m1
m1
...(i)
r1 =
r , r2 =
r

m1 + m2
m1 + m2
Clearly, if the masses been equal, the COM would be
located midway on the Line of Symmetry (LOS). Hence
if we can find any LOS for the given system then draw it
and the COM will lie on this LOS.
If there are two or more LOS, then their point of
interaction gives COM.
Q1. Locate the COM of the system shown in the figure.

Q2. From a uniform disc of radius 2R, a disc of radius R


is cut out touching the periphery as shown. Locate
the COM.

Soln.: The LOS is drawn as below

Let us fill in the portion which was cut-out, now


the COM of 2 is known as well as combined 1 + 2
is known.
Let us assume the COM of the given figure (part 1
in our diagram) at a distance x from the combined
COM.
For 1 + 2 combined system

Soln.: Seeing this as three separate uniform rods,


their respective COM will be at their geometric
centre and mass being proportional to length, we
can see the same figure as shown below

m x + m2 x2
xCOM = 1 1
=0
m1 + m2
m1x1 + m2x2 = 0
But since the disc is uniform, m A (area)
\ A1x1 + A2x2 = 0
p[(2R)2 R2] (x) + (pR2)(R) = 0
x = R/3
COM of non-uniform rod with linear mass density linearly
dependent on distance measured from one end
A

dx

(x) = (ax + b)kg m1

Given : The linear mass density of rod AB of length l is


proportional to distance measured from one end A. To
locate COM, we choose an elemental mass dm where,
dm = ldx
= (ax + b)dx
16

Physics for you | OctOber 15

xCOM =

xdm = 0
dm l (ax + b)dx

al 3 bl 2
+
2al 2 + 3bl
= 32 2 =
3(al + 2b)
al
+ bl
2
2al 2 + 3bl
...(ii)
\ xCOM =
3(al + 2b)
Note : If the linear mass density is given to be
proportional to distance being measured from one end,
l(x) = ax i.e., b = 0
2l
\ xCOM =
3
COM of a thin uniform semicircular ring

COM
R

Rsin = y

LOS
p

\ yCOM =

m
dm = R Rd = md

dmy = 0
dm

2R
p
A quarter ring is identical from y-axis as well as x-axis
hence,
2R
2R
\ OC = 2
xCOM = yCOM =

p
p
COM of a uniform semicircular disc
Let us divide the entire disc, into small triangular strips
as below :
\ yCOM =

2
(ax + bx)dx

Since, each thin triangular sheet is uniform, their COM


will lie at centroid, i.e., at 2R from common vertex.
3
Joining all the point masses, we have a ring of radius
2R
r=
3
2r 2 2R 4 R
...(iv)
\ yCOM = = =
p p 3 3p
COM of a thin uniform hollow hemisphere

m
d R sin
p
m

R
2R
sin d =

p
p

...(iii)

Q3. Locate the COM of a thin uniform quarter ring.


C
45 COM
45
O
LOS

OC = ?

Soln.:Let us add the other quarter so that it becomes


a half ring as shown in the figure below

We divide the hemisphere into thin rings.


m
\ dm =
(2 p R sin )(Rd)
2 pR2
\ yCOM =

dmy
dm
p /2

m sin d R cos

= 0
=

R
2

p /2

m
sin 2 d =

R
2

...(v)

COM of a uniform solid hemisphere

We divide the hemisphere, into thin hemispherical


shells.
Physics for you | OctOber 15

17

\ If vCOM = 0 initially and Fext = 0

DrCOM = 0

m1Dr1 + m2 Dr2 + ........... + mn Drn = 0

COM
r

y= r
2

dr

Q4. A man of mass m stands on a rough horizontal


plank of mass M whose lower surface is smooth.

3m 2
M
(2 pr 2dr ) =
r dr
2 3
3
R
pR
3

r
The COM of this element is at .
2
dm =

\ yCOM =

dmy
dm

3m 2
r
dr
2

R3 r

=0

3R
8

...(vi)

If the man walks a distance l over plank, find the


distance moved by plank.
Soln.: Even though we understand that the plank
would recoil towards left due to friction force
of mans foot, we assume the plank to be shifting
towards right for simplification of calculation.

There are certain standard results which needs to be


memorized.
Motion of COM

mi ri

rCOM =
mi
\ Velocity of COM,

dri

mi
dr

dt = mi vi
vCOM = COM =
mi
mi
dt

m1v1 + m2v2 + ....... + mnvn

\ vCOM =
m1 + m2 + ...... + mn

\ Linear momentum of COM is,

pCOM = MVCOM = m1v1 + m2v2 + ...... + mnvn


Where M = m1 + m2 + ..... + mn

dpCOM
dv
dv
dv
\
= m1 1 + m2 2 + ........ + mn n
dt
dt
dt
dt
= m1a1 + m2a2 + ............ + mnan

= F1 + F2 + .......... + Fn
which is the vector sum of all the forces acting on
the combined system which is the rate of change of
momentum of COM. This proves that for COM, the net
force is important and not the point of application of
force.
This gives us one important conclusion, if there is no
net external force in any direction for combined system,
the linear momentum of the system in this direction
cannot be changed. And specifically speaking, if the
COM was initially at rest and due to internal forces,
objects start moving, then they move such that COM
does not move.
18

Physics for you | OctOber 15

On the combined system,


Fhorizontal = 0 DxCOM = 0
m1Dx1 + m2Dx2 = 0 m(x + l) + Mx = 0
ml
x=
m + M
\ Negative sign signifies that plank moves opposite to
ml
.
assumed direction by a distance | x | =
m+ M
This result gives us the answer without calculations in
few questions as shown here.
m

m
R
M

Smooth

R
mR
|x| =
m+M

M
x

Smooth

m
lsin

mlsin
|x| =
m+M

Acceleration of COM

dvi

m
i
dv

dt = mi ai
aCOM = COM =
mi
mi
dt

m1a1 + m2a2 + ......... + mnan

\ aCOM =
m1 + m2 + ..... + mn
=

Q5.

m1

m2

Q6. F1

m1

m2

F2

Feff

m2

x2

1
Feff (x1 +x2 ) = k(x1 +x2 )2
2
2(m2 F1 + m1F2 )
2F
xmax = x1 + x2 = eff =
k
(m1 + m2 )k

Smooth

m x + m2 x2
1
\ SCOM = aCOMt 2 = 1 1
m1 + m2
2
1 2

Ft m1x1 = m2 x2
2
1 F 2 m1
t
x1
x2 =
2 m2
m2

m2

At maximum elongation v1 = v2 = 0
\ Using work energy theorem,
1
Feff x1 + Feff x2 = DPE = k(x1 +x2 )2
2

m1 F

The spring is in its natural length and a constant


force starts acting on m1 as shown. In a time t, m1
displaces by x1 then find the displacement of m2?
F
Soln.: aCOM =
= constant
m1 + m2

m1

x1

vector sum of all the forces


total mass
k

Feff

Q7.

For (m2 > m1), find :


(i) aCOM
(ii) Net force acting on the combined system.
Soln.:

Smooth

Find the maximum elongation in spring if the


spring is initially in its natural length.
(Assume F2 > F1)
F2 F1
towards right.
Soln.: aCOM =
m1 + m2

If we analyse the motion from COM, we need to


include a pseudo force for both, as shown below

F F m F + m1F2
\ F1eff = F1 + m1 2 1 = 2 1
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
F F m2 F1 + m1F2
F2eff = F2 m2 2 1 =
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
F1eff = F2eff = Feff
With respect to COM, equal and opposite forces act
on the two objects.

Clearly,
m m1
a2 = a1 = 2
g =a
m1 + m2
m (a ) + m2 (a2 )
aCOM = 1 1
m1 + m2
2

m m1
= 2
g
m1 + m2
Fnet = (m1 + m2 ) aCOM =

(m2 m1 )2 g
(m1 + m2 )
nn

Physics for you | OctOber 15

19

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

ROTATIONAL MOTION
1. Determine the moment of inertia about the x-axis
of the solid spherical segment of mass M.
O

R/2 R/2

2. A body consisting of a cone


and hemisphere of radius r
fixed on the same base rests on
a table, the hemisphere being
in contact with the table. Find
the maximum height of the
cone, so that the combined
body may stand upright.
3. Consider the motion of the cylinder of mass m and
radius r moving up a plane inclined at angle q to
the horizontal. To begin with, cylinder rotates with
angular velocity wo about its axis when gently placed
on the plane so that its initial translational velocity
is zero. Find the distance moved by cylinder before
sliding stops.
o

along the smooth horizontal surface by a horizontal


force F = 60 N. Determine the angle q for translation.
What is the accompanying acceleration?

4. As shown in figure, a homogeneous slider bar with


a mass of 4 kg and a length of 500 mm being pushed

0m

50

5. The mass of block A is twice the mass of block B. Find


the acceleration of A in terms of the gravitational
acceleration. Neglect the mass of the pulleys shown
in figure.

6. A boy is pushing
a ring of mass
2 kg and radius
0.5 m with a stick as
Ground
shown in figure.
The stick applies a force of 2 N on the ring and rolls
it without slipping with an acceleration of 0.3 m s2.
The coefficient of friction between the ground and
the ring is large enough that rolling always occurs
and coefficient of friction between the stick and the
ring is x/10. Find the value of x?

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

20

Physics for you | OctOber 15

SOLUTIONS

1. The solid sphere is generated by revolving circle


about the diameter.
Mass of spherical segment,
M = Density Volume of segment
Consider a small disc of radius y and thickness dx
as shown in figure.
Mass of small disc, dm = rpy2dx
...(i)
M
M
M
r=
= R
= R
V
2
2
2
py dx p(R x )dx
R /2

r=

M
3

5p R /24

R /2

24 M

...(ii)

5pR3

A
R

y
x

O x

Moment of inertia of disc about x-axis


1
1
dI = dm y 2 = rpy 4dx
2
2

I=

rp
2

R /2

y 4 dx =

Weight of cone, W2 = rg p r 2h.


3
Distance of centre of gravity of cone from bottom,
y2 = r + h/4.
Centre of gravity of combined body
W y + W2 y2
y= 1 1
W1 + W2
2p
5r 1
h
rg r 3 + rg pr 2h r +

3
8 3
4
y=
2p 3
1 2
rg
r + rg pr h
3
3
For stable equilibrium, y r
2 p 3 5r rg 2 h
r +
pr h r +

3
8
3
4
r
2p 3
1
r + rg pr 2h
rg
3
3
\ h2 3r2 h 1.732 r
rg

dx
B
x2 + y 2 = R 2

1
\ I = dI = rp
2

rp
2

(using (i))

(R2 x 2 )2 dx

R /2

3. The cylinder initially slides on the plane. Surface


of the cylinder slides downward (backward) with
respect to the plane; hence, the frictional force acts
upwards (forward) as shown in figure. The equation
of translational motion is mmgcosq mgsinq = ma

(R 4 2R2 x 2 + x 4 )dx

R /2

R
24 pM 4
2R2 x 3 x 5
=
+
R x
(using (ii))
3
5
10 pR3
R /2
53
2
Solving, we get, I =
MR
200

2. The composite body is symmetrical about y axis


therefore its centre of gravity will lie on this axis.
Now consider two parts of the body, hemisphere
and cone. Let the bottom of the hemisphere be the
axis of reference as shown in figure.
2p 3
Weight of hemisphere, W1 = rg
r .
3
Distance of centre of gravity of hemisphere from
5
bottom y1 = r
8

or a = g(mcosq sinq)
Velocity of cylinder after time t is
v = at = g (mcosq sinq)t
Frictional force produces a torque.
Hence, t = (mmgcosq)r = Ia

...(i)
...(ii)

mmg cos q.r 2mg cos q


=
...(iii)
1 2
r
mr
2
Angular velocity decreases with angular retardation
a with time t,
\ w = wo at
...(iv)
or a =

Physics for you | OctOber 15

21

At the moment sliding stops and pure rolling begins,


we have v = wr, i.e. rolling begins at time t = T.
v
w = = wo aT
r
g (m cos q sin q)T
= wo aT

r
2mg cos qT g (m cos q sin q)T
=
wo
r
r
wo r
or T =
g (3m cos q sin q)
The distance moved by the cylinder before sliding
stops is
1
S1 = aT 2
2

wor
1
= g (m cos q sin q)

2
g (3m cos q sin q)
\ S1 =

w2o r 2 (m cos q sin q)

Equation of motion for body A is


2mg T = 2ma2
...(i)
Equation of motion for body B is
2T mg = ma1
...(ii)
Length of the rope L = y1 + (y1 l) + (y2 l)
+ 2 (half of circumference)
or 2y1 + y2 = constant
Differentiating twice w.r.t. t, we get,
d 2 y2
+
= 0 2a1 + a2 = 0
dt 2
dt 2
Acceleration of body A = 2 Acceleration of body B
From equation (i),
2mg T = 2ma2 = 4ma1
...(iii)
Solving (ii) and (iii), we get
a1 = g/3, a2 = 2a1 = 2g/3
2

2g
3
6. There is no slipping between ring and ground.
Hence f2 is not maximum.
\

2 g (3m cos q sin q)2

4. Free body diagram of slider bar is shown in figure.

d 2 y1

Acceleration of body A =

Angular acceleration, a = 0
and linear acceleration = a
Applying the equation SFH = ma 60 = 4a
\ a = 15 m s2
...(i)

SFV = 0 RA = 4g = 39.24 N
...(ii)
Taking moment about G, we get,
60 0.25sinq RA 0.25cosq = 0
39.24
tan q =
= 0.654
60
q = tan1 (0.654) q = 33.18

5. The free body diagram of two masses are shown in


figure.
y1

a1

T
T

T
T
2T

T
T
A 2m
2mg

mg

22

Physics for you | OctOber 15

y2
a2

N
mg 1
N2

f1
f2

But there is slipping between ring and stick.


Therefore, f1 is maximum.
1
Now, I = mR2 = 2(0.5)2 = kg m2
2
N1 f2 = ma
or N1 f2 = 2 0.3 = 0.6 N
Rt
R
a=Ra=
= R( f2 f1 ) = R2 ( f2 f1 ) / I
I
I

...(i)

or 0.3 = (0.5)2 (f2 f1)/I


or 0.3 =

(0.5)2 ( f2 f1 )
1/ 2

or f2 f1 = 0.6 N

...(ii)

N1 = 2 N

...(iii)

x
Further, f1 = mN1 = N1
10
Solving these four equations, we get, x = 4

...(iv)
nn

Series
22
Series

CHAPTERWISE UNIT TEST : Laws of Motion|


Work, Energy and Power| System of Particles and Rotational Motion
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

All questions are compulsory.


Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

1. Why are porcelain objects wrapped in paper or


2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

9.
10.

straw before packing for transportation?


A light body and a heavy body have the same
kinetic energy. Which one will have the greater
momentum?
Find the radius of gyration of a hollow sphere
rotating about its diameter.
Why are rockets given a conical shape?
About 4 1010 kg of matter is converted into energy
in the Sun each second. What is the power output of
the Sun?
A rigid spherical body is spinning around an axis
without any external torque. Due to change in
temperature, the volume increases by 1%. What will
be the percentage change in angular velocity?
What is the tension in rod of length L and mass M
at a distance y from F1 when the rod is acted on by
two unequal forces F1 and F2 (F2 < F1) at its ends?
A sphere of mass m moving with a velocity u hits
another stationary sphere of same mass. If e is the
coefficient of restitution, what is the ratio of the
velocities of two spheres after the collision?
A particle is projected making an angle of 45 with
horizontal having kinetic energy K. What is the
kinetic energy at highest point ?
A sphere of radius r is rolling without sliding. What
is the ratio of rotational kinetic energy and total
kinetic energy associated with the sphere?

OR

An automobile engine develops 100 hp when


rotating at a speed of 1800 rpm. Find the torque
acting.
11. An object of weight W hangs from a rope that is
tied to other ropes that are fastened to the ceiling as
shown in figure. The upper ropes make angles q and
with the horizontal. Find the tensions T1, T2 and
T3 in the three ropes.

T1

T2
T3
W

12. A ball A moving with a velocity of 9 m s1 strikes an

identical stationary ball B such that after collision


the direction of each ball makes an angle of 30
with the original line of motion. Find the speeds of
the two balls after the collision. Is the kinetic energy
conserved in the collision process?
13. A solid cylinder rolls up an inclined plane of angle
of inclination 30. At the bottom of the inclined
plane, the centre of mass of the cylinder has a speed
of 5 m s1. (a) How far will the cylinder go up the
plane? (b) How long will it take to return to the
bottom ?
Physics for you | OctOber 15

23

14. Explain why

15.

16.

17.

18.

24

(a) a horse cannot pull a cart and run in empty


space.
(b) passengers are thrown forward from their seats
when a speeding bus stops suddenly.
(c) It is easier to pull a lawn mower than to push it.
A student holds two dumbbells without stretched
arms while standing on a turntable. He is given a
push until he is rotating at a rate of 0.5 rps. Then the
student pulls the dumbbells towards his chest. What
is the new rate of rotation? Assume the dumbbells
are originally 60 cm from his axis of rotation and
are pulled into 10 cm from the axis of rotation. The
mass of the dumbbells is such that the student and
dumbbells have equal angular momentum when at
60 cm distance.
A locomotive of mass m starts moving so that its
velocity varies according to the law v = k s , where
k is constant, and s is the distance covered. Find the
total work performed by all the forces which are
acting on the locomotive during the first t second
after the beginning of motion.
OR
Two discs of moment of inertia I1 and I2 about
their respective axes (normal to the disc and
passing through the centre) and rotating with
angular speeds w1 and w2 are brought into contact
face to face with their axes of rotation coincident.
(a) What is the angular speed of the two-disc system?
(b) Show that the kinetic energy of the combined
system is less than the sum of the initial kinetic
energies of the two discs. How do you account for
this loss in energy? (Take w1 w2).
If 28 1023 molecules of a gas strike a surface of
area 14 cm2 normally per second with velocity of
500 m s1 and rebound in the opposite direction
with the same speed, find the pressure exerted by
the gas on the surface if mass of each molecule is
5 1023 g.
Sam went to shopping mall to purchase certain
goods .There he noticed an old lady struggling with
her shopping. Immediately he showed her the lift
and explained to her how it carries the load from
one floor to the next. Even then the old lady was
not convinced. Then Sam took her in the lift and
showed her how to operate it. That old lady was
very happy.
(a) What values does Sam possess?
(b) An elevator can carry a maximum load of
1800 kg in moving up with a constant speed of
2 m s1. The frictional force opposing the motion is
4000 N. Determine the minimum power delivered
by the motor to the elevator in watts as well as in
horse power.
Physics for you | OctOber 15

19. A bob of mass m is suspended by a light string of

length L. It is imparted a horizontal velocity v0 at


the lowest point A such that it completes a semicircular trajectory in the vertical plane with the
string becoming slack only on reaching the topmost
point, C as shown in figure. Obtain an expression
for (a) v0 ; (b) the speeds at points B and C; (c) the
ratio of the kinetic energies at B and C (KB/KC).
Comment on the nature of the trajectory of the bob
after it reaches the point C.

OR
Prove the result that the velocity v of translation of a
rolling body (like a ring, disc, cylinder or sphere) at
the bottom of an inclined plane of a height h is given
by
2 gh
v2 =
(1 + k 2 / R2 )
using dynamical consideration (i.e., by
consideration of forces and torques). Note k is the
radius of gyration of the body about its symmetry
axis, and R is the radius of the body. The body starts
from rest at the top of the plane.
20. A particle of mass m slides from the top of the
surface of sphere of radius r. It loses contact and
strikes the ground. At what distance below the top,
the particle will lose contact with the surface? At
what distance from the initial position the particle
strikes the ground?
OR
A small mass slides down an inclined plane of
inclination q with the horizontal. The coefficient
of friction, = 0x, where x is the distance through
which the mass slides down and 0 is a constant. Find
the distance covered by the mass before it stops. What
is the maximum speed over this distance?
solutions
1. When porcelain objects are wrapped in paper or

straw, the time of impact between themselves is very


much increased during jerk while transportation.
Dp
, as Dt increases, F decreases.
Dt
Hence, force on the porcelains is reduced during
transportation, and saves them from breakage.
Since F =

p2
, \ p = 2mK .
2. Kinetic energy, K =
2m
Since K is same for both bodies, p m , i.e., the
heavier body has more momentum than the lighter
body.
3. The moment of inertia of a hollow sphere about its
2
diameter = MR2
..(i)
3
If K is the radius of gyration, then moment of inertia
of a body = MK2
...(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
2
2
MR2 = MK 2 \ K = R
3
3
4. Rockets are given a conical shape because conical

shape of rockets minimize the atmospheric friction.


It also helps to maintain its direction.
5. Energy liberated per second by the conversion of
4 1010 kg of matter, i.e.,
E = mc2 =[(4 1010) (3 108)2] J = 3.6 1027 J
Power output of the Sun = energy (work) liberated
per second
= 3.6 1027 J s1 = 3.6 1027 W
6. Angular momentum of spherical body,
2

2
Q I = 5 MR

2
L = I w = MR2 w
5
Also, volumeV =

4 3
R or
3

2 3V
\ L= M
5 4

2 /3

3V
R2 =
4

2 /3

Q L and M do not change with temperature


\ w V 2/3

7.

dw
2 dV
100% =
100%
w
3 V
So, the angular velocity decreases by 0.67%.
F1
T

A
y
B

F2

Refer to figure, acceleration of the rod along F1,


(F F )
a= 1 2
M
Mass of the part (say AB) of length y,
M
m= y
L
If T is the tension in AB, then
M
F1 T = ma =
L

y
(F F )
y 1 2 = (F1 F2 )
M
L

or T = F1 (F1 F2 )

y
y
y
= F1 1 + F2
L
L
L

8. Here, u1 = u, u2 = 0

\ e=

v2 v1 v2 v1
=
u1 u2
u0

or v2 v1 = e u
By the law of conservation of momentum,
mu + m 0 = mv1 + mv2
or v1 + v2 = u
Adding (i) and (ii),
2v2 = u + eu = u (1 + e)
u(1 + e)
or v2 =
2
Again, from (ii),
u(1 + e) u(1 e)
v1 = u v2 = u
=
2
2
Divide eqn (iii) by eqn (iv)

...(i)
...(ii)

...(iii)

...(iv)

v2 1 + e
=
.
v1 1 e
1
2
Velocity at the highest point, u'
u
= horizontal component of u = u cos 45 =
2
Hence KE at the highest point,
1
K = mu 2
2

9. Initial kinetic energy, K = mu2

1 u
1 1
K
K = m
= mu2 = .

2
2 2
2 2
KE at highest point will be half of the initial kinetic
energy.
1
10. Translational kinetic energy, ET = mv 2
2
1
and Rotational kinetic enegy ER = I w2
2
Physics for you | OctOber 15

25

1
1
Total energy, E = ET + ER = mv 2 + I w2
2
2
1 2 1 2 2 v2
= mv + mr 2
2
2 5
r
1
1
7
= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2
2
5
10
1 2
mv
ER
2
\
= 5
= .
7
E
7
mv 2
10
OR
Here, N = 1800 rpm, P = 100 hp = 100 746 W
Angular velocity,
2 1800
w = 2 N =
= 60 rad s 1
60
Now power = tw or 100 746 = t 60
746 100
= 395.9 N m
60
11. The free body diagram for the forces acting at O, is
shown here.
t=

From Fx = 0,
T2 cos T1cosq = 0
From Fy = 0,
T1 sin q + T2 sin W = 0
From eqns. (i) and (ii),
T cos q
T1 sin q + 1
sin = W
cos
or T1 (sin q + cos q tan ) =W
W
or T1 =
(sin q + cos q tan )
Similarly, T2 =

W
(sin + cos tan q)

and T3 = W
26

Physics for you | OctOber 15

...(i)
...(ii)

12.

Initial momentum of A and B along X-axis


= m 9 + m 0 = 9m
...(i)
Final momentum of A and B after collision along
X-axis
= mv1 cos 30 + mv2 cos 30
m 3
(v1 + v2 )
2
From eqns. (i) and (ii),
=

...(ii)

m 3
(v1 + v2 ) = 9m
2
or (v1 + v2 ) = 6 3
...(iii)
Applying the law of conservation of momentum
along Y-axis,
mv1 sin 30 = mv2 sin 30
or v1 = v2
...(iv)
From eqns. (iii) and (iv),
v1 = v2 = 3 3 m s 1
1
81
Initial KE = m(9)2 = m = 40.5 m
2
2
1 2 1 2 1
Final KE = mv1 + mv2 = m(v12 + v22 )
2
2
2
1
2
2
= m[(3 3 ) + (3 3 ) ] = 27m
2
KE lost in the collision 40.5 m 27 m = 13.5 m
So, kinetic energy is not conserved.
1
2
(a) As the cylinder goes up the plane, it acquires
potential energy at the expense of its KE of
translational and rotational motion. Let the cylinder
go up the plane upto height h. Then according to
principle of conservation of energy, we have,
1 2 1 2
mv + I w = mgh
2
2

13. Here q = 30, v = 5 m s1, I = mr 2

or

1 2 1 1 2 v2
mv + mr 2 = mgh
r
2
2 2

[... v =rw]

3 2
mv = mgh
4
3v 2 3 (5)2
\ h=
=
= 1.913 m
4g
4 9. 8
Suppose that the cylinder covers a distance S along
the incline in reaching height h on the plane. Then,
h
h
1.913
sin q = or S =
=
= 3.826 m
S
sin q sin 30
(b) For a cylinder rolling down an inclined plane,
linear acceleration.
2
2
a = g sin q = 9.8 sin 30 = 3.27m s 2
3
3
1
1
Now S = v0t + at 2 = 0 + at 2 {Q v0 = 0}
2
2
2S
\ t=
= 1.53 s
a
or

14. (a) While trying to pull a cart, a horse pushes the

ground backwards with a certain force at an angle.


The ground offers an equal reaction in the opposite
direction, on the feet of the horse. The forward
component of this reaction is responsible for motion
of the cart. In empty space, there is no reaction and
hence a horse cannot pull the cart and run.
(b) This is due to inertia of motion. When the
speeding bus stops suddenly, lower part of the
bodies in contact with the seats stop. The upper part
of the bodies of the passengers tend to maintain the
uniform motion. Hence the passengers are thrown
forward.
(c) While pulling a lawn mower, force is applied
upwards along the handle. The vertical component
of this force is upwards and reduces the effective
weight of the mower, as shown in figure (i). While
pushing a lawn mower, force is applied downward
along the handle. The vertical component of this
force is downwards and increases the effective
weight of the mower, as shown in figure (ii). As the
effective weight is lesser in case of pulling than in
case of pushing, therefore, pulling is easier than
pushing.

15. As L = mvr = mr2w,

initial angular momentum of both the dumbbells of


total mass m, Ld1 = mr12w.
If Ls1 is the initial angular momentum of the student,
then initial angular momentum of the system,
L1 = Ls 1 + Ld 1 = Ls 1 + mr12 w1
...(i)
Final angular momentum of the system,

L2 = Ls2 + Ld2 = Ls2 + mr22 w2


...(ii)
From the law of conservation of angular momentum
L1 = L2
...(iii)
From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),
...(iv)
Ls2 + mr22 w2 = Ls 1 + mr12 w1
Since the angular momentum of the student is
proportional to his rate of spin,
w
...(v)
Ls 2 = 2 Ls 1
w1
From eqns. (iv) and (v),
w2

2
2
w Ls 1 + mr2 w2 = Ls1 + mr1 w1
1
or

w2 2
2
2
2
w mr1 w1 + mr2 w2 = mr1 w1 + mr1 w1
1
= 2mr12 w1

(Q Ls 1 = Ld 1 = mr12 w1 )

or

2r 2
2(0.6)2

w2 = 2 1 2 w1 =
(0.5)
2
2
(0.6) + (0.1)
r1 + r2
= 0.97 rps

16. Given: v = k s

k
1
dv
k ds
k
k s = k2
=
=
v =
2
dt 2 s dt 2 s
2 s
Force on the locomotive,
F =m
Again,

dv 1 2
= mk
dt 2

dv k 2
=
dt 2

or

dv =

k2
dt
2

k2
t +c
2
where c is the constant of integration.
Suppose v = 0 at t = 0. Then, c = 0
Integrating, v =

k2
t or
2
k 2t
or ds =
dt
2

\ v=

ds k 2t
=
2
dt

Physics for you | OctOber 15

27

k 2t 2
+ c
4
k 2t 2
Suppose s = 0 at t = 0. Then, c = 0 \ s =
4
Work done = Fs
1
k 2t 2 mk 4t 2
= mk 2
=
2
4
8
OR
(a) Total initial angular momentum of the discs,
L1 = I1w1 + I2w2
Moment of inertia of the two disc system = (I1 + I2)
If w is the angular speed of the combined system,
then, final angular momentum of the system,
L2 = (I1 + I2)w
As no external torque is acting, therefore, according
to principle of conservation of angular momentum,
we have,
(I1 + I2)w = I1w1 + I2w2
I w +I w
or w = 1 1 2 2
I1 + I2
1
1
(b) Initial KE of two discs, E1 = I1w12 + I 2 w22
2
2
1
2
Final KE of the system, E2 = (I1 + I 2 )w
2
1
1
1
2
2
\ E1 E2 = I1w1 + I 2 w2 (I1 + I 2 )w2
2
2
2
Putting the value of w from part (a) and solving,
we get,
Integrating, s =

E1 E2 =

I1 I 2 (w1 w2 )2
2(I1 + I2 )

Rate of change of momentum


140 kg m s-1

= 140 kg m s-2
1s
But rate of change of momentum is equal to the
applied force = 140 kg m s2 = 140 N
By Newton's third law of motion this must also be
the magnitude of the force exerted by the molecules
on the surface.
\ Force exerted by molecules on surface = 140 N
Area of surface = 14 cm2 = 14 104 m2
force
140
Pressure on surface =
=
area 14 104
=

= 105 N m2
18. (a) Sam is sympathetic and also has the attitude of
helping others. He has patience.
(b) The downward force on the elevator is F= mg + f
= (1800 10) + 4000 = 22000 N. The motor must
supply enough power to balance this force.
Hence P = F.v = 22000 2 = 44000 W = 59 hp
(1hp = 746 W)
19. (a) Two external forces act on the bob are gravity
and tension (T) in the string. At the lowest point
A, the potential energy of the system can be taken
zero. So at point A,

which is a positive quantity

Hence the rotational KE of the combined system


is less than the sum of the initial rotational KE of
the two discs. Note that there is loss of KE in the
process. This loss of energy is due to dissipation of
energy due to frictional contact of the two discs. It
may be noted that angular momentum is conserved
in the process as torque due to friction is only an
internal torque.
17. Let the direction in which the molecules rebound
after striking the surface be taken as positive.
Momentum of each molecule after striking the
surface =mv2 = 5 1026 kg 500 m s1
Momentum of each molecule before striking the
surface = mv1 = 5 1026 kg ( 500 m s1)
28 1023 molecules strike the surface per second.
Change in momentum of the molecules striking the
surface in 1 second
= 28 1023 [(5 1026 500) 5 1026 ( 500)] kg m s1
= 28 1023 5 1026 1000 kg m s1
= 140 kg m s1
28

Physics for you | OctOber 15

Total mechanical energy = kinetic energy


1
E = mv02
...(i)
2
If TA is the tension in the string at point A, then

mv02
...(ii)
L
At the highest point C, the string slackens, so the
tension TC becomes zero. If vC is the speed at point
C, then by conservation of energy,
1
E = K + U or E = mvC2 + 2 mgL ...(iii)
2
mvC2
Also, mg =
...(iv)
L
2
or mvC = mgL
...(v)
TA mg =

Using (v) in (iii),


1
5
E = mgL + 2mgL = mgL
...(vi)
2
2
From equations (i) and (vi), we get
m
5
...(vii)
mgL = v02 or v0 = 5 gL
2
2
(b) From equation (iv), we have
vC = gL
The total energy at B is
1
E = mv B2 + mgL
...(viii)
2
From equations (i) and (viii), we get
1 2
1
mv B + mgL = mv02
2
2
1 2
1
mv B + mgL = m 5 gL
[using (vii)]
2
2
v B = 3 gL
(c) The ratio of kinetic energies at B and C is
1 2
K B 2 mv B 3
=
=
KC 1 2 1
mvC
2
OR
Consider a body of mass M and radius R rolling down
a plane inclined at an angle q with the horizontal, as
shown in figure. It is only due to friction at the line
of contact that body can roll without slipping. The
centre of mass of the body moves in a straight line
parallel to the inclined plane.
The external forces on the body are
(i) The weight Mg acting vertically downwards.
(ii) The normal reaction N of the inclined plane.
(iii) The force of friction acting up the inclined plane.

Let a be the downward acceleration of the body. The


equation of motion for the body can be written as
N mg cos q = 0
F = ma = mg sin q f
As the force of friction f provides the necessary
torque for rolling, so
a
t = f R = I a = mk2
R

or

f =m

k2

a
R2
where k is the radius of gyration of the body about
its axis of rotation. Clearly
k2
ma = mg sin q m
a
R2
g sin q
or a =
(1 + k 2 / R2 )
Let h be height of the inclined plane and s the
distance travelled by the body down the plane. The
velocity v attained by the body at the bottom of the
inclined plane can be obtained as follow:
v2 u2 = 2as

or

v2 02 = 2

or

v2 =

or

v=

g sin q

(1 + k 2 / R2 )
2 gh
2

1+ k / R

s
h

Q s = sin q

2 gh

(1 + k 2 / R2 )
20. The particle of mass m is initially at A. At the point
P where the particle loses contact with the surface
of the sphere, normal reaction is zero and the only
force acting on the particle is its weight mg acting
vertically downwards, as shown in figure.

The radial component (mg cos q) of the weight


provides the necessary centripetal force,
mv 2
mg cos q =
r
or v 2 = rg cos q
...(i)
OQ (r h)
As cos q =
=
,
OP
r
v2 = (r h)g
...(ii)
Since the velocity v has been acquired by the particle
after falling through a height h,
Physics for you | OctOber 15

29

...(iii)

v = 2 gh
From eqns. (ii) and (iii),
2gh = (r h)g
r
\ h=
3
From eqns. (iii) and (iv),

...(iv)

2 gr
...(v)
v=
3
If x is the horizontal and y is the vertical distance
covered by the particle as it hits the ground at C
after time t,
x = (v cos q)t
...(vi)
1 2
and y = (v sin q)t + gt
...(vii)
2
From eqns. (vi) and (vii),
y = x tan q +

gx 2

...(viii)

2v 2 cos2 q

r 5
It is clear that, y = 2r h = 2r = r ,
3 3
r h r r /3 2
cos q =
=
= ,
r
r
3
and tan q = sec2 q 1 = (3 / 2)2 1 =

5
2

From eqn. (viii),


5
gx 2
5
r =x +
3
2 2(2 gr / 3)(2 / 3)2
or

27 x 2 + (8 5r )x (80 / 3)r 2 = 0

i.e., x =

8 5r + 320r 2 + 2880r 2
2 27
(neglecting negative root)

17.9r + 56.6r 38.7r


=
= 0.72r
54
54
If s is the distance from the initial position where
the particle strikes the ground at C,
s = BC = BD + DC = rsin q + x
or

x=

5
= r + 0.72r = 0.75r + 0.72r 1.5r
3
OR

Let us consider the mass after it has slide down a


distance x [as shown in figure].
30

Physics for you | OctOber 15

If a is the acceleration at this instant, then


ma = mg sin q f
= mg sin q 0x mg cos q
[Q f = R = (0x)mg cos q]
or a = g(sin q 0x cos q)
...(i)
dv dv dx dv
=
=
v,
dt dx dt dx
v dv = a dx = g (sin q 0 xcos q) dx

As a =

or v v dv = ( g sin q) x dx (0 g cos q) x x dx
0
0
0
2
2
x
v
or
= ( g sin q)x 0 g cos q
2
2
or v2 = (2g sin q)x (0g cos q)x2
...(ii)
If the mass comes to rest after covering a distance s,
then if x = s, v = 0.
From eqn. (ii),
(2g sin q)s (0g cos q)s2 = 0
or s[2g sin q (0g cos q)s] = 0
As s 0, 2g sin q (0g cos q)s = 0
2 g sin q
2
or s =
=
...(iii)
tan q
0 g cos q 0
When v = vmax ,
dv d
a=
= (v ) = 0
dt dt max
If x = x0, for a = 0, from eqn. (i)
g(sin q x0 cos q) = 0
or x0 cos q = sin q
tan q
or x0 =
...(iv)
0
tan q
Putting v = vmax and x = x0 =
in eqn. (ii),

0

2
vmax

or

tan q
tan q
= (2 g sin q)
(0 g cos q)

2
vmax
=

g
2g
sin q tan q sin q tan q
0
0

g
sin q tan q
0

or vmax =

g
sin q tan q
0
nn

Class
XI

ACCELERATED LEARNING SERIES

Unit

Thermodynamics | Kinetic Theory of Gases | Oscillations and Waves


thermodynamics

It is the branch of physics which deals with the study of


transformation of heat energy into other forms of energy
and vice versa. In thermodynamics, the collection of
objects on which attention is being focused is called
the system, while everything else in the environment is
called the surroundings.
thermal equilibrium

If microscopic variables such as pressure, temperature,


volume, mass, composition etc., which characterize a
system, do not change with time, the system is said to
be in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Zeroth Law of thermodynamics

If two systems A and B are each in thermal equilibrium


with a third system C, then A and B will be in thermal
equilibrium with each other.
heat

Heat is the energy transferred between a system and its


environment because of a temperature difference that
exists between them. It is a scalar quantity. Its SI unit is
joule. It is path dependent.
Work

The work done by the system is


W = dW =

Vf

Vi

During the change in volume, the pressure and


temperature of the system also change. It is a scalar
quantity. Its SI unit is joule. It is path dependent. In P-V
diagram (indicator diagram) the area under P-V curve
represents work done.
internal energy

Internal energy of a system is the energy possessed by


the system due to molecular motion and molecular
configuration. Change in internal energy is path
independent and depends only on the initial and final
states of the system. The internal energy of an ideal gas is
only dependent upon temperature whereas that of a real
gas it is a function of both temperature and volume.
thermodynamic variables

These are macroscopic physical quantities like pressure


(P), volume (V) and temperature (T) etc. which are used
to describe the state of the system. The relation between
these variables is called equation of state. Heat and work
are not thermodynamic variables. Thermodynamic
variables are of two kinds, extensive and intensive.
Internal energy U, volume V, total mass M are extensive
variables. Pressure P, temperature T and density r are
intensive variables.
first Law of thermodynamics

PdV

Here Vi and Vf referred to the change in volume from


state i to state f.

First law of thermodynamics is simply a restatement of


principle of conservation of energy. Imagine a gaseous
system for which pressure, volume and temperature are
related by certain equation of state and is undertaken
through a process. If DQ, DU and DW represent the heat
Physics for you | OctOber 15

31

given to the system, change in internal energy and work


done by the system respectively. During the process the
first law of thermodynamic states that
DQ = DU + DW
Sign Convention
Heat absorbed by the system is taken as positive while
the heat lost by the system is taken as negative.
Work done by the system is taken as positive while work
done on a system is taken as negative.
The increase in internal energy of the system is taken
as positive while decrease in internal energy is taken as
negative.

dP
P
= g
dV
V
In an adiabatic expansion temperature of the gas will fall
(T2 < T1) while in adiabatic compression temperature of
the gas will rise (T2 > T1).

isothermal Process

reversible and irreversible Processes

For such a process temperature remains constant


throughout the process. Hence PV = constant as T
is constant. Work is done at the same rate as heat is
supplied, hence there is no increase of internal energy.
Due to this, DU = 0 and thus DQ = DW.
Work done during an isothermal process,
V
P
W = mRT ln 2 = mRT ln 1
V1
P2

The slope of isothermal curve on a P-V diagram at any


point on the curve is given by
dP P
=
dV V
KEY POINT
In an isothermal expansion the gas absorbs heat and
does work and in an isothermal compression work
is done on the gas by the environment and heat is
released.
adiabatic Process

An adiabatic process is one that occurs so rapidly


or occurs in a system that is so well insulated that no
transfer of energy as heat occurs between the system
and its environment.
Equation of adiabatic process,
PVg = constant
TVg 1 = constant

second Law of thermodynamics

Kelvin-Planck statement : No process is possible whose


sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and
the complete conversion of the heat into work.
Clausius statement : No process is possible whose sole
result is the transfer of heat from a colder object to a
hotter object.
Reversible process : A reversible process is one which
can be retraced in the opposite direction.
A quasi-static isothermal expansion of an ideal gas in a
cylinder fitted with a frictionless movable piston is an
example of a reversible process.
Irreversible process : An irreversible process is
one which cannot be retraced back in the opposite
direction.
All spontaneous processes of nature are irreversible
processes. e.g. transfer of heat from a hot body to a
cold body, diffusion of gases, etc. are all irreversible
processes.

SELF CHECK

1. An ideal gas goes


V
c
through a reversible
b
cycle a b c d has
the V-T diagram shown
d
a
below. Process d a
T
and b c are adiabatic.
The corresponding P-V diagram for the process is
(all figures are schematic and not drawn to scale)
P

(a)

C
where, g = P is called adiabatic exponent.
CV
Work done during an adiabatic process
W=

(PV
(T T )
1 1 P2V2 )
= mR 1 2
(g 1)
g 1

The slope of adiabatic curve on a P-V diagram at any


point on the curve is given by
32

Physics for you | OctOber 15

a
d

(b)

V
P

(c)

(d)

b
V

(JEE Main 2015)

2. One mole of diatomic ideal gas undergoes a cyclic


process ABC as shown in figure. The process BC is
adiabatic. The temperatures at A, B and C are 400 K,
800 K and 600 K respectively.
B

800 K

P
A

400 K

600 K
C
V

Choose the correct statement.


(a) The change in internal energy in the process BC
is 500 R.
(b) The change in internal energy in whole cyclic
process is 250 R.
(c) The change in internal energy in the process
CA is 700 R.
(d) The change in internal energy in the process AB
is 350 R.
(JEE Main 2014)
3. The above p-v diagram represents the
thermodynamic cycle of an engine, operating with
an ideal monoatomic gas. The amount of heat,
extracted from the source in a single cycle is
p

2p0
p0

(a) 4p0v0
13
(c) p0v 0
2
carnot engine

v0

(b) p0v0

2v0

11
(d) p0v 0
2
(JEE Main 2013)

Carnot engine is a reversible heat engine operating


between two temperatures T1 (source) and T2 (sink).
Carnot cycle : Carnot engine works in series of
operations. The operations consist of an isothermal
expansion and then adiabatic expansion. Further
operations are isothermal compression and adiabatic
compression so that the working substance is back at
the initial state at the end of each cycle. This cycle of
operations is called Carnot cycle.
The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by

T2
T1
The efficiency of Carnot engine depends on the
temperature of source (T1) and temperature of the
sink (T2) , but does not depend upon the nature of the
working substance.
Carnot theorem : No heat engine operating between two
given temperatures can be more efficient than a Carnot
engine operating between the same two temperatures.
h = 1

SELF CHECK

4. A Carnot engine, whose efficiency is 40%, takes in


heat from a source maintained at a temperature of
500 K. It is desired to have an engine of efficiency
60%. Then, the intake temperature for the same
exhaust (sink) temperature must be
(a) 1200 K
(b) 750 K
(c) 600 K
(d) efficiency of Carnot engine cannot be made
larger than 50%
(JEE Main 2012)
kinetic theory of gases
equation of ideal gas or Perfect gas

The relation between pressure P, volume V and absolute


temperature T of a gas is given by
PV = nRT
= kBNT
Where n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the
universal gas constant, its value, R = 8.31 J mol1 K1 and
kB is Boltzmanns constant.
R
kB =
NA
Here, NA is Avogadros constant or Avogadros number.
kB = 1.38 1023 J K1 and NA = 6.022 1023 per mol.
While deriving the ideal gas equation, the following two
assumptions are used :
(i) The size of the gas molecules is negligibly small.
(ii) There is no force of attraction amongst the molecules
of the gas.
ideal gas Laws

Boyles law : It states that at constant temperature, the


volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional
to the pressure.
1
or PV = constant.
V
P
Physics for you | OctOber 15

33

Charles law : It states that at constant pressure, volume


of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its
absolute temperature.
V T or V/T = constant.
Gay Lussacs law or Regnaults law : It states that at
constant volume, pressure of the given mass of a gas is
directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
P T or P/T = constant.
Avogadros law : It states that at same temperature and
pressure, equal volumes of all the gases contain equal
number of molecules.
N1 = N2, if P, V and T are the same.
Grahams law of diffusion : It states that at constant
pressure and temperature, the rate of diffusion of a gas is
inversely proportional to the square root of its density,
1
Rate of diffusion
, if P and T are constant.
r
Daltons law of partial pressure : It states that the total
pressure exerted by a mixture of non-reactive ideal
gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure which
each would exert, if it alone occupied the same volume
at the given temperature.
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + .....
kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory of gases correlates the macroscopic


properties of gases e.g., pressure, temperature etc. to
the microscopic properties of gas molecules e.g. speed,
momentum, kinetic energy of molecules etc. The kinetic
theory of gases is based on the following assumptions :
The intermolecular forces are negligible during a
collision.
The volume of the molecules themselves can be
neglected compared with the volume occupied by
the gas.
The time occupied by a collision is negligible
compared with the time spent by a molecule between
collisions and between collisions a molecule moves
with uniform velocity.
ideal gas

An ideal gas or a perfect gas is that gas which strictly


obeys the gas laws.
Following are the characteristics of the ideal gas :
The size of the molecule of a gas is zero, i.e.,
each molecule of a gas is a point mass with no
dimensions.
There is no force of attraction or repulsion amongst
the molecules of the gas.
Equation of an ideal gas : PV = RT = kBNT
34

Physics for you | OctOber 15

where is the number of moles and N is the number of


molecules, R is the universal gas constant and kB is the
Boltzmann constant.
R
kB =
NA
NA is the Avogadros number.
m N
Here, m =
=
M NA
where m is the mass of the gas containing N molecules,
M is the molar mass.
rRT
Another form of an ideal gas equation P =
M
where r is the density of the gas.
kinetic theory of an ideal gas

According to kinetic theory of an ideal gas pressure


exerted by an ideal gas is given by
1
P = mn v 2
3
where n is the number density (number of molecules
per unit volume), m is the mass of molecule and v 2 is
the mean square speed.
KEY POINT
The internal energy of an ideal gas is equal to its

internal kinetic energy, which depends only on


the temperature of the ideal gas.
Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas
depends only on its absolute temperature. It is
independent of pressure, volume and nature of
the ideal gas.
Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature
Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas is

1
3
E = mv 2 = k BT
2
2
Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas depends
only on its absolute temperature. It is independent of
pressure, volume and nature of the ideal gas.
At a given temperature, the average kinetic energy per
molecule of all the gases is same.
Average kinetic energy per mole of a gas is
3
E = RT
2
Relation between pressure and kinetic energy of gas
2
PV = E
3
Absolute zero of temperature : Absolute zero of
temperature may be defined as that temperature at
which the velocity of the gas molecules become zero.

Also, all molecular motion ceases at absolute zero of


temperature. The value of absolute zero for an ideal gas
is 273C. This definition is true only in the case of an
ideal gas.
different type of speed of gas molecules
Root mean square speed,
v rms =

3RT
3k BT
=
M
m

Average speed, v = 8RT = 8k BT


pM
pm
Most probable speed, v mp =

2RT
2k BT
=
M
m

v rms > v > v mp


degree of freedom

The number of degrees of freedom of a gas molecule is


given by f = 3N K
where
N = Number of atoms in the molecule
K = Number of independent relations between atoms
of a molecule
Relation between g and degree of freedom (f)
2
g =1+
f
Law of equipartition of energy

It states that if a system is in equilibrium at absolute


temperature, T, the total energy is distributed equally
in different energy modes of absorption, the energy in
each mode being equal to (1/2) kBT. Each translational
and rotational degree of freedom corresponding
to one energy mode of absorption and has energy
(1/2)kBT. Each vibrational frequency has two modes
of energy (kinetic and potential) with corresponding
energy equal to
1
2 k BT = k BT .
2
specific heat capacity

Monatomic Gases
The molecule of a monatomic gas has only three
translational degrees of freedom.
The total internal energy of a mole of such a gas is given
by
3
3
U = k BT NA = RT
2
2
The molar specific heat at constant volume, CV is
dU 3
CV =
= R
dT 2

The molar specific heat at constant pressure, CP is


5
CP = R
2
C
5
Ratio of specific heats, g = P =
CV 3
Diatomic Gases
A diatomic gas molecule treated as a rigid rotator like a
dumbbell has 5 degrees of freedom: 3 translational and
2 rotational.
The total internal energy of a mole of such a gas is given
by
5
5
U = k BT NA = RT
2
2
The molar specific heats are given by
5
CV (rigid diatomic) = R
2
7
C P (rigid diatomic) = R
2
7
g (rigid diatomic) =
5
If the diatomic molecule is not rigid but has in addition
a vibrational mode, then
7
5

U = k BT + k BT NA = RT
2
2

7
9
9
CV = R, C P = R, g =
2
2
7
Polyatomic Gases
In general, a polyatomic gas molecule has 3 translational,
3 rotational degrees of freedom and a certain number
(f ) of vibrational mode. The total internal energy of a
mole of such a gas is given by
3
3

U = k BT + k BT + f k BT NA = (3 + f )RT
2
2

The molar specific heats are given by


CV = (3 + f )R, CP = (4 + f )R
(4 + f )
g=
(3 + f )
Note : CP CV = R.
This relation is known as Mayers relation. It is true for
any ideal gas whether monatomic, di or polyatomic.
mean free Path

It is the average distance covered by a molecule between


two successive collisions and is given by
1
l=
2npd 2
where n is the number density and d the diameter of the
molecule.
Physics for you | OctOber 15

35

Mean free path related to the temperature (T) and


pressure (P) as
k BT
l=
2 pd 2P
KEY POINT

The square root of the absolute temperature of an

ideal gas is directly proportional to the root mean


square velocity of its molecules.
The mean free path is of great significance
in understanding transport phenomena like
diffusion, viscosity, and thermal conduction.

SELF CHECK

5. Consider an ideal gas confined in an isolated


closed chamber. As the gas undergoes an adiabatic
expansion, the average time of collision between
molecules increases as V q, where V is the volume of
C

the gas. The value of q is g = p

Cv
(a) g +1
2

(b) g 1
2

(c) 3g + 5
6

(d) 3g 5
6

(JEE Main 2015)

7. Using equipartition of energy, the specific heat


(in J kg1 K1) of aluminium at room temperature
can be estimated to be (atomic weight of aluminium
= 27)
(a) 25
(b) 410
(c) 925
(d) 1850
(JEE Main 2015)
osciLLations
Periodic and oscillatory motions

Periodic motion : Any motion which repeats itself after


regular interval of time is called periodic motion. The
time interval after the motion is repeated is called time
period or period of motion. A periodic motion can be
either rectilinear or closed or open curvilinear.
Physics for you | OctOber 15

Periodic function

A function f (t) is said to be periodic, if


f (t) = f (t + T)
where T is the time period of the periodic function.
Any periodic function can be expressed as a superposition of sine and cosine functions of different time periods with suitable coefficients
sinwt, coswt and sinwt + coswt are the periodic
2p wt
. e and log(wt) are non
functions with a period
w
periodic functions.
simple harmonic motion (shm)

6. In an ideal gas at temperature T, the average force


that a molecule applies on the walls of a closed
container depends on T as T q. A good estimate for
q is
1
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c)
(d) 1
2
4
(JEE Main 2015)

36

In case of periodic motion, force is always directed


towards a fixed point which may or may not be on the
path of motion.
Oscillatory motion : A periodic motion in which body
moves to and fro (or back and forth) along the same path
about a fixed point (called mean or equilibrium position)
is called oscillatory or vibratory motion. Oscillatory
or vibratory motion is a constrained periodic motion
between two fixed limits (called extreme positions) on
either side of mean position.

It is a kind of periodic motion, in which a particle moves


to and fro (or up and down) about a mean position under
a restoring force, which is always directed towards the
mean position and whose magnitude at any instant is
directly proportional to the displacement of the particle
from the mean position at that instant.
i.e., F x or F = kx
where k is known as the force constant. The negative
sign shows that restoring force F is always directed
towards the mean position.
The SI unit of k is N m1 and its dimensional formula is
[ML0T2].
Examples of simple harmonic motion :
Motion of bob of a simple pendulum.
Motion of a block connected to spring.
KEY POINT
Every oscillatory motion is periodic but every

periodic motion need not be oscillatory. e.g., circular


motion is a periodic, but it is not oscillatory.
Every periodic motion is not simple harmonic
motion. Only that periodic motion governed by
the force law F = kx is simple harmonic.
Geometrical interpretation of simple harmonic
motion : Simple harmonic motion is the projection
of a uniform circular motion on a diameter of the
reference circle.

simple harmonic motion are of two types :

Linear simple harmonic motion : When a particle


moves to and fro (or up and down) about a mean
position along a straight line, then its motion is called
linear simple harmonic motion. e.g., motion of a block
connected to spring.
Angular simple harmonic motion : When a system
oscillates angularly with respect to a fixed axis, then its
motion is called angular simple harmonic motion. e.g.,
motion of bob of a simple pendulum.
Comparison between linear SHM and angular SHM
Linear SHM
Angular SHM
1. Restoring force
Restoring torque
F = kx
t = Cq
where k is the restoring where C is the restoring
force constant
torque constant
i.e., restoring force per i.e., restoring torque per
unit displacement.
unit twist
2. Acceleration
k
a= x
m

Angular acceleration
=

C
q
I

where m is the mass of a where I is the moment of


body
inertia of a body
3. The differential equation The differential equation
of angular SHM is
of linear SHM is
2
d x
d 2q
2
+
w
=
0
+ w 2q = 0
x
dt 2
dt 2
k
C
where w 2 =
where w 2 =
m
I
displacement in simple harmonic motion

The displacement of a particle in SHM at any instant t


from its mean position is given by
x = Acos(wt + f)
...(i)
y = Asin(wt + f)
...(ii)
where A is the amplitude (maximum displacement on
either side of mean position) of motion, the argument
(wt + f) is the phase of the motion, f is the initial phase
or phase constant (or phase angle) and w is the angular
frequency.
If s is the span of a particle executing SHM, its amplitude
s
A=
2

SELF CHECK

8. x and y displacements of a particle are given as


x(t) = a sinwt and y(t) = a sin2wt. Its trajectory will
look like

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(JEE Main 2015)


Velocity in simple harmonic motion

Velocity of a particle in SHM is given by


dx
v=
= wA sin(wt + f)
dt
v = w A2 x 2
In SHM, velocity is maximum at the mean position and
minimum at the extreme positions.
The maximum value of velocity is called velocity
amplitude in SHM and is given by vm = Aw.
The direction of velocity of a particle in SHM is either
towards or away from the mean position and the velocity
varies simple harmonically with the same frequency as
that of the displacement.
In SHM, the graph between velocity and displacement
v2
x2
is an ellipse as 2 2 + 2 = 1
Aw
A
1
If w = 1 rad s , then the graph will be a circle.
acceleration in simple harmonic motion

Acceleration of a particle in SHM is given by


dv d 2x
a=
=
= w 2 A cos(wt + f)
dt dt 2
a = w2x
In SHM, acceleration is proportional to the displacement
and is always directed towards the mean position
acceleration is maximum at the extreme positions and
minimum at the mean position.
The maximum value of acceleration is called
acceleration amplitude in SHM and is given by
am = w2A.
In SHM, the acceleration varies simple harmonically
with the same frequency as that of the displacement.
The graph between acceleration and displacement is a
straight line which passes through the origin and has
slope (w2).
Physics for you | OctOber 15

37

Phase relationship Between displacement, Velocity


and acceleration in simple harmonic motion

The displacement of a particle executing SHM is given


by x = Acos(wt + f)
dx
Velocity, v =
= wA sin(wt + f)
dt
p

= wA cos (wt + f) +

2
dv
Acceleration, a =
= w 2 A cos(wt + f)
dt
= w 2 A cos[(wt + f) + p]
From above, we get that
Phase of displacement = (wt + f)
p
Phase of velocity = (wt + f) +

2
Phase of acceleration = (wt + f + p)
Thus, we conclude that, the velocity in SHM is leading
the displacement by a phase p/2 radian. The acceleration
in SHM is leading the displacement by a phase p radian.
The acceleration in simple harmonic motion is leading
the velocity by a phase p/2 radian.
energy in simple harmonic motion

The kinetic energy of a particle in SHM is given by


1
1
Kinetic energy K = mv 2 = mw 2 A2 sin 2(wt + f)
2
2
1
= mw 2(A2 x 2)
2
Kinetic energy of a particle executing SHM is periodic
with period T/2. It is zero at extreme positions and
maximum at mean position.
The potential energy of a particle in SHM is given by
1
1
U = kx 2 = kA2 cos 2(wt + f)
2
2
1
= mw 2 A2 cos 2(wt + f)
2
Potential energy of a particle executing SHM is periodic
with period T/2. It is zero at the mean position and
maximum at the extreme positions.
Total energy of a particle in SHM is given by
E=K+U
1
1
= mw 2 A2 sin 2(wt + f) + mw 2 A2 cos 2(wt + f)
2
2
1
= mw 2 A2
2
In SHM, total energy remains constant at all instants
and at all displacements. It depends upon the mass,
amplitude and frequency of vibration of the particle.
38

Physics for you | OctOber 15

In SHM, at the mean position total energy is in the form


of its kinetic energy and at the extreme positions, total
energy is in the form of its potential energy.
The average value of kinetic energy or potential energy of
a particle in SHM in a time of one complete oscillation,
1
< K > = < U > = mw 2 A2.
4
But the average value of total energy of a particle in
SHM in one complete oscillation,
1
< E > = mw 2 A2.
2
If frequency of oscillation in SHM is u, then
frequency of oscillation of KE = frequency of oscillation
of PE = 2u.
In SHM, the frequency of oscillation of total energy is
zero.
Graphical variation of energy of SHM
E

KE

TE
PE

A A
2

A A
2

the spring-mass system

Let us find out the time period of a spring-mass system


oscillating on a smooth horizontal surface as shown in
the figure below.

At the equilibrium position the spring in relaxed.


When the block is displaced through a distance x
towards right, it experiences a net restoring force
F = kx towards left.
The negative sign shows that the restoring force is always
opposite to the displacement. That is, when x is positive,
F is negative, the force is directed to the left. When x is
negative, F is positive, the force always tends to restore
the block to its equilibrium position x = 0.
F = kx
Applying Newtons second law,
d 2x
F = m 2 = kx
...(i)
dt

d 2x k
+ x =0
dt 2 m
Comparing equation (i) with, F = ma
or

a=
we get,

d 2x
= w 2x
2
dt

m
k
or T = 2p
k
m
Note : The time period is independent of the amplitude.
For a given spring constant, the period increases with
the mass of the block that means more massive block
oscillates more slowly. For a given block, the period
decreases as k increases. A stiffer spring produces
quicker oscillations.
Note : Gravity does not influence the time period of the
spring-mass system, it merely changes the equilibrium
position.
w2 =

Time period of a simple pendulum is independent


of mass, shape and material of bob and it is also
independent of the amplitude of oscillation provided it
is small.
Time period of a simple pendulum depends on L as
T L , so the graph between T and L will be a parabola
while between T2 and L will be a straight line.
Time period of a simple pendulum depends on

T = 2p

1 1
g +
L Re

series and Parallel combination of springs

where Re is the radius of the earth.


Special cases :
If L > > Re, then

Series combination of springs


When two springs are joined in series, the equivalent
stiffness of the combination may be obtained as

6.4 106
Re
= 2p
= 84.6 min
g
9. 8
If L = Re , then

1 1
1
= +
k k1 k2

Parallel combination of springs


When two springs are joined in parallel, the equivalent
stiffness of the combination is given by k = k1 + k2

T = 2p

T = 2p

6.4 106
Re
= 2p
= 60 min
2g
2 9. 8

The simple pendulum having time period of 2 s is called


second pendulum.
If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and lift is
accelerating downwards with an acceleration a, then its
time period is given by
L
g a
If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and lift is
accelerating upwards with an acceleration a, then its
time period is given by
T = 2p

T = 2p

simple Pendulum

The time period of a simple pendulum is given by


T = 2p

L
.
g

where L is the length of the pendulum and g is the


acceleration due to gravity.

acceleration due to gravity as T 1/ g . With


increase in g, T will decrease or vice versa.
If the length of a simple pendulum is comparable with
the radius of earth (Re), then time period T is given by

L
g +a

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and the lift is


moving upwards or downwards with constant velocity v,
then its time period is given by
T = 2p

L
g

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a lift and lift is


freely falling with acceleration g, then its time period
is given by
Physics for you | OctOber 15

39

L
=
gg

T = 2p

(c)

If a simple pendulum is suspended in a carriage which


is accelerating horizontally with an acceleration a, then
its time period is given by
T = 2p

L
2

( g +a )

If a simple pendulum is suspended from the roof of


a trolley which is moving down an inclined plane of
inclination q, then the time period is given by
T = 2p

L
g cos q

If a simple pendulum whose bob is of density r


oscillates in a non-viscous liquid of density s(s < r),
then its time period is given by
T = 2p

L
s
1 r g

SELF CHECK

9. A pendulum made of a uniform wire of cross


sectional area A has time period T. When an
additional mass M is added to its bob, the time
period changes to TM. If the Youngs modulus of
1
the material of the wire is Y then
is equal to
Y
(g = gravitational acceleration)
2
2

(a) 1 TM A (b) 1 T A

T Mg
TM Mg
(c)

T 2 A
T 2 Mg
M
(d)

M 1

Mg
A
T
T

(JEE Main 2015)


10. For a simple pendulum, a graph is plotted between
its kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE)
against its displacement d. Which one of the
following represents these correctly?
(graphs are schematic and not drawn to scale)
E

KE

(a)

E
d

(b)

PE

40

Physics for you | OctOber 15

PE
KE

KE
PE

(d)
d

PE
KE

(JEE Main 2015)

undamped and damped oscillations

Undamped oscillations : When a system oscillates with


a constant amplitude which does not change with time,
its oscillations are called undamped oscillations.
The energy of the system executing undamped
oscillations remains constant and is independent of
time.
The dissipative forces (i.e., frictional or viscous forces)
are not present in the system executing undamped
oscillations.
Damped oscillations : When a system oscillates with
a decreasing amplitude with time, its oscillations are
called damped oscillations.
The energy of the system executing damped oscillations
will go on decreasing with time but the oscillations
of the system remain periodic. The dissipative forces
or damping forces are active in the oscillating system
which are generally the frictional or viscous forces.
The damping force is given by Fd = bv,
where, v is the velocity of the oscillator and b is damping
constant. Negative sign shows that damping force acts
opposite to the velocity at every moment.
The SI unit of b is kg s1.
The differential equation of damped harmonic oscillator
is given by
d 2x
dx
m 2 + b + kx = 0
dt
dt
The displacement of the damped oscillator at any instant
t is given by
x = Ae bt /2m cos(wt + f)
where w is the angular frequency of the damped
oscillator is given by
k
b2

m 4m2
If the damping constant b is small, then w w, where w
is the angular frequency of the undamped oscillator.
The mechanical energy E of the damped oscillator at
any instant t is given by
1
E = kA2e bt /m
2
Maintained oscillations : Due to the damping forces,
the amplitude of oscillator will go on decreasing with
w =

time. If we can feed the energy to the damped oscillatory


system at the same rate at which it is dissipating the
energy, then the amplitude of such oscillations would
become constant. Such oscillations are called maintained
oscillations.
forced oscillations and resonance

Free oscillations : When a system oscillates with


its own natural frequency, without the help of any
external periodic force, its oscillations are called free
oscillations.
Forced or driven oscillations : When a system oscillates
with the help of an external periodic force, other than
its own natural angular frequency, its oscillations are
called forced or driven oscillations.
The differential equation of forced damped harmonic
oscillator is given by
d 2x
dx
+ b + kx = F0 cos w dt
2
dt
dt
where wd is the angular frequency of the external force.
The displacement of the forced damped harmonic
oscillator at any instant t is given by
x = Acos(wdt + f)
F0
where A = 2 2
{m (w w 2d )2 + w 2db 2}1/2
m

F0

( )

wb
m (w 2 w d2 )2 + d
m

1/2

v 0
and tanf =
wd x0
where w is the natural angular frequency of the
oscillator, x0 and v0 are the displacement and velocity
of the oscillator at time t = 0, when the periodic force
is applied.
Special cases :
Case I. For small damping driven frequency is far from
natural frequency
wd2b2 << m(w2 wd2)2
F
\ A=
m(w 2 w d2 )
Case II. When driven frequency is close to natural
frequency
m(w2 wd2) 0
F
\ A=
2p w db

SELF CHECK
11. A simple harmonic oscillator of angular frequency
2 rad s1 is acted upon by an external force F = sint N.
If the oscillator is at rest in its equilibrium position
at t = 0, its position at later times is proportional to
1
1
(a) sin t + sin 2t
(b) sin t + cos 2t
2
2
1
1
(c) cos t sin 2t
(d) sin t sin 2t
2
2
(JEE Main 2015)
12. A pendulum with time period of 1 s is losing energy
due to damping. At certain time its energy is 45 J.
If after completing 15 oscillations, its energy has
become 15 J, its damping constant (in s1) is
1
1
ln 3
(a)
(b)
ln 3
15
30
(c) 2

(d)

1
2

(JEE Main 2015)

Resonance : It is the phenomenon in which a system


is made to oscillate by external force whose frequency
is equal to the natural frequency of the system. At
resonance, the amplitude of the system is maximum. It
is a special case of forced oscillation.
Condition for resonance is = d.
WaVes

A wave is defined as a disturbance which propagates


energy and momentum from one place to the other
without the transport of matter.
Waves can be one, two or three dimensional according
to the number of dimensions in which they propagate
energy. Wave moving along strings are one dimensional,
surface waves or ripples on water are two dimensional,
while sound or light waves travelling radially out from
a point source are three dimensional waves. Waves are
of two types :
Mechanical waves : The waves which require some
material medium for their propagation are called
mechanical waves. Sound waves, seismic waves, waves
in strings and springs are examples of mechanical waves.
Elasticity and inertia of medium play an important role
in propagation of mechanical waves.
Non-mechanical waves : The waves which do not
require any material medium for their propagation
are called non-mechanical waves. All electromagnetic
Physics for you | OctOber 15

41

waves such as g-rays, X-rays, radio waves, light etc. are


non-mechanical.
Any wave whether mechanical or non-mechanical, can
be divided into two groups :
Longitudinal waves : Particles of the medium oscillate
in the direction of wave motion. They are propagated
as compression and rarefaction and are also known as
pressure waves. Waves in springs and sound waves in
air are example of longitudinal waves.
Transverse waves : In this case the oscillations are at
right angles to the direction of wave motion or energy
propagation. Waves in strings are transverse. These are
propagated as crests and troughs.
A transverse wave travels through a medium in the
form of crests and troughs.
A longitudinal wave travels through a medium in the
form of compressions and rarefactions. At places of
compression the density and pressure are maximum,
while at places of rarefaction those are minimum.
Transverse waves can be polarised whereas longitudinal
waves cannot be polarised. Hence, transverse or
longitudinal nature of a wave can be decided on the
basis of polarisation.
KEY POINT
Transverse waves can propagate only in medium
with shear modulus of elasticity such as solids and
strings, but not in fluids.
Longitudinal waves need bulk modulus of elasticity
and therefore possible in all media, solids, liquids
and gases.
Ultrasonic waves in air produced by a vibrating quartz
crystal are longitudinal waves.
Waves produced in a cylinder containing a liquid
by moving its piston back and forth are longitudinal
waves.
In case of a vibrating tuning fork the waves in the prongs
are transverse while in the stem are longitudinal.
Some waves in nature are neither transverse nor
longitudinal but a combination of the two. e.g. waves
produced by a motorboat sailing in water is a combination
of both longitudinal and transverse waves.
Various terms related to Wave motion

Amplitude : It is defined as the maximum displacement


of an oscillating particle of the medium from the mean
position. It is denoted by symbol A.
Wavelength : It is defined as the distance travelled by
the wave during the time, the particle of the medium
completes one oscillation about its mean position.
42

Physics for you | OctOber 15

It may also be defined as the distance between two


consecutive points in the same phase of wave motion. It
is denoted by symbol l.
In case of transverse wave
l = distance between two consecutive crests and
troughs.
In case of longitudinal waves
l = distance between two consecutive compressions
and rarefactions.
Time period : It is defined as the time taken by a particle
to complete one oscillation about its mean position. It is
denoted by symbol T.
Frequency : It is defined as the number of oscillations
made by the particle in one second. It is denoted by
symbol u.
1
u=
T
Wave speed or speed of a wave : It is defined as the
distance travelled by the wave in one second. It is
denoted by symbol v and is given by
v = ul
....(i)
As the speed of a wave is related to its wavelength and
frequency by the equation (i) but it is determined by the
properties of the medium.
Intensity of a wave : It is defined as the amount of
energy flow per unit area per unit time in a direction
perpendicular to the propagation of wave. It is denoted
by the symbol I and is given by
I = 2p2u2A2rv
where u is the frequency, A is the amplitude, v is the
velocity of the wave, r is the density of the medium.
The SI unit of intensity is W m2.
Dimensional formula of intensity of a wave is
[ML0T3].
Energy density : It is defined as amount of energy flow
per unit volume. It is denoted by symbol u and is given
by
u = 2p2A2u2r
where u is the frequency, A is the amplitude and r is the
density of the medium.
The SI unit of energy density is joule/m3.
Dimensional formula of energy density is [ML1T2].
equation of Plane Progressive Wave

Equation of plane progressive wave travelling along the


positive direction of x-axis is given by
y (x, t) = Asin(wt kx + f)
where y = displacement of a particle at time t
A = amplitude of the wave,

1
T
k = propagation constant or angular wave number
2p
=
l
f = phase constant or initial phase.
Phase of the wave is the argument (wt kx + f) of the
oscillatory term sin(wt kx + f).
w
Wave velocity, v = .
k
It depends only on the nature of the medium in which
the wave propagates.
dy
Slope of the wave,
= kA cos(wt kx + f)
dx
Particle velocity,
dy
= wA cos(kx wt + f)
vparticle =
dt
w dy
=
k dx
or vparticle = wave velocity slope of the wave
d2y
Particle acceleration, a = 2 = w 2 y
dt
Equation of plane progressive wave travelling along
negative direction of x-axis is given by
y = Asin(wt + kx + f)
The differential equation of one dimensional progressive
wave is given by
w = angular frequency = 2pu = 2p

2
2 y
2 y
=
v
t 2
x 2

relationship Between Phase


difference and time difference

difference, Path

2p
path difference
l
2p
Phase difference =
time difference
T
A path difference of l corresponds to a phase difference
of 2p radian.
To calculate phase difference between two waves, the
equation of both waves must be in sine form or in
cosine form.
Phase difference =

displacement and Pressure Waves

A longitudinal sound wave can be expressed either in


terms of the longitudinal displacement of the particles
of the medium or in terms of excess pressures produced
due to compression or rarefection. The first type is
called the displacement wave and the second type the
pressure wave.
Equation of displacement wave

y = Asin(wt kx)
Equation of pressure wave
P = Pmcos(wt kx)
Here Pm = amplitude of pressure wave.
speed of transverse Wave

Speed of a transverse waves on a stretched string is


given by
T
v=
m
where T is the tension in the string, m is the mass per
unit length of the string called linear density.
Speed of a transverse wave in a solid is given by
h
v=
r
where h is the modulus of rigidity, r is the density of a
solid.
speed of Longitudinal Wave

Speed of a longitudinal wave in a medium is given by


E
v=
r
where E is the modulus of elasticity and r is the density
of the medium.
Speed of a longitudinal wave in a metallic bar is given
by
Y
v=
r
where Y is the Youngs modulus and r is the density of
material of a metallic bar.
Speed of a longitudinal wave in a fluid is given by
B
v=
r
where B is the bulk modulus and r is density of a fluid.
Newtons formula : Newton assumed that propagation
of sound wave in gas is an isothermal process. Therefore,
according to Newton, speed of sound in gas is given by

P
r
where P is the pressure of the gas and r is the density
of the gas.
According to the Newtons formula, the speed of sound
in air at N.T.P. is 280 m s1. But the experimental
value of the speed of sound in air at N.T.P. is
332 m s1. Newton could not explain this large difference.
Newtons formula was corrected by Laplace.
Laplaces correction : Laplace assumed that propagation
of sound wave in gas is an adiabatic process. Therefore,
v=

Physics for you | OctOber 15

43

according to Laplace, speed of sound in a gas is given


by
gP
v=
r
According to Laplaces correction the speed of sound in
air at N.T.P. is 331.3 m s1. This value agrees fairly well
with the experimental values of the speed of sound in
air at N.T.P.
Speed of sound in a gas, v =

g
v .
3 rms

Principle of superposition of Waves

When two or more waves travel in a medium in such


a way that each wave represents its separate motion
individually, then the resultant displacement of particle
of the medium at any time is equal to the vector sum
of the individual displacements. This phenomenon is
known as principle of superposition of waves.
If y1 , y2 , y3 , ...., yn are the displacements at a point due
to the n waves, then the resultant displacement at that
point is given by
y = y1 + y 2 + y 3 + .... + y n
The superposition of waves give rise to following three
phenomena :
Interference
Stationary waves
Beats
reflection of Waves

The reflection of waves at a boundary or interface


between two media occurs as follows :
A travelling wave, at a rigid boundary or a closed end
is reflected with a phase reversal of p but the reflection
at an open boundary takes place without any phase
change.
Let the incident wave be represented by
yi = Asin(wt kx)
For reflection at a rigid boundary, the reflected wave is
represented by
yr = Asin (wt + kx + p) = Asin(wt + kx)
For reflection at an open boundary, the reflected wave
is represented by
yr = A sin(wt + kx)
An echo can be cited as an example of reflection of
sound from a distant object such as hill or cliff. If there
is a sound reflector at a distance d from the source, the
time interval between original sound and its echo at the
site of source will be
44

Physics for you | OctOber 15

d d 2d
t= + = .
v v v
Now as persistence of ear is (1/10) s, echo of a sharp or
momentary sound (such as clap) will be heard if
1
2d 1
v
t>
or
> , i.e., d >
10
v 10
20
If a person standing between two parallel hills fires a
gun and hears the first echo after t1 s, the second echo
after t2 s, and v is the velocity of sound, then the distance
between the two hills is given by
s1 + s2 = (vt1/2) + (vt2/2) = [v(t1 + t2)/2]
KEY POINT
The concept of rarer and denser media for a wave

is through the velocity of propagation and not


density. Lesser the velocity, denser is the medium
and vice versa.
Interference of waves : When two waves of same
frequency or wavelength having constant phase
difference travelling with same speed in the same
direction superpose on each other, they give rise to an
effect called interference of waves.
Condition for constructive interference
Phase difference = 2n where n = 0, 1, 2, ...
l
Path difference =
f = nl where n = 0, 1, 2,..
2p
Condition for destructive interference
Phase difference = (2n + 1) where n = 0, 1, 2, ...
l
1
Path difference =
f = n + l .
2p
2
where n = 0, 1, 2 ....
KEY POINT
The phenomenon of interference is based on

conservation of energy.

stationary Waves

When two waves of same frequency, wavelength and


amplitude travel in opposite directions at same speed,
their superposition gives rise to a new type of waves
known as stationary waves or standing waves. Energy
does not propagate in this type of wave hence, it is
named as stationary wave.
Stationary waves are of two types
Longitudinal stationary waves
Transverse stationary waves
Longitudinal stationary waves : It is produced in organ
pipe and resonance tube.

Transverse stationary waves : It is produced in stretched


string and sonometer.
Equation of a stationary wave is given by
y = (2Asinkx)coswt
Stationary waves are characterised by nodes and
antinodes.
Nodes are the points for which the amplitude is
minimum whereas antinodes are the points for which
the amplitude is maximum.
In a stationary wave nodes and antinodes are formed
alternately and distance between them is l/4.
At antinodes, displacement and velocity is maximum.
At nodes, displacement and velocity is zero.
Distance between two consecutive nodes or antinodes
is l/2. Distance between a node and adjoining antinode
is l/4.
Vibrations in a stretched string of Length l fixed at
Both ends

Speed of waves in a stretched string is given by


T
v=
m
where T is the tension of the string, m is the mass per
unit length of the string.
Fundamental mode or first mode,
l1 = 2L
Fundamental frequency
v
v
1 T
u1 = =
=
l1 2L 2L m
This frequency is called first harmonic.
Second mode, l2 = L
Frequency u2 =

v v
= = 2u1
l2 L

This frequency is called second harmonic or first


overtone.
Third mode, l = 2L
3
3
Frequency
v 3v
u3 =
=
= 3u1
l 3 2L
This frequency is called
third harmonic or
second overtone.

For the nth mode, l = 2L


n
n
th
Frequency of n mode

un =

v nv
n T
where n = 1, 2, 3, ....
=
= nu1 =
l n 2L
2L m

th
th
This frequency is called n harmonic or (n 1)
overtone.
p T
Note : In general, u p =
,
2L m
where p = number of loops.
Laws of vibrating stretched string :
The fundamental frequency of a stretched string is given
1 T
by u =
.
2L m

1
when T and m are constants.
L
Law of tension, u T when L and are
constants
1
Law of mass, u
when L and T are constants
m
Note : If r is the density of the material of the string and
D is the diameter of string, then mass per unit length,

Law of length, u

pD 2r .
4
1
4T
1
T
=
.
\ u=
2L pD 2r LD pr
m=

Laws of vibration of stretched string can be verified


experimentally by using a sonometer.
meldes experiment

In longitudinal mode, the prongs of the tuning fork


vibrate in a direction parallel to the length of string.
In the longitudinal mode when fork completes one
vibration, the string completes only half the vibration.
So, the frequency of the string is one half of that of the
fork.
uL =

p T
L m

In transverse mode, the prongs of the tuning fork vibrate


in a direction perpendicular to the length of the string.
In the transverse mode of vibration when fork completes
one vibration, the string also completes one vibration.
So, the frequency of the string is equal to the frequency
of the fork.
uT =

u
p T
= L.
2L m
2

The number of loops in the transverse mode is twice


that in the longitudinal mode.
Physics for you | OctOber 15

45

James Clerk Maxwell made great strides in helping to understand electromagnetism and

BRAIN

produced a unified model of electromagnetism. His research in kinematics and electricity laid

ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVE

foundation for modern quantum mechanics and special relativity.

James Clerk Maxwell

Displacement
current
It is the current which is
produced when electric field
and hence electric flux
changes with time.

Amperes
circuital law
The line integral of magnetic
field around any closed path in
vacuum is equal to m0 times the
total current passing through
that closed path.

Properties of
electromagnetic waves

Do not carry any charge.


Do not deflected by electric and magnetic
field.
l Travel with speed of light in vacuum.
l Frequency does not change when it goes from
one medium to another, but its wavelength
changes.
l Transverse in nature.
l Do not require any material
medium for propagation
l

ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVE

This law implies the fact that not


only a conduction current but a
displacement current, associated with a
changing electric field, also produces a
magnetic field

An electromagnetic wave is a wave radiated by an


accelerated charge as coupled electric and magnetic field
oscillating perpendicular to each other and to the direction of
propagation of wave.
Y

Maxwells four
equations

X
B

Direction of propagation

Magnitude of

and

are related as

Speed of an electromagnetic wave in free


space is given by

Electromagnetic
spectrum
The orderly distribution of
e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w av e s i n
accordance with their
wavelength or frequency
into distinct groups.
l

Modified
Amperes law

Radiowaves
Used in radio
communication
.

Microwaves
Radar communication
Analysis of fine details
of molecular and
atomic structure.

l
l

Infrared
Useful for elucidating
molecular structure.
Us e f u l f o r h a z e
photography.

Visible light
Detected by stimulating
nerve endings of human
retina.
Can cause chemical
reaction.

Radio

Microwave

Infrared

Visible

102 to 101

101 to 103

103 to 106

8 107 to 4 107

Ultraviolet
Can cause many chemical
reactions, e.g., the tanning of
the human skin.
Ionize atoms in atmosphere,
resulting in the ionosphere.

l
l
l
l

Ultraviolet
3.5 107 to 1.5 107

X-rays
Penetrate matter (e.g., radiography)
Ionize gases
Cause fluorescence
Cause photoelectric emission from
metals

X-rays
108 to 1011

l
l

Gamma rays
In the treatment of
cancer and tumours
To produce nuclear
reaction

Gamma rays
1010 to 1014

Vibrations of A closed organ Pipe

In a closed organ pipe, one end is closed and other end


is open.
In a closed organ pipe, the closed end is always a node
while the open end is always an antinode.
Fundamental mode,
or first mode 1 = 4L
where L is the length
of the pipe.
Fundamental frequency
1 =

v
v
=
1 4L

where v is the speed of sound in air.


This frequency is called first harmonic.
Second mode,
4L
3
Frequency,
2 =

2 =

v 3v
=
= 31
2 4L

This frequency is called


third harmonic or 1st overtone.
Third mode, = 4L
3
5
Frequency,
v 5v
=
= 51
3 4L
This frequency is
called fifth harmonic
or second overtone.
1 : 2 : 3 = 1 : 3 : 5
Only odd harmonics are present.
3 =

For nth mode, n =


Frequency, n =

4L
(2n 1)

v v(2n 1)
=
= (2n 1)1
n
4L

where n = 1, 2, 3, ....
This frequency is called (2n 1)th harmonic
or (n 1)th overtone.
Vibration of An open organ Pipe

In an open organ pipe, both ends are open.


In an open organ pipe, at both ends there will be
antinodes.
48

Physics for you | OctOber 15

Fundamental mode
or first mode, 1 = 2L
where L is the length of
the pipe.
Fundamental frequency
v
v
1 = =
1 2L
where v is the speed of sound in air.
This frequency is called first harmonic.
Second mode, 2 = L
Frequency,
v v
2 =
= = 21
2 L
This frequency is called
second harmonic or first overtone.
2L
Third mode, 3 =
3
v 3v
Frequency, 3 =
=
= 31
3 2L
This frequency is
called third harmonic
or second overtone.
1 : 2 : 3 = 1 : 2 : 3
Hence in open pipe all harmonics are present, whereas
in a closed pipe only odd harmonics are present.
For nth mode, n = 2L
n
v nv
Frequency, n =
=
= n1 , where n = 1, 2, ...
n 2L

This frequency is called nth harmonic or (n 1)th


overtone.
The fundamental frequency of an open organ pipe is
twice that of a closed organ pipe of the same length.
If an open pipe of length L is half submerged in water,
it will become a closed organ pipe of length half that
of open pipe as shown in figures (a) and (b). So its
frequency will become
v
v
vC =
=
= vO .
4(L / 2) 2L
i.e., equal to that of open pipe, i.e., frequency will remain
unchanged.

End correction

The antinode at the open end of a pipe is not formed


exactly at the open end but a little outside. This is called
the end correction. This is denoted by e and is given by
e = 0.6r
where r is the radius of the pipe. If L is the length of pipe
then for closed pipe L is replaced by L + e while for open
pipe L is replaced by L + 2e.
Due to the end correction
the fundamental frequency
of a closed organ pipe is
given by
v
v
C =
=
4[L + e] 4[L + 0.6r]
Due to the end correction, the fundamental frequency
of an open pipe is given by
v
v
O =
=
2[L + 2e] 2[L + 1.2r]
Speed of sound in air at room
temperature using resonance tube
is given by
v = 2(L2 L1)
where,
= frequency of the tuning fork
L1 = first resonance length
L2 = second resonance length
End correction e =

L2 3L1
2

SELF CHECK

13. A pipe of length 85 cm is closed from one end. Find


the number of possible natural oscillations of air
column in the pipe whose frequencies lie below
1250 Hz. The velocity of sound in air is 340 m s1.
(a) 4
(b) 12
(c) 8
(d) 6
(JEE Main 2014)
Beats

When two waves of nearly equal (but not exactly equal)


frequencies travelling with same speed in the same
direction superpose on each other, they give rise to
beats.
Beat frequency : It is defined as number of beats heard
per second.
Beat frequency = no. of beats/sec = (1 2)
= difference in frequencies.

Applications of the Phenomenon of Beats


The phenomenon of beats is used to determine
frequency of a tuning fork.
The phenomenon of beats is used in tuning of
musical instruments.
The phenomenon of beats is used in detecting the
presence of dangerous gases in mines.
The phenomenon of beats is used in radio reception
in many ways.
Tuning fork is a source of sound of single frequency and
frequency of a tuning fork of arm length L and thickness
d in the direction of vibration is given by

d Y
Y
d
= 2 v = 2
v = r
r
L
L

where Y is the Youngs modulus and r is the density of


the material of the tuning fork.
KEY POINT
Loading a tuning fork with wax decreases its

frequency while filing a tuning fork increases its


frequency.

Dopplers Effect

When a source of sound or an observer or both are


in relative motion, there is an apparent change in the
frequency of sound as heard by the observer. This
phenomenon is known as Dopplers effect.
According to Dopplers effect the apparent frequency
heard by the observer is given by
v vo
=

v vs
where vs, vo and v are the speed of source, observer and
sound relative to air.
The upper sign on vs (or vo) is used when source
(observer) moves towards the observer (source) while
lower sign is used when it moves away.
If the wind blows with
speed vw in the direction
of sound, v is replaced by v
+ vw in the above equation.
If the wind blows with
speed vw in a direction
opposite to that of sound,
v is replaced by v vw in
the above equation.
Physics for you | OctOber 15

49

When a source is revolving in a circle and observer is


stationary outside, as shown in the figure.
v
At A, max =
v vs
v
At C, min =
v + vs
Beat frequency = max min.
There is no Doppler effect at B and D.
When an observer is revolving in a circle with a
stationary source outside, as shown in the figure.

(v + vo )
v
(v vo )
At C, min =
v
Beat frequency = max min.
There is no Doppler effect at B and D.
If source and observer both are stationary i.e.
vs = vo = 0 then = . Similarly, if source and observer
both are moving in the same direction with same speed,
At A, max =

i.e. vs = vo, then = . Thus it is clear that if there is


no relative motion between the source and the observer
then there is no Doppler effect.

SELF CHECK
14. A train is moving on a straight track with speed
20 m s1. It is blowing its whistle at the frequency of
1000 Hz. The percentage change in the frequency
heard by a person standing near the track as the
train passes him is (speed of sound = 320 m s1)
close to
(a) 18%
(b) 24%
(c) 6%
(d) 12%
(JEE Main 2015)
1
15. A bat moving at 10 m s towards a wall sends a
sound signal of 8000 Hz towards it. On reflection it
hears a sound of frequency f. The value of f in Hz is
close to (speed of sound = 320 m s1)
(a) 8258
(b) 8516
(c) 8000
(d) 8424
(JEE Main 2015)
AnswEr kEys (sElf chEck)
1. (a)
6. (b)
11. (d)

Physics for you | OctOber 15

3. (c)
8. (c)
13. (d)

4. (b)
9. (c)
14. (d)

5. (a)
10. (d)
15. (b)
nn

PerPetual Motion Machine

ave you ever heard


of a perpetual motion
machine? A perpetual motion machine is
a hypothetical device that would produce useful
energy out of nothing. This is generally accepted as being
impossible, according to laws of physics. In particular, perpetual
motion machines would violate either the first or the second law of
thermodynamics.
A perpetual motion machine that violates the first law of thermodynamics
is called a machine of the first kind. In general, the first law says that you
can never get something for nothing. This means that without energy
input, there can be no change in internal energy, and without a change
in internal energy, there can be no work output. Machines of the first
kind typically use no fuel or make their own fuel faster than they use
it. If this type of machine appears to work, look for some hidden
source of energy.
A machine of the second kind does not attempt to make energy
out of nothing. Instead, it tries to extract either random
molecular motion into useful work or useful energy from
some degraded source, such as outgoing radiant energy.
The second law of thermodynamics says this cannot
happen any more than rocks can roll uphill
on their own. This just does not
happen.

50

2. (a)
7. (c)
12. (a)

1. A gas is suddenly compressed to 1/4th of its original


volume. Find the rise in temperature, the original
temperature being 27C and g = 1.5.
(a) 200 K (b) 300 K (c) 500 K (d) 600 K
2. The bottom of a dip on a road has a radius R. A
rickshaw of mass M, left a little away from the bottom,
oscillates about this dip. Then the expression for the
time period of oscillation is
R2
(a) T = 2p
g

g
(b) T = 2p
R

R
(d) T = 2p gR
g
3. A cyclic process ABCA is shown in V T diagram,
is performed with a constant mass of an ideal gas.
Which of the following graphs in figure represents
the corresponding process on a P V diagram.
(c) T = 2p

O
A

(a) P

(b) P

B
C

A
B

(c) P

C
V

(d) P

6. Two identical containers A and B with frictionless


pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same
temperature and the same volume V. The mass of
gas in A is mA and that in B is mB. The gases in each
cylinder are now allowed to expand isothermally to
the same final volume 2V. The changes in pressure in
A and B are found to be DP and 1.5 DP respectively.
Then
(a) 4 mA = 9 mB
(b) 2 mA = 3 mA
(c) 3 mA = 2 mB
(d) 9 mA = 4 mB
7. A person carrying a whistle emitting continuously
a note of 272 Hz is running towards a reflecting
surface with a speed of 18 km h1. The speed of
sound in air is 345 m s1. The number of beats heard
by him is
(a) 4
(b) 6
(c) 8
(d) 3

5. Two particles move parallel to x-axis about the


origin with the same amplitude and frequency. At a
certain instant, they are found at distance r/3 from
the origin on opposite sides but their velocities
are found to be in the same direction. The phase
difference between the two particles is
(a) cos1(2/3)
(b) cos1 (4/9)
1
(c) cos (7/9)
(d) cos1 (5/9)

C
V

4. Two uniform wires are vibrating simultaneously


in their fundamental notes. The tensions, lengths,
diameters and the densities of the two wires are in
the ratio 8 : 1, 36 : 35, 4 : 1 and 1 : 2 respectively. If
the note of the higher pitch has a frequency 360 Hz,
the number of beats produced per second is
(a) 5
(b) 15
(c) 10
(d) 20

8. Two balloons are filled, one with pure He gas


and other by air, respectively. If the pressure and
temperature of these balloons are same, then the
number of molecules per unit volume is
(a) more in the He filled balloon
(b) same in both balloons
(c) more in air filled balloon
(d) in the ratio of 1 : 4
9. Equations of a stationary wave and a travelling wave
are y1 = asin kx coswt and y2 = asin (wt kx). The phase
p
3p
difference between two points x1 = and x 2 =
3k
2k
are f1 and f2 respectively for the two waves. The
ratio f1/f2 is
(a) 1
(c)

3
4

5
6
6
(d)
7

(b)

Physics for you | OctOber 15

51

10. One kg of coal generates 0.7 104 kcal of heat during


combustion. Assuming that 2% of this energy is
utilized for mechanical purpose, find the mass of
coal required per hour for running a 10 metric hp
engine. (1 metric hp = 735.5 W, 1 cal = 4.186 J)
(a) 35.2 kg
(b) 45.2 kg
(c) 73.5 kg
(d) 63.5 kg
11. An ideal gas has a specific heat at a constant
pressure, CP = (5/2)R. The gas is kept in a closed
vessel of volume 0.0083 m3 at a temperature of
300 K and a pressure of 1.6 106 N m2. If
2.49 104 J amount of heat energy is supplied to the
gas. Find the final pressure of the gas.
(a) 2.4 106 N m2 (b) 3.6 106 N m2
(c) 4.2 106 N m2 (d) 8.3 106 N m2
12. An aeroplane is going towards east at a speed of
510 km h1 at a height of 2000 m. At a certain
instant, the sound of the plane heard by an observer
on ground appears to come from a point vertically
above him. Where is the plane at this instant? Speed
of the sound in air = 340 m s1.
(a) 425 m (b) 530 m (c) 833 m (d) 920 m
13. The displacement y of a wave travelling in
x-direction is given by
p

y = 10 4 sin 600t 2x +
3
where x and y are in metres and t is in second. The
speed of wave motion in m s1 is
(a) 300 (b) 600
(c) 1200 (d) 200
14. Starting from the origin, a body oscillates simple
harmonically with a period of 2 s. After what time
will its kinetic energy be 75% of the total energy?
1
1
1
1
s (b) s
(a)
(c) s
(d) s
6
3
4
12
15. The displacement of a particle varies with time as
x = 12sinwt 16sin3wt (in cm). If its motion is
simple harmonic then its maximum acceleration is
2
(a) 12w2
(b) 192 w
(c) 36 w2
(d) 144 w2

18. A certain simple harmonic vibrator of mass


0.1 kg has a total energy of 10 J. Its displacement
from the mean position is 1 cm when it has equal
kinetic and potential energies. The amplitude A and
frequency u of vibration of the vibrator are
500
(a) A = 2 cm, u =
Hz
p
1000
(b) A = 2 cm, u =
Hz
p
1
500
(c) A =
cm, u =
Hz
p
2
1
1000
cm, u =
Hz
(d) A =
p
2
19. A wave travelling along the x-axis is described
by the equation y(x, t) = 0.005 cos(ax bt). If the
wavelength and the time period of the wave are
0.08 m and 2.0 s respectively, then a and b in
appropriate units are
p
(a) a = 12.50 p, b =
2. 0
(b) a = 25.00 p, b = p
0.08
2. 0
(c) a =
, b=
p
p
0.04
1. 0
, b=
(d) a =
p
p
20. A Carnot engine whose sink is at 300 K has
an efficiency of 40%. By how much should the
temperature of source be increased so as to increase
its efficiency by 50% of original efficiency?
(a) 380 K
(b) 275 K
(c) 325 K
(d) 250 K
21. An air column in a pipe which is closed at one end,
will be in resonance with the vibrating body of
frequency 166 Hz, if the length of the air column is
(a) 0.5 m
(b) 1.0 m
(c) 1.5 m
(d) 2.0 m

16. A gaseous mixture consists of 16 g of helium and


16 g of oxygen. The ratio CP /CV of the mixture is
(a) 1.4
(b) 1.54 (c) 1.59 (d) 1.62

22. A cylinder containing one gram mole of the gas was


compressed adiabatically until its temperature rises
from 27C to 97C. The heat produced in the gas
(g = 1.5) is
(a) 250.6 cal
(b) 276.7 cal
(c) 298.5 cal
(d) 320 cal

17. A gas expands with temperature according to the


relation V = KT2/3. Calculate work done when the
temperature changes by 60 K?
(a) 10R (b) 30R (c) 40R
(d) 20R

23. Heat is supplied to a diatomic gas at constant


pressure. The ratio of DQ : DU : DW is
(a) 5 : 3 : 2
(b) 7 : 5 : 2
(c) 2 : 3 : 5
(d) 2 : 5 : 7

52

Physics for you | OctOber 15

24. Suppose ideal gas equation follows VP3= constant.


Initial temperature and volume of gas are
T and V respectively. If gas expands to 27V, then its
temperature will become
(a) T
(b) 9T
T
(c) 27T
(d)
9
25. Mean free path of a gas molecule is
(a) inversely proportional to number of molecules
per unit volume
(b) inversely proportional to diameter of the
molecule
(c) directly proportional to the square root of the
absolute temperature
(d) directly proportional to the molecular mass
26. The amplitude of a damped oscillator becomes half
in one minute. The amplitude after 4 minutes will
1
times the original, then x is
be
x
(a) 32
(b) 24
4
(c) 3
(d) 23
27. The efficiency of Carnots heat engine is 0.5 when
the temperature of the source is T1 and that of sink
is T2. The efficiency of another Carnots heat engine
is also 0.5. The temperature of source and sink of
the second engine are respectively
T
(a) 2T1, 2T2
(b) 2T1, 2
2
(c) T1 + 5, T2 5
(d) T1 + 10, T2 10
28. What is the change in internal energy of one mole
of a gas, when volume changes from V to 2V at
constant pressure P?
R
(b) PV
(g 1)
gPV
PV
(c) (g 1)
(d) (g 1)
where g is the ratio of specific heats of the gas at
constant pressure to that at constant volume.
(a)

29. A source of sound of frequency 600 Hz is placed


inside water. The speed of sound in water is
1500 m s1 and in air it is 300 m s1. The frequency
of sound recorded by an observer who is standing
in air is
(a) 200 Hz
(b) 3000 Hz
(c) 120 Hz
(d) 600 Hz

30. Match the Column I with Column II.


Column I

Column II

Molar specific heat of (i)


helium gas at constant
volume (when R is
gas constant)

3R

Molar specific heat (ii)


of oxygen at constant
volume
Molar specific heat (iii)
of carbondioxide at
constant volume

7
R
2

3
R
2

Molar specific heat of (iv)


hydrogen at constant
pressure
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

5
R
2

A (i), B (ii), C (iii), D (iv)


A (ii), B (iii), C (iv), D (i)
A (iii), B (iv), C (i), D (ii)
A (iv), B (i), C (ii), D (iii)
SolutionS

1. (b) : Let the initial volume, V1 = V


Final volume, V2 = V/4
Here, initial temperature,
T1 = 27C = (273 + 27) K = 300 K and g = 1.5
Let T2 be the temperature after compression.
Since the change in adiabatic,
T1V1g1 = T2V2g1
g 1

1. 5 1

V
V
T2 = T1 1 = 300
V /4
V2
= (300 K)(4)1/2 = (300 K) 2 = 600 K
Rise in temperature = T2 T1 = 600 K 300 K
= 300 K

or

2. (c) : Let R be the radius of the dip and C be its


centre. As shown in figure, let the rickshaw of mass
M be at A at any instant.
C

R
Road

Mg sin
A

Mg

Mg

cos

This case is similar to that of a simple pendulum.


Physics for you | OctOber 15

53

The force that produces oscillations in the rickshaw


is F = Mg sin q.
If q is small and measured in rad, sin q q and
F Mg q
Displacement of the rickshaw, i.e., OA = Rq.
Force constant,
force
F
Mg q Mg
k=
=
=
=
displacement OA
Rq
R
Inertia factor = M
inertia factor
Time period, T = 2p
spring factor
or

T = 2p

M
Mg / R

or T = 2p

3. (a) : From A to B, V T or

R
g

V
= constant
T

PV
= R = constant \ P is constant
T
(A B is a straight line parallel to volume axis)
From B to C, volume V is constant (B C is a straight
line parallel to pressure axis).
From C to A, temperature T is constant.
\ PV = constant (Boyles Law)
1
Thus, C A is a curve such that P .
V
T 8 l 36 d1 4 1 1
= ; =
4. (c) : Here, 1 = , 1 =
,
T2 1 l2 35 d2 1 2 2
As

u2 = 360 Hz, u2 = ?
l d T2 1
u
Now, 2 = 1 1
u1 l2 d2 2 T1
u2 36 4 1 1 36
=
=
u1 35 1 8 2 35
So, u2 > u1. When u2 = 360 Hz, u1 = 350 Hz
Number of beats per second = u2 u1 = 360 350
= 10
\

5. (c) : Let f be the phase difference between two


waves. Then
x1 = r sin wt
...(i) and x2 = r sin (wt + f) ...(ii)
r
1
Given that = r sin wt or sin wt =
...(iii)
3
3
r
and = r sin (wt + f) or sin (wt + f) = 1 / 3
3
or sin wt cos f + cos wt sin f = 1/3
1
1
or
cos f + (1 1 / 9) sin f =
3
3
7
On solving, we get cos f = 1 or
9
and f = p or cos1 (7/9)
54

Physics for you | OctOber 15

Differentiating (i) and (ii), we get


v1 = r w cos wt and v2 = rw cos (wt + f)
If we put f = p, we find that v1 and v2 are of opposite
signs. So, f = p is not true as per question.
Hence f = cos1(7/9).
6. (c) : As the expansion of gases is isothermal,
1
therefore, T = constant and P .
V
Volume of gas is increasing, pressure would
decrease.
In container A
DP = (PA)i (PA)f
n RT nART nART
...(i)
= A

=
V
2V
2V
In container B
1.5 DP = (PB)i (PB)f
n RT nBRT nBRT
...(ii)
= B

=
V
2V
2V
From (i) and (ii)
DP
2
m
nA
=
=
\ n m
As n =
M
nB 1.5 DP 3
mA nA 2
=
=
or 3 mA = 2 mB
mB n B 3
7. (c) : Original frequency of whistle, u = 272 Hz.
Apparent frequency of whistle striking the wall
(listener) when person (source) is moving towards
the wall with velocity vs = 18 km h1 = 5 m s1 is
v
345
(i)
u =
u=
272
v vs
345 5
On reflection, wall acts as source and person act as
listener moving towards the source. Therefore,
v + vL
(345 + 5) 345
u =
u =

272 = 280
v
345
340
\ No. of beats per second = u u = 280 272 = 8
8. (b) : Assuming the balloons have the same volume,
as PV = nRT, if P, V and T are the same, n, the
number of moles present will be the same, whether
it is He or air. Hence, number of molecules per
unit volume will be same in both the balloons.
9. (d) : Equation of a stationary wave is
y1 = asinkx coswt
and equation of progressive wave is
y2 = asin(wt kx)
= a(sinwt coskx coswt sinkx)
p
3p
At x1 = and x 2 =
3k
2k
sin kx1 or sin kx2 is zero.

\ neither x1 nor x2 is node.


3p p 7p
Dx = x 2 x1 =
=
2k 3k 6k
7p
2p
p
As Dx = , therefore,
> Dx > .
6k
k
k
l
2p
But
= l. So, l > Dx > 2 .
k
In case of a stationary wave, phase difference
between any two points is either zero or p.
7p 7
\ f1 = p and f 2 = kDx = k
= p
6k 6
f1
p 6
=
=
f2 7
7
p
6
10. (b) : Power of the engine = 10 metric hp
= (10 735.5) W = 7355 W
Work required to run the engine for one hour
= 7355 3600 J
Amount of heat required
7355 3600 J
=
= 6325 kcal
4.186 Jcal 1
\

Since 2% (i.e., 2/100) of the heat of combustion of


coal is used for mechanical purpose and one kg of
coal generates 0.7 104 kcal, mass of coal required
to run the engine for one hour
6325 kcal
100
=

= 45.2 kg
4
1
2
0.7 10 kcal kg
(As 2/100 = output/input, input = output 100/2)
11. (b) : Given,
P = 1.6 106 N m2, V = 0.0083 m3, T = 300 K
According to gas equation, PV = nRT
6
PV (1.6 10 )(0.0083) 16
or n =
=
=
RT
8.3 300
3
5
3
RR=
R
As CP CV = R, CV = CP R =
2
2
Let dT be the rise in temperature when 2.49 104 J
of heat energy is supplied to the gas at constant
volume.
So, 2.49 104 = nCVdT
2.49 10 4
2.49 10 4 J
or dT =
K = 375 K
=
8 8. 3
(16 / 3) (3 / 2)R

()

Final temperature of the gas = T + dT


= (300 + 375)K = 675 K
Since the gas is heated at constant volume,

()

P T
=
P T

6
2
PT (1.6 10 N m )(675 K)
=
T
300 K
= 3.6 106 N m2
12. (c) : Let O be the observer and A be the position of
plane vertically above him. So, AO = 2000 m. The
sound waves that reach the observer are emitted
when the plane is at A. During the time sound
waves travel from A to O (with velocity v), the
plane moves eastwards through a distance AB with
vp
B
A
velocity vp,
AO
AB
\
=
v
vp
2000 m v
vp
or AB = AO
v

or

P =

But vp = 510 km h1
O
= 510 (5/18) m s1 = (425/3) m s1,
and v = 340 m s1
Thus,
(425 / 3) ms 1 2500
=
AB = (2000 m)
m = 833 m
1
3

340 ms
p

4
13. (a) : Here, y = 10 sin 600t 2x +
3
Compare it with the standard equation of a
travelling wave
y = A sin 2pt 2px + f
T

l
2p
2p
p
= 600,T =
=
s
T
600 300
2p
2p
= +2, l =
=pm
l
2
l
p
v= =
= 300 m s 1
T p / 300
75
75 1 2 2
E=
ma w
100
100 2
1 2 2
75 1 2 2
\
ma w cos 2 wt =
ma w
2
100 2
3
3
p
or cos 2 wt = or cos wt =
= cos
4
2
6
p
p
p
1
or wt = or t =
=
= s
6
6w 6 (2p / 2) 6

14. (b) : Here, K.E. =

15. (c) : Given,


x = 12 sin wt 16 sin3wt
= 12 sinwt 4(4 sin3wt)
[Q sin3q = 3sinq 4 sin3q
or 4 sin 3q = 3sinq sin3q]
\ x = 12 sinwt 4(3sinwt sin 3 wt)
Physics for you | OctOber 15

55

x = 4 sin 3wt
dx
velocity,v =
= 4 3w cos 3wt
dt
dv
acceleration, a =
= 12w 3w( sin 3wt )
dt
= 36w2 sin3wt
Maximum acceleration = 36 w2

or

Frequency, u =

1
K.E. = 5 = 0.1[A2 (1 10 2)2](106)
2
or A2 10 4 = 10 4
or A2 = 2 10 4 or A = 2 10 2 m = 2 cm
19. (b) : The wave travelling along x-axis is given by
y(x, t) = 0.005 cos(ax bt).
2p
Therefore a = k = . As l = 0.08 m.
l
2p
p
p
\ a=
=
a = 100.00 = 25.00 p.
0.08 0.04
4
2p
2p
w=
= b. As T = 2.0 s, b =
b=p
T
2. 0
\ a = 25.00 p, b = p

16
=4
4
16 1
For 16 g of oxygen, n2 =
=
32 2
For mixture of gases,
n1CV1 + n2CV2
f
where CV = R
CV =
2
n1 + n2

16. (d) : For 16 g of helium, n1 =

n1C P1 + n2C P2
f

where C P = + 1 R
n1 + n2
2
For helium, f = 3, n1 = 4
CP =

For oxygen, f = 5, n2 =

1
2

5 1 7

4 R + R
2 2 2 47
C P
\
=
= 1.62
=
CV
3 1 5 299
4

R
+

2 2 2
17. (c) : dW = PdV =

RT
dV
V

...(i)

2
As V = KT
\ dV =K T 1/3 dT
3
2 1/3
K
T
dT
dV
2 dT
\
= 3 2/3 =
V
3 T
KT
2/3

T2

From (i), W = RT
T1

dV
=
V

T2

2 dT
T

RT 3

T1

2
2
R (T2 T1) = R 60 = 40R
3
3
18. (a) : For a displacement x, the kinetic and potential
energies are,
1 2 2
1
K.E. = m(A2 x 2)w 2 and P.E. = mx w
2
2
10
Each of these =
= 5 J when x = 1 cm
2
1 2 2 1
\
mx w = 0.1 (1 10 2)2 w 2 = 5
2
2
10
2
or w =
= 106
0.1 10 4
or w = 103 = 1000 rad s1
2p
p
T=
=
s
w 500
W=

56

Physics for you | OctOber 15

1 500 1 500
=
s =
Hz
p
p
T

20. (d) : Efficiency of a Carnot engine,


T2
40 3
T
= 1 h = 1
=
h = 1 2 or
T1
100 5
T1
5
5
\ T1 = T2 = 300 = 500 K
3
3
Increase in efficiency = 50% of 40% = 20%
\ New efficiency, h = 40% + 20% = 60%
T2
60 2
\
= 1
=
100
5

T
1

(where T1 is the increased source temperature)


5
5
\ T1 = T2 = 300 = 750 K
2
2
Increase in temperature of source
= T1 T1 = 750 500 = 250 K

21. (a) : When air is blown at the open end of a


closed pipe a longitudinal wave travels in the air
of the pipe from closed end to open end. When
l is wavelength, l is the length of pipe, u is the
frequency of note emitted and v is the velocity of
sound in air, then
v
u = , (fundamental note)
l
Given, u = 166 Hz, v = 332 m s1
332
\ l=
=2m
166
But, l = 4l
l 2
\ l = = =0.5 m
4 4
22. (b) : Here, initial temperature,
T1 = 27C = 273 + 27 = 300 K
Final temperature, T2 = 97 C = 273 + 97 = 370 K

Physics for you | OctOber 15

57

When a gas is compressed adiabatically, work done


on the gas is given by
R
W=
(T T ) 8.3 (370 300)
(1 g) 2 1 =
1 1. 5
2
or W = 11.62 10 J
\ Heat produced,
W 11.62 102
H=
=
= 276.7 cal
J
4. 2
5
7
23. (b) : For a diatomic gas, CV = R, C P = R
2
2
7
DQ = nC P DT = n R DT
2
5
DU = nCV DT = n R DT
2
DW = DQ DU = nR DT
\ DQ : DU : DW =

7 5
: : 1 or 7 : 5 : 2
2 2

24. (b) : Given: VP 3 = constant = k or P =


According to ideal gas equation,
PV = nRT
K
1/3
\
V = nRT (say (k) = K)
1/3
V
nRT
or V 2/3 =
K
Hence, V1
V
2
V
27V

2/3

2/3

(k)1/3
(V )1/3

T1
T2

T1
or T2 = 9 T1 = 9T
T2

1
25. (a) : Mean free path, l =
2 pd 2n
where,
n = Number of molecules per unit volume
d = Diameter of the molecule
As PV = kBNT
k BT
N
P
\ l=
n= =
V k BT
2 pd 2P
where,
kB = Boltzmann constant
P = Pressure of gas
T = Absolute temperature of the gas
26. (b) : Amplitude of damped oscillation is
A = A0 ebt/2m
A
As, A = 0 , t = 1 minute,
2
58

Physics for you | OctOber 15

A0
1 b/2m
b 1/2m
= A0 e
=e
e b/2m = 2
2
2
A0
When, A =
, t = 4 minutes
x
b/2m
A0
b 4/2m {Q e
= 2}
\
= A0 e
x
x = e 4b/2m = (e b/2m)4 = (2)4
27. (a) : Efficiency of Carnots heat engine,
T
h =1 2
T1
T
For first Carnots heat engine, 0.5 = 1 2
T1
T
For second heat engine, 0.5 = 1 2
T1
Efficiency remains the same when both T1 and T2
are increased by same factor.
Therefore, the temperature of source and sink of
second engine are
T1 = 2T1, T2 = 2T2
\

28. (c) : According to ideal gas equation


PV = nRT
When pressure is constant
PdV = nRdT
P(2V V) = nRdT
PV = nRdT
...(i)
CP
As g =
CV
C CV
\ g 1= P
CV
C P CV
or CV =
g 1
R
=
(Q C P CV = R)
g 1
nRdT
DU = nCV dT =
g 1
PV
DU =
(Using (i))
g 1
29. (d) : Frequency of sound wave, does not change
during refraction. Frequency of wave depends
upon the vibrator which produces the wave. It does
not depend on medium in which it is propogated.
The wavelength and velocity of the wave undergo
change during refraction.
\ The observer records the frequency as 600 Hz.
30. (c)

SECOND STAGE

BIHAR CECE
SOLVED PAPER 2015

1. A ball of mass M1 collides elastically and head


on with another ball of mass M2 initially at rest.
In which of the following cases the transfer of
momentum will be maximum?
(a) M1 > M2
(b) M1 = M2
(c) M1 < M2
(d) Data is insufficient to predict it.
2. Two particles of equal masses have velocity

v1 = 2i m/s and v2 = 2 j m/s . The first particle

has an acceleration a1 = (3i + 3j) m/s2 while the


acceleration of the other particle is zero. The centre
of mass of the two particles moves in a
(a) circle
(b) parabola
(c) ellipse
(d) straight line
3. A body is kept on a horizontal disc of radius 2 m at
a distance of 1 m from the centre. The coefficient
of friction between the body and the surface of the
disc is 0.4. The speed of rotation of the disc at which
the body starts slipping is (g = 10 m/s2)
(a) 4 rad/s
(b) 2 rad/s
(c) 0.4 rad/s
(d) 2 rad/s
4. A wheel has moment of inertia 5 kgm2. If 105 J of
work is done in producing rotational kinetic energy,
then the wheel attains an angular speed equal to
(a) 200 rad/s
(b) 20 rad/s
(c) 100 rad/s
(d) 10 rad/s
5. A balloon has 5 g of air. A small hole is pierced into
it. The air escapes at a uniform rate with a velocity
of 4 cm/s. If the balloon shrinks completely in 2.5 s,
then the average force acting on the balloon is
(a) 2 dyne (b) 2 N (c) 8 dyne (d) 8 N
6. A body weighs 700 g on the surface of the earth.
How much will it weigh on the surface of a planet
1
whose mass is and radius is half that of earth?
7
(a) 200 g (b) 400 g (c) 350 g (d) 50 g

7. Three uniform spheres, each having mass m and


radius r, are kept in such a way that each touches
the other two. The magnitude of the gravitational
force on any sphere due to the other two is
(a)

Gm2

(b)

Gm2

r2
4r 2
2
Gm
Gm2
(c) 2 2
(d) 3
4r
4r 2
8. Which of the following statements is not correct
for the decrease in the value of acceleration due to
gravity?
(a) As we go down from the surface of the earth
towards its centre.
(b) As we go up from the surface of the earth.
(c) As we go from equator to the poles on the
surface of the earth.
(d) As the rotational velocity of the earth is
increased.
9. There are four point masses m each on the corners of
a square of side length l. About one of its diagonals,
the moment of inertia of the system is
(a) 2ml2
(b) ml2 (c) 4ml2
(d) 6ml2
10. Two cylinders A and B of radii r and 2r are soldered
coaxially. The free end of A is clamped and the free
end of B is twisted by an angle q. The twist produced
at the junction is
16
17
q
q (c) q
(a)
(b)
(d) zero
17
16
11. A thick rope of density r and length L is hung from
a rigid support. The increase in length of the rope
due to its own weight is (Y is Youngs modulus)
rL2 g
rL2 g
rL2 g
rLg
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2Y
4Y
Y
Y
12. The excess pressure inside the first soap bubble is
three times that inside the second bubble. Then the
ratio of the volumes of the first and second bubbles
is
(a) 1 : 3
(b) 3 : 1 (c) 1 : 27 (d) 27 : 1

Contributed by : Paradise Institute, Patna


Physics for you | OctOber 15

59

13. A long capillary tube of radius 0.2 mm is placed


vertically inside a beaker of water. The surface
tension of water is 7.0 102 N/m. Water rises into
the capillary tube upto a height of 5 cm. The angle
of contact between the glass and water is (g = 10 m/s2)
1 5
1 4
(a) cos
(b) cos
5
7
4
1 2

1
(c) cos
(d) cos
7
7
14. A metal plate of area 500 cm2 is kept on a horizontal
surface with a layer of oil of thickness 0.5 mm
between them. The horizontal force required to
drag the plate with a velocity of 2 cm/s is
(coefficient of viscosity = 0.9 kg/m s)
(a) 180 N (b) 18 N (c) 0.018 N (d) 1.8 N
15. In motors, more viscous oil is used in summer than
in winter due to
(a) the rise in temperature in summer, the viscosity
of oil decreases.
(b) the rise in temperature in summer, the viscosity
of oil increases.
(c) the decrease in surface tension of oil.
(d) the increase in surface tension of oil.
16. Two vessels A and B are identical. A has 1 g
hydrogen at 0C and B has 1 g oxygen at 0C. Vessel
A contains x molecules and B contains y molecules.
The average kinetic energy per molecule in A is n
times the average kinetic energy per molecule in B.
The value of n is
(a) 16
(b) 8
(c) 32
(d) 1
17. An ideal gas having f degrees of freedom is
isobarically heated. The ratio of the work done by it
to the change in its internal energy will be
f
2
2
f 2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
f 2
f
2
18. Pressure remaining constant, at what temperature
will the r.m.s. velocity of a gas be half of its value at
0C?
(a) 0C
(b) 32C (c) 273C (d) 204C
19. A diatomic gas undergoes same change of
temperature by two different processes (i) at
constant volume and (ii) at constant pressure. The
heat supplied in the two cases will be in the ratio of
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 3 : 5 (c) 5 : 7
(d) 7 : 5
20. An ideal gas A and a real gas B have their volumes
increased from V to 2V under isothermal conditions.
The increase in internal energy
(a) will be same in both A and B
60

Physics for you | OctOber 15

(b) will be zero in both the cases


(c) of B will be more than that of A
(d) of A will be more than that of B
21. For a certain gas g = 1.5, then for this gas
(a) CV = 3R
(b) CP = 3R
(c) CP = 5R
(d) CV = 5R

22. Wiens constant is 2892 106 S.I. unit and the


value of lm for moon is 14.46 micron. The surface
temperature of moon is
(a) 200 K
(b) 2000 K
(c) 20 K
(d) 200C
23. The temperature of equal masses of three different
liquids A, B and C are 12C, 19C and 28C
respectively. The temperature when A and B are
mixed is 16C, when B and C are mixed is 23C.
What is the temperature when A and C are mixed?
(a) 26.02C
(b) 22.60C
(c) 20.26C
(d) 21.62C
24. Which of the following constants is not related to
radiation?
(a) Solar constant
(b) Boltzmanns constant
(c) Stefans constant (d) Wiens constant
25. Air conditioners are good example of
(a) conduction
(b) convection
(c) radiation
(d) both conduction and radiation
26. A refrigerator works between 2C and 27C. To keep
the temperature of the refrigerated space constant,
660 calories of heat are to be removed every second.
The power required is
(a) 60 watt
(b) 55 watt
(c) 252 watt
(d) 231 watt
27. Two bodies A and B are placed in an evacuated
vessel maintained at a temperature of 27C. The
temperature of A is 327C and that of B is 227C.
The ratio of heat loss from A and B is about
(a) 9 : 4
(b) 6 : 5 (c) 36 : 25 (d) 3 : 2
28. For any given scale X, the ice point is 40 and the
steam point is 120. For another scale Y, the ice point
and steam point are 30 and 130 respectively. If X
reads 50, then Y would read
(a) 5
(b) 8 (c) 10
(d) 12
29. 56 tuning forks are so arranged in series that each
fork gives 4 beats per second with the previous one.
The frequency of the last fork is three times that of
the first. The frequency of the first fork is
(a) 52 Hz (b) 56 Hz (c) 60 Hz (d) 110 Hz

30. The velocity of sound is greatest in


(a) steel
(b) ammonia
(c) air
(d) water
31. The equation of a wave is y = 60 cos (1800t 6x),
where y is in microns, t in seconds and x in metres.
The ratio of maximum particle velocity to the wave
velocity of wave propagation is
(a) 3.6
(b) 3.6 106
11
(c) 3.6 10
(d) 3.6 104
32. Two boys stand close to a long straight metal pipe,
at some distance from each other. One boy fires a
gun and the other hears two explosions with a time
interval of 1 s between them. If the velocity of sound
in metal is 3630 m/s and in air is 330 m/s, then the
distance between the two boys is
(a) 36.3 m
(b) 363 m
(c) 72.6 m
(d) 726 m
33. The lengths of two organ pipes open at both ends
are L and L + d. If they are sounded together, then
the beat frequency will be
2Vd
Vd
(a)
(b)
L(L + d )
L(L + d )
2L(L + d )
Vd
(c)
(d)
Vd
2L(L + d )
34. Two particles P and Q describe simple harmonic
motions of same amplitude a, frequency u along
the same straight line. The maximum distance
between the two particles is a 2 . The initial phase
difference between the particles is
(a) zero
(b) 45
(c) 60
(d) 90
35. A car with a horn of frequency 620 Hz travels
towards a large wall with a speed of 20 m/s. Velocity
of sound is 330 m/s. The frequency of echo of sound
of horn as heard by the driver is
(a) 700 Hz
(b) 660 Hz
(c) 620 Hz
(d) 550 Hz
36. When the length of a simple pendulum is decreased
by 600 mm, the period of oscillation is halved. The
original length of the pendulum was
(a) 800 mm
(b) 1000 mm
(c) 1200 mm
(d) 2400 mm
37. A particle of mass 0.2 kg moves with simple
harmonic motion of amplitude 2 cm. If the total
energy of the particle is 4 105 J, then the time
period of the motion is

3p
seconds
2
p
(c) p seconds
(d)
seconds
2
38. Which of the following cannot represent a travelling
wave?
(a) y = f(x vt)
(b) y = ym sin k(x + vt)
(c) y = (x vt)/(x + vt)
(a) 2p seconds

(b)

(d) y = Aeb(x vt)

39. Which one of the following emits sound of higher


pitch?
(a) Lion
(b) Man
(c) Donkey
(d) Mosquito
40. It is possible to recognize a person by hearing his
voice even if he is hidden behind a solid wall. This
is due to the fact that his voice
(a) has a definite pitch
(b) has a definite quality
(c) has a definite capacity
(d) can penetrate the wall
41. The region surrounding a stationary electric dipole
has
(a) electric field only
(b) magnetic field only
(c) both electric and magnetic fields
(d) neither electric nor magnetic field
42. Five balls numbered 1 to 5 are suspended using
separate threads. Pairs (1, 2), (2, 4) and (4, 1) show
electrostatic attraction while pairs (2, 3), (4, 5) show
repulsion. Therefore, ball 1 must be
(a) neutral
(b) metallic
(c) positively charged (d) negatively charged
43. Two spherical conductors of radii 4 m and 5 m
are charged to same potential. If s1 and s2 be the
respective values of the surface density of charge on
the two conductors, then the ratio s1/s2 is
25
5
16
4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
16
4
25
5
10
44. Electric charge of
109 C are placed at each
3
of the four corners of a square of side 0.08 m. The
potential at the intersection of diagonals is
(a) 900 V

(b) 900 2 V

(c) 150 2 V

(d) 1500 2 V
Physics for you | OctOber 15

61

45. A condenser having a capacity of 6 mF is charged to


100 V and is joined to an uncharged condenser of
14 mF. The ratio of charges after connection and the
potential on 6 mF and 14 mF condensers respectively
will be
6
14
(a)
and 50 V
(b)
and 30 V
14
6
6
14
(c)
and 30 V
(d)
and 0 V
14
6
46. The effective capacitance between points A and B
will be
2 F 12 F
28
mF
(a)
9
2 F
B
(b) 5 mF
A
(c) 4 mF
2 F
(d) 18 mF
47. The radius of earth is 6400 km. Its capacitance will
be
(a) zero
(b) 7.1 104 F
4
(c) 6.4 10 F
(d) 6.4 106 F
48. Eight drops of mercury of equal radii and possessing
equal charges combine to form a big drop. The
capacitance of the bigger drop as compared to
capacitance of each individual drop is
(a) 16 times
(b) 8 times
(c) 2 times
(d) 32 times
49. A voltmeter reads 6 V at full scale deflection and
is graded as 3000 W/V. What resistance should be
connected in series with it so that it reads 12 V at
full-scale deflection?
(a) 1.8 104 W
(b) 3.6 104 W
4
(c) 5.4 10 W
(d) 7.2 104 W
50. In the given circuit, with steady current, the
potential drop across the capacitors must be
(a) V
R
V
V
(b)
C
V
2
2V
V
2V
2R
(c)
(d)
3
3
51. Eddy currents are produced in a material when it
is
(a) heated
(b) placed in a time varying magnetic field
(c) placed in an electric field
(d) placed in a uniform magnetic field
52. In the circuit, the voltmeter resistance is 10000 W
and the ammeter resistance is 2 W. The voltmeter
62

Physics for you | OctOber 15

reads 12 V and ammeter reads 0.1 A. The value of


R is
(a) 118 W
R
A
(b) 122 W
V
(c) 10022 W
(d) 10018 W
53. A magnetic dipole of moment 0.72 Am2 is placed
horizontally with the north pole pointing south.
The magnetic field of earth is 18 mT. The neutral
point is at
(a) 0.1 m on axial line
(b) 0.2 m on equatorial line
(c) 0.2 m on axial line
(d) 0.16 m on equatorial line
54. A magnetizing field of 5000 A/m produces a
magnetic flux of 5 105 Wb in an iron rod of
0.5 cm2 area of cross-section. The permeability of
the rod is (in Wb A1 m1)
(a) 4 106
(b) 3 105
4
(c) 2 10
(d) 1 103
55. A uniformly charged spherical metal ball of mass
M, radius R and charge q is rotated with an angular
velocity w about one of its diameter. The ratio of its
magnetic dipole moment to the angular momentum
is
q
q
R
(a)
(b)
2M
2Mw
qw
q
(c)
(d)
2 MR
2M
56. Flux f (in Weber) in a closed circuit of resistance
10 W varies with time t (in seconds) according to
the equation
f = 6t2 5t + 1
The magnitude of the induced current in the circuit
at t = 0.25 s is
(a) 0.2 A
(b) 0.6 A
(c) 0.8 A
(d) 1.2 A
57. A transformer has an efficiency of 80%. It works at
4 kilowatt and 100 volts. If the secondary voltage is
240 volts, then the current in the secondary coil is
(a) 1.333 A
(b) 4 A
(c) 13.33 A
(d) 40 A
58. When inductance of 1 henry is connected to
200 volts 50 Hz source, the maximum value of the
current is
(a) 0.1 A (b) 0.9 A (c) 1 A
(d) 9 A
59. If in a moving coil galvanometer, a current i
produces a deflection q, then

(a) i tan q
(c) i q2

(b) i q
(d) i q

60. An electric heater consumes 1 kilowatt power when


connected across a 100 volt D.C. supply. If this
heater is to be used with 200 V, 50 Hz A.C. supply,
the value of inductance to be connected in series
with it is
(a) 5.5 H
(b) 0.55 H
(c) 0.055 H
(d) 1.1 H
61. In an oscillating LC circuit the maximum charge
on the capacitor is Q. When the energy is shared
equally between the electric and the magnetic fields,
then the charge on the capacitor is
Q
(a) Q
(b)
2
Q
Q
(c)
(d)
3
2
62. A 16 mF capacitor is charged to 20 volts. The
battery is then disconnected and a pure 40 mH
coil is connected across the capacitor so that LC
oscillations are set up. The maximum current is the
coil is
(a) 0.2 A
(b) 40 mA
(c) 2 A
(d) 0.4 A
63. Which of the following statements about
electromagnetic waves is/are true?
1. Electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed
in any medium.
2. All electromagnetic waves can ionize living
cells.
3. All electromagnetic waves are transverse
waves.
(a) 3 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
64. Which of the following electromagnetic waves will
cause heating?
1. Radio waves
2. Infrared radiation
3. X-rays
(a) 2 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
65. A linearly polarized electromagnetic wave given
as E = E0 i cos(kz wt ) is incident normally on a
perfectly reflecting infinite wall at z = a. Assuming
that the material of the wall is optically inactive, the
reflected wave will be given as
(a) Er = E0 i sin(kz wt )

(b) Er = E0 i cos(kz wt )
(c) E = E i cos(kz + wt )
r

(d) Er = E0 i cos(kz + wt )

66. Which of the following statements is incorrect?


(a) The magnification produced by a convex mirror
is always less than one.
(b) A virtual, erect, same sized image can be
obtained using a plane mirror.
(c) A virtual, erect, magnified image can be formed
using a concave mirror.
(d) A real, inverted, same sized image can be
formed using a convex mirror.
67. A concave mirror of focal length f (in air) is
4

immersed in water m = . The focal length of

3
mirror in water will be
3
7
4
f (c) f
f
(a)
(b)
(d) f
4
3
3
68. A diamond sparkles because of its
(a) hardness
(b) emission of light by the diamond
(c) absorption of light by the diamond
(d) high refractive index.
69. By placing a convex lens of focal length equal to
15.0 cm between an object and a screen separated
by a distance of 75.0 cm, the sizes of the images
2
obtained are 6.0 cm and cm . The size of the
3
object must be
(a) 2.0 cm
(b) 4.0 cm
(c) 3.0 cm
(d) 1.5 cm
70. A glass cube is placed on a white paper having spots
of red, blue, yellow and green colour. Then, the one
that appears least raised is
(a) blue
(b) red (c) yellow (d) green
71. The refractive index of air is 1.0003. The thickness
of air column which has one more wavelength of
yellow light (l = 600 nm), than the same thickness
of vacuum is
(a) 0.02 mm
(b) 0.2 mm
(c) 2 mm
(d) 2 cm
72. Two convex lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are
separated co-axially by a distance d. The power of
the combination will be zero if
(a) d = (f1 + f2)
(b) d = (f1 f2)
(f f )
(c) d = f1 f2
(d) d = 1 2
2
Physics for you | OctOber 15

63

73. The time of coherence is of the order of


(a) 102 s
(b) 104 s
6
(c) 10 s
(d) 108 s
74. The first minimum of a single slit diffraction pattern
is observed at angle 2 with a light of wavelength
698 nm. The width of this slit is
(a) 2 mm
(b) 0.2 mm
(c) 0.02 mm
(d) 0.002 mm
75. When a thin sheet of transparent material of
thickness 4 103 mm is placed in the path of one
of the interfering beams in the Youngs double slit
experiment, it is found that the central bright fringe
shifts through a distance equal to four fringes.
Wavelength of light used is 5893 . The refractive
index of transparent material is
(a) 1.5893
(b) 1.2946
(c) 1.884
(d) 1.9853
76. The intensity at a point where the path difference
l
is
(l = wavelength of light) is I. If I0 is the
6
maximum intensity, then I/I0 is equal to
(a) 3 /2
(b) 1/2
(c) 3/4

(d) 1/ 2

77. A ray of light from air is incident on the surface of


glass with angle of incidence equal to the angle of
polarization. It suffers a deviation of 22 on entering
glass. The angle of polarization is
(a) 22
(b) 56
(c) 34
(d) 68
78. The photoelectric work function of a surface is
2.2 eV. The maximum kinetic energy of
photoelectrons emitted when light of wavelength
6200 is incident on the surface is
(a) 0.4 eV
(b) 1.2 eV
(c) 1.6 eV
(d) photoelectrons are not emitted
79. What potential must be applied on an electron
microscope so that it may produce an electron of
wavelength 1 ?
(a) 50 V
(b) 120 V (c) 150 V (d) 200 V
80. The de Broglie wavelength of thermal neutrons at
27C will be
(a) 1.77
(b) 1.77 mm
(c) 1.77 cm
(d) 1.77 m
81. If E and P are the energy and the momentum
of a photon respectively, then on reducing the
wavelength of photon
64

Physics for you | OctOber 15

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

both P and E will decrease


both P and E will increase
P will increase but E will decrease
P will decrease but E will increase

82. Half-life of a radioactive substance is 20 minutes.


The time interval between 20% and 80% decay will
be
(a) 20 minutes
(b) 30 minutes
(c) 40 minutes
(d) 60 minutes
83. If the aluminium nucleus 13Al27 has nuclear radius
of about 3.6 Fermi, then the tellurium nucleus
125
will have nuclear radius nearly as
52Te
(a) 3.6 Fermi
(b) 6.0 Fermi
(c) 8.9 Fermi
(d) 16.7 Fermi
84. Consider the fusion reaction :
2
2
2
4
1
1
1H + 1H + 1H
2He + 0n + 1H
The atomic masses are 1H2 = 2.0141 amu, 1H1 =
1.00783 amu, 2He4 = 4.0026 amu 0n1 = 1.008665
amu. In producing 8.2 1013 J of energy by this
reaction, the mass of 1H2 fuel required is
(a) 1.433 101 kg
(b) 2.4 101 kg
1
(c) 1.433 10 g
(d) 2.4 101 g
85. A positronium atom undergoes a transition from
n = 4 to n = 2. The energy of the photon emitted in
this process is
(a) 1.275 eV
(b) 2.55 eV
(c) 3.4 eV
(d) 3.825 eV
86. The most suitable energy of neutrons which will
produce nuclear fission in a reactor is
(a) 200 MeV
(b) 2 MeV
(c) 40 eV
(d) 0.04 eV
87. A p-n junction diode is connected to a battery of
e.m.f. 5.5 V and external resistance 5.1 kW. The
barrier potential in the diode is 0.4 V. The current
in the circuit is
(a) 1.08 mA
(b) 0.08 mA
(c) 1 mA
5.5 V 5.1 k
(d) 1 A
88. Generally, the base of a transistor has a thickness of
the order of
(a) 106 m (b) 103 m (c) 0.1 mm (d) 1 cm
89. The circuit diagram shown performs the logic
funtion of
A
(a) XOR gate
Y
B
(b) AND gate
(c) NAND gate
(d) OR gate

90. The equation of an FM signal is


e = 6 sin(106t + 4 sin103t). Then, the modulating
frequency is
(a) 1000 Hz
(b) 500 Hz
(c) 300 Hz
(d) 159 Hz
91. The dimensions of solar constant are
(a) [MLT2]
(b) [M0L0T0]
(c) [ML0T3]
(d) [M0LT3]
92. If x = (a b), the maximum percentage error in the
measurement of x will be
b
a

100
(a)
a b a b
b
a
+
100
(b)
a b a b
a b
(c) + 100
a
b
a b
(d) 100
a
b
93. A body of mass m kg is rotating in a vertical circle at
the end of a string of length r metre. The difference
in the kinetic energy at the top and bottom of the
circle is
1
(a) mgr (b) mgr (c) 2mgr (d) 4mgr
2
94. A long spring is stretched by 2 cm, its potential
energy is U. If the spring is stretched by 10 cm, the
potential energy stored in it will be
U
U
(a)
(b)
(c) 5U
(d) 25U
25
5
95. Two balls of different masses ma and mb are dropped
from two different heights a and b. The ratio of times
taken by the two to drop through these distances is
(a) a : b
(b) b : a
(c) a : b
(d) a2 : b2
96. A particle moves along x-axis obeying the equation
x = t(t 1)(t 2), where x (in metres) is the position
of the particle at any time t (in seconds). The
displacement when the velocity of the particle is
zero, is
5
5
2
2
m,
m
m,
m (b)
(a)
3 3
3 3
3 3
3 3
(c) 3 m, 3 m
(d) 5 m, 5 m
97. A projectile is given an initial velocity of i + 2 j . The
cartesian equation of its path is (g = 10 m/s2)
(a) y = 2x 5x2
(b) y = x 5x2
2
(c) 4y = 2x 5x
(d) y = 2x 25x2

98. A heavy uniform chain lies on a horizontal table.


If the coefficient of friction between the chain and
the table is 0.25, then the maximum fraction of the
length of the chain that can hang over one edge of
the table is
(a) 20%
(b) 25%
(c) 30%
(d) 40%
99. A body of mass M is resting on a rough horizontal
plane surface, the coefficient of friction being equal
to m. At t = 0, a horizontal force F = F0t starts acting
on it, where F0 is a constant. The time T at which
the motion starts is
(a)

mMg
F0

(b)

mF
Mg

(d)

Mg
mF0

F
F0
100. Force acting on a particle moving in a straight line
K
varies with the velocity of the particle v as F = .
v
where K is a constant. The work done by this force
in time t is
2Kt
K
(a) 2 t
(b) 2
v
v
(c)

(c) Kt
1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.
31.
36.
41.
46.
51.
56.
61.
66.
71.
76.
81.
86.
91.
96.

(b)
(b)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)

(d) 2Kt
2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.
32.
37.
42.
47.
52.
57.
62.
67.
72.
77.
82.
87.
92.
97.

(d)
(d)
(c)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(a)

Answer Keys
3.
(d) 4.
8.
(c) 9.
13. (b) 14.
18. (d) 19.
23. (c) 24.
28. (c) 29.
33. (d) 34.
38. (c) 39.
43. (c) 44.
48. (c) 49.
53. (c) 54.
58. (b) 59.
63. (a) 64.
68. (d) 69.
73. (d) 74.
78. (d) 79.
83. (b) 84.
88. (a) 89.
93. (c) 94.
98. (a) 99.

(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(d)
(a)

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
65.
70.
75.
80.
85.
90.
95.
100.

(c)
(a)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(d)
(c)
(c)

nn
Physics for you | OctOber 15

65

chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
vg

Gravitation

1. Three identical bodies of mass M are located at the


vertices of an equilateral triangle of side L. They
revolve under the effect of mutual gravitational
force in a circular orbit, circumscribing the triangle
while preserving the equilateral triangle. Their
orbital velocity is
3GM
(a) GM
(b)
2L
L
2GM
3GM
(d)
3L
L
2. An earth satellite is moved from one stable circular
orbit to a farther stable circular orbit. Which one of
the following quantities increase?
(a) Linear orbital speed
(b) Gravitational force
(c) Centripetal acceleration
(d) Gravitational potential energy
(c)

3. Two satellites S1 and S2 are revolving around a


planet in coplanar and concentric circular orbits of
radii R1 and R2 in the same direction respectively.
Their respective periods of revolution are 1 h and
8 h. If R1 = 104 km, their relative speed when they
are closest, in km h1 is
p
(a)
104
(b) p 104
2
(c) 2 p 104
(d) 4 p 104
4. Select the proper graph between the gravitational
potential (Vg) due to hollow sphere and distance (r)
from its centre.
vg

vg

(a)
r

66

(b)
vg

Physics for you | OctOber 15

(c)

vg

(d)

vg

5. The mass of the moon is (1/8) of the earth but the


gravitational pull is (1/6) of the earth. It is due to
the fact that
(a) moon is the satellite of the earth.
(b) the radius of the earth is (8/6) of the moon.
(c) the radius of the earth is ( 8 / 6 ) of the moon.
(d) the radius of the moon is (6/8) of the earth.
6. The orbit of geostationary satellite is circular, the
time period of satellite depends on which of the
following factors?
(i) mass of the satellite
(ii) mass of the earth
(iii) radius of the orbit
(iv) height of the satellite from the surface of the earth
(a) (i) only
(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) (d) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
7. R and r are the radii of the earth and moon
respectively, re and rm are densities of earth and
moon respectively. The ratio of the acceleration due
to gravity on the surfaces of the earth and moon is
r re
R re
(a) r r
(b) R r
m
m
R rm
r rm
(c)
(d) r r
R re
e
8. Three uniform spheres of mass M and radius R each
are kept in such a way that each touches the other
two. The magnitude of gravitational force on any of
the spheres due to other two is
3 GM 2
3 GM 2
(b)
(a)
2 R2
2 R2
(c)

3GM 2
R2

(d)

3 GM 2
4 R2

9. A geostationary satellite is orbiting the earth at


a height of 5R above the surface of the earth,
R being the radius of the earth. The time period of
another satellite in hours at a height of 2R from the
surface of the earth is
6
(a) 5
(b) 10
(c) 6 2
(d)
2
10. A satellite is orbiting around the earth with kinetic
energy K. What will happen if the satellites kinetic
energy is made 2K?
(a) Radius of the orbit is doubled
(b) Radius of the orbit is halved
(c) Period of revolution is doubled
(d) Satellite escapes away
11. The height at which the weight of a body becomes
1 th
16 , its weight on the surface of earth is
(R is the radius of the earth)
(a) 5R
(b) 15R (c) 3R
(d) 4R
12. A satellite is moving in a circular orbit at a
certain height above the earths surface. It takes
5.26 103 s to complete one revolution with a
centripetal acceleration equal to 9.32 m s2. The
height of the satellite orbit above the earths surface
is (Radius of earth = 6.37 106 m)
(a) 70 km
(b) 160 km
(c) 190 km
(d) 220 km
13. A synchronous satellite goes around the earth once
in every 24 h. What is the radius of orbit of the
synchronous satellite in terms of the earths radius?
(Given mass of the earth, Me = 5.98 1024 kg, radius
of the earth, Re = 6.37 106 m, Universal constant
of gravitation, G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2).
(a) 2.4 Re (b) 3.6 Re (c) 4.8 Re (d) 6.6 Re
14. Two satellites of earth, S1 and S2 are moving in the
same orbit. The mass of S1 is four times the mass of
S2. Which one of the following statements is true?
(a) The potential energies of earth and satellite in
the two cases are equal.
(b) S1 and S2 are moving with the same speed.
(c) The kinetic energies of the two satellites are
equal.
(d) The time period of S1 is four times that of S2.
15. The potential energy of gravitational interaction of
a point mass m and a thin uniform rod of mass M
and length l, if they are located along a straight line
at distance a from each other is
GMm a + l
ln
(a) U =
a
l

a + l
(c) U = GMm ln
a
l
GMm
(d) U =
a
mechanical ProPerties of solids

16. Two rods of different materials having coefficients


of thermal expansion a1 and a2 and Youngs
modulli Y1 and Y2 respectively are fixed between
two rigid massive walls. The rods are heated such
that they undergo the same increase in temperature.
There is no bending of the rods. If a1 : a2 = 2 : 3
the thermal stresses developed in the two rods are
equal provided Y1 : Y2 is equal to
(a) 2 : 3 (b) 1 : 1 (c) 3 : 2
(d) 4 : 9
17. When a wire of length 10 m is subjected to a force of
100 N along its length, the lateral strain produced is
0.01 103. The Poissons ratio was found to be 0.4.
If the area of cross-section of wire is 0.025 m2, its
Youngs modulus is
(a) 1.6 108 N m2 (b) 2.5 1010 N m2
(c) 1.25 1011 N m2 (d) 16 109 N m2
18. Two wires of the same material and length but
diameter in the ratio 1 : 2 are stretched by the same
force. The ratio of potential energy per unit volume
for the two wires when stretched will be
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 4 : 1
(d) 16 : 1
19. A wooden wheel of radius R is made
of two semicircular parts (see figure).
R
The two parts are held together by a ring
made of a metal strip of cross sectional
area A and length L.
L is slightly less than 2pR. To fit the ring
on the wheel, it is heated so that its temperature
rises by Dq and it just steps over the wheel. As it
cools down to surrounding temperature, it presses
the semicircular parts together. If the coefficient of
linear expansion of the metal is a, and its Youngs
modulus is Y, the force that one part of the wheel
applies on the other part is
(a) 2pAYaDq
(b) AYaDq
(c) pAYaDq
(d) 2AYaDq
20. A rod of length L and negligible mass is suspended
at its two ends by two wires of steel (wire A) and
aluminium (wire B) of equal lengths as shown in
the figure. The cross-sectional areas of wires A and
B are 1 mm2 and 2 mm2 respectively.
(YAl = 70 109 N m2 and Ysteel = 200 109 N m2)

1
1
(b) U = GMm
a a + l
Physics for you | OctOber 15

67

To have equal stress in both the wires, mass m


should be suspended at a distance of
1
(a) L from the wire A
3
1
(b) L from the wire B
2
2
(c) L from the wire B
3
2
(d) L from the wire A
3
21. A wire is suspended from the ceiling and stretched
under the action of a weight F suspended from its
other end. The force exerted by the ceiling on it is
equal and opposite to the weight.
(a) Tensile stress at any cross section A of the wire is F/A.
(b) Tensile stress at any cross section is zero.
(c) Tensile stress at any cross section A of the wire is 2F/A.
(d) Tension at any cross section A of the wire is 2F.
22. A steel rod of length 1 m and area of cross-section
1 cm2 is heated from 0C to 200C, without being
allowed to extend or bend. The tension produced in
the rod is
(Given : Youngs modulus of steel = 2 1011 N m2 and
coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 105 C1)
(a) 4 103 N
(b) 4 104 N
(c) 4 105 N
(d) 4 106 N
23. A mild steel wire of length
2L
and
cross-sectional
area A is stretched, well
within
elastic
limit,
horizontally between two pillars as shown in
the figure. A mass M is suspended from the
midpoint of the wire. Strain in the wire is
x
x2
x
(a)
(b)
(c) 2
(d) x
2
L
L
2L
2L
24. A spring is stretched by applying a load to its free
end. The strain produced in the spring is
(a) volumetric
(b) shear
(c) longitudinal and shear
(d) longitudinal.
25. A thick rope of rubber of density 1.5 103 kg m3
and Youngs modulus 5 106 N m2, 8 m in length
is hung from the ceiling of a room. The increase in its
length due to its own weight is (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 9.6 102 m
(b) 9.6 105 m
7
(c) 9.6 10 m
(d) 9.6 m
26. The radii and Youngs moduli of two uniform wires
A and B are in the ratio 2 : 1 and 1 : 2 respectively.
Both wires are subjected to the same longitudinal
force. If the increase in length of the wire A is one
percent, the percentage increase in length of the
68

Physics for you | OctOber 15

wire B is
(a) 1.0

(b) 1.5

(c) 2.0

(d) 3.0

27. If the ratio of lengths, radii and


Steel
Youngs modulii of steel and
m
brass wires in the figure are a, b, c
respectively. Then the corresponding
Brass
ratio of increase in their lengths
2m
would be
2
2ac
3a
3c
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) 2a c
2
2
b
b
2b c
2ab2
28. If the shear modulus of a wire material is
5.9 1011 dyne cm2 then the potential energy of
a wire of 4 103 cm in diameter and 5 cm long
twisted through an angle of 10, is
(a) 1.253 1012 J
(b) 2 1012 J
12
(c) 1.00 10 J
(d) 0.8 1012 J
29. The Poissons ratio of the material is 0.5. If a force is
applied to a wire of this material, there is a decrease
in the cross-sectional area by 4%. The percentage
increase in its length is
(a) 1%
(b) 2%
(c) 2.5%
(d) 4%
30. The stress-strain graph for
a metal wire is as shown
in the figure. In the graph,
the region in which
Hookes law is obeyed, the
ultimate strength and
fracture
points are
represented by
(a) OA, C, D
(b) OB, D, E
(c) OA, D, E
(d) OB, C, D
solutions

1. (a) :

F2
M
A

F
30
v

F1

L
v

N
L

B
M

From figure, O be the centre of equilateral triangle ABC.


AN
L/2
L
=
=
.
Let OA = r =
cos 30
3 /2
3
The gravitational force on mass M at A due to mass at B is,
GMM
F1 =
along AB.
L2
The gravitational force on mass M at A due to mass
at C is,
GMM
along AC.
F2 =
L2

Here, F1 = F2 =

GM 2

L2
These forces F1 and F2 are inclined at angle 60,
their resultant F is along AO, which is given by
F = [F12 + F22 + 2F1 F2 cosq]1/2
1/2

GM 2
1
GM 2
3GM 2
= 2 1 + 1 + 2 = 2
3=
2
L
L
L2
As this force is providing the required centripetal
force, so
Mv 2
3GM 2
=
r
L2
GM
On solving, we get v =
L
GM
2. (d) : Linear orbital speed, v =
r
GM m
Gravitational force on satellite, F =
r2
v2
Centripetal acceleration, ac =
r
GM m
Gravitational PE, U =
r
As r increases gravitational potential energy
becomes less negative, i.e., gravitational potential
energy increases, whereas speed, force and
acceleration will decrease.
3. (b) : Here,

T22
T12

R23
R13

2/3

2/3

gM
=
gE

2
RM
GM

RE2

2
8 RM

GM E
6. (d) : Orbital velocity, v0 = R + h
E
2 p(RE + h) 2 p(RE + h)3/2
Time period, T =
=
v0
(GM E )1/2
Thus, the time period of satellite is independent of
mass of satellite but depends on mass of the earth,
radius of the orbit (RE + h), height of the satellite
from the surface of the earth.
7. (a) : Acceleration due to gravity on the surface of
the earth is
GM
ge = 2
R
where M and R be mass and radius of the earth
Acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the
moon is
Gm
gm = 2
r
where m and r be mass and radius of the moon.
M
4
re =
or M = pR3re
4 3
3
pR
3
m
4
and rm =
or m = pr 3rm
4 3
3
pr
3
\

T
8
or R2 = R1 2 = 104 = 4 104 km
1
T1
Velocity of satellite S1,
2 pR1 2 p 104
v1 =
=
= 2 p 104 km h 1
T1
1
Velocity of satellite S2,
2 pR2 2 p 4 104
v2 =
=
= p 104 km h 1
T2
8
Relative velocity = v1 v2
= 2p 104 p 104 = p 104 km h1
4. (c)
G( M E / 8)
5. (c) : Here,

From (i) and (ii), we get


RE2
1
8
R
= or RE =
2
6 M
8 RM 6

2
3
2
g e M r R re r R re
= =
=
g m m R r rm R r rm

8. (d) : The situation is as shown in the figure.


A
2R
B

(i)

RE2
where the subscripts M and E are for the moon and
the earth respectively.
g
1
(ii)
Given, M =
gE 6

2R
FCA
60
2R FCB C

Gravitational force on sphere C due to sphere A is


GM M GM 2
FCA =
=
along CA
(2R)2
4 R2
Gravitational force on sphere C due to sphere B is
GM M GM 2
FCB =
=
along CB
(2R)2
4 R2
These two forces are equal in magnitude and
inclined at an angle 60.
\ The total gravitational force on sphere C due to
other two spheres is
2
2
Ftotal = FCA
+ FCB
+ 2FCA FCB cos 60
Physics for you | OctOber 15

69

GM 2 GM 2
GM 2 GM 2 1
2
=
+
+


4 R2 4 R2
4 R2 4 R2 2
=

3GM 2
4 R2

T2 r2
=
T1 r1

3/2

R + 2R
=
R + 5R

3/2

3
=
6

3/2

23/2

T2
1
24
24
= 3/2 or T2 = 3/2 =
= 6 2 hours
24 2
2 2
2
10. (d) : Kinetic energy of the satellite orbiting the
1
earth is K = mvo2 , where vo is the orbital velocity.
2
If vo is the new velocity when kinetic energy of the
satellite becomes double, then
1
1
1
mvo2 = 2K = 2 mvo2 = m( 2vo )2
2
2
2
\ v o = 2 vo
It is the escape velocity of the satellite from the
earth. Therefore the satellite will escape away when
its kinetic energy is made 2K.
11. (c) : Acceleration due to gravity at a height h from
the surface of earth is
g
gh =
2
....(i)
h
1 +
R
where g is the acceleration due to gravity at the
surface of earth and R is the radius of earth.
Multiplying by m (mass of the body) on both sides
in (i), we get
mg
mg h =
2
h
1 +
R
\ Weight of a body at height h, Wh = mgh
Weight of the body at the surface of earth, W = mg
1
According to question,Wh = W
16
1
1
\
=
16 h 2
1 +
R
2

h
h
or 1 + = 16 or 1 + = 4
R
R
h
or
= 3 or h = 3R
R
70

(R + h)3
GM

(R + h)3 T 2
= 2
GM
4p
Centripetal acceleration, a =

...(i)

or

9. (c) : According to Keplers third law T 2 r3


\

12. (b) : As, T = 2 p

Physics for you | OctOber 15

(R + h)2 1
=
GM
a

or

GM

(R + h)2
...(ii)

Divide (i) by (ii), we get

5.26 103
( R + h) = 2 a =
9.32

2p
4p
R + h = 6.53 106 m
h = 6.53 106 m 6.37 106 m = 0.16 106 m
= 160 103 m = 160 km
13. (d) : Time period of satellite
T2

T = 2p
Also, g =

gRe2 =
T2 =

R3
GMe

GMe

Re2
GMe

...(i)

2 3

4p R

(Using (i))
gRe2
Substituting the given values in above equation, we get
4 (3.14)2 R3
(24 60 60)2 =
9.8Re2
or R = 6.6Re
14. (b) : Both, orbital speed of satellite (vo = GMe / r )
and time period of revolution of satellite,
1/2
4 p2 r 3
T=
are independent of mass of satellite.
GMe
Therefore orbital speed and time period of
revolution of both the satellites are same.
GMe m
The kinetic energy of a satellite, K =
and
2r
GMe m
potential energy of a satellite, U =
both
r
depend on mass of satellite.
\

15. (c) :

l
dx

a
x

M
l
M
Mass of element of length dx, dm = dx
l
The gravitational potential energy between this
element and point mass is
Mass per unit length of rod =

Gmdm
dU =
=
x
\ U =

GmM
l

a+l

M
Gm dx
l

dx
x

GmM a + l
or U =
ln
a
l
F/A
16. (c) : As, Y =
since the rods are fixed between
Dl / l
two rigid massive walls, their lengths are equal.
1
So Y
Dl
a lDT a2 3
Y Dl
Hence, 1 = 2 = 2
=
=
Y2 Dl1 a1lDT a1 2
Lateral strain
17. (a) : Poissons ratio =
Longitudinal strain
Lateral strain
Longitudinal strain =
Poissons ratio
0.01 103
=
...(i)
0.4
Normal stress
Youngs modulus, Y =
Longitudinal strain
F
or Y =
(Using (i))
0.01 103
A

0.4

100 0.4
=
= 1.6 108 N m 2
0.025 0.01 103
18. (d) : As the two wires are of the same material,
therefore their Young moduli are same.
DL
F
L
F
L
or 1 = 4
\ Y= 2
=

2
DL1 p(2r ) DL2
DL2
pr
Potential energy per unit volume of the wire is
1
u = stress strain
2
DL
1 F
DL
1 F
2
\ u1 =
1 and u2 =
2
2
2 p(2r )
L
2 pr
L
\

DL
u1 2r
= 1 = 4 4 = 16
u2 r DL2

19. (d) : If Dq is the increase in temperature, then


increase in length L of metal ring is
DL
DL = aLDq or
= aDq
L
Let T be the tension developed in the
ring, then
T

T L
YADL

or T =
= YAaDq
A DL
L
Refer to figure shown here, if F is the force that one
part of the wheel applies on the other part, then
F = 2T = 2AYaDq
Y=

20. (d) :

Let mass m be suspended at a distance x from the


wire A. Let TA and TB be tensions in the wire A
(steel) and wire B (aluminium) respectively.
T
\ Stress in wire A = A
AA
TB
AB
For equal stress in both the wires,
TA
T
= B
AA AB
Stress in wire B =

2
TA AA 1 mm
1
...(i)
=
=
=
2
2
TB
AB 2 mm
As the system is in equilibrium, taking moments
about C, we get
TAx = TB (L x)
L x TA
=
x
TB
L x 1
(Using (i))
=
x
2
21. (a) : When a wire is suspended from the ceiling
and stretched under the action of a weight (F)
suspended from its other end, the force exerted by
the ceiling on it is equal and opposite to the weight.
However, the tension at any cross-section A of the
wire is just F and not 2F. Hence, tensile stress which
is equal to the tension per unit area is equal to F/A.
22. (b) : Let DL be increase in the length of the rod due
to increase in temperature of the rod. Then
DL = LaDT
where, a is the coefficient of the linear expansion,
DT is the rise in temperature and L is the length of
the rod.
DL
\
= a DT
...(i)
L
Physics for you | OctOber 15

71

Let the compressive tension of the rod be T and A


be cross-section area. Then
T/A
Y=
DL / L
DL
\ T =Y
A = Y a DT A
(Using (i))
L
11
2
Here, Y = 2 10 N m
a = 105C1
DT = 200C 0C = 200C
L = 1 m, A = 1 cm2 = 1 104 m2
\ T = 2 1011 N m2 105C1 200C
1 104 m2
= 4 104 N
23. (a) :

Increase in length DL = (PR + RQ) PQ = 2PR PQ


1/2

x2
2
2 1/2
DL = 2 (L + x ) 2 L = 2 L 1 + 2 2L
L

1 x2
= 2 L 1 +
2 L (Using binomial theorem)
2 L2

x2
=
L

DL
x2
\ Strain =
= 2
2L 2L
24. (c)

L
(LArg )
Fl
2
25. (a) : Using, Dl =
=
YA
YA
weight of wire acts at its centre of mass,
l
i.e., l =
2
L2 Arg L2rg
\ Dl =
=
2YA
2Y
2
8 1.5 103 10
=
= 9.6 102 m
6
2 5 10
26. (c) : Youngs modulus, Y =
DL
F
or
= 2
L pr Y
For the same force,
\

72

DLB
DL
= 2 A
LB
LA
DLB

DL
100 = 2 A 100 = 2%
LB

LA
Fl
ADl
Fl DlS FS lS AB YB
or Dl =
;
=

AY DlB FB lB AS YS

27. (b) : Youngs modulus, Y =

or

DlS 3 mg
1 1
3a
=
a 2 = 2

DlB 2 mg
b c 2b c

28. (a) : To twist wire through the angle dq, it is


necessary to do the work
dW = tdq
10
p
p
and q = 10 =
=
rad
60 180 1080
q

W = t dq =
0

W=

pr 4 q dq pr 4 q2
=
2l
4l

5.9 10 105 p (2 105 )4 p2


11

104 4 5 102 (1080)2

W = 1.253 1012 J
29. (d) : Given, Poissons ratio = 0.5. It shows that
the density of material is constant. Therefore, the
change in volume of the wire is zero. Thus
V = A l = a constant
logV = logA + logl
Dl
DA
=
l
A
Dl
100 = (4) = 4%
or % increase in length =
l
30. (c) : In the region OA, the graph is linear showing
that stress is proportional to the strain. Thus, in this
region Hookes law is obeyed.
\

DV DA Dl
=
+ = 0 or
V
A
l

FL

pr 2 DL

DLB
2
2
LB
r Y 2 1
= A A = =2
DLA rB YB 1 2
LA
Physics for you | OctOber 15

The point D on the graph is known as ultimate


tensile strength.
The point E on the graph is known as fracture point.
nn

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just cant get


answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. When comets enter the Earths atmosphere, they


burn up. But when space shuttles re-enter they do
not. Why?
Neetu Verma (UP)
Ans. Meteorites and comets do not generally land
unharmed at the surface of the Earth. In spite of their
random and uncontrolled entry, many a time, pieces
of meteorites do escape complete annihilation during
their trip through the atmosphere. The space shuttle,
on the other hand, is brought into the atmosphere
along a controlled and precisely calculated glide
path to reduce heating due to friction. In addition,
ablative coatings that dissipate heat through high
temperature sublimation protect the critical surfaces
of the shuttle. These coatings might be made of a
ceramic or composite material.
Q2. Why does water condense on the inside surface of
the car windshield during the monsoon?

Ans. The determination could be made by noticing the


order of the colors in the spectrum relative to the
direction of the original beam of white light. For a
prism, in which the separation of light is a result
of dispersion, the violet light will be refracted more
than the red light, so the order of the spectrum will be
from red, closest to the original direction, to violet.
For a diffraction grating, the angle of diffraction
increases with wavelength. Thus, the spectrum from
the diffraction grating will have colors in the order of
violet, closest to the original direction, to red.
Q4. Suction cups can be used to hold objects onto
surfaces. Why dont astronauts use suction cups to
hold onto the outside surface of the space shuttle?
Arjun Sharma (Haryana)

Ans. A suction cup works because air is pushed out


from under the cup when it is pressed against a
surface. When the cup is released, it tends to spring
back a bit, causing the trapped air under the cup to
expand. This expansion causes a reduced pressure
inside the cup. Thus, the pressure difference between
the atmospheric pressure on the outside of the cup
against the surface. For astronaut in orbit around the
Earth, almost no air exists outside the surface of the
spacecraft. Thus, if a suction cup were to be pressed
against the pressure outside surface of the spacecraft,
the pressure difference needed to press the cup to
the surface is not present. So suction cups do not get
stick to the surface of space shuttle.

solution of sePtember 2015 crossword

Arun Nair (Kerala)

Ans. The inside of a car whose windows are rolled up can


get quite humid because of the moisture in the exhaled
breath of passengers. Also, the temperature inside
the car is higher than the outside and, sometimes,
because of heat leaking into the cabin from the
engine compartment. The rainwater cools the
windshield and the windows of the car. On touching
these glass surfaces, the inside air cools below the
dew point and condenses, which often blocks the
drivers view. In modern cars, the windshield is often
equipped with embedded elements (at the rear) and
hot air blower (at the front). If your car has neither,
try opening the windows just a little, to increase
the exchange of air, this should help equalise the
temperature and/or moisture content and should
clear the condensation.
Q3. White light enters through an opening in an opaque
box, exits through an opening on the other side of
the box, and a spectrum of colors appears on the
wall. How would one determine whether the box
contains a prism or a diffraction grating?
Rashmi Agarwal (Delhi)

WinnErS (September 2015)


Ajay Chauhan (Bihar)
Dibyakanti Kumar (WB)
Solution Senders (August 2015)
Sumit Sharma (Delhi)
Sahil Gupta (WB)
neha Gupta (UP)
Physics for you | OctOber 15

73

= 2 p Ax 3dx + Bx 4 dx

Solution Set-26

1. (c): Heat current, Q = Q1 + Q2

2 A(T1 T2 ) 1A(T1 T2 ) 2 A(T1 T2 )


=
+
d
d
d
1 + 2
=
2
2 (a) : Thermal expansion of Cu = lacT
F l
Elastic contraction of Cu =
A Yc
F l
Net expansion of Cu = lacT
A Yc
F
Either steel plate is subjected to the tensile force
2
from the sides of the Cu plate.
F
l
Net expansion of steel = la sT +

2 A Ys
The plus sign is on account of the fact that there is
elastic expansion, of steel plates. Since the plates suffer
same net expansion
F l
F l
\ lacT
= la sT +
A Yc
2 A Ys
2 AYcYs (ac a s )T
Solving, we get F =
2Ys + Yc
9M
3. (b) : Mass per unit area of disc =
p
R2
Mass of removed portion of disc
2

9M
p R = M
2
3
pR
Moment of inertia of removed portion about an axis
passing through centre of disc and
3
R/
perpendicular to the plane of disc,
2R/3
using theorem of parallel axis is
O
R
2
2
M R
1
I1 =
+ M 2R = MR 2
3
2 3
2
When portion of disc would not
have been removed, then the moment of inertia of
9
complete disc about the given axis is I 2 = MR 2
2
So moment of inertia of the disc with removed portion,
about the given axis is
9
1
I = I2 I1 = MR 2 MR 2 = 4MR 2
2
2
4. (c) : Consider an elemental ring of thickness dx at a
distance x from its centre.
Area of this ring is 2pxdx
Moment of inertia of ring,
dI = (A + Bx)2pxdx x2
\ Moment of inertia of disc,
=

I = dI = ( A + Bx )2 px 3dx
74

Physics for you | OctOber 15

Aa 4 Ba5
On solving, we get, I = 2 p
+

5
4
5. (b) : Frequency of fundamental note in an open
v
organ pipe u =
2L
Frequency just audible to a person of normal hearing
= 20 Hz
340
340
;L=
( v = 340 m s 1 )
= 8.5 m
\ 20 =
2L
40
1
1
1
6. (b) : As u , u , u
L
D

2L 2D
uA LB DB

=
B = A A
=4
uB LA DA A
LA DA

So, we get uA = 4uB

log(umax / umin )
log 2
Here, umax = 20000 Hz and umin = 20 Hz
log(20000 / 20)
N=
= 10
log 2
8. (b) : Frequency of nth harmonic or (n 1)th overtone
nv
must be just equal to or less than 20000 Hz
2L
7. (c): Number of octaves =

20000 2 L 20000 2 0.15


nv
=
= 18
= 20000 \ n =
v
330
2L

i.e., 17th overtone


dq V
dq dR V
=

=
dt R
dR dt R
dq 5 V

=
dR 60 R
40 dR
dR
dq = 12V
q = 12V
= 12V ln2 = 120 ln2 C
R
R
20
NE
10. (b) : Here, I =
R + Nr
Let n cells are reversed
N
I (N 2n)E
N
n=
=
3=
3
3
R + Nr
(N 2n)
9. (b) : I =

nn
Solution Senders of Physics Musing
sET-26
1. Sayan Rakshit
2. Arnab Pauli (WB)
3. Pratim Majumdar (Gujarat) 4. Debdutta Bose
sET-25
1. Abinav Mittal (Haryana)
2. Sakshi Saxena (Delhi)

Series 5
CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER :
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter | Atoms and Nuclei
Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.


(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section
E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

section-A

1. It is harder to remove a free electron from Cu than


from Na. Which metal has greater work function?
Which has higher threshold frequency ?
2. A radioactive isotope of silver has half-life of
20 minutes. What fraction of the original mass
would remain after one hour?
3. Write a typical nuclear reaction in which a large
amount of energy is released in the process of
nuclear fission.
4. The energy of an electron in the nth orbit of H-atom
is given by En = 13.6/n2 eV. Find the energy
required to take an electron from ground state to
the second excited state.
5. Define atomic mass unit. Write its energy equivalent.
section-b

6. Explain with an example, whether the neutron to


proton ratio increases or decreases during
(i) alpha decay and
(ii) beta decay.

7. The value of ground state energy of hydrogen atom


is 13.6 eV.
(i) What does the negative sign signify?
(ii) How much energy is required to take an electron
in this atom from the ground state to the first
excited state?
8. An electromagnetic wave of wavelength l is incident
on a photosensitive surface of negligible work
function. If the photoelectrons emitted from this
surface have the de Broglie wavelength l1, prove
2mc 2
that l =
l1 .
h
9. Which level of the doubly ionized lithium (Li++)
has the same energy as the ground state energy of
the hydrogen atom? Compare the orbital radii of
the two levels.
10. Red light however it is bright, cannot produce the
emission of electrons from a clean zinc surface,
but even weak ultraviolet radiation can do so; why?
OR
If 200 MeV energy is released in the fission of a
single nucleus 235
92U, how many fissions must occur
per second to produce a power of 1 kW?
Physics for you | OctOber 15

75

section-c

11. Show that the speed of an electron in the innermost


orbit of H-atom is 1/137 times the speed of light in
vacuum.
12. The deuteron is bound by nuclear forces just as
H-atom is made up of p and e bound by electrostatic
forces. If we consider the force between neutron
and proton in deuteron as given in the form of a
Coulomb potential but with an effective charge e:
1 e2
F=
4 p0 r
Estimate the value of (e/e) given that the binding
energy of a deuteron is 2.2 MeV.
13. (a) A monoenergetic electron beam with electron
speed of 5.20 106 m s1 is subjected to a
magnetic field of 1.30 104 T, normal to the
beam velocity. What is the radius of the circle
traced by the beam, given e/m for electron
equals 1.76 1011 C kg1.
(b) Is the formula you employ in (a) valid for
calculating radius of the path of a 20 MeV
electron beam? If not, in what way is it modified?
14. Find the height of potential barrier for a head-on
collision of two deuterons. The effective radius of
deuteron can be taken to be 2 fm. Note that height of
potential barrier is given by the Coulomb repulsion
between two deuterons when they just touch each
other.
15. (a) For what kinetic energy of a neutron will
the associated de Broglie wavelength be
1.40 1010m?
(b) Also find the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron,
in thermal equilibrium with matter having an
3
average kinetic energy of kT at 300 K.
2
16. An electron and a proton are accelerated through
the same potential. Which one of the two has
(i) greater value of de Broglie wavelength associated
with it and
(ii) less momentum? Justify your answer.
OR
(i) What characteristic property of nuclear force
explains the constancy of binding energy per
nucleon (BE/A) in the range of mass number A
lying 30 < A < 170?
(ii) Show that the density of nucleus over a wide
range of nuclei is constant independent of mass
number A.
76

Physics for you | OctOber 15

17. A source of light of frequency u > u0 is placed at


2 m from the cathode of a photocell. The stopping
potential is found to be V0. If the distance of the
light source is halved, state with reason what changes
occur in
(i) stopping potential
(ii) photoelectric current, and
(iii) maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted.
18. Why are de Broglie waves associated with a moving
football not visible? The wavelength, l, of a photon
and the de Broglie wavelength of an electron have
the same value. Show that the energy of the photon
2lmc
times the kinetic energy of the electron,
is
h
where m, c and h have their usual meanings.
19. Write Einsteins photoelectric equation. State clearly
how this equation is obtained using the photon
picture of electromagnetic radiation.
Write the three salient features observed in
photoelectric effect which can be explained using
this equation.
20. Deuteron is a bound state of a neutron and a proton
with a binding energy B = 2.2 MeV. A g-ray of energy
E is aimed at a deuteron nucleus to try to break it
into a (neutron + proton) such that the n and p move
in the direction of the incident g-ray. If E = B, show
that this cannot happen. Hence, find how much bigger
than B must E be for such a process to happen.
21. (a) Using Bohrs second postulate of quantization
of orbital angular momentum show that the
circumference of the electron in the nth orbital
state in hydrogen atom is n times the de Broglie
wavelength associated with it.
(b) The electron in hydrogen atom is initially in
the third excited state. What is the maximum
number of spectral lines which can be emitted
when it finally moves to the ground state?
22. Find the energy equivalent of one atomic mass unit,
first in joule and then in MeV. Using this, express
the mass defect of 168O in MeV/c2.
section-D

23. Mr. Raju a daily wages worker got affected by cancer.


On knowing about it all his coworkers started
avoiding him, fearing that it was contagious. Mr.
Raju felt very depressed. Mr. Rahul a close friend
immediately took Mr. Raju to radiologist who
examined him and said it was the begining stage
of cancer and it can be easily cured and he also

certified that it is not a comunicable disease.


(i) What moral values did Mr. Rahul exhibit?
(ii) A radioactive substance X has a half life of
140 days. Initially it is 8 g. Find the time for this
substance X when it is reduced to 1 g.
section-e

24. State the basic postulates of Bohrs theory of atomic


spectra. Hence obtain an expression for radius of
orbit and the energy of orbital electron in hydrogen
atom.
OR
What do you mean by binding energy? Draw the
graph to show variation of binding energy per
nucleon with mass number. Explain the graph.
25. Describe Davisson and Germer experiment to
establish the wave nature of electrons. Draw a
labelled diagram of the apparatus used.
OR
(a) Describe in detail alpha particle scattering
experiment along with diagrams?
(b) How can you estimate the size of nuclei?
26. (i) Compare the properties of a-particles
b-particles and g-particles.
(ii) Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion.
In a fusion reaction
2
3
4
1 H + 1 H 2 He + n
Find the amount of energy (in MeV) released.

( ) = 2.014102 u
m ( ) = 3.016049 u m ( 24 H ) = 4.002603 u
2

(Given m
3
1H

2
1H

mn = 1.00867 u; 1u = 931.5 MeV/c .)

OR
State and explain the laws of radioactive
disintegration. Hence define disintegration constant
and half life period. Establish relation between
them.
solutions

1. Since we need more energy to remove an electron


from Cu than an electron from Na, Cu (4.65 eV)
has greater work function (f0) than Na (2.75 eV).
Since f0 = hu0, u0 = f0/h; u0 threshold frequency
(u0) for Cu is more than that for Na.
2. Number of half-lives,
n=

Total time of disintegration


Half- life

60 min
=3
20 min

N 1 1
= = .
N0 2 8

\
3.

Nuclear fission reaction is


235
1
144
89
1
92 U + 0n 56Ba + 36 Kr + 3(0 n) + 200 MeV

4. In ground state n = 1, so E1 = 13.6 eV


In second excited state n = 3, so E3 =

13.6
32

= 1.51 eV

= 1.51 eV
Required energy is
E = E3 E1 = 1.51 + 13.6 or E = 12.09 eV

5. 1 atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12th of the mass


of the 126 C atom. 1 amu = 1.66 1027 kg.
In terms of energy, 1 amu = 931.5 MeV.
6. (i) 92U238 90Th234 + 2He4
Neutron to proton ratio before a-decay
238 92 146
=
=
92
92
Neutron to proton ratio after a-decay
234 90 144
=
=
90
90
As

144 146
>
90
92

Thus, the neutron to proton ratio increases in an


a-decay.
(ii)

83 Bi

210

84 Po210 +

1e

+u

Neutron to proton ratio before b-decay


=

210 83 127
=
83
83

Neutron to proton ratio after b-decay


210 84 126
=
=
84
84
126 127
As
<
84 83
Thus, the neutron to proton ratio decreases in
b-decay.
7. (i) The negative sign signifies that the electron is
bound to the nucleus and the force is attractive.
So, energy has to be supplied to remove the
electron from the nucleus.
(ii) Energy of hydrogen atom in nth state is
13.6
En = 2 where, n = 1, 2, 3,
n
In the ground state, n = 1
Physics for you | OctOber 15

77

E1 =

13.6

= 13.6 eV

12
In the first excited state, n = 2
13.6
E2 = 2 = 3.4 eV
2
\ Required energy = E2 E1
= (3.4) (13.6) = 10.2 eV
8.

As the work function of metal can be neglected, so


KE of the emitted electron = energy of X-ray
photon,
p2 hc
2mhc
1 2
= or p =
mv = hu or
2m l
l
2
h
h
hl
=
=
p
2mc
2mhc / l
hl
l12 =
2mc
2mc 2
l=
l1
h

Also, l1 =
or
or

9. As En = 13.6
Z2
n2

Z2
n2

, for the same energy

= constant, i.e.,

Z12
n12

Z22
n22

For hydrogen (in the ground state), Z1 = 1, n1 = 1.


For Li++, Z2 = 3
12

Thus,
or

12

(3)2
n22

n2 = 3

Further, as r =
r

0 n2 h2
p mZe

n r1 n12 / Z1
, =
Z r2 n22 / Z2
2

(\ 3rd level of Li++ will have


the same energy)

h2

0 2 = constant
pme

r1 (1) / 1 1
r
2 =3
=
=
r2 (3)2 / 3 3
r1
where the subscripts 1 and 2 stand for hydrogen
and Li++ respectively.
or

10. The photoemission of electrons does not depend


on the intensity but it depends on the frequency
and hence on the energy of photon of incident
light. If the energy of photon is greater than the
work function, the photoemission of electrons
results however weak the incident radiation may
78

Physics for you | OctOber 15

be. The energy of photon of red light is less than


the work function of zinc, so red light cannot emit
photoelectrons. The energy of photon of ultraviolet
light is greater than the work function of zinc,
so ultraviolet light can emit photoelectrons.
OR
Energy released in the fission of a single nucleus
of 235
92U
= 200 MeV = 200 (1.6 1013 J) = 3.2 1011 J
Energy required per second
= Power Time
= 1 kW 1 s = 1000 J
If n is the number of fissions required per second to
produce an energy of 1000 J,
1000J
n=
= 3.125 1013
3.2 1011 J
11. Speed of an electron in the innermost (n = 1) orbit
of H-atom is
2p ke 2 2p ke 2
.c
v=
=
h
ch
=

2p 9 109 (1.6 1019 )2

3 108 6.63 1034


1
c=
c
137
12. We know that binding energy of
hydrogen atom in ground state,
me 4
(i)
E = 2 2 = 13.6 e V
8 0 h
Replacing e by e and m by m, reduced mass of
neutron proton,
M M M 1836m
m =
=
=
= 918 m
M+M 2
2
M = mass of neutron/proton
\ Binding energy, E =

918 me , 4

8 20 h2
Dividing (ii) by (i), we get
4

= 2.2 MeV (ii)

e 2.2 106
918 =
13.6
e
e
= (176.21)1/ 4 = 3.64
e
13. (a) Here, v = 5.20 106 m s1,
B = 1.30 104 T
e
Specific charge, = 1.76 1011 C kg 1 , = 90
m

The normal magnetic field provides necessary


centripetal force to the electron beam so that it can
follow a circular path. Thus
Force on an electron = Centripetal force due to
magnetic field on an electron
mv
v
mv 2
or r =
=
or evB sin 90 =
eB (e / m)B
r
5.20 106
=
m
1.76 1011 1.30 104
= 0.227 m = 22.7 cm.
(b) The formula for radius of circular path is not
valid at very high energies because such high energy
electrons have velocities comparable to the speed of
light.
In such situation we use relativistic formula for
mass of electron.
m0
m=
, where m0 is rest mass
v2
1 2
c
m0 v
mv
Radius, r =
=

eB
v 2 eB
1 2
c
14. For head on collision, distance between centres of
two deuterons = d = 2 radius
15

d = 4 fm = 4 10

charge of each deuteron, e = 1.6 1019 C


Potential energy
9 109 (1.6 1019 )2
e2
J
U=
=
4 p0 d
4 1015
9 1.6 1.6 1014
=
keV = 360 keV
4 1.6 1016
As P.E. = 2 K.E. of each deuteron = 360 keV
360
\ K.E. of each deuteron =
= 180 keV
2
h
15. (a) de Broglie wavelength, l =
2mE
\ Kinetic energy (E) of neutron,
(6.63 1034 )2
h2
E=
=
2ml2 2 1.677 1027 (1.40 1010 )2
= 6.686 1021 J
=
(b)
80

6.686 1021
1.6 10

E=

19

= 4.174 102 eV.

3
kT
2

Physics for you | OctOber 15

where k = Boltzman constant


\

l=

2 mE

h
3 mkT
6.63 10 34

3 1.677 10 27 1.38 10 23 300


6.63 10 10
20.8

6.63 10 10
m
4.56

= 1.45 1010 m = 0.145 nm.


16. When a charged particle of charge, q and mass m is

accelerated under a potential difference V, let v be


the velocity acquired by the particle. Then
1 2
qV = mv or mv = 2qVm
2
h
h
1
=
(i) l =
or l
mv
2qVm
qm
q m
\ le = p p = e 1837me > 1
lp
qe me
e me
So, le > lp, i.e., greater value of de Broglie wavelength
is associated with electron as compared to proton.
(ii) Momentum of particle, p = mv =
\ p
Hence,

2qVm

qm
pe
qe me
me
e
=
=

<1
pp
q pmp
e 1837me

So, pe < pp, i.e. lesser momentum is associated with


electron as compared to proton.
OR
(i) The constancy of the binding energy per nucleon
in the range 30 < A < 170 is a consequence
of the fact that the nuclear force is shortranged. Consider a particular nucleon inside a
sufficiently large nucleus. It will be under the
influence of only some of its neighbours, which
come within the range of the nuclear force.
If any other nucleon is at a distance more than
the range of the nuclear force from the particular
nucleon it will have no influence on the binding
energy of the nucleon under consideration. The
property that a given nucleon influences only
nucleons close to it is also referred to as saturation
property of the nuclear force.
(ii) Radius of nucleus, R = R0(A)1/3
where R0 = 1.2 1015 m and A is the mass number
of the nucleus

Volume of nucleus, V = 4 pR3


3
4
4
= p(R0 A1/3 )3 = pR03 A
3
3
Mass of the nucleus
Density of nucleus =
Volume of the nucleus
mA
m
3m
=
=
=
4 3
4 3 4 pR03
pR0 A
pR
3
3 0
As m and R0 are constants, therefore density of the
nucleus is independent of A and is constant.
Using m = 1.67 1027 kg, R0 = 1.2 1015 m
3 1.67 1027
=
= 2.3 1017 kg m 3
15 3
4 3.14 (1.2 10 )
17. Given that the source of frequency u > u0.
Distance of source from cathode of photocell = 2 m.
Stopping potential = V0
If distance of light source from cathode of photocell
is halved, intensity of light increases.
(i) Stopping potential will remain the same as it is
independent of the intensity of the source of
light.
(ii) Photoelectric current is directly proportional to
the intensity of incident light. So it will increase.
(iii) Maximum velocity of photoelectrons, emitted
remains unchanged, because it depends upon the
frequency of incident light, which is not changing.
h
18. de Broglie wavelength, l =
mv
Due to large mass of a football, the de Broglie
wavelength associated with the moving football
is very small, so its wave character is not visible.
de Broglie wavelength of an electron is
h
h
l = or p =
p
l
p2
Kinetic energy of the electron, K =
2m
h2
\ K=
...(i)
2ml2
hc
Energy of the photon, E = hu =
( l is same)
l
...(ii)
Divide (ii) by (i), we get
E hc 2ml2 2lmc
= 2 =
K l
h
h
or Energy of the photon
2lmc
=
kinetic energy of the electron
l

19. Einsteins photoelectric equation


Kmax = hu f0
According to Plancks quantum theory, light
radiations consist of small packets of energy called
quanta. One quantum of light radiation is called a
photon.
Energy of a photon, E = hu
where h is Plancks constant and u is the frequency
of light.
When a photon falls on a photosensitive metal
surface, the energy of the photon (= hu) is spent
in two ways :
(i) A part of the energy of the photon is used in
liberating the electron from the metal surface
which is equal to the work function f0 of the
metal.
(ii) The rest of the energy of the photon is used in
imparting the maximum kinetic energy Kmax
to the emitted photoelectron.
If vmax is the maximum velocity of the emitted
photoelectron and m is its mass, then
Maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectron,
1 2
K max = mvmax
2
1 2
\ hu = f0 + mvmax
or K max = hu f0
2
This equation is called Einsteins photoelectric
equation.
The salient features observed in photoelectric effects
are :
(i) Kmax is independent of the intensity of incident
radiation.
(ii) Kmax depends upon the frequency of incident
radiation.
(iii) Below the threshold frequency no emission
of photoelectrons takes place, no matter how
intense the incident light is.
20. Applying principle of conservation of energy,
2
pn2 p p
E B = Kn + Kp =
(i)
+
2m 2m
From law of conservation of momentum,
pn + pp = E/c
when E = B,
from equation (i), pn = pp = 0
\ Process cannot take place.
For process to take place, let E be slightly bigger
than B so that E = B + l, (l << B.)
Physics for you | OctOber 15

81

2
pn2 p p
l=
+
2m 2m
1 2
l=
[ p p + ( p p E /c)2 ]
2m

E
E E2
pp =
2 ml
2

2c
4c 2c

For pp (momentum of proton) to be real, the


discriminant must be positive.

E2 E2
2 ml 0
2
4c 2c

or

l=

E2
4mc 2

B2
4mc 2

21. (a) According to Bohrs second postulate


quantization of angular momentum
mvnrn = n

nh
2pmvn
where h is the Plancks constant

(1, 4) Page No. 527 (MTG Excel in Physics)

...(i)

Circumference of the electron in the nth orbital state


in hydrogen atom,
nh
2prn = 2p
(Using (i))
2pmvn
=n

h
mvn

h
mvn

(4)(4 1)
2

...(iii)

=6

Physics for you | OctOber 15

OR

26. (i) Refer point 8.4(8, 9, 10), page no. 536 (MTG
Excel in Physics).
(ii) Refer point 8.5(4, 5), page no. 539 (MTG Excel
in Physics).

22. 1 amu = 1.6605 1027 kg


To convert it into energy units, we multiply it by
c2 and find that energy equivalent
82

25. Refer point 7.4(6) Page No. 493 (MTG Excel in


Physics)
Refer point 8.1 Page No. 525 (MTG Excel in
Physics).

From (ii) and (iii), we get


2prn = nl
(b) Number of spectral lines obtained due to
transition of electron from n = 4 to n = 1 is
N=

OR
Refer Point 8.3 (12, 13, 15) Page No. 534 (MTG
Excel in Physics)

...(ii)

But de Broglie wavelength of the electron


l=

23. (i) Positive attitude, encouraging nature, timely


help, creating awareness.
(ii) N/N0 = (1/2)n
or, (1/8)n = (1/2)n
or, (1/2)3 = (1/2)n
Therefore n = 3
T = 3 140 = 420 days.
24. Refer Point 8.1 (4) Page No. 526 and Point 8.2

h
2p

or rn =

= 1.6605 1027 (2.9979 108)2 kg m2 s2.


= 1.4924 1010 J
1.4924 1010
9
=
eV = 0.9315 10 eV = 931.5 MeV
19
1.602 10
or 1 amu = 931.5 MeV/c2
For 168O, Dm = 0.13691 amu = 0.13691 931.5 MeV/c2
= 127.5 MeV/c2
The energy needed to separate 168O into its
constituents is thus 127.5 MeV/c2.

2
1H

+ 13H
24 He + 10n
Loss in mass in the given nuclear reaction is

( ) ( ) (

) ( )

Dm = m 12 H + m 13 H m 24 He m 10 n

or Dm = 2.014102 + 3.016049
4.002603 1.00867
or Dm = 0.018878 u
So, energy released in the reaction is
E = Dmc2 = 0.018878 931.5 MeV
or E = 17.585 MeV
OR
Refer point 8.1 Page No. 525 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
nn

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Viswanathan, Vice Chancellor Dr. V. Raju, Pro-Vice Chancellors
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nn
Physics for you | OctOber 15

83

Contd. from page no. 14

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get


3
R
R2
9
=
or
= 2
5
25 R + 82
R2 + 82

25R2 = 9R2 + 9(8)2


16R2 = 9 8 8
988 38
\ R2 =
=
= 6 cm
16
4

14. (8) : Let F1 be the force on q1 due to q2 and F2 be


that due to q3.
As q1 > 0, q2 < 0, the charge q3 should be positive

to get the net force F .

15. (7) :

Using the concept of area of triangle


1
1
PD 5x = 3x 4 x
2
2
12 x
\ PD =
5
QD = (PQ)2 (PD)2 = 9 x 2

144 x 2 9 x
=
25
5

9 x 16 x
=
5
5
Magnetic field at P due to current elements PQ
and PR is zero as the point P is on the conductor.
Therefore, magnetic field at P due to current
element QR is
I
B = 0 (sin 1 + sin 2 )
4 PD
and DR = 5x

tan =
\

F2

, F1 =

Kq1q2

16
F1
3 q3 16
=
4 9 q2

\ q3 =

, F2 =

Kq1q3
9

81 9
27
27
q2 (3) =
= C
64 8
64
64
2

1
= 1 + C
8
Hence n = 8

84

1
K = 4

Physics for you | OctOber 15

B=
=
\

0 I 5 (9 x / 5) (16 x / 5)
+

4 12 x 3x
4x

0 I 5 3 4 7 0 I
+ =
48 x 5 5 48 x
k=7

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across

3. A type of magnetic tape designed for


computer storage and backup. (3)
6. Large groups of wind turbines. (4, 5)
8. Electricity produced in a power plant by
fission of uranium atom. (7)
9. Prefix for 1024. (5)
12. Electronic circuit having two stable
state. (8)
15. The most common type of battery. (3, 4)
17. The measure of gravity pulling on
mass. (6)
18. A variable that gives your location relative
to an origin. (8)
22. A device for measuring hardness of
matter. (11)
26. The variable parameter, by means of
which information is conveyed through
an electronic circuit or system. (6)
28. A device capable of making the
performance of mechanical work
easier. (7)
29. The current atomic model. (5)

Cut Here

4
5
6

8
9
10
12

11
13

15

14
16

17

19

18

20
22

21
23

24
25

26

27
28

Down
1. A ray that does not propagate in a plane
that contain both the object point and
optical axis. (4, 3)
2. A Kmeson. (4)
3. Used on a bicycle to generate electricity. (6)
4. Streams of positive ions produced in a discharge tube
by boring holes in the cathode. (5, 4)
5. The point on the celestial sphere that lies directly
above an observer. (6)
7. A material which darkens under electron bombardment
and recovers on heating. (9)
10. A set of quantum number that uniquely identify the
type of particle it is. (6)
11. Solid carbon dioxide, used as a refrigerant. (3, 3)
13. An a.c. component superimposed on a d.c. (6)
14. A form of differential manometer with two sealed
bulbs attached to the limbs. (10)

29

16. Weight is measured in the same unit as this physical


quantity. (5)
19. Familiar form of renewable energy. (3)
20. A glass mirror or metal mirror for producing
interference fringes in overlapping beams. (5, 6)
21. Sources of energy that is formed from the remains of
living organisms that were buried millions of years
ago. (6, 5)
23. The galaxy in which earth is located. (5, 3)
24. A mineral crystal that exhibit its dichroism. (10)
25. Having a low degree of reverberation with little or no
reflection of sound. (8)
27. An electronic circuit with a single output and one or
more inputs. (4)

Physics for you | OctOber 15

85

86

Physics for you | OctOber 15