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Volume 23

Managing Editor
Mahabir Singh
Editor
Anil Ahlawat
(BE, MBA)

No. 12

December 2015

Corporate Office:
Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area, Gurgaon -122 003 (HR).
Tel : 0124-4951200 e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

CONTENTS

Regd. Office:
406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi - 110029.

Physics Musing Problem Set 29

JEE Workouts

12

AIPMT Practice Paper 2016

19

You Ask We Answer

26

Live Physics

27

Thought Provoking Problems

28

JEE Accelerated Learning Series


Brain Map

31
46

Ace Your Way CBSE XI

57

Ace Your Way CBSE XII

64

Physics Musing Solution Set 28

73

Exam Prep 2016

75

Core Concept

80

Crossword

85

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Physics for you | december 15

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

29
single oPtion correct tyPe

1. A uniformly thick plate in the shape of an arrowhead


has dimensions as shown. The centre of mass lies at
a point

6 cm

3 cm

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

6 cm

1.5 cm to the right of O


3 cm to the right of O
O itself
1 cm to the right of O.

2. A hollow double concave lens is made of a very


thin transparent material. It can be filled with water
(refractive index mw) or either of two liquids L1 or
L2 with refractive indices m1 and m2 respectively
(m2 > mw > m1). The lens will not diverge a parallel
beam of light incident on it, if it is filled with
(a) L2 and immersed in L1
(b) L2 and immersed in water
(c) water and immersed in L1
(d) air and immersed in either water or L1 or L2.
3. A particle of positive charge q and mass m enters
with velocity v j at the origin in a magnetic field
B(k ) which is present in the whole space. The
charge makes a perfectly inelastic collision with
an identical particle (having same charge) at rest
but free to move, placed at its maximum positive
y-coordinate. After collision, the combined charge
will move on trajectory
8

Physics for you | DECEmbEr 15

mv

here r = qB
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

y = rx
(x + r)2 + (y r/2)2 = r2/4
(x + r)2 + (y r/2)2 = r2/8
(x r)2 + (y + r/2)2 = r2/4

4. An elasticized conducting band is around a


spherical balloon as shown in the given figure. Its
plane passes through the center of the balloon.
A uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.04 T is
directed perpendicular to the plane of the band. Air
is let out of the balloon at 100 cm3 s1 at an instant
when the radius of the
B
balloon is 10 cm. The
induced emf in the band is
(a) 15 mV
(b) 25 mV
(c) 10 mV
Conducting
band
(d) 20 mV
5. If a direct current of value a ampere is
superimposed on an alternating current
I = b sin wt ampere flowing through a wire, what
is the effective value of the resulting current in
the circuit?
Solution Senders of Physics Musing
set-28
1. Manmohan Krishna (Bihar)
2. Anubhav Jana (WB)
3. Bhavana Krishnan (Kerala)
1.
2.
3.
4.

set-27
Sarthak Gupta (Chhattisgarh)
Dipak Agarwal (Gujarat)
S. Nikhil Panda (Visakhapatnam)
Pratim Majumdar (Gujarat)

1/2

(a) a2 b2

(b) [a2 + b2]1/2

1/2

1/2

a2

(c) + b2
2

(d) a2 + b2

= 3/2

6. A thin equiconvex lens (m = 3/2) of focal length


10 cm is cut and separated and a material of
refractive index 3 is filled between them. What will
be the focal length of this
combination?
(a) 10 cm
(b) 10/4 cm
(c) 10/3 cm
(d) None of these
7. A chain of length L and mass M is arranged as shown
in following five cases. The correct decreasing order
of potential energy possessed by chain (assumed
zero at horizontal surface) is

9. A point travelling along a straight line, traversed 1/3


of the distance with velocity v0. The remaining part
of the distance was covered with velocity v1 for half
time and with velocity v2 for the other half of the
time. Then the mean velocity of the point averaged
over the whole time of motion is
(a)

v0 + v1 + v2
v1 + v2 + 2v0

(b)

v02 + (v1 + v2 )
v1v2 + v02

(c)

3(v1 + v2 )
v1 + v2 + v0

(d)

3v0 (v1 + v2 )
v1 + v2 + 4v0

10. A current I = 3.36 (1 + 2t) 102 A increases at a


steady state in a long straight wire. A small circular
loop of radius 103 m has its plane parallel to the
wire and is placed at a distance of 1 m from the
wire. The resistance of loop is 8.4 104 W. The
approximate value of induced current in the loop
is
(a) 5.02 1011 A
(b) 3.81 1011 A
(c) 2.75 1011 A
(d) 1.23 1011 A
nn

L/2
(ii)

(i)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(iii)

(iv)

solution of november 2015 crossword

(v)

(i) > (ii) > (iii) > (iv) > (v)


(i) = (ii) > (iii) > (iv) > (v)
(i) = (ii) > (iv) > (iii) > (v)
(i) = (ii) > (iv) > (v) > (iii)

6
8

10

Physics for you | DECEmbEr 15

D
2
5

U
D

16
C

B
A

13

O
22 23
G R

N
S

T
10
A

20
A

O
U

I
19

21
F
N

17
B

11 12
T
B
A

L
4

E
Y

14
E
V
15
R
A

(b) 30 N
(d) 75 N

(a) 5 N
(c) 60 N

8. Figure shows a uniform cylinder of radius a, weight


75 N. After an off axis cylindrical hole was drilled
through it as shown, it weighed 60 N. The axes
of the two cylinders are parallel. Assuming the
cylinder does not slip on the table, determine what
the tension T in the cord must be to keep it from
moving.

2a/3

F
E

I
C

24
M

18
W
A

A
25
D

T
H
O

C
A

Winners (november 2015)


Akhil Goyal (Delhi)
Mayank Kumar (UP)
solution senders (October 2015)
Divyansh sharma (Delhi)
nitin singhal (Bihar)
Vaibhav Banerjee (WB)

one or more oPtions correct tyPe Questions class-Xii


1. A plano-convex lens of focal length 20 cm has
its plane side silvered. Which of the following
statements are correct?
(a) The radius of curvature of curved surface of
plano-convex lens is equal to half of radius of
curvature of a surface of equi-convex lens of
focal length 20 cm.
(b) An object placed at 15 cm on the axis on the
convex side of silvered plano-convex lens gives
an image at a distance of 30 cm from it.
(c) An object placed at a distance of 20 cm on the axis
on the convex side of silvered plano-convex lens
gives an image at a distance of 40 cm from it.
(d) Silvered plano-convex lens acts as a concave
mirror of focal length 10 cm.
2. In Youngs double slit experiment, phase difference
between the waves at a point on screen having
intensity less than the average intensity on screen
may be
(a) p/4
(b) 2p/3 (c) p
(d) 7p/8

3. A point charge q is placed at origin. Let E A , E B and

E C be the electric fields at three points A(1,2,3),


B(1, 1, 1) and C (2, 2, 2) due to charge q. Then

(a) E A E B
(b) E A || E C

(c) | E B | = 4 | E C |
(d) | E B | = 8 | E C |
4. An uncharged thin conducting
spherical shell A of radius a
3a
is placed concentrically with
A
a
a thick conducting spherical B
2a
shell B of inner radius 2a and
outer radius 3a as shown in the
figure. If the shell B is given a total charge +Q, then
Q
(a) charge on shell A will be
5
12

Physics for you | december 15

2Q
5
(c) charge on outer surface of shell B will be 3Q
5
Q
(d) charge on outer surface of shell B will be
5
5. The ammeter connected in following circuits has
zero resistance. The voltmeter in circuit (a) has
infinite resistance and a reading 8 V. The value
of resistance R has not been specified. Which of
the following circuits has same current in the
ammeter?
(b) charge on shell A will be

20 V

(a)

(b)

6
20 V

(c)

6
12

4
A

20 V

(d)

4
6
20 V 6
A
6
6

6. Figure shows a part of


20 V
complete circuit. At t = 0,
+q
charge on capacitor as a
C = 1F
q
function of time is given
1
by q = 3(1 et) coulomb. 20 V
R
1
P
At t = 0, mark the correct
2V
statement(s).
(a) Current through branch containing capacitor is 3 A.
(b) Current through R is 7 A.
(c) The potential at P is 14 V.
(d) The value of R is 2 W.
7. A conductor ABCDE, shaped as shown, carries
current I. It is placed in the X Y plane with the
ends A and E on the X-axis. A uniform magnetic

field of magnitude B exists in the region. The force


acting on it will be
Y

B
a

a
D

(a) zero, if B is in the X-direction


(b) lBI in the Z-direction, if B is in the Y-direction
(c) lBI in the negative Y-direction, if B is in the
Z-direction.
(d) laBI, if B is in the X-direction.
8. A circular conducting loop of radius r0 and having
resistance per unit length l as shown in the figure is
placed in a magnetic field B which is constant in
space and time. The ends of the loop are crossed
and pulled in opposite directions with

a velocity v such that the loop always

remains circular and the radius of the

v
v
loop goes on decreasing, then
vt
(a) radius of the loop changes with t as r0
p
(b) emf induced in the loop as a function of time
vt

is 2 Bv r0
p

Bv
(c) current induced in the loop is
2pl
Bv
(d) current induced in the loop is
.
pl
9. The minimum value of d so that there is a dark fringe
at O is dmin. For the value of dmin, the distance at
which the next bright fringe is formed, is x. Then
P

B
d
A

x
O

O
D

lD
(a) dmin = lD
(b) dmin =
2
dmin
(c) x =
(d) x = dmin
2
10. A ray OP of monochromatic
B
O
60
light is incident on the face
C
P
AB of prism ABCD near
135
vertex B at an incident angle
of 60 as shown in figure. If
the refractive index of the
90
75
A
D
material of the prism is 3,
which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) The ray gets totally internally reflected at face CD.
(b) The ray comes out through face AD.
14

Physics for you | december 15

(c) The angle between the incident ray and the


emergent ray is 90.
(d) The angle between the incident ray and the
emergent ray is 120.
11. An 16O nucleus is spherical and has a radius R and
4
a volume V = pR3 . According to the empirical
3
128
observations, the volume of the 54 Xe nucleus,
assumed to be spherical is V and radius is R. Then
(a) V = 8V
(b) V = 2V
(c) R = 2R
(d) R = 8R
12. In a photoelectric effect experiment, if u is the
frequency of radiations incident on the metal surface
and I is the intensity of the incident radiations, then
mark the correct statement(s).
(a) If u is increased keeping I and work function
constant, then stopping potential and maximum
kinetic energy of photoelectron increases.
(b) If distance between cathode and anode is changed,
then stopping potential remains same.
(c) If I is increased keeping u and work function
constant then stopping potential remains same
and saturation current increases.
(d) Work function is decreased keeping u and I constant
then stopping potential increases and maximum
kinetic energy of photoelectron increases.
13. The figure shows electronic
wave function for a hydrogen
atom. Then
(a) the quantum number of
this state is 6.
(b) the wavelength of this
electron is 6pr 0 (r 0 is
radius of ground state).
(c) it can go to ground state
by emitting 3 different photons.
(d) on de-excitation it emits at least one line in
infrared region of spectrum.
14. A small metallic uncharged object is
suspended between two vertical metal + +
+ +
plates having equal and opposite + +
charges, as shown in figure. Due to the + +
+ +
charges on plates, a uniform electric + +
field appears between the plates. Now, + +
the ball is touched to one of the plates
and then released. For this arrangement, select the
correct statements.
(a) Ball moves to and fro between the plates and
in both to and fro motion, it is accelerated
(speeding up).

(b) The charge of both the plates is continuously


decreasing and becomes neutral at infinite time.
(c) The charge of the system remains conserved
and it is only transferred between the plates
with the help of ball.
(d) Finally, positive plate acquires negative charge
and negative plate acquires positive charge, but
magnitude of charge on both the plates still
remains the same.
15. An electron moves in a uniform
magnetic field and follows a spiral
path as shown in figure. Which of the
following statement(s) is/are correct ?
(a) Angular velocity of the electron
remains constant.
(b) Magnitude of velocity of the electron decreases
continuously.
(c) Net force on the particle is always perpendicular
to its direction of motion.
(d) Magnitude of net force on the electron decreases
continuously.
solutions

1 1
=
f
R
1
2
For equi-convex lens,
= ( 1)
f
R
R
\ For f = f , R =
2
Let F be the focal length of silvered plano-convex lens,
1 2( 1) 1 2( 1)
=
+ =
F
R

R
1 1 ( 1)
Given, = =
f 20
R
\ F = 10 cm, i.e., it acts as concave mirror.
1 1 1
Now, + =
u v F
1 1 1 32 1
If u = 15 cm, = =
=
v 10 15 30
30
v = 30 cm
1 1 1
1
If u = 20 cm, = = v = 20 cm
v 10 20 20
I

2. (b, c, d) : As I = I0 cos2
\ Iav = 0
2
2
2 1
I < Iav cos <
2 2
1
1

< cos <


2
2
2
1. (a, c, d) : For plano-convex lens,

16

p
3p
< <
2
2

Physics for you | december 15

3. (a, c) : E A is along OA, E B is along OB and E C is

along OC.

OA = i + 2 j + 3k , OB = i + j k

and OC = 2i + 2 j + 2k

Since OA OB = 0
\EA EB

As OA is not parallel to OC ,

\ E A is not parallel to E C

Further | E | 1 | OC |= 2 | OB |
\ E B = 4 EC
r2
K (Q q) Kq Kq
4. (b, c) : VA =
+
+
=0
2a
a
Also q = q 3a
q
Qq q q
+ =0
3a
2a a
q
2Q
2Q
\ q =
q=
5
5
3Q
and Q q =
5
20 V 20 8
5. (a, d) : For circuit (a), I A =
=
=2 A
6
6
20
For circuit (b), I A = = 5 A
4
For circuit (c), IA = 0
(Balanced Wheatstones Bridge)
For circuit (d), 6 W is in parallel with 6+6 = 12 W.
6 12
Their effective resistance is
=4W
6 + 12
\ Net resistance of the circuit = 4 + 6 = 10 W
Hence, IA = 20/10 = 2 A
6. (a, b, c, d) : Current through branch containing
dq
= I = 3e t A
capacitor is
dt
At t = 0, I = 3 A in downward direction, i.e., towards
P. Let V is the potential of point P, then
q
3
20 V = + 3 1 = + 3 = 6 ( q = 3C at t = 0)
C
1
V = 14 V
Current through branch containing resistor of 1W
only is,
18 14
I2 =
= 4 A, again towards P.
1
Applying KCL at P, current through R is 7A.
Potential difference across R is, V = 14 V = 7R
R=2W
7. (a, b, c) : To find the force on a conductor of any
shape, replace the conductor by an imaginary
straight conductor joining the two ends of the
given conductor. So, if B is in x-direction, then

Physics for you | december 15

17

the imaginary straight conductor will be along the


field and the force acting on it will be zero. If B is in
y-direction, then the force will be lBI,acting along
the z-direction. Similarly, if B is in the z-direction,
then the force will be lBI, acting along the negative
y-direction.
8. (a, b, d) : Perimeter is decreasing at a rate of 2v
d
(2 pr ) = 2v
dt
dr v
v

=
\ r = (r0 t )
dt p
p
d
dr
2
=
= B 2p r
(Q = B pr )
dt
dt
v
v v
\ = 2 Bp(r0 t ) = 2 Bv(r0 t )
p
p p
2 Bvr Bv
I= =
=
R l.2 pr pl
9. (b, d) : There is a dark fringe at O if the path
\

difference, = ABO AO O =

l
2

O
D

2 D 2 + d 2 2D =

2d 2 d 2 l
=
=
2D D 2

lD
2
The bright fringe is formed at P if the path difference
= AO P ABP = 0
dmin =

= D + D 2 + x 2 D 2 + d 2 D 2 + (x d )2 = 0
=

x 2 d 2 (x 2 + d 2 2 xd )

=0
2D 2D
2D

lD
2

\ x = dmin =

Given d = dmin

10. (a, b, c) : Using Snells law at point P


sin 60
= 3 r = 30
sin r
From geometry, angle
of incidence at Q is 45
At Q,
18

3 sin(45) =

3
2

16

For O, R = R0

60

>1

Physics for you | december 15

60
30

P
90
60

45
45
30
R

1
(16) 3

1
128 3

12.
13.

14.

15.

60
60
e

11. (a, c) : R = R0 A 3

Thus, total internal


reflection takes place.
At point R,
angle of incidence is 30.
By symmetry r = 60
\ Net deviation is 90.

For

128
Xe,
54

R = R0

1
(128) 3

\ R =
R = 2R and V = 4 pR 3 = 8V
16
3
(a, b, c, d)
(b, c) :
(a) n = 3
(b) 2pr = nl 2p32r0 = 3l l = 6pr0
(c) 3C1 = 3
(d) All lines in Balmer or Lyman series.
(a, b, c) : Let us consider that ball is first touched to
positive plate, as a result, it acquires positive charge.
Due to electric field from positive to negative plate,
it accelerates and comes into contact with negative
plate. There it releases positive charge and acquires
negative charge, thus again accelerating from
negative to positive plate and this process repeats.
(a, b, d) : (a) Period of revolution of a charged
particle moving in a uniform magnetic field is given
2pm
by T =
. This period T does not depend upon
qB
speed of the particle. In this particular question,
the moving particle is an electron. Hence, its mass
and charge both are constant. Magnetic field is also
uniform. It means, the electron moves with constant
angular velocity.
(b) If a charged particle experiences a resisting
force against its motion, then it follows a decreasing
radius spiral path. In this question, the electron is
moving along a spiral path of decreasing radius. It
means, its speed is decreasing continuously.
(c) Since speed of the electron is continuously
decreasing, therefore it is experiencing a tangential
retardation. It is possible only when the component
of resultant force opposite to the direction of
motion of electron has non-zero value. It means,
net force on the electron cannot be perpendicular
to its direction of motion.
(d) Since speed of the electron is decreasing
continuously, therefore the force exerted by
the magnetic field (F = qvB) is also decreasing
continuously. Hence, magnitude of net force acting
on the electron is decreasing continuously.

2016

PRACTICE PAPER
1. The expression for centripetal force (F) depends
upon mass of body (m), speed of the body (v) and
the radius of circular path (r). What will be the
expression for centripetal force?
2
2
(a) F = mv
(b) F = mv
r
2r 3

2
m2v 2
(c) F = mv
(d) F =
2r
r2
2. The sum of magnitudes of two forces acting at a
point is 16 and magnitude of their resultant is 8 3.
If the resultant is at 90 with the force of smaller
magnitude, their magnitudes are
(a) 3, 13
(b) 2, 14
(c) 5, 11
(d) 4, 12

3. When the angle of projection is 75, a ball falls 10 m


shorter of the target. When the angle of projection
is 45, it falls 10 m ahead of the target. Both are
projected from the same point with the same speed
in the same direction, the distance of the target
from the point of projection is
(a) 15 m (b) 30 m (c) 45 m
(d) 10 m
4. A rectangular block of mass m and area of cross-section
A floats in a liquid of density r. If it is given a
small vertical displacement from equilibrium, it
undergoes oscillation with a time period T. Then
(a) T m
(b) T r
1
1
(c) T
(d) T
r
A
5. 70 calories of heat are required to raise the
temperature of 2 moles of an ideal diatomic gas at
constant pressure from 30C to 35C. The amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of the same
gas through same range (30C to 35C) at constant
volume is
(a) 30 cal (b) 50 cal (c) 70 cal (d) 90 cal
6. Two masses m1 and m2 are suspended together by a
massless spring of constant k. When the masses are

in equilibrium, m1 is removed without disturbing


the system; then the amplitude of vibration is
(a) m1 g/k
(b) m2 g/k
k
(m1 + m2 ) g
(c)
k
m1
(m2 m1 ) g
m2
(d)
k
7. Two wires A and B are of the same material. Their
lengths are in the ratio 1 : 2 and the diameters are in
the ratio 2 : 1. If they are pulled by the same force,
increase in their lengths will be in the ratio
(a) 2 : 1
(b) 1 : 4
(c) 1 : 8
(d) 8 : 1
8. Two glass plates are separated by water. If surface
tension of water is 75 dynes per cm and area of
each plate wetted by water is 8 cm2 and the distance
between the plates is 0.12 mm, then the force
applied to separate the two plates is
(a) 102 dynes
(b) 104 dynes
5
(c) 10 dynes
(d) 106 dynes
9. A sings with a frequency u and B sings with a
1 th
that of A. If the energy remains the
8
same and the amplitude of A is a, then amplitude
of B is
(a) a
(b) 2a
(c) 8a
(d) 16a
10. A particle leaves the origin with an initial velocity
^

1
v = (3.0 i ) m s and a constant acceleration

^
^
a = (1.0 i 0.5 j) m s2. When the particle reaches
its maximum x-coordinate, what is the y-component
of its velocity?
(a) 2.0 m s1
(b) 1.0 m s1
1
(c) 1.5 m s
(d) 0.5 m s1
11. A circular disc rotates at 60 rpm. A coin of 18 g is
placed at a distance of 8 cm from the centre. The
centrifugal force on the coin becomes
(a) 5.7 101 N
(b) 5.7 102 N
1
(c) 3.8 10 N
(d) 3.8 102 N
frequency

Physics for you | december 15

19

12. A body of mass 5 kg is acted upon by two


perpendicular forces 8 N and 6 N. The magnitude
and direction of the acceleration of the body is
(a) 2 m s2 at an angle 37 to force 8 N
(b) 2 m s2 at an angle 57 to force 6 N
(c) 4 m s2 at an angle 37 to force 8 N
(d) 4 m s2 at an angle 57 to force 6 N.
13. The system is released from rest with
the spring initially stretched 75 mm.
The spring has a stiffness of 1050 N m1.
Find the velocity of the block after it
has dropped 12 mm. Neglect the mass
of the small pulley.
45 kg
(a) 0.37 m s1
(b) 0.45 m s1
1
1
(c) 1.13 m s
(d) 2.22 m s
14. A particle executes SHM with amplitude 0.2 m and
time period 24 s. The time required for it to move
from the mean position to a point 0.1 m from the
mean position is
(a) 2 s
(b) 3 s
(c) 8 s
(d) 12 s
15. In the figure given, the system
is in equilibrium. What is
the maximum value that W
can have if the friction
force on the 40 N block
cannot exceed 12 N?
(a) 3.45 N
(b) 6.92 N
(c) 10.35 N
(d) 12.32 N
16. A uniform metal rod is used as a bar pendulum.
If the room temperature rises by 10C and the
coefficient of linear expansion of the metal of the
rod is 2106 per C, the period of the pendulum
will have percentage change of
(a) 2 103
(b) 1 103
3
(c) 2 10
(d) 1 103
17. 250 g of water and equal volume of alcohol of
mass 200 g are replaced successively in the same
calorimeter and cooled from 60C to 55C in
130 seconds and 67 seconds respectively. If the
water equivalent of the calorimeter is 10 g, then the
specific heat of alcohol in cal g1 C1, is
(a) 1.30
(b) 0.67 (c) 0.62
(d) 0.98
18. A hose lying on the ground shoots a stream of water
upward at an angle of 60 to the horizontal with a
velocity of 16 m s1. The height at which the water
strikes the wall 8 m away is
(a) 8.96 m
(b) 10.96 m
(c) 12.96 m
(d) 6.96 m
19. Helium gas goes through a cycle ABCDA (consisting
of two isochoric and two isobaric lines) as shown in
20

Physics for you | december 15

figure. Efficiency of this cycle is nearly


(Assume the gas to be close to
ideal gas)
(a) 9.1%
(b) 10.5%
(c) 12.5%
(d) 15.4%
20. When a spring is stretched by 10 cm, the potential
energy stored is E. When the spring is stretched
by 10 cm more, the potential energy stored in the
spring becomes
(a) 2E
(b) 4E
(c) 6E
(d) 10E
21. The frequency of the first overtone of a closed pipe
of length l1 is equal to that of the first overtone of
an open pipe of length l2. The ratio of their lengths,
l1 : l2 is
(a) 2 : 3
(b) 4 : 5 (c) 3 : 5
(d) 3 : 4
22. Three blocks of mass 4 kg, 2 kg, 1 kg respectively
are in contact on a frictionless table as shown
in the figure. If a force of 14 N is applied on the
4 kg block, the contact force between the 4 kg and
the 2 kg block will be

(a) 2 N

(b) 6 N

(c) 8 N

(d) 14 N

23. A carpet of mass m made of inextensible material


is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder
of radius r and kept on a rough floor. The decrease
in the potential energy of the system, when the
carpet is unrolled to a radius r without sliding is
2

(g = acceleration due to gravity)


3
5
(a) mgr
(b) mgr
4
8
1
7
(c) mgr
(d) mgr
8
8
24. A cosmonaut is circling the earth in a satellite at
7 km s1 at a height of 630 km above the surface of
earth. The centripetal force acting on the cosmonaut
if his mass is 80 kg, is
(Take radius of the earth = 6.37 106 m)
(a) zero
(b) 560 N (c) 600 N (d) 650 N
25. Hot food cools from 94C to 86C in 2 minutes
when the room temperature is 20C. How long
would the food take to cool from 71C to 69C?
(a) 12 s
(b) 25 s (c) 36 s
(d) 42 s
26. A steel rod has a radius 9.5 mm and length
81 cm. A force 6.2 104 N stretches it along its
length. The stress in the rod is

(a) 0.95 108 N m2 (b) 1.1 108 N m2


(c) 2.2 108 N m2 (d) 3.2 108 N m2
27. Find the acceleration due to gravity on the surface
of a pulsar of mass 1.98 1030 kg and radius 12 km
rotating with time period 0.041 second.
(Take G = 6.67 1011 MKS)
(a) 9.17 1011 m s2 (b) 8.15 1011 m s2
(c) 7.32 1011 m s2 (d) 6.98 1011 m s2
28. An object floats in water with 10% of its volume
outside and in oil 30% of its volume outside. The
specific gravity of the oil is
(a) 1.3
(b) 0.33 (c) 2
(d) 7
29. The rise in the water level in a capillary tube of
radius 0.07 cm when dipped vertically in a beaker
containing water of surface tension 0.07 N m1 is
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 2 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 1 cm
(d) 3 cm
30. A circular hole of radius 1 cm is cut off from a
disc of radius 6 cm centered at origin. The centre
of hole is 3 cm away from the centre of the disc.
The position of centre of mass of the remaining disc
from the centre of disc is
3
1
(a) cm
(b)
cm
35
35
3
(c)
(d) none of these
cm
10
31. The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis
is 1.2 kg m2. Initially, the body is at rest. In order
to produce a rotational kinetic energy of 1500 J, an
angular acceleration of 25 rad s2 must be applied
about the axis for a duration of
(a) 4 s
(b) 2 s
(c) 8 s
(d) 10 s
32. A point mass m is moving along a plane inclined at
an angle q with acceleration a with
respect to smooth triangular block.
a
The triangular block is moving

horizontally with acceleration a0.


a0
The value of a is
(a) g sinq + a0 cosq (b) g sinq a0 cosq
(c) g cosq a0 sinq (d) none of these
33. A ball is projected vertically upward with a certain
initial speed. Another ball of the same mass is
projected at an angle of 60 with the vertical with
the same initial speed. At highest point of their
journeys, the ratio of their potential energies will be
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 2 : 1 (c) 3 : 2
(d) 4 : 1
34. When a rubber cord is stretched, the change
in volume with respect to change in its linear
dimensions is negligible. The Poissons ratio for
rubber is
(a) 1
(b) 0.25 (c) 0.5
(d) 0.75

35. The correct graph between the intensity of


gravitational field (IG) due to a solid sphere and
distance from its centre (r) will be
IG

IG

(a)

(b)
r

Re

IG

IG

(c)

(d)
O

Re

36. One litre of oxygen at a pressure of 1 atm and


two litres of nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 atm are
introduced into a vessel of volume 1 litre. If there is
no change in temperature, the final pressure of the
mixture of gas (in atm) is
(a) 1.5
(b) 2.5
(c) 2
(d) 4
37. The motion of a particle varies with time according
to the relation y = a sin wt + b cos wt. Then
(a) the motion is oscillatory but not SHM
(b) the motion is SHM with amplitude a + b
(c) the motion is SHM with amplitude a2 + b2
(d) the motion is SHM with amplitude

a 2 + b2 .
38. A stone is dropped into a well. If the depth of water
below the top be h and velocity of sound in air be v,
then the time after which splash of sound is heard,
will be
(a)

2h h
+
g v

(b)

2h h

g v

3h
2h h
(d)

g
g v
39. The terminal speed attained by an aluminium
sphere of radius 1 mm falling through water at 20C
will be
(Assume laminar flow, specific gravity of
Al = 2.7 and hwater = 8 104 Pl)
(a) 9.2 m s1
(b) 6.9 m s1
1
(c) 4.6 m s
(d) 2.3 m s1

^
^

^
^
40. Let r1(t ) = 3t i + 4t 2 j and r2 (t ) = 4t 2 i + 3t j
represent the positions of particles 1 and 2,

respectively as function of time t; r1(t ) and r2 (t )


are in meter and t in second. The relative speed of
the two particles at the instant t = 1 s, will be
(c)

Physics for you | december 15

21

(a) 1 m s1
(c) 5 2 m s1

(b) 3 2 m s1
(d) 7 2 m s1

41. A gas expands with temperature according to the


relation V = KT2/3. Then the work done when the
temperature changes by 60 K will be
(a) 10R
(b) 30R (c) 40R
(d) 20R
42. A particle moves in a circular orbit of radius r under
k
a central attractive force F = , k is a constant. The
r
time period of its motion shall be proportional to
(a) r1/2
(b) r
(c) r 3/2 (d) r 2/3
43. The root mean square velocity of the molecules of a
gas is 1260 m s1. The average speed of the molecules
is
(a) 1029 m s1
(b) 1161 m s1
1
(c) 1671 m s
(d) 917 m s1
44. A particle of mass M is situated at the centre of a
spherical shell of same mass and radius a. The
gravitational potential at a point situated at distance
a
from the centre, will be
2
3GM
2GM
(a)
(b)
a
a
(c) GM
(d)
a
a
^ ^ ^
45. The position of a particle is given by r = (i + 2 j k) and

^
^
^
its linear momentum is given by p = (3 i + 4 j 2 k).
4GM

The angular momentum is perpendicular to


(a) x-axis
(b) y-axis
(c) z-axis
(d) line at equal angles to all the three axes
solutions
1. (b) : According to question,

F mav br c
or F = kmav br c
k, being a dimensionless constant.
From homogeneity of dimensions,
[MLT2] = [M]a [LT1]b[L]c
or [MLT2] = [MaLb+c Tb]
Comparing the powers, we obtain
a=1
b+c=1
b=2 b=2
\ 2+c=1 c=1
kmv 2
Therefore, F = kmv 2 r 1 =
r

22

Physics for you | december 15

The experimental value of k is found to be 1 here.


2
\ F = mv
r
2. (b) : Given, A + B = 16
R = (A2 + B2 + 2AB cosq)1/2
8 3 = ( A2 + B2 + 2 AB cos q)1/2
B sin q
A + B cos q
B sin q
=
A + B cos q
A + B cosq = 0
B cosq = A

and tan 90 =
or
or
or
\

8 3 = [ A2 + B2 + 2 A( A)]1/2

or 192 = B2 A2 = (B A) (B + A) = (B A) 16
or B A = 192/16 = 12
On solving, A = 2 and B = 14
3. (b) : If range of target is R then,
u2 sin(2 75)
...(i)
= R 10
g
and

u2 sin(2 45)
= R + 10
g

u2
= R + 10
g
Putting in eqn. (i), (R + 10) sin 150 = R 10
1
or (R + 10) = R 10 or R = 30 m
2
4. (a)
5. (b) : Heat absorbed at constant pressure to increase
the temperature by dT is Q1 = nCP dT
\ Q2 = nCV dT
\ Q2 = CV or Q = Q CV
2
1
CP
Q1 CP
or

1
1
5
= 70
= 70 = 50 cal

7/5
7
6. (a) : With mass m2 alone, the extension of the
spring l is given as m2 g = kl
...(i)
...(ii)
Also, (m1 + m2)g = k(l + Dl)
The change in extension is Dl which is the amplitude
of vibration.
From eqns. (i) and (ii)
mlg = kDl
mg
or Dl = 1
k
F
L
7. (c) : Y =

2 DL
pr
Since Y and F are same for both the wires, we have
or Q2 = 70

L1
2
r1 DL1
or

I2
2
r2 DL2

DL1 r22 L1 (D2 / 2)2 L1


=
=
DL2 r12 L2 (D1 / 2)2 L2

DL1 D22 L1
D22
L
1
= 2 =
1 =
2
DL2 D1 L2 (2D2 ) 2L1 8
8. (c) : The shape of water layer between the two plates
is shown in the given figure.
Thickness of the film, d = 0.12 mm = 0.012 cm
d
Radius of the face, R =
2
Pressure difference across the surface
T 2T
= =
d
R d
Area of each plate
wetted by water, A = 8 cm2
Force required to separate the two plates is given
by
2T
F = pressure difference area =
A
d
2 75 8
5
= 10 dynes
=
0.012
u
9. (c) : u A = u, u B = , a A = a
8
1 2 1
1
E = mv = m(aw)2 = ma2w2
2
2
2
i.e., E a2 (2pu)2 or E a2u2
or

E A aA u A
=

EB aB u B

22 22
(18 103 ) (8 102 ) 12
7 7
F = 5.7 102 N
12. (a)
13. (a)
14. (a) : Here,
Amplitude, A = 0.2 m
Time period, T = 24 s
Since time is noted from the mean position, hence
displacement x of a particle from its mean position
is given by x = Asinwt
Here, x = 0.1 m
\ 0.1 = 0.2sinwt
1
= sinwt
2
p
or sin = sin wt
6
p
or wt =
6
p p T
2p

t=
=
w=

6w 6 2 p
T
p 24
=
=2 s
6 2p
15. (b) : The free-body diagram of
N
the block is as shown in the
T1
figure.
f
Q (fs)max = 12 N (Given)
40 N
\ (T1)max = 12 N
The free-body diagram of knot is as shown in the
figure.
T2sin30 = W
(i)
T2cos30 = T1
(ii)
Divide (i) by (ii), we get
W
tan30 =
T1
=4

a
2
1 = (8)
aB

or aB = 8a
10. (c) : The velocity of the particle at any time t

v = v0 + at
The x-component is
vx = vox + axt = (3 t) m s1
The y-component is
vy = voy + ayt = ( 0.5t) m s1
When the particle reaches its maximum
x-coordinate, vx = 0. i.e.,
3t=0 t=3s
The y-component of the velocity at this time is
vy = 0.5 3 = 1.5 m s1
60
= 1 rps
11. (b) : Here, u = 60 rpm =
m = 18 g = 18 103 kg 60
r = 8 cm = 8 102 m
Centrifugal force, F = mrw2 = mr(2pu)2
= 4p2mru2

or
\

W = T1tan30 = 0.577T1
Wmax = 0.577(T1)max
= 0.577 12 N = 6.92 N

16. (d)
17. (c) : Mass of water = 250 g

Mass of alcohol = 200 g


Water equivalent of calorimeter, W = 10 g
Fall of temperature = 60 55 = 5C
Time taken by water to cool = 130 s
Time taken by alcohol to cool = 67 s
Heat lost by water and calorimeter
= (250 + 10) 1 5 = 260 5 = 1300 cal
1300
Rate of loss of heat =
= 10 cal s 1
130
Heat lost by alcohol and calorimeter = (200s + 10 1)5
Physics for you | december 15

23

(200s + 10)5
cal s 1
67
Rate of loss of heat in the two cases are equal
Rate of loss of heat =

(200s + 10)5
= 10
67

or

22. (b) : Common acceleration of the system,

14 N
14
= ms 2 = 2 ms 2
4 kg + 2 kg + 1 kg 7
Let R be the contact force between 4 kg and
2 kg blocks.
The free body diagram of 4 kg block is as shown in
the figure.
a=

s = 0.62 cal g 1 C 1

1
= 8 m s 1
2
8
Time taken to reach the wall = = 1 s
8
3
Now uV = 16 sin 60 = 16
= 8 3 m s 1
2
1
\ h = 8 3 1 9.8 12 = 13.86 4.9
2
or h = 8.96 m

18. (a) : uH = 16 cos 60 = 16

23.

19. (d) : In case of a cyclic process, work done is equal to

the area under the cycle and is taken to be positive if


the cycle is clockwise.
\ Work done by the gas
W = Area of the rectangle ABCD = P0V0
Helium gas is a monoatomic gas,
3
5
\ CV = R and CP = R
2
2
Along the path AB, heat supplied to the gas at
constant volume,
3
3
3
\ DQAB = nCV DT = n RDT = V0 DP = P0V0
2
2
2
Along the path BC, heat supplied to the gas at
constant pressure,
5
5
\ DQBC = nCP DT = n RDT = (2P0 )DV = 5P0V0
2
2
Along the path CD and DA, heat is rejected by the gas
Work done by the gas
Efficiency , h =
100%
Heat supplied to the gas
=

P0V0

100% =

200
% = 15.4%
13

3
P V + 5P0V0
2 0 0
20. (b) : Let k be spring constant of the spring.
1
Potential energy stored in the spring = kx 2
2
In the first case,

1
E = k(10)2
...(i)
2
In the second case,
1
1
E = k(10 + 10)2 = k(20)2
2
2
1
= 4 k(10)2 = 4 E
(Using(i))
2

21. (d)
24

Physics for you | december 15

24.

25.
26.

The equation of motion is


14 R = 4a
\ R = 14 4 2 = 6 N
(c) : The centre of mass of the whole carpet is
originally at a height r above the floor. When the
r
carpet unrolls itself and has a radius , the centre
2
r
of mass is at a height . The mass left over unrolled
2
is
2
mp(r / 2)
m
=
=
2
4
pr
m r
The decrease in potential energy = mgr g
4 2
7
= mgr
8
(b) : Here, orbital speed of the satellite,
vo = 7 km s1 = 7 103 m s1
Radius of the earth, RE = 6.37 106 m
Height, h = 630 km = 630 103 m
Mass of the cosmonaut, m = 80 kg
The centripetal force acting on the cosmonaut is
80 (7 103 )2
mvo2
=
F=
(RE + h) (6.37 106 + 630 103 )
80 49 106
80 49 106
= 3
=
10 (6370 + 630) 103 7000
80 49
=
N = 560 N
7
(d)
(c) : Here, R = 9.5 mm = 9.5 103 m
L = 81 cm = 81 102 m, F = 6.2 104 N
The stress in the rod is
6.2 104 N
F
Stress =
=
pR2 3.14 (9.5 103 m)2
= 0.022 1010 N m2 = 2.2 108 N m2

27. (a)
28. (a) : Let V be the volume of an object. When the

object is floating in the liquid, then


Weight of the object = Weight of the liquid displaced
Vrobject g = Vinside rliquid g

In water,

Vrobject g = 0.9Vrwater g

... (i)

1
1
1
1
= mu2 = mu2

4
2
2
2
u2
8g
2
h1 u
8g
=
2
h2 2 g u
h 4
1=
h2 1
h2 =

In oil,

Vrobject g = 0.7Vroil g

...(ii)

u cos60
u
60

h2

u sin 60

34. (c) : As volume, V = pr2l

Divide (i) by (ii), we get


0.9 rwater
roil
0.9 9
1=
or
=
=
0.7 roil
rwater 0.7 7
roil
9
= = 1. 3
Specific gravity of the oil =
rwater 7
29. (a) : Rise of a liquid in a capillary tube,
2S cos q
h=
rrg
Here, r = 0.07 cm = 0.07 102 m
For water, S = 0.07 N m1, r = 103 kg m3
Angle of contact q = 0
2 (0.07 N m 1 ) 1
\ h=
(0.07 102 m)(103 kg m 3 )(10 m s 2 )

or

31. (b)
32. (b) : For discussion of motion of the point mass m,
we assume that observer is situated at the triangular
block.
The force diagram of point mass m is shown in
figure.
30. (a)

co
a0
m

gs
m

in

mg cos +
ma0 sin

mg

From force diagram,


mg sinq ma0 cosq = ma
\ a = g sinq a0 cosq
33. (d) : For first ball, mgh1 =

a0

1 2
mu
2

u2
2g
For second ball
1
1
mgh2 = mu2 cos2 q = mu2 cos2 60
2
2
\

h1 =

h1

DV Dl 2Dr
Dl 2Dr
DV
= +
=
(
0)
V
l
r
l
r
V
Now, Poissons ratio
Dr
Dr
r
s=
= r = 0. 5
Dl
Dr
2
l
r
35. (b) : Gravitational field intensity (IG) at a point
inside the solid sphere varies directly as the distance
from the centre of sphere, and outside the sphere
1
IG 2 . Hence, graph (b) is correct.
r
36. (c) : For oxygen, P1V1 = P2V2
or 1 1 = P2 1
or P2 = 1 atm
For nitrogen, P1 V1 = P2V2
or 0.5 2 = P2 1
or P2 = 1 atm
\ P = P2 + P2 = 1 + 1 = 2 atm
37. (d) : y = a sin wt + b cos wt
Let a = r cos q and b = r sinq
Then, y = r cos q sin wt + r sin q cos wt
= r sin (wt + q)
The motion is SHM with amplitude r.
Now, a2 + b2 = r2 (cos2q + sin2q) = r2
or

= 2 102 m = 2 cm

ma0

DV D(pr 2l )
=
V
pr 2l
DV r 2 Dl + 2rlDr
=
V
r 2l

u
m

or r = a2 + b2
38. (a)
39. (c) : Here, r = 1 mm = 103 m
Specific gravity of Al = 2.7
Density of Al, r = 2.7 103 kg m3
Density of water, s = 103 kg m3
h = 8 104 Pl
g = 9.8 m s2

Contd. on page no. 74

Physics for you | december 15

25

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. Diving masks often have lenses built into the


glass for divers who do not have perfect vision.
The lenses in a diving mask faceplate often only
have curved surfaces on the inside of the glass.
Why is this design desirable?
Manali Mehta (UP)

Ans. The main reason for curving only the inner surface
of the lenses in the diving mask faceplate is so that
the diver can see clearly when looking at objects
straight ahead while underwater and in the air.
Consider light rays approaching the mask along
a normal to the plane of the faceplate. If curved
surfaces were on both the front and the back of the
diving lens on the faceplate, refraction would occur
at each surface. The lens could be designed so that
these two refractions would give clear vision while
the diver is in air. When the diver is underwater,
however, the refraction between the water and the
glass at the first interface is now different because
the index of refraction of water is different from
that of air. Thus, the vision would not be clear
underwater. By making the outer surface of the
lens flat, light is not refracted at normal incidence
to the faceplate at the outer surface in either
air or water all of the refraction occurs at the
inner glass-air surface. Thus, the same refractive
correction exists in water and in air, and the diver
can see clearly in both environments.
Q2. A bugle has no valves, keys, slides, or finger
holes then how can it play a song?

Akshat Thapar (Haryana)

26

Physics for you | December 15

Ans. Songs for the bugle are limited to harmonics of


the fundamental frequency because the bugle has
no control over frequencies by means of valves,
keys, slides, or finger holes. The player obtains
different notes by changing the tension in the lips
as the bugle is played, in order to excite different
harmonics. The normal playing range of a bugle is
among the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth harmonics
of the fundamental. For example, Reveille is
played with just the three notesD (294 Hz),
G (392 Hz), and B(494 Hz), and Taps is played
with these same three notes and the D one octave
above the lower D (588 Hz).
Q4. The value of moment of inertia is constant for
a particular axis (direction) of rotation. Then
why moment of inertia is a scalar quantity?
Explain.
Sibat Sidiq (Kashmir)

Ans. Moment of inertia is a scalar quantity. Though


moment of inertia is intrinsically associated
with the idea of direction as it depends upon the
position and direction of the axis of rotation. It is
not a vector quantity, it is called a tensor. Physical
quantities which have no specified direction and
have different values in different directions are
called tensors.
Q5. What is the dimension of the term Sn used in
4th equation of motion (distance or velocity)? Is
the equation dimensionally correct? Prove its
dimensional correctness.
Suryakant Khilar (Odisha)

Ans. The fourth equation of motion is


a
Sn = u + (2n 1)
2
Here Sn is the distance travelled in nth second which
is basically the difference of distances travelled in
nth second and (n 1)th second. Dimension of Sn
is [L] as it is the measure of distance.
This equation seems to be dimensionally incorrect
but it is correct. This equation is derived for a time
difference of 1 s. It is basically
a
Sn = u(1 s) + (2n(1 s) (1s)2 )
2
So, it is dimensionally consistent.
nn

Albert Einsteins theory of relativity turns


100 in November

lbert Einsteins general theory of relativity celebrated its 100th anniversary,


and his revolutionary hypothesis has withstood the test of time, despite
numerous expert attempts to find flaws.
Einstein changed the way we think about the most basic things, which are
space and time. And that opened our eyes to the universe, and how the most
interesting things in it work, like black holes, said David Kaiser, professor of
the history of science, technology and society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Einstein,
a celebrated German born theoretical physicist who spent the final years of his life at Princeton University in
US, presented his theory on November 25, 1915 before the Prussian Academy of Science. The document was
published in March 1916 in a journal called Annalen der Physik.
The general theory of relativity was among the most revolutionary in history; it marked a major leap from the law
of universal gravitation put forth by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687. Einstein believed that space and time are not fixed,
which was what others had thought, but are flexible, dynamic phenomena like other processes of the universe,
said Michael Turner, director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics. So space bends and time warps,
and it was a whole new way at looking at gravity.

Scientists create the


blackest material ever

cientists have created the blackest material


ever made, so dark that it can absorb almost
all light that hits it. The researchers, who were
inspired by a completely white beetle, hope that the
superblack material could help develop better and
more efficient solar panels or completely change
the way that they are made. The material absorbs
99% of light, at all angles, making it 26% darker
than carbon nanotubes, which are the darkest
material before known. The ideal thing to absorb
energy would be a dark material that absorbs
radiation and at all angles and polarisations,
the researchers write. That aim is probably
impossible, but scientists still aspire to create
ever darker materials. The study was published
in Nature Nanotechnology.
People who have seen
record-breaking dark
materials say doing
so is strange and
alien as it is so
dark that the eye
cant comprehend
it, and instead just
sees an unending
abyss.

Stellar discovery:
Rosetta detects
oxygen on comet

n a major breakthrough, European Space Agencys (ESA) Rosetta


spacecraft has made the first in-situ detection of oxygen (O2) molecules
outgassing from a comet, a surprising observation that suggests they
were incorporated into the comet during its formation, according to an
announcement by the space agency on October 29.
This discovery has been published in the science journal, `Nature, dated
October 29, 2015. This is an intriguing result for studies both within and
beyond the comet community with implications for our models of the solar
system, remarked Matt Taylor, ESAs Rosetta project scientist. Rosetta has
been studying Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko for over a year and
has detected an abundance of different gases pouring from its nucleus.
Its also unanticipated because there arent very many examples of the
detection of interstellar O2. And thus, even though it must have been
incorporated into the comet during its formation, this is not so easily
explained by current solar system formation models, says Kathrin Altwegg
of the University of Bern.
The team analysed more than 3000 samples collected around the
comet between September 2014 and March 2015 to identify the oxygen
molecules.

Quakes can alter Earths capacity to withstand stress

arthquakes can change elastic properties of the Earths crust up to 6,000 kilometres away, altering its ability to withstand
stresses for up to a few weeks, a new study has found. The research demonstrates that the Earth is a dynamic and
interconnected system, where one large earthquake can create a cascading sequence of events thousands of kilometres
away, researchers said. Earthquakes can fundamentally change the elastic properties of the Earths crust in regions up to
6,000 kilometres away, altering its ability to withstand stresses for a period of up to a few weeks, said Kevin Chao, a postdoc in
Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and a member of a research
team led by Andrew Delorey at Los Alamos National Laboratory. When a surface wave from an earthquake some way off passes
through another fault region, it changes the balance between the frictional properties that keep the surfaces locked together, the
elasticity that allows the crust to withstand strain, and the stress state that can cause it to fail, Chao said.
When surface waves pass through, all of these properties rearrange and change. If a fault with high stress is ready to fail, it will
accumulate more stresses in the fault, meaning an earthquake could occur at any time, Chao said.
In the new research, published in the journal Science Advances, scientists studied the 2012 earthquake off the coast of North
Sumatra in the Indian Ocean.
Courtesy : The Times of India

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

1.

A cylinder containing water is rotated about its


vertical axis with a constant angular velocity w.
Find

4.

A bar of mass M and length L is hanging from


point O as shown in figure, the Young's modulus
of elasticity of the bar is Y and the area of
cross-section is A.
O
dx
x

(a) the equation of the surface of water.


(b) the water pressure distribution over the
bottom of the vessel along its radius at a distance
x, provided the pressure at the central point is P0.

2.

A uniform rod of length 2l and specific gravity


0.75 is hinged at one end to a point l/2 above the
surface of water with the other end immersed.
Find the inclination of the rod with the horizontal
when the rod is in equilibrium.

3.

A horizontally oriented tube PQ of length L


rotates with a constant angular velocity w about
a stationary vertical axis passing through the end
P. The tube is filled with an ideal liquid of density
r and the end P is open. Find the pressure just
inside the tube at Q as a function of length h of
liquid column.

(a) Find the stress at distance x from the bottom of


rod.
(b) Consider a small section dx of the bar at a
distance x from lowest point of the bar. Find
elongation in section dx.
(c) Find the total elongation in bar.
(d) Find the energy density at a distance x from
the bottom end.
(e) Find the elastic potential energy stored in bar.
5.

A cylinder tank of base area A has a small hole


of area a at the bottom. At time t = 0, a tap starts
to supply water into the tank at a constant rate
a m3 s1.
(a) What is the maximum level of water, hmax in the
tank ?
(b) Find the time when level of water becomes
h(< hmax).

6.

A cylinder of length 1.5 m and diameter 4 cm is


fixed at one end. A tangential force of 4 105 N

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

28

physics for you | december 15

x = l or x = 3l
\ Permissible solution is x = l.
Hence, C and G coincide.
l /2 1
sin q =
= q = 30
l
2

is applied at the other end. Calculate the twist


produced in the cylinder if the modulus of rigidity
is 6 1010 N m2.
solutions
1.

(a) Consider a particle A of mass m on the surface


having coordinate (x, y). In the rotating frame, the
forces acting on this particle are mg, downwards
and mw2x, away from the axis of rotation. The net
force Fnet must be perpendicular to the free surface.
Hence, the slope of surface,

3.

Consider a small element of the liquid of width dx


at a distance x from the axis of rotation. The mass
of the element is dm = rAdx.
(L h)

dy
mw2 x
= tan q =
dx
mg

x w2

dy =
\ y=

xdx

w2 x 2
2g
\ The pressure at the bottom of the vessel at
distance x is
1
P = P0 + rgy = P0 + rw2 x 2
2
y=

l
D

G
C
x

B (hinge)
l/2
water surface

From figure, DC = x, the length of the rod inside


the water. Let A be the area of cross-section and
r be the density of water. Since rod is stationary,
net torque on it must be zero.
Taking moments about B, we get
x

FB 2l cos q = W l cos q

2
(where FB = Buoyant force, W = weight of rod)
x

r( Ax ) g 2l = (0.75r)(2 Al ) gl

2
x2 4lx + 3l2 = 0
Solving, we get

(P + dP)A

PQ

dx

Let the pressure on the left side of this element be


P. Then the pressure on the right side is P + dP.
The net force on the element is
(P + dP)A PA = AdP, towards the axis of
rotation.
\ AdP = (dm)w2x = rAw2 xdx

w2 x 2
2g

FB

P0 PA

which is the required


equation of surface of water.
(b) The height of the water column at distance x
from the axis of rotation is

2.

PQ

P0

L h

2
dP = rw xdx

where P0 is the atmospheric pressure.


rw2 2
[L (L h)2 ]
PQ P0 =
2

\ PQ = P0 +
4.

rw2h
(2L h)
2

(a) Tension at distance x from the bottom end,


Mgx
M
T = (rAx ) g =
Axg =
AL
L
Stress at this point,
Mgx
O
T
= = L
A
A
=

dx
x

Mgx
AL

(b) Consider a small element of length dx at a


distance x from the bottom end.
dl Mgx
Strain =
= =
dx Y ALY
\ The elongation in section dx is
Mgxdx
dl =
ALY
physics for you | december 15

29

(c) Total elongation in the bar,


L Mgxdx MgL
l=
=
2 AY
0 ALY

a = avmax = a 2 ghmax
\ hmax =

(d) Energy density at a distance x is


1
u = stress strain
2

1 Mgx Mgx M 2 g 2 x 2

=
2 AL ALY 2 A2 L2Y
(e) Elastic potential energy stored in section dx is

2 2 2

M g x dx

0 aa

t=

6.

a 2 ga2 x

A
ag

2 gh
a ln

a a 2 gh

Gr 4
q
2l

\ q=

v = 2gh

2 xdx

On solving, we get

M2 g 2 2
M 2 g 2L
x
dx
=
2
6 AY
0 2 AL Y

2 gh

dt t
=
A
0A

t=A

U=

(a) As the level of water increases, the rate of outflow


also increases. When the level is maximum, the
rate of inflow is equal to the rate of outflow.

dh

Putting, h = x2 and dh = 2xdx, we get

2 AL2Y
\ Total elastic potential energy stored in the
bar is

5.

2 ga2

(b) If h is the height of water at instant t, then


dh
A = a av = a a 2 gh
dt

dU = uAdx =

a2

Fr =

Gr 4
q
2l

2 (4 105 ) 1.5
=
Gr 3 (6 1010 ) (2 102 )3
2Fl

q = 0.796 radian = 45.6


nn

New IIT-JEE format mooted, stress on innovative thinking


The two-stage Joint Entrance Examination
for admission to IITs/NITs will undergo
major changes in future if the Centre
accepts a series of recommendations
of a high-powered committee. The
panel has proposed starting an exam to
test scientific aptitude and innovative
thinking of the candidates. Its format
will be such that coaching centres wont
be able to help a student crack it. The
existing two-tier JEE, though, is set to
continue in 2016 and 2017 with the HRD
ministry making it clear that it will seek
opinion of stakeholders before taking any
decision on the panels proposals. The
Committee of Eminent Persons, headed
by IIT Bombay ex-director Ashok Misra,
has recommended starting a National
Testing Service (NTS) by early 2016. The
online exam can be taken twice or thrice
a year. Four lakh candidates will then be
shortlisted for the JEE to be conducted

30

physics for you | december 15

solely by IITs. JEE (Main) is now overseen


by CBSE and JEE (Advanced) by IITs.
As per the Misra Committee
recommendations, the proposed JEE
will be on the lines of the current JEE
(Advanced) and designed to specifically
test ones knowledge of Physics, Chemistry
and Mathematics. Over 40,000 students
will then be ranked before they seek

admission to IITs and NITs based on


common counselling. The panel has
asked the IITs to develop a system so
that they can take mock JEE exams and
neednt study in coaching institutes. The
possibility of using the Massive Open
Online Courses platform can also be
explored, the committee said. The HRD
ministry has been asked to take measures
for the improvement of school education
and the method of examination of various
Boards so that students with aptitude for
science are well prepared in the concepts
by the time they reach Class XII without
depending on the coaching classes. The
current system is being slightly tweaked.
JEE 2016 will have an enhanced intake
from 1.5 lakh to 2 lakh students into the
JEE (Advanced) stage. The weightage
given to Board marks in JEE (Main) will
not continue for 2016.
Courtesy : The Times of India

The variation of magnetic field B with the distance r


from axis is as shown in the figure.

1/r

If the cylindrical wire is hollow i.e. it is in the


form of pipe, then the magnetic field inside the
wire is zero. The variation of magnetic field B
with distance r from the axis is as shown in the
figure.

Here, v is the velocity of the particle and B is uniform

magnetic field and q is the angle between v and B.


The following conclusions are drawn from this
expression:

Stationary charge (i.e. v = 0) experiences no


magnetic force.

If v is parallel or antiparallel to B then the charged


particle experiences no magnetic force.

As magnetic force is always perpendicular to v, it


does not deliver any power to the charged particle.
Magnetic
force is always perpendicular to both

v and B.
The maximum value of magnetic force is equal
to qvB, which occurs when the charge particle is
projected perpendicular to the uniform magnetic
field.

B 1/r
B=0

In this case, path of charged particle is circular

and magnetic force provides the necessary


centripetal force.
If radius of the circular path is R, then
mv 2
= qvB, where m is the mass of the particle.
R
mv
\ R=
qB

solenoid

A solenoid consists of a long insulating wire closely


wound in the form of a helix. Its length is very large as
compared to its diameter.

Time taken to complete one revolution is

The magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the solenoid


having n turns per unit length is
m nI
B = 0 (cos a cos b)
2
Special cases :
If the solenoid is of infinite length and point P lies
near the middle of a solenoid, then
a = 0, b = 180 \ B = m0nI
If the solenoid is of infinite length and point is near
one end, then
a = 0, b =

p
2

\ B=

m 0nI
2

Motion of a charged Particle in a uniform Magnetic


field

In uniform magnetic field, force experienced by a


moving charged particle is given by


F = q(v B) or F = qvB sin
sinqq

2pR or T = 2pm
qB
v
If the charged particle is projected obliquely to the
field then its velocity v can be resolved into two

components; one along B say v|| and the other

perpendicular to B say v^. It experiences a magnetic


force and hence has a tendency to move on a circular
path. Due to v|| it experiences no force, and hence
has a tendency to move on a straight path along the
field. So, in this case it moves along a helical path.
T=

mv ^
.
qB
Time taken to complete one revolution is
2pm
T=
.
qB
Radius of the helix is R =

The distances moved by the charged particle

along the magnetic field during one revolution


is called pitch.
Pitch = v|| T =

2p
mv
qB ||

Physics for you | december 15

33

force on a current carrying wire in a Magnetic


field

SELF CHECK

1. A proton (mass m) accelerated


by a potential difference V flies
through a uniform transverse
magnetic field B. The field
occupies a region of space
by width d. If a be the angle
of deviation of proton from
initial direction of motion (see
figure), the value of sin a will
be
(a)

B qd
2 mV

(c) Bd

q
2mV

(b)

B
q
d 2mV

Bd
(d) qV
2m
(JEE Main 2015)

Motion of a charged Particle in a uniform electric


field

When a charged particle of charge q moving or at rest is

subjected to a uniform electric field E, the force acting


on it is

F = qE

E,
The direction
of
is
same
as
that
of
if q is positive
F

and E if q is negative.
Motion of charged Particle in combined uniform
electric and Magnetic fields

When a charged particle of charge q moving with velocity

v is subjected to an electric field E and magnetic field

B, the total force acting on the particle is




F = FE + FM = qE + q (v B) = q (E + v B)
This force is known as Lorentz force and is named after
the Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.
cyclotron

It is a heavy particle accelerator, invented in 1929 by


E.O. Lawrence for accelerating charged particles such
as protons, deuterons, or alpha particles in the uniform
magnetic field upto energy of the order of MeV.
Bq
Cyclotron frequency u =
2pm
where m and q are mass and charge of the particle and
B is the strength of magnetic field.
34

Physics for you | december 15

When a straight conductor of length l carrying current I


is placed in magnetic field, it experiences a force given by

F = I(l B) = IlB sin q

Here, q is angle between l and B.


Flemings left hand rule

The direction of the force F = I(l B) is given by the
Flemings left hand rule. Close your left hand first and
then shoot your index finger in the direction of the
magnetic field. Relax your middle finger in the direction
of current. The force on the conductor is shown by the
direction of the erect thumb.
force between two parallel current carrying wires

Two long wires 1 and 2 are kept parallel to each other


at distance r and carrying current I1 and I2 respectively
in the same direction.
The force per unit length of the wire 2 due to wire 1 is
F m 0I1I 2
=
l
2pr
The same force acts on wire 1 due to wire 2.
The wires attract each other if currents in the wires are
flowing in the same direction and they repel each other
if the currents are in opposite directions.
definition of ampere

Let I1 = I2 = 1 A, r = 1 m
F 4p 10 7 1 1
=
= 2 10 7 N m 1
l
2p 1
Thus, the ampere is that constant current which when
maintained in two straight parallel conductors of
infinite length and of negligible circular cross section
placed one metre apart in a vacuum would produce a
force between the conductors equal to 2 107 newton
per metre.
If two linear current carrying conductors of unequal
length are held parallel to each other, then the force on
a long conductor is due to magnetic field interaction
due to currents of short conductor and long conductor.
If l, L be lengths of short and long conductors and
I1, I2 be currents through short and long conductors
respectively and r is the separation between these two
parallel conductors, then the force on long conductor
then

m 0 2I1I 2
l.
4p r
When two charges q1 and q2 respectively moving with
velocities v1 and v2 are at a distance r apart, then the
force acting between them is
= force on short conductor =

m 0 q1q2 v1v 2
4p
r2
If q1 and q2 are of the same nature and they move in
the same direction, then the force acting between
them is attractive.
If q1 and q2 are of the same nature and they move
in the opposite directions, then the force acting
between them is repulsive.
F=

SELF CHECK

2. Two long current carrying thin


wires, both with current
I, are held by insulating
threads of length L and are in
equilibrium as shown in the
figure, with threads making
an angle q with the vertical.
If wires have mass l per unit
length then the value of I is
(g = gravitational acceleration)
(a) 2

pgL
tan q
m0

(c) sin q

plgL
m 0 cos q

(b)

plgL
tan q
m0

(d) 2 sin q

plgL
m 0 cos q

(JEE Main 2015)


3. Two long straight parallel wires, carrying
(adjustable) currents I1 and I2, are kept at a distance
d apart. If the force F between the two wires is
taken as positive when the wires repel each other
and negative when the wires attract each other, the
graph showing the dependence of F, on the product
I1I2, would be

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(JEE Main 2015)

torque on a current carrying coil placed in a uniform


Magnetic field

When a current carrying coil is placed in a uniform


magnetic field, the net force on it is always zero but
different parts of the coil experience forces in different
directions. Due to it, the coil may experience a torque
or couple.
When a coil of area A having N turns, carrying current I
is placed in uniform magnetic field B, it will experience
torque which is given by
t = NIABsinq = MBsinq
where M = NIA and q is the angle between the direction
of magnetic field and normal to the plane of the coil.
Special cases:
If the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the
direction of magnetic field i.e. q = 0, then
t = 0 (minimum)
If the plane of the coil is parallel to the direction of
magnetic field i.e. q = 90, then
t = NIAB (maximum)
If a is the angle between plane of the coil and the
magnetic field, then torque on the coil is
t = NIAB cosa = MB cosa
Potential energy of the coil
Potential energy of the coil is

U = MB
Work done in rotating the coil through an angle q from
the field direction is
W = MB(1 cos q)
Moving coil galvanometer
It is an instrument used for detection and measurement
of small currents.
Principle of a moving coil galvanometer: When a
current carrying coil is placed in a magnetic field, it
experiences a torque.
In moving coil galvanometer the current I passing
through the galvanometer is directly proportional to its
deflection (q).
I q or, I = Gq.
k
where G =
= galvanometer constant,
NAB
A = area of coil, N = number of turns in the coil,
B = strength of magnetic field, k = torsional constant of
the spring i.e. restoring torque per unit twist.
Current sensitivity : It is defined as the deflection
produced in the galvanometer, when unit current flows
through it.
q NAB
Is = =
.
I
k
The unit of current sensitivity is rad A1 or div A1.
Physics for you | december 15

35

Voltage sensitivity : It is defined as the deflection


produced in the galvanometer when a unit voltage is
applied across the two terminals of the galvanometer.
q q NAB
Vs = =
=
.
V IR
kR

ammeter

It is an instrument used to measure current in an


electrical circuit.
conversion of galvanometer into ammeter

A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter of


given range by connecting a suitable low resistance
S called shunt in parallel to the given galvanometer,
whose value is given by
Ig
S=
G
I I g
where Ig is the current for full scale deflection of
galvanometer, I is the current to be measured
by the galvanometer and G is the resistance of
galvanometer.

Voltmeter is a high resistance instrument and it is


always connected in parallel with the circuit element
across which potential difference is to be measured.
An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance.
In order to increase the range of voltmeter n times
the value of resistance to be connected in series
with galvanometer is R = (n 1)G.
KEY POINT
An ammeter connected in circuit always measures

rms value of alternating current.

Magnetic Moment

The magnetic moment of a magnet is a quantity that


determines the force that a magnet can exert on electric
currents and the torque that amagnetic field will exert
on it.
The direction of magnetic moments points from the
south to north pole of a magnet.
Magnetic dipole moment

Ammeter is a low resistance instrument and it is


always connected in series to the circuit. An ideal
ammeter has zero resistance.
In order to increase the range of an ammeter n
times, the value of shunt resistance to be connected
in parallel is S = G/(n 1).

Voltmeter

It is an instrument used to measure potential difference


across any element in an electrical circuit.
conversion of galvanometer into Voltmeter

A galvanometer can be converted into voltmeter of


given range by connecting a suitable resistance R in
series with the galvanometer, whose value is given by
V
R= G
Ig
where V is the voltage to be measured, Ig is the
current for full scale deflection of galvanometer and
G is the resistance of galvanometer.

36

Physics for you | december 15

It is defined as the product of strength


of either pole

(m) and the magnetic length (2l ) of the magnet. It is

denoted by M.
Magnetic dipole moment = strength of either pole
magnetic length

M = m (2l )
Magnetic dipole moment is a vector quantity and it is
directed from south to north pole of the magnet.
The SI unit of magnetic dipole moment is A m2.
If a magnet of moment M and pole strength m is cut
into two equal parts along its length, then the pole
strength of each part is m/2 and the magnetic moment
of each part is M/2.
If a magnet of magnetic moment M and pole strength
m is cut into two equal halves along perpendicular to
its length, then the pole strength of each part is m and
magnetic moment of each part is M/2.
current loop as a magnetic dipole

A planar closed loop carries an


electric current I and has area

vector A . Its magnetic moment,

M = IA .
A current carrying coil having N turns have magnetic

moment M = NIA .

Bar Magnet as an equivalent solenoid

SELF CHECK

4. A rectangular loop of sides 10 cm and 5 cm


carrying a current I of 12 A is placed in different
orientations as shown in the figure below.
z
(1)

z
I

I
I

(2)

B
I

z
(3)

I
x

I
I

(4)
x

B
I

I
I

If there is a uniform magnetic field of 0.3 T in


the positive z direction, in which orientations
the loop would be in (i) stable equilibrium and
(ii) unstable equilibrium.
(a) (2) and (4), respectively
(b) (2) and (3), respectively
(c) (1) and (2), respectively
(d) (1) and (3), respectively
(JEE Main 2015)
Magnetic field at a Point due to Magnetic dipole
(or Bar Magnet)

The magnetic field due to a bar magnet at any point


on the axial line (end on position) is given by
m
2Mr
Baxial = 0 2 2 2
4p (r l )
where r = distance between the centre of the magnet
and the given point on the axial line, 2l = magnetic
length of the magnet and M = magnetic moment of
the magnet.
For short magnet, l2 << r2
m 2M
Baxial = 0 3
4pr
The direction of Baxial is along SN.
The magnetic field due to a bar magnet at any point
on the equatorial line (broad-side on position) of the
bar magnet is given by
m 0M
Bequatorial =
4p (r 2 + l 2)3/2
For short magnet, l2 < < r2
Bequatorial =

m 0M
4p r 3

The direction of Bequatorial is parallel to NS.

Let us consider a solenoid consisting of n turns per unit


length, having total length of 2l and radius a as shown
in figure.
Let I be the current through the solenoid. Consider a
small circular element of thickness dx of the solenoid
at a distance x from the center of the solenoid. Let
number of turns in the element dx be ndx. The
magnetic field at point P on the axial line at a distance
r from the center O of the solenoid, due to the circular
element will be
dB =

m 0ndxIa 2
.
2[(r x)2 + a 2]3/2

The magnitude of the net magnetic field B at point P


due to the entire solenoid,
+l
dx
m nIa 2
...(i)
B= 0
2 [(r x)2 + a 2]3/2
l
If point P lies very far from the center of the solenoid

(r >> a and r >> x) then we can approximate


[(r x)2 + a2]3/2 r3

...(ii)

From equation (i) and (ii), we get


+l

m 0nIa 2
m 0nIa 2
dx
=
2l
...(iii)
2r 3 l
2r 3
Magnetic moment, m = total number of turns current
area of cross-section
B=

\ m = (n 2l) (I) (pa2)

...(iv)

From equation (iii) and (iv), we get


m 2m
B= 0 3
4p r
Magnetic field Lines
They are hypothetical lines
which tell us about the
strength of a magnetic field
in a particular region such as
near a bar magnet. They are
used to represent magnetic
field in a region. They are
closed continuous curves.
Physics for you | december 15

37

Tangent drawn at any point gives the direction of


magnetic field. They never intersect. Outside a magnet,
magnetic field lines are directed from north to south
pole and inside a magnet they are directed from south
to north.
earths Magnetic field

Earth has a magnetic field associated with it that


behaves approximately similar to that of a magnetic
dipole. A freely suspended magnet always point in the
north-south direction even in the absence of any other
magnet. This suggests that the earth itself behaves as a
magnet.

Magnetic elements

Magnetic declination : Magnetic declination at a


place is defined as the angle between the geographic
meridian and magnetic meridian.
Magnetic dip or magnetic inclination : Magnetic dip
at a place is defined as the angle made by the earths
magnetic field with the horizontal in the magnetic
meridian. It is denoted by d.
Horizontal component :It is component of earths
magnetic field along the horizontal direction in the
magnetic meridian. It is denoted by BH.
If B is the earths total magnetic field, then the
horizontal component of earths magnetic field is given
by
BH = B cosd
BH
O
Also, the vertical component

of
earths
magnetic
BV
B
Magnetic
field,
meridian
BV = Bsind
\ B=

The south pole of a earths magnet is towards the


earths north pole (geographical north), while the
north pole of earths magnet is towards earths south
pole (geographical south). Thus, there is a magnetic
S-pole near the geographical north and a magnetic
N-pole near the geographical south. The positions of
the earths magnetic poles are not well defined on the
globe, they are spread over an area.
Magnetic equator : The great circle whose plane is
perpendicular to the earths magnetic axis is called
earths magnetic equator.
Geographical equator : The great circle whose
plane is perpendicular to geographical axis is called
geographical equator.
Magnetic meridian : The line joining the earths
magnetic poles is called the magnetic axis and a vertical
plane passing through it is called the magnetic meridian.
Geographical meridian : The line joining the
geographical north and south poles is called the
geographical axis and a vertical plane passing through
it is called the geographical meridian.
KEY POINT
The shape of earths magnetic field resembles
that of a bar magnet of length one-fifth of earths
diameter buried at its centre.
Earth magnetic field near its surface is about
0.5 105 T.
38

Physics for you | december 15

BH2

and tan d =

BV2

Geographic meridian

BV
BH

More about angle of dip


At magnetic poles, d = 90 and at magnetic equator, d = 0.
In a vertical plane at an angle q to magnetic meridian
= BV
BH = BH cos q and BV

\ tan d =

BV
BV
tan d
=
=
BH BH cos q cos q

tan d
cos q
If d1 and d2 are observed angles of dip in two arbitrary
vertical planes which are perpendicular to each other,
then the true angle of dip d is given by the relation
cot2d = cot2d1 + cot2d2
tan d =

If l is magnetic latitude at a place, then the angle of dip


d at the place is given by tand = 2tanl
KEY POINT
The magnetic declination is greater at higher
latitudes and smaller near the equator.
Magnetisation and Magnetic intensity

When a magnetic material is placed in a magnetic field,


it becomes magnetised. The capability of the magnetic
field to magnetise a material is expressed by means of a

magnetic vector H , called the magnetic intensity of the

field. The relation between magnetic induction B and


magnetising field H is B = mH
where m is the permeability of medium.
It is a vector quantity and its SI unit is A m1.

The magnetic flux density (B) inside a magnetised


substance is given by the sum of magnetic field (B0)
and magnetic field m0I produced due to magnetisation.

intensity of magnetisation

Thus, B = B0 + m0I = m0H + m0I = m0(H + I)

It is defined as the magnetic moment per unit


volume.
Magnetic moment M
I=
=
V
Volume
If A = uniform area of cross-section of the magnetised
specimen (a rectangular bar)
2l = magnetic length of the specimen
m = strength of each pole of the specimen,
m 2l m
I=
=
A 2l A
The intensity of magnetisation is a vector quantity
and its SI unit is A m1. Its dimensional formula is
[M0L1T0A].
Magnetic susceptibility

The magnetic susceptibility is defined as the intensity


of magnetisation per unit magnetising field i.e.,
I
m =
H
Since, it is the ratio of two quantities having same units
of A m1, hence, it has no unit.

Magnetic flux density

SELF CHECK
5. A 25 cm long solenoid has radius 2 cm and 500
total number of turns. It carries a current of 15 A.
If it is equivalent to a magnet of the same size and

magnetisation M (magnetic moment/volume), then

| M | is
(a) 3p Am1
(b) 30000 Am1
1
(c) 300 Am
(d) 30000p Am1
(JEE Main 2015)
6. A short bar magnet is placed in the magnetic
meridian of the earth with north pole pointing north.
Neutral points are found at a distance of 30 cm from
the magnet on the East - West line, drawn through
the middle point of the magnet. The magnetic
moment of the magnet in A m2 is close to
m
(Given 0 = 10 7 in SI units and BH = Horizontal
4p
component of earths magnetic field
= 3.6 105 Tesla.)
(a) 9.7
(b) 4.9
(c) 19.4
(d) 14.6
(JEE Main 2015)

Magnetic Properties of Materials

According to behaviour of magnetic substances, they are classified into three classes, which are shown in given table.
Diamagnetic Substances
These substances when placed
in a magnetic field, acquire
feeble magnetism opposite to the
direction of the magnetic field.
These substances are repelled by a
magnet.

Paramagnetic Substances
These substances when placed in
a magnetic field, acquire feeble
magnetism in the direction of the
magnetic field.
These substances are feebly attracted
by a magnet.

Ferromagnetic Substances
These substances when placed
in a magnetic field are strongly
magnetised in the direction of the
field.
These substances are strongly
attracted by a magnet.

If a rod of this substance is suspended


freely between two magnetic poles,
its axis becomes perpendicular to
the magnetic field.

If a rod of this substance is suspended


freely between two magnetic poles, its
axis becomes parallel to the magnetic
field.

If a rod of this substance is


suspended freely between two
magnetic poles, its axis becomes
parallel to the magnetic field.

In non-uniform magnetic field, In non-uniform magnetic field, they In non-uniform magnetic field,
they move from stronger to weaker move from weaker to stronger part of they move from weaker to stronger
magnetic field.
the magnetic field slowly.
magnetic field rapidly.
Physics for you | december 15

39

Their permeability is less than one.

Their permeability is slightly greater Their permeability is much greater


than one.
than one.

Their susceptibility is small and Their susceptibility is small and Their susceptibility is large and
negative and it is independent of positive and it is inversely proportional positive. At Curie temperature,
temperature.
to absolute temperature.
ferromagnetic substances change
into paramagnetic substances.
In these substances, the magnetic In these substances, the magnetic In these substances, magnetic lines
lines of force are farther than in air. lines of force are closer than in air.
of force are much closer than in
air.
The resultant magnetic moment of These substances have a permanent These substances also have a
these substances is zero.
magnetic moment.
permanent magnetic moment.

curies Law

According to Curies law, the magnetic susceptibility of


paramagnetic substances is inversely proportional to
absolute temperature, i.e.,
1

T
On increasing temperature, magnetic susceptibility of
paramagnetic substances decreases or vice-versa. Above
a particular temperature, a ferromagnetic substance
behaves like a paramagnetic substance. This particular
temperature is called the Curie temperature of the
substance.
curie-Wiess Law

At temperature above Curie point, the magnetic


susceptibility of ferromagnetic substances is inversely
proportional to (T TC), i.e.,
1

T TC
or

C
T TC

where, TC is Curie temperature.


hysteresis

Hysteresis is the phenomenon of lagging of magnetic


induction (B) or intensity of magnetisation (I) behind
40

Physics for you | december 15

the magnetising field (H), when a specimen is taken


through a cycle of magnetisation. From the hysteresis
loop of material, we can study about retentivity, coercivity
etc. of the material. The loss of energy per unit volume
of the specimen per cycle of magnetisation is equal to
area of the I-H loop or 1/4p time the area of B-H loop of
the specimen. The study of these characteristics enables
us to select suitable materials for different purposes.
On the basis of retentivity, coercivity and hysteresis loss,
ferromagnetic materials are divided into two types :
Soft magnetic materials : These have low
retentivity, low coercivity and small hysteresis loss.
These are used for making electromagnets, cores
of transformers, motors and generators. Soft iron,
mu-metal and stalloy are examples of these
materials.
Hard magnetic materials : These have high
retentivity, high coercivity and large hysteresis loss.
These are used in making permanent magnets of
various kinds of electric meters and loudspeakers.
Steel, alnico, alcomax and ticonal are examples of
ferromagnetic materials of these materials.
Permanent magnets

Substances which at room temperature retain their


ferromagnetic property for a long period of time are
called permanent magnets.

SELF CHECK
7. The coercivity of a small magnet where the ferromagnet gets demagnetized is 3 103 A m1. The
current required to be passed in a solenoid of length
10 cm and number of turns 100, so that the magnet
gets demagnetized when inside the solenoid, is
(a) 6 A
(b) 30 mA
(c) 60 mA
(d) 3 A
(JEE Main 2014)
Magnetic flux

The magnetic flux through a

surface of area A placed in

B
a uniform magnetic field B

A
is defined as,

f = B A = BAcos q
where q is the angle between

B and A.
Special cases :

When B is normal to the surface i.e. q = 0,


f = BA (maximum value)

When B is parallel to the surface i.e. q = 90,


f = 0 (minimum value)
Magnetic flux linked with a plane coil of area A having

N turns placed in a uniform magnetic field B is


f = NBA cosq
Magnetic flux is a scalar quantity. It can be positive,
negative or zero.
The dimensional formula of magnetic flux is [ML2T2A1].
The SI unit of magnetic flux is weber.
The CGS unit of magnetic flux is maxwell.
1 weber = 108 maxwell
eLectroMagnetic induction

Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a coil (or a closed


circuit) changes with time, an emf and a current are
induced in the circuit. This phenomenon was first observed
by Faraday and is called electromagnetic induction.
Faradays law of electromagnetic induction
First law : Whenever the amount of magnetic flux
linked with a circuit changes, an emf is induced in the
circuit. This induced emf persists as long as the change
in magnetic flux continues.
Second law : The magnitude of the induced emf is
equal to the time rate of change of magnetic flux.
Mathematically, induced emf is given by
df
e=
dt
where negative sign indicates the direction of e.

In the case of a closely wound coil of N turns, change of


flux associated with each turn, is the same. Therefore,
the total induced emf is given by
df
e= N
dt
The induced emf can be increased by increasing the
number of turns N of a closed coil.
Here f is the flux linked with one turn of the coil. If the
circuit is closed, a current I = e/R is set up in it, where R
is the resistance of the circuit.
Lenzs law
This law gives us the direction of induced emf. According
to this law, the direction of induced emf in a circuit is such
that it opposes the change in magnetic flux responsible
for its production. Lenzs law is in accordance with the
principle of conservation of energy.
Flemings right hand rule
Flemings right hand rule also gives us the direction of
induced emf or current, in a conductor moving in a
magnetic field. According to this rule, if we stretch the
fore finger, central finger and thumb of our right hand
in mutually perpendicular directions such that fore
finger points along the direction of the field and thumb
is along the direction of motion of the conductor, then
the central finger would give us the direction of induced
current or emf. The direction of induced current or emf
given by Lenzs law and Flemings right hand rule is the same.
KEY POINT
Flemings right hand rule is applied when we are

given the direction of the magnetic field, and


the direction of the motion of the conductor
and we have to find the direction of the induced
current.
Flemings left hand rule is used when we are given
the direction of the magnetic field, and the direction
of flow of current and we have to find the direction
of force on the conductor.
Motional electromotive force

It is the emf induced in a conductor moving through a


constant magnetic field.
some important formulae for induced emf

When a conducting rod of length l, moves with a


velocity v perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B,
the induced emf across its ends is
|e| = Blv
Physics for you | december 15

41

This emf is known as motional emf.

If the rod makes an angle q with the direction of the


field, then induced emf is
|e| = Blv sinq
When a conducting rod of length l is rotated perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B, then induced emf
between the ends of the rod is
Bwl 2 B(2pu)l 2
|e|=
=
2
2
2
|e| = Bu (pl ) = BuA
where, w is angular frequency and u is frequency of
rod, A = pl2.
B

When a conducting solid disc


of radius r is rotating with a
uniform angular velocity w with
its plane perpendicular to a uniform
magnetic field B, the emf induced
between the centre and rim of disc is
Bwr 2
|e|=
= B uA
2
eddy currents
Eddy currents are basically the currents induced in the
body of a conductor due to change in magnetic flux
linked with the conductor.
The direction of eddy currents is given by Lenzs law, or
Flemings right hand rule.
self induction

Whenever the current passing through a coil or circuit


changes, the magnetic flux linked with it, also changes.
As a result of this, an emf is induced in the coil or the
circuit which opposes the change that causes it. This
phenomenon is known as self induction and the emf
induced is known as self induced emf or back emf.
When a current I flows through a coil and f is the
magnetic flux linked with the coil, then
f I or f = LI
where L is coefficient of self induction or self inductance
of the coil. The self induced emf is
42

Physics for you | december 15

df
dI
=L
dt
dt
The SI unit of L is henry (H) and its dimensional formula
is [ML2T2A2].
Self inductance of a solenoid is L = m0n2lA
where l is length of the coil solenoid, n is number of
turns per unit length of a solenoid and A is area of cross
section of the solenoid.
Self inductance of a circular coil is
m N 2pR
L= 0
2
where R is the radius of a coil and N is the number of
turns.
e=

KEY POINT
Self induction is called so because the changing

magnetic flux through the circuit arises from the


circuit itself.
Just as resistance is a measure of the opposition
to the current, inductance is the measure of the
opposition to any change in current.
Mutual induction

Whenever the current passing through a coil or circuit


changes, the magnetic flux linked with a neighbouring
coil or circuit will also change. Hence an emf will be
induced in the neighbouring coil or circuit. This
phenomenon is known as mutual induction. The coil
or circuit in which the current changes is known as
primary while the other in which emf is set up is known
as secondary.
Let IP be the current flowing through primary coil at any
instant. If fS is the flux linked with secondary coil then
fS IP or fS = MIP
where M is coefficient of mutual inductance of two
coils.
The emf induced in the secondary coil is given by
dI
eS = M P
dt
The SI unit of M is henry (H) and its dimensional
formula is [ML2T2A2].
Coefficient of coupling (K) : Coefficient of coupling
of two coils is a measure of the coupling between the
two coils and is given by
M
K=
L1L2
where L1 and L2 are coefficients of self inductance of
the two coils and M is coefficient of mutual inductance
of the two coils.

The coefficient of mutual inductance of two long


co-axial solenoids, each of length l, area of cross
section A, wound on air core is
mNN A
M= 0 1 2
l
where N1, N2 are total number of turns of the two
solenoids.
combination of inductances

Two inductors of self-inductance L1 and L2 are kept so


far apart that their mutual inductance is zero. These are
connected in series. Then the equivalent inductance is
L = L1 + L2
Two inductors of self-inductance L1 and L2 are
connected in series and they have mutual inductance
M. Then the equivalent inductance of the combination is
L = L1 + L2 2M
The plus sign occurs if windings in the two coils are in
the same sense, while minus sign occurs if windings
are in opposite sense.
Two inductors of self-inductance L1 and L2 are
connected in parallel. The inductors are so far apart
that their mutual inductance is negligible. Then their
equivalent inductance is
LL
1 1
1
L = 1 2 or
= +
L1 + L2
L L1 L2
energy stored in an inductor
When a current I flows through an inductor, the energy
stored in it, is given by
1
U = LI 2
2
The energy stored in an inductor is in the form of
magnetic energy.

SELF CHECK
8. An inductor (L = 0.03 H) and a resistor (R = 0.15 kW)
are connected in series to a battery of 15 V EMF in a
circuit shown below. The key K1 has been kept closed
for a long time. Then at t = 0, K1 is opened and key
K2 is closed simultaneously. At t = 1 ms, the current
in the circuit will be (e5 @ 150)
0.03 H

0.15 k

K2
K1
15 V

(a) 6.7 mA
(c) 100 mA

(b) 0.67 mA
(d) 67 mA

(JEE Main 2015)


9. When current in a coil changes from 5 A to 2 A in
0.1 s, an average voltage of 50 V is produced. The
self-inductance of the coil is
(a) 0.67 H
(b) 1.67 H
(c) 3 H
(d) 6 H
(JEE Main 2015)

During the growth, current in an LR circuit is


I = I0 (1 eRt/L) = I0(1 et/t)
where I0 is the maximum value of current, t = L/R
= time constant of LR circuit.
During the decay, current in an LR circuit is
I = I0eRt/L = I0et/t

10. In an LCR circuit as shown below


both switches are open initially.
Now switch S1 is closed, S2
kept open. (q is charge on the
capacitor and t = RC is capacitive
time constant). Which of the
following statement is correct?
t
(a) At t = , q = CV(1 e1)
2
(b) Work done by the battery is half of the energy
dissipated in the resistor
(c) At t = t, q = CV/2
(d) At t = 2t, q = CV(1 e2)
(JEE Main 2013)

charging and discharging of a capacitor through


resistor

aLternating current

growth and decay of current in Lr circuit

During charging of capacitor through resistor


q = q0(1 et/RC) = q0(1 et/t)
where q0 is the maximum value of charge.
t = RC is the time constant of CR circuit.
During discharging of capacitor through resistor
q = q0et/RC = q0et/t

The current which changes continuously in magnitude


and periodically in direction is called alternating
current. It is represented by I = I0sinwt or I = I0coswt
where I is the instantaneous value of alternating
current and I0 is peak value of current and is known as
amplitude of ac.
Physics for you | december 15

43

2p
= 2pu
T
where T is time period and u is frequency of alternating
current.
Mean or average value of alternating current or
voltage over one complete cycle
The mean or average value of alternating current or
voltage over one complete cycle is zero.
w=

I m or I or I av =

I 0 sin wt dt
0

dt

=0

V0 sin wt dt

Vm or V or Vav =

dt

=0

Average value of alternating current for first half cycle is


T /2

I av =

I 0 sin wt dt
T /2

dt

2I 0
= 0.637I 0
p

Similarly, for alternating voltage, the average value over


first half cycle is
T /2

Vav =

V0 sin wtdt
T /2

dt

2V
= 0 = 0.637V0
p

Average value of alternating current for second half cycle is


T

I av =

I 0 sin wtdt

T /2

dt

2I 0
= 0.637 I 0
p

T /2

Similarly, for alternating voltage, the average value over


second half cycle is
T

Vav =

V0 sin wtdt

T /2

dt

2V0
= 0.637 V0
p

T /2

The average value of alternating current (or

voltage) during the first and second half cycles are


equal but opposite in sign i.e. they are alternately
positive and negative so that the average over one
cycle is zero.

44

Physics for you | december 15

Mean value or average value of alternating current


over any half cycle
It is that value of steady current, which would send the
same amount of charge through a circuit in the time
of half cycle i.e. T/2 as is sent by ac through the same
circuit in the same time.
2V
I av = 0 = 0.637I 0
p
Similarly, for alternating voltage
2V
Vav = 0 = 0.637 I 0
p
Root mean square (rms) value of alternating current
It is defined as that value of steady current, which would
generate the same amount of heat in a given resistance
in a given time, as is done by the alternating current,
when passed through the same resistance for the same
time. The rms value of ac is also known as effective value
or virtual value of ac. It is represented by Irms, Ieff or Iv.
I
I rms or I v = 0 = 0.707I 0
2
Similarly, for alternating voltage
V
Vrms = 0 = 0.707 V0
2
All ac instruments measure rms value of ac.
form factor

Form factor is ratio of rms value to average value of


alternating current or voltage.
I rms I 0 / 2
p
=
=
= 1.11
I av 2I 0 / p 2 2
AC circuit containing pure resistance only
Let V = V0 sinwt
V V
Then, I = = 0 sin wt = I 0 sin wt
R R
Here the alternating voltage is in phase with current,
when ac flows through a resistor.
AC circuit containing pure inductor only
Let V = V0 sinwt
p

Then, I = I 0 sin wt
2
V0
where I 0 =
wL
Thus, the alternating current lags behind the
p
alternating voltage by a phase angle of
when ac
2
flows through an inductor.
Inductive reactance : It is the opposition offered by the
inductor to the flow of alternating current through it.
XL = wL = 2puL
Form factor =

The inductive reactance is zero for dc (u = 0) and has a


finite value for ac.
AC circuit containing pure capacitor only
Let V = V0 sinwt
p

I = I 0 sin wt +
2
where I0 = (wC)V0.
Thus, the alternating current leads the voltage by a
p
phase angle of , when ac flows through a capacitor.
2
Capacitive reactance : It is the opposition offered by
the capacitor to the flow of alternating current through it.
1
1
XC =
=
wC 2puC
The capacitive reactance is infinite for dc (u = 0) and
has a finite value for ac.
series Lcr circuit

Let V = V0 sinwt
Then, I = I0 sin (wt f)
V
where I 0 = 0
Z
Here Z is the impedance of the series LCR circuit.
2

Z = R 2 + ( X L X C ) 2 = R 2 + wL
wC
The alternating current lags behind the voltage by a
phase angle f.
X XC
tan f = L
R
When XL > XC, tan f is positive. Therefore, f is positive.
Hence current lags behind the voltage by a phase angle
f. The ac circuit is inductance dominated circuit.
When XL < XC, tan f is negative. Therefore, f is
negative. Hence current leads the voltage by a phase
angle f. The ac circuit is capacitance dominated circuit.
Impedance triangle
It is a right angled triangle, whose base represents
ohmic resistance (R), perpendicular represents reactance
(XL XC) and hypotenuse represents impedance (Z) of
the series LCR circuit as shown in figure.

susceptance

The reciprocal of the reactance of an ac circuit is


known as susceptance. It is represented by S.
1
\ Susceptance =
Reactance
The unit of susceptance is (ohm)1 or siemen.
1
Inductive susceptance =

Inductive reactance
1
1
or SL =
=
X L wL
1
Capacitive susceptance =
Capacitive reactance
1
1
or SC =
=
= wC
X C 1/ wC
resonant series Lcr circuit
When the frequency of ac supply is such that the
inductive reactance and capacitive reactance become
equal (XL = XC), the impedance of the series LCR
circuit is equal to the ohmic resistance in the circuit.
As such, the current in the circuit becomes maximum.
Such a series LCR circuit is known as resonant series
LCR circuit and the frequency of the ac supply is
known as resonant frequency (ur). The resonant
frequency is
1
1
ur =
or w r =
2p LC
LC
The series resonance circuit is known as acceptor
circuit. It is used in radio and TV receivers sets for
tuning a particular radio station/TV channel.
Resonance phenomenon is exhibited by a circuit only
if both L and C are present in the circuit. Then only
voltages across L and C cancel each other. We cannot
have resonance in a RL or RC circuit.

SELF CHECK

Z
(XL XC)

Admittance
The reciprocal of the impedance of an ac circuit is
known as admittance. It is represented by Y.
1
1
\ Admittance =
or Y =
Impedance
Z
The unit of admittance is (ohm)1 or siemen.

Impedance of circuit
Z = R 2 + ( X L X C )2

11. For the LCR circuit, shown here, the current is


observed to lead the applied voltage. An additional
capacitor C, when joined with the capacitor C
present in the circuit, makes the power factor of
the circuit unity. The capacitor C, must have been
connected in
Physics for you | december 15

45

Power in an ac circuit

2
(a) series with C and has a magnitude 1 LC
2L

C
( LC 1)
C
(c) parallel with C and has a magnitude
2
( LC 1)

(b) series with C and has a magnitude

1 LC
2L
(JEE Main 2015)

(d) parallel with C and has a magnitude

12. An LCR circuit is equivalent


R
L
to a damped pendulum. In
an LCR circuit the capacitor
is charged to Q0 and then
C
connected to the L and R as
shown here.
If a student plots graphs of the square of maximum
charge (Q2Max) on capacitor with time (t) for two
different values L1 and L2 (L1 > L2) of L then which
of the following represents this graph correctly ?
(plots are schematic and not drawn to scale)
Q2

(a)

Max

L2
Q2

(c)

Max

L2

Q2

L1

Max

(b)
t

Q0 (For both
L1 and L2)

Q2

L1

(d)
t

Max

L2
L1

(JEE Main 2015)


Quality factor
It is a measure of sharpness of resonance. It is defined
as the ratio of reactance of either the inductance or
capacitance at the resonant angular frequency to the
total resistance of the circuit.
X
L
X
1
Q = L = r ,Q = C =
R
R
R rCR
1 L
\ Q=
R C
Quality factor is also expressed in terms of bandwidth
Resonant frequency
Q=
Bandwidth
48

Physics for you | december 15

In an ac circuit we may define three types of power.


Instantaneous power : The power in the ac circuit at
any instant of time is known as instantaneous power. It is
equal to the product of values of alternating voltage and
alternating current at that time.
Average power : The power averaged over one full
cycle of ac is known as average power. It is also known
as true power.
VI
Pav = Vrms I rms cos f = 0 0 cos f
2
Apparent power : The product of virtual voltage
(Vrms) and virtual current (Irms) in the circuit is known
as virtual power.
VI
Pv = Vrms I rms = 0 0
2
Power factor
It is defined as the ratio of true power to apparent
power of an ac circuit.
cos f =

True power
Apparent power

Power factor is also defined as the ratio of the


resistance to the impedance of an ac circuit.
R
cos f =
Z
It is unitless and dimensionless quantity.
In pure resistive circuit,
f = 0; cos f = 1.
In pure inductive or capacitive circuit

f = ; cos f = 0.
2
R
In RL circuit, Z = R 2 + X L2 and cos f =
Z
2
2
In RC circuit, Z = R + X C and cos f =

In series LCR circuit,


Z = R 2 + (X L X C )2 and cos f =

R
Z

R
Z

At resonance, XL = XC
\ Z = R and f = 0
cos f = 1
Wattless current

The average power associated over a complete cycle


with a pure inductor or pure capacitor is zero, even
though a current is flowing through them. This current
is known as the wattless current or idle current.

Lc-oscillations

When a charged capacitor discharges through an


inductor, LC-oscillations are produced. The frequency
of the oscillations is given by
1
=
2 LC
Ac generator/dynamo

An ac generator/dynamo produces alternating current


energy from mechanical energy of rotation of a coil.
It is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic
induction. The form of emf induced is e = e0sinwt,
where e0 = NABw, max. emf induced. Here, N is total
number of turns in the coil, A is face area of the coil,
B is strength of magnetic field applied and w is angular
velocity of the armature coil.
Transformer

It is a device used for converting a low alternating


voltage to a high alternating voltage and vice versa. It is
based on phenomenon of mutual induction.

For an ideal transformer,

VS I P N S
=
=
=K
VP IS N P

where K is called transformation ratio.


For a step-up transformer, K > 1 i.e. VS > VP, IS < IP and
NS > NP.
For a step-down transformer K < 1 i.e. VS < VP, IS > IP
and NS < NP.
Efficiency of a transformer,
=

Output power VS I S
=
Input power VP I P

AnsWer keys (seLf check)


1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (b)

6. (a)
11. (d)

7. (d)
12. (c)

8. (b)

9. (b)

10. (d)

nn

Science Behind

LOUDSPEAKER

peakers come in all shapes and sizes, enabling you to listen to music, film or hear a
friends voice over the phone. Most loudspeakers operate on the principle that a
magnetic field exerts a force on a current carrying wire. Figure shows a speaker design
that consists of three basic parts, a cone, a voice coil, and a permanent magnet. The cone is
mounted in such a way that it can vibrate back and forth. When vibrating, it pushes and pulls
on the air in front of it, thereby creating sound waves. Attached to the apex of the cone is
the voice coil, which is a hollow cylinder around which coils of wire are wound. The voice coil
is slipped over one of the poles of the stationary permanent magnet (the north pole in the
drawing) and can move freely.
In order to translate an electrical signal into an audible sound, speakers contain an
electromagnet : a metal coil which creates a magnetic field when an electric current flows
through it. This coil behaves much like a permanent magnet, which on reversing the direction
of the current in the coil flips the poles of the magnet.
Inside the speaker, an electromagnet is placed in front of a permanent magnet. The permanent
magnet is fixed firmly into position whereas the electromagnet is mobile. As pulses of electricity
pass through the coil of the electromagnet, the direction of its magnetic field is rapidly
changed. This means that it is in turn attracted to and repelled from the permanent magnet, vibrating back and forth. The electromagnet
is attached to a cone made of a flexible material such as paper or plastic which amplifies these vibrations, pumping sound waves into the
surrounding air and towards your ears.
The frequency of the vibrations governs the pitch of the sound produced, and their amplitude affects the volume. To reproduce all the
different frequencies of sound in a piece of music faithfully, top quality speakers typically use different sized cones dedicated to high,
medium and low frequencies. A microphone uses the same mechanism as a speaker in reverse to convert sound into an electrical signal.
Physics for you | december 15

49

1. A metallic wire is bent into


the shape shown in figure
and carries a current I. If
O is the common centre of
all the three circular arcs
of radii r, 2r and 3r, the
magnetic field at the point
O, is
50 I , normally inward
q
(a)
24 pr
(b)

110 I , normally outward


q
24 pr

(c)

50 I , normally outward
q
24 pr

(d)

110 I , normally inward


q
24 pr

2. A moving coil galvanometer has 150 equal divisions.


Its current sensitivity is 10 divisions mA1 and
voltage sensitivity is 2 divisions mV1. In order that
each division reads 1 V, the resistance needed to be
connected in series with the coil will be
(a) 103 W
(b) 105 W
(c) 99995 W
(d) 9995 W
3. A bar magnet 30 cm long is placed in the magnetic
meridian with its north pole pointing geographical
south. The neutral point is found at a distance of
30 cm from its centre. Find the pole strength of the
magnet. (Take BH = 0.34 G)
(a) 0.34 A m
(b) 3.06 A m
(c) 4.93 A m
(d) 8.61 A m
4. A charge q moves along axis of a current carrying

solenoid with velocity v. When charge enters inside

the solenoid, its velocity become v. Then


(a) v = v and | v | | v |

(b) v v and | v | | v |

(c) v v and | v | = | v |

(d) v = v and | v | = | v |
50

Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

5. Mixed He+ and O2+ ions (mass of He+ = 4 amu


and that of O2+ = 16 amu) beam passes a region of
constant perpendicular magnetic fields. If kinetic
energy of all the ions is same, then
(a) He+ ions will be deflected more than O2+ ions
(b) He+ ions will be deflected less than O2+ ions
(c) all the ions will be deflected equally
(d) no ions will be deflected.
6. The flux linked with a coil is given by fB = 4t2 2t + 5.
The ratio of the average emf between 0 to 3 second
and instantaneous emf at 3 second is
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 5 : 11
(c) 11 : 5
(d) 11 : 6
7. A rectangular loop has
a sliding connector
PQ of length l and
resistance R W and
it is moving with a
speed v as shown in
figure. The set-up is
placed in uniform magnetic field going into the
plane of the paper. The three currents I1, I2 and I are
Blv
Blv
,I =
6R
3R
(b) I1 = I2 = Blv , I = 2 Blv
R
3R
Blv
Blv
2
(c) I1 = I2 =
,I =
3R
3R
Blv
(d) I1 = I2 = I =
R
8. A square metal wire loop of side 10 cm and resistance
1 W is moved with a constant velocity v0 in a uniform
magnetic field of induction B = 2 Wb m2 as shown
in figure. The magnetic lines are perpendicular
to the plane of the loop (directed into the paper).
The loop is connected to a network of resistors,
each of value 3 W. The resistance of the loop wires
OS and PQ are negligible. What should be the speed
of the loop so as to have a steady current of 1 mA
in the loop?
(a) I1 = I2 =

(a) 1 cm s1
(c) 3 cm s1

(b) 2 cm s1
(d) 4 cm s1

9. If I = t2 for 0 < t < T, then r.m.s. value of current is

2
2
(a) T
(b) T
2
2
2
T
(c)
(d) none of these
5
10. In an LCR circuit as shown
in figure, both switches are
open initially. Now, switch
S1 is closed, S2 is kept open.
If q is charge on capacitor
and t = RC is capacitative
time constant, then which
of the following statements
is correct?
(a) Work done by the battery is half of the energy
dissipated in the resistor.
(b) At t = t, q = CV/2.
(c) At t = 2t, q = CV(1 e2).
t
(d) at t = , q = CV (1 e 1 ) .
2
11. In the circuit shown in figure, the cell is ideal. The
coil has an inductance of 4 H and zero resistance.
F is fuse of zero resistance and will blow when the
current through it reaches 5 A. The switch is closed
at t = 0. The fuse will blow

(a) almost at once


(b) after 2 s
(c) after 5 s
(d) after 10 s
12. A current I0 is flowing through an L-R circuit of
time constant t. The source of current is switched
off at time t = 0. Let r be the value of (dI/dt) at
time t = 0. Assuming this ratio to be constant, the
current will reduce to zero in a time interval of
t
(a)
(b) t
e
(c) et
(d) 1 1 t
e

13. A conducting circular loop of radius a and resistance


R is kept on a horizontal plane. A vertical time
varying magnetic field B = 2 t is switched on at time
t = 0. Then which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Power generated in the coil at any time t is
constant.
(b) Flow of charge per unit time from any section
of the coil is constant.
(c) Total charge passed through any section between
2

time t = 0 to t = 2 s is 4 pa .
R
(d) All of these.
14. Two different coils have self-inductances, L1 = 8 mH
and L2 = 2 mH. The current in one coil is increased
at a constant rate. The current in the second coil
is also increased at the same constant rate. At a
certain instant of time, the power given to the
two coils is the same. At this time, the current, the
induced voltage and the energy stored in the first
coil are I1, V1 and U1 respectively. Corresponding
values for the second coil at the same instant are
I2, V2 and U2 respectively. Then which of the
following is incorrect?
U
V
1
(a) 2 = 4
(b) 2 =
U1
V1 4
I
1
(c) 1 =
(d) None of these
I2 4
15. A compass needle placed at a distance r from a
short magnet in Tan A position shows a deflection
of 60. If the distance is increased to r(3)1/3, then
deflection of compass needle is
(a) 30
(b) (60 31/3)
(c) (60 32/3)
(d) (60 22/3)
16. At a certain location in Africa, a compass points
12 west of the geographic north. The north tip of
the magnetic needle of a dip circle placed in the
plane of magnetic meridian points 60 above the
horizontal. The horizontal component of the earths
field is measured to be 0.16 G. The direction and
magnitude of the earths field at the location, is
(a) 32 west of geographical meridian and
3.2 104 T
(b) 12 west of geographical meridian and
0.32 104 T
(c) 12 east of geographical meridian and
0.32 104 T
(d) 32 east of geographical meridian and
3.2 104 T
Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

51

17. The variation of magnetic susceptibility (c) with


temperature for a diamagnetic substance is best
represented by figure.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

18. Two tangent galvanometers having coils of the same


radius are connected in series. A current flowing in
them produces deflections of 60 and 45 respectively.
The ratio of the number of turns in the coils is
(a) 4 : 3
(b) ( 3 + 1): 1
(c) ( 3 + 1) : ( 3 1) (d) 3 : 1
19. A closed loop PQRS
carryingacurrentis placed
in a uniform magnetic
field. If the magnetic
force on segments PS, SR
and RQ are F1, F2 and F3
respectively and are in
the plane of the paper
and along the direction
shown, the force on the
segment QP is
(a)

(F3 F1 )2 F22

(c) F3 F1 + F2

The magnetic field is directed outwards and it is a


function of radial distance r and time t according
to the relation B = B0rt. The induced electric field
strength at a radial distance R/2 from the centre is

(F3 F1 )2 + F22

20. A long straight wire along the z-axis carries a current

I in the negative z-direction. The magnetic field B at


a point having coordinates (x, y) in the z = 0 plane, is
I ( yi x j)
0 I (xi y j)
(a) 0
(b)
2 p (x 2 + y 2 )
2 p (x 2 + y 2 )
0 I ( y j xi)
I (x j + yi)
(c) 0
(d)
2 p (x 2 + y 2 )
2 p (x 2 + y 2 )
21. A straight rod of mass m
and length L is suspended
from the identical springs as
shown in figure. The spring
is stretched a distance x0
due to the weight of the wire.
52

B R2
2 B0 R2
B R2
B0 R2
(b) 0
(c)
(d) 0
3
6
8
12
24. In the shown ac circuit, phase difference between
currents I1 and I2 is
X
p
tan 1 L
(a)
R
2
(a)

(b) F3 + F1 F2
(d)

The circuit has total resistance R. When the magnetic


field perpendicular to the plane of paper is switched
on, springs are observed to extend further by the
same distance. The magnetic field strength is
mgR
2mgR
mgR
mgR
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
LE
LE
2LE
E
22. An electron moves uniformly
on a straight line path YY as
shown in figure. A coil is kept
on the right such that YY is
in the plane of the coil. At the
instant when the electron gets
closest to the coil (neglect selfinduction of the coil)
(a) the current in the coil flows clockwise
(b) the current in the coil flows anticlockwise
(c) the current in the coil is zero
(d) the current in the coil does not change the
direction as the electron crosses point O.
23. In the diagram shown, a time varying
non uniform magnetic field passes
through a circular region of radius R.

Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

1 X L + XC
(b) tan

X
(c) p + tan 1 L
R
2
X XC p
(d) tan 1 L
+ 2

R
25. Figure shows four different sets of wires that
cross each other without actually touching. The
magnitude of the current is the same in all four
cases and the directions of current flow are
as indicated. For which configuration will the
magnetic field at the center of the square formed
by the wires be equal to zero?

(a)

(a) 104 T
(c) 2 104 T

(b)

(c)

30. Match the column I with column II.

(d)

26. Consider a hypothetic spherical


body. The body is cut into two
parts about the diameter. One of
hemispherical portion has mass
distribution m while the other
portion has identical charge
distribution q. The body is rotated
about the axis with constant speed
w. Then, the ratio of magnetic moment to angular
momentum is
q
q
(a)
(b) >
2m
2m
q
(c) <
(d) cannot be calculated
2m
27. The network shown in figure is part of a complete
circuit. If at a certain instant, the current I from
A to B is 5 A, and is decreasing at a rate 103 A s1,
then (VB VA) is

(a) 20 V

(b) 15 V

(c) 10 V

(b) 0.5 104 T


(d) None of these

(d) 5 V

28. A coil is wound on an iron core and looped back on


itself so that core has two sets of closely wound coils
carrying currents in opposite directions, as shown
in figure. The self-inductance is
(a) zero
(b) 2L
(c) 2L + M
(d) 2L + 2M
29. Some equipotential surfaces of the magnetic scalar
potential are shown in figure. Magnetic field at a
point in the region is

P.
Q.
R.
S.

Column I
Magnetic moment
Permeability
Magnetic intensity
Magnetic induction

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

P - 1, Q - 4, R - 3, S - 2
P - 2, Q - 4, R - 3, S - 1
P - 2, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 1
P - 1, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 2

1.
2.
3.
4.

Column II
[ML0T2A1]
[M0L2T0A]
[MLT2A2]
[M0L1T0A]

SolutionS
1. (a) : Magnetic field at O due to the straight parts
of the wire will be zero. Magnetic fields at O due
to the three circular arcs of radii r, 2r and 3r are
I q
B1 = 0 . , acting normally inward
4p r
I q
B2 = 0 . , acting normally outward
4 p 2r
0 I q
B3 =
. , acting normally inward.
4 p 3r
Thus the total magnetic field at the centre O is
I q q q
B = B1 B2 + B3 = 0 +
4 p r 2r 3r
5 I
= 0 q, acting normally inward.
24 p
2. (d) : Resistance of the galvanometer,
Current sensitivity 10
G=
Voltage sensitivity = 2 = 5 W
Number of divisions on the galvanometer scale,
n = 150
Current required for full scale deflection,
n
150
Ig =
=
Current sensitivity 10
= 15 mA = 15 103A
Required range of voltmeter = 150 1 = 150 V
Required series resistance,
V
150
R = G =
5 = 9995 W
Ig
15 103
3. (d) : Here the neutral point lie on the axial line.

\ Baxial = BH or 0 2mr = BH
4 p (r 2 l 2 )2
Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

53

2
2 2
4 p BH (r l )

2r
0
1 0.34 104 (0.302 0.152 )2
= 7
= 2.582 A m2
2 0.30
10
m 2.582
= 8.61 A m
Pole strength, qm = =
2l 0.30


4. (d) : Since v is parallel to B, Fm = q(v B) = 0 and


hence v remains unchanged, i.e., v = v and as such

| v | = | v |.

or m =

5. (c) : R =

2 mK

qB
For same value of K and B,
m1 / m2
R1
4 / 16
=
=
= 1 or R1 = R2
1/ 2
R2
q1 / q2

Since arms QCS and QAS (each of resistance 6 W)


are in parallel, equivalent resistance of the network
6W
=
= 3W
2
Since the loop (of resistance 1 W) and the network
(of resistance 3 W) are in series,
effective resistance in the circuit,
R=3W+1W=4W
Induced emf in the loop, e = Blv0
Blv0
Current in the loop, I = e =
R
R
IR
Thus, v0 =
Bl
As, I = 1 mA = 103 A, l = 0.1 m, B = 2 Wb m2
\ v0 =

(103 A)(4 W)

(2 Wb m )(0.1 m)

which implies that all the ions will be equally


deflected.
6. (b) : As fB (at t = 0) = 5, f B (at t = 3 s) = 35,
df
35 5
= 10 , | einst. | = B = 8t 2
| eaverage | =
30
dt
einst.(at t = 3 s) = 8 3 2 = 22
eaverage 10 5
= =
\
22 11
einst.
7. (c) : A conductor of length l
moving with velocity v in
a uniform magnetic field
B is equivalent to a cell of
emf e, where e = Blv. The
equivalent circuit is shown
in the figure.
Applying Kirchhoff s loop rule, we get
I1R IR + Blv = 0
... (i)
and I2R IR + Blv = 0
...(ii)
Clearly, I1R + IR = I2R + IR, hence, I1 = I2
Adding eqn. (i) and (ii),
2Blv = I1R + I2R + 2IR = R(I1 + I2) + 2IR = 3IR
2 Blv
hence, I =
( I = I1 + I2 )
3R
As I1 = I2 and I = I1 + I2
Blv
\ I1 = I2 =
3R
8. (b) : The network AQCSA is a balanced wheatstone
bridge, so resistance AC is ineffective.
Resistance in the arm QCS = 3 W+ 3 W = 6 W
Resistance in the arm QAS = 3 W + 3 W = 6 W
54

Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

1/2

9. (c) : Ir.m.s.

T
I 2dt
=

= 2 102 m s 1
= 2 cm s1
1/2

T
(t 2 )2 dt
=

T
1/2

5
= T
5T

T2
5

10. (c) : In the figure, when switch S1 is closed and switch


S2 is kept open, the condenser gets charged through
resistance. At any time t, the charge acquired by the
condenser is
q = q0(1 et/RC), where q0 = CV
At t = 2t, q = q0(1 e2t/t) = CV (1 e2)
dI
e
2
dt
\ dI = dt = dt =
dt
L
4
2
As fuse will blow, when I = 5 A,
dt
\
= dI = 5 or dt = 10 s
2
12. (b) : In LR circuit, decaying current at any time t is
given by I = I0 et/t,
where t0 is time constant.
dI
1
= I0e t /t

dt
t
dI I
or = 0 e t / t
dt t
11. (d) : As | e | = L

At t = 0,

I
dI I0 0
= e , i.e, r = 0 1
dt t
t

As r is constant, therefore, current will reduce to


zero in time t.

dB
=2
dt
df
dB
Induced e.m.f.,| e | =
=A
dt
dt
2
2
or e = (pa )2 = 2pa
Flow of charge per unit time through any section of
the coil = induced current,
e 2 pa2
I= =
= constant.
R
R
Also, power generated P = I2R = constant.
Total charge passed through any section between
t = 0 to t = 2 second is
2 pa2
4 pa2
q = It =
(2 0) =

R
R

13. (d) : Here, B = 2t \

14. (d) : Here, L1 = 8 mH, L2 = 2 mH


dI
As induced voltage, V = L and
dt
dI
is constant for the two coils,
dt
V
L
2 1
\ V L or 2 = 2 = =
V1 L1 8 4
As power = V I = constant
1
\ I
V
I1 V2 1
=
=
I2 V1 4
As U = 1 LI 2
2
2
U2 L2 I2 2 4 2 4
\
=
= =
U1 L1 I1 8 1
1
15. (a) :

tan q2 d13
r3
1
= 3=
=
1
3
3
/
tan q1 d2 [r (3) ] 3

tan 60
1
3
1
tan q2 = tan q1 =
=
=
\ q2 = 30
3
3
3
3
16. (b) : Given, angle of declination
q = 12 west
Angle of dip, d = 60
Horizontal component of earths
magnetic field, H = 0.16 G
Let the magnitude of earths
magnetic field at that place is B.
Using the formula, H = B cos d
H
0.16
0.16 2
or B =
=
=
cos d cos 60
1
= 0.32 G = 0.32 104 T
The earths magnetic field lies in a vertical 12 west
of geographical meridian at an angle 60 above the
horizontal.

17. (d) : For diamagnetic substances, the magnetic


susceptibility is negative and independent of temperature. Therefore, choice (d) is correct in figure.
18. (d) : In series, same current flows through the two
tangent galvanometers.
2rH
2rH
tan q1 =
tan q2
i.e., I =
0n1
0n2
n1 tan q1 tan 60
\
=
=
= 3
n2 tan q2 tan 45
19. (d) : T h e f o r c e s o n t h e
various arms are shown in
the figure. Resolving F4 into
two components, F4 cosq and
F4 sinq acting vertically and
horizontally respectively. In
equilibrium position
F4cosq = F2
F4sinq = (F3 F1) \ F4 = (F3 F1 )2 + F22

0 I
20. (a) : Magnetic field | B | =
2p x 2 + y 2
Unit vector perpendicular to the position vector is
( yi x j)

0 I
( yi x j)
\ B=
2
2
x +y
2 p(x 2 + y 2 )
21. (b) : In the absence of magnetic field
mg = 2kx0

...(i)
BLE
in
Magnetic force on the rod is Fm = BIL =
R
downward direction.
BLE
...(ii)
\ 4kx0 = mg +
R
From eqns. (i) and (ii), we get,
2kx0 R mgR
BLE
4kx0 = 2kx0 +
, B=
=
R
EL
LE

Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

55

22. (c) : Current in the YY path is from Y to Y but


the current is constant and hence the magnetic flux
through the coil is constant. Therefore the current
in the coil is zero.
23. (a) : Flux for loop of radius R/2 at time t
f=

R /2

R /2

r3
B2 prdr = B0t 2 p
3 0

df
1 R3
= B0 2 p (t ), As E d l =
3 8
dt
\

E(2 pR / 2) =
E=

24. (c)

27. (b) : As current is flowing from A to B, therefore,


moving from A to B
VA VB = [5 1 15 + 5 103 (103)] = 15 V
\ VB VA = 15 V
28. (a) : As currents through the two coils flow in opposite
directions,
\ Leff = L1 + L2 2 M
But M = L1L2 = LL = L
\ Leff = L + L 2 L = zero
29. (c) : As is clear from figure

df
R3
= B0 2 p
dt
24

B0 R2
12

25. (c) : The field due to clockwise current cancels the


field due to anticlockwise current.
26. (a) : The ratio M/L is always

q
.
2m

DV = (0.2 0.1)104 T m
1
Dx = xsin30=0.1
2
V

D
0
.
1
104
\ B=
=
= 2 104 T
Dx
0. 1 / 2
30. (c)

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Series
44
Series
CHAPTERWISE UNIT TEST : THERMODYNAMICS | KINETIC THEORY | OSCILLATIONS | WAVES
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

All questions are compulsory.


Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

1. A gas has two specific heats whereas a liquid and a


2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.

solid have only one. Why?


In terms of kinetic theory of gases, explain why the
pressure of a gas in a container increases when a gas
is heated?
Two simple pendulums of unequal length meet
each other at mean position while oscillating. What
is their phase difference?
What is the evidence that (i) sound is a wave, (ii)
sound is a mechanical wave and (iii) sound waves
are longitudinal waves?
How a refrigerator can be used as a heat pump to
heat a house in winter?
At what temperature is average speed of oxygen gas
molecule equal to rms velocity of the same gas at
27C ?
A cylindrical piece of cork of base area A and height
h floats in a liquid of density r. The cork is depressed
slightly and released. Show that the cork oscillates
up and down simple harmonically with a period
T = 2p h r / rg , where r is the density of cork.
(Ignore damping due to viscosity etc.)
A train moves towards a stationary observer with
speed 34 m s1. The train sounds a whistle and its
frequency registered by the observer is f1. If the

train's speed is reduced to 17m s1, the frequency


registered is f2. If the speed of sound is 340 m s1,
then find the ratio f1/f2.
9. Discuss whether the following phenomena are
reversible:
(i) Water fall
(ii) Rusting of iron
(iii) Electrolysis.
OR
Two perfect gases at absolute temperatures T1
and T2 are mixed. There is no loss of energy.
Find the temperature of the mixture if the
masses of the molecules are m1 and m2 and the
number of the molecules in the gases are n1 and
n2 respectively.
10. At what distance from the mean position in SHM,
the energy is half kinetic and half potential ?
11. A particle is moving in a straight line with SHM of
amplitude r. At a distance s from the mean position
of motion, the particle receives a blow in the
direction of motion which instantaneously doubles
the velocity. Find the new amplitude.
12. Determine the P-V relation for a monoatomic gas

undergoing an adiabatic process.

Physics for you | December 15

57

14.

15.

16.

17.

molar mass m is moving with a velocity v0. If the


container is suddenly stopped, find the change in
temperature.
A simple pendulum has a time period T. The
pendulum is completely immersed in a non-viscous
liquid of density s while the density of the material
of the bob of the pendulum is r. What is the time
period of the pendulum immersed in the liquid?
A tuning fork and an air column at 51C produce
4 beats in one second when sounded together. The
same tuning fork produces 1 beat per second when
the temperature of the air column is reduced to
16C. Determine the frequency of the tuning fork.
During the Indo-Pakistan war, a soldier observed
that his lead bullet just melted when stopped by
an obstacle. Assuming that no heat is lost, find the
velocity of the bullet if its temperature was 47.6C.
Given that the melting point of lead = 327C;
specific heat of lead = 127.7 J kg1 K1; latent heat of
fusion of lead = 0.25 105 J kg1.
OR
A vessel is filled with a mixture of two different
gases. However, the number of molecules per unit
volume of the two gases in the mixture are the
same. (i) Will the mean kinetic energy per molecule
of both the gases be equal ? (ii) Will the root
mean square velocities of the molecules be equal?
(iii) Will the pressure be equal ? Give reasons.
A trolley of mass 3.0 kg is connected to two identical
springs, each of force constant 600 N m1, as shown
in the figure. If the trolley is displaced from its
equilibrium position by 5.0 cm and released, what is

600 N m1 3.0 kg

600 N m1

(a) the period of ensuing oscillations (b) the


maximum speed of the trolley (c) How much is
the total energy dissipated as heat by the time the
trolley comes to rest due to damping forces?
18. Read the passage and answer the following
questions.
Organ pipes are musical instruments which are
used for producing musical sound by blowing air
into the pipe. Organ pipes are of two types: closed
58

Physics for you | December 15

organ pipes are closed at one end and open at the


other, open organ pipes are open at both ends.
The study shows that the overall musical sound
produced by an open organ pipe is richer than the
musical sound produced by a closed organ pipe.
(i) Why the overall musical sound produced by
an open organ pipe is richer than the musical
sound produced by a closed organ pipe?
(ii) What does this study imply in day to day life?
19. A sample of 2 kg of monoatomic helium (assumed
ideal) is taken through the process ABC and another
sample of 2 kg of the same gas is taken through the
process ADC (figure). Given molecular mass of
Helium = 4, R = 8.3 J mol1 K1.
(i) What is the temperature of Helium in each of
the states A, B, C and D?
(ii) How much is the heat involved in each of the
processes ABC and ADC?
10
P(104 N m2)

13. An insulated container containing monoatomic gas of

B
A

10
V(m3)

C
D

20

OR

State and explain Boyle's law. A thin tube, sealed


at both ends, is 100 cm long. It lies horizontally, the
middle 10 cm containing mercury and the two
equal ends containing air at standard atmospheric
pressure. If the tube is now turned to a vertical
position, by what amount will the mercury be
displaced?
20. A solid cylinder of mass M is attached to a horizontal

massless spring so that it can roll without slipping


along a horizontal surface as shown in figure.
The spring constant k is 3 N m1. If the system is
released from rest at a point in which the spring
is stretched by 0.25 m, find (a) the translational
kinetic energy and (b) the rotational kinetic energy
of the cylinder as it passes the equilibrium position.
(c) Show that under these conditions, the centre of
mass of cylinder executes SHM with time period,
T = 2p (3M / 2k ) .

According to problem
r

OR

A travelling harmonic wave on a string is described by


y(x, t) = 7.5 sin (0.0050 x + 12 t + p/4)
(a) What are the displacement and velocity of
oscillation of a point at x = 1 cm, and t = 1 s ?
Is this velocity equal to the velocity of wave
propagation?
(b) Locate the points of the string which have the
same transverse displacement and velocity as
the x = 1 cm point at t = 2 s, 5 s and 11 s.
solutions
1. When solids and liquids are heated, there is only

2.

3.

4.

5.

a slight change in their volume and as such these


possess only one specific heat, i.e., specific heat at
constant volume. But in case of gases, pressure and
volume both change and as such these possess two
principal specific heats; one at constant pressure
and one at constant volume.
When a gas is heated, its temperature increases. The
increase in temperature increases the pressure of
the gas due to following reasons:
(i) With the increase in temperature of the gas, the
velocity of gas molecules increases. Therefore,
the number of collisions per second against the
walls of the container increases and so does the
gas pressure.
(ii) Due to increased velocity, the transfer of
momentum per second to the walls increases
and so does the pressure.
If both pendulums are moving in the same direction,
then f = 0 and if they are moving in opposite
directions, then f = 180 or p radian.
(i) Sound waves show the phenomenon of diffraction.
(ii) Sound waves require material medium for
propagation.
(iii) Sound waves cannot be polarised.
When the outside environment is colder than
the inside of a room, we leave a refrigerator open
with its radiator (backside) facing the room. The
refrigerator pumps in heat from the environment
to the room. This heats up the room.

6. ... vrms =

3RT1 and v =
av
M

8RT2
pM

8RT2
3R 300
=
pM
M
8T2
or
= 900
p
or T2 = 353.2 K
7. When the cylindrical cork is in equilibrium,
weight of the cork = weight of the liquid displaced, i.e.,
(Ah)rg = (Al) rg
hr
or
l=
r
T = 2p

Thus,

l
hr
= 2p
g
r g

8. For the stationary observer,

f=
...

f1 =

v
f
v vs
340

340 34

340
f
340 17
f1 340 17 19
=
=
Hence,
f2 340 34 18
and f2 =

9. (i) Water fall: It is not a reversible process. During

fall of the water, the major part of its potential


energy is converted into kinetic energy of the
water. However, on striking the ground, a part
of it is converted into heat and sound. It is not
possible to convert the heat and the sound
produced alongwith the kinetic energy of water
into potential energy, so that the water may rise
back to its initial height. Therefore, water fall is
not a reversible process.
(ii) Rusting of iron: During rusting, iron gets
oxidised by the oxygen of the air. Since it is a
chemical change, it is not a reversible process.
(iii) Electrolysis: It is a reversible process, provided
the electrolyte does not offer any resistance to
the flow of current. If we reverse the direction
of current, the direction of motion of ions is
also reversed.
OR
According to kinetic theory, the average K.E. per
3
molecule of a gas = kBT
2
Physics for you | December 15

59

Before mixing the two gases, the average K.E. of all


the molecules of two gases
3
3
= kBn1T1 + kBn2T2
2
2
After mixing, the average K.E. of both the gases
3
= kB (n1 + n2 )T
2
where T is the temperature of mixture. Since there
is no loss of energy, therefore,
3
3
3
kB (n1 + n2 )T = kBn1T1 + kBn2T2
2
2
2
n
T
+
n
T
or T = 1 1 2 2
(n1 + n2 )
1
2 2
10. Ek = mw (a x2), (Here a is amplitude of motion)
2
1
Ep = m w2 x 2
2
As, Ek = Ep
1
1
m w2 (a2 x 2 ) = m w2 x 2
2
2
a
2
2
or 2x = a or x =
2
\

11. Velocity, v = w r 2 y 2

At, y = s, let v = v0, then v20 = w2 (r2 s2)


...(i)
Due to blow, the new velocity at y = s is v = 2v0
Let r = r, therefore, from (i)
(2v0)2 = w2(r2 s2)
...(ii)
r 2 s2
Dividing (ii) by (i), we have, 2 2 = 4
r s
On solving, r = 4r 2 3s 2

or TV2/3 = constant
As PV = RT, T = PV/R
Thus, (PV/R)V2/3 = constant
or PV5/3 = constant
13. Let container contains n number of moles of gas, at

temperature T1, moving with velocity v0.


Initial internal energy, Ui
f
3
= n RT1 = nRT1
2
2
where m = molar mass

f = degree of freedom = 3, for monoatomic gas.


Final internal energy, Uf =
DU = DKE

3
1
nR DT = mv02 n
2
2

mv02
3R
14. If V is the volume of the bob, then mass of the bob,
m = Vs
Weight of the bob when immersed completely in
the liquid = Vrg Vsg = V(r s)g
Effective acceleration due to gravity when the bob
is in the liquid,
DT =

V (r s) g V (r s) g r s
=
=
g
m
Vr
r
g
r
or
=
g r s
g =

Now, T = 2p

12. As dQ = dU + dW, for an adiabatic process, dQ = 0,

...

dU = dW

...(i)
3
For a monoatomic gas, U = RT and as such
2
3
dU = RdT
...(ii)
2
RT
Also dW = PdV =
...(iii)
dV
V
From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),
3
RT
RdT =
dV
2
V
or
or

60

dT 2 dV
+
=0
T 3 V
2
ln T + ln V = constant
3
Physics for you | December 15

3
nRT2
2

or

T
=
T

l
g

and T = 2p

l
g

g
g

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

...(i)

...(ii)
T
r
=
T
rs

r
(r s)
15. When the temperature of the air column is
decreased, the speed of sound in the air column is
decreased.
v
Since u =
therefore u is decreased. Since
l
the number of beats per second is less at lower
or T = T

temperature therefore we conclude that the frequency


of the air column is higher than the frequency of
the tuning fork.
Let u be the frequency of the tuning fork. Then,
at 51C, the frequency of air column is (u + 4).
At 16C, the frequency of the air column is (u + 1).
Now, v51 = (u + 4)l and v16 = (u + 1)l
v
u+4
Dividing, 51 =
v16 u + 1
or
or
or

3kBT
m
Due to different masses of the molecules, the r.m.s.
velocities for the two gases will not be equal.
1
(iii) As P = mnv 2
3
Due to different masses of the molecules, the pressure
exerted by the two gases will not be equal.
(ii) As vrms =

17. Here mass of the trolley, m = 3.0 kg

324 u + 4
273 + 51 u + 4
=
or
=
289 u + 1
273 + 16 u + 1
18 u + 4
=
17 u + 1
18u + 18 = 17u + 68 or u = 50 Hz

16. Here, initial temperature of the bullet = 47.6C

Melting point of lead


= final temperature of the bullet
= 327C
Rise in temperature, DT = (327 47.6)C
= 279.4 C = 279.4 K
Specific heat of lead, c = 127.7 J kg1 K1
Latent heat of lead, L = 0.25 105 J kg1
Let mass of the lead bullet = m
Velocity of the lead bullet = v
1
Kinetic energy of the bullet = mv 2
2
Heat produced when the bullet is stopped,

force constant of each spring, k = 600 N m1


maximum displacement of the trolley from its mean
position, i.e., amplitude, A = 5.0 cm = 0.05 m
With the two springs attached to the trolley, the
resultant force constant = 2k
= 2 600 N m1 = 1200 N m1.
(a) If T is the period of oscillation of the trolley,
m
3
= 2 3.14
s = 0.31 s
2k
1200
(b) Maximum velocity of the trolley,
2p
2 3.14
vmax = wA =
A=
0.05 = 1m s 1
T
0.31
(c) Total energy of the trolley,
1 2
1
E = mvmax
= 3 (1)2 = 1.5 J
2
2
It is this energy which is dissipated as heat due to
damping forces by the time the trolley comes to rest.
T = 2p

1 2
mv
2

an open organ pipe, frequency of


v
. And all harmonics
fundamental note is u1 =
2L
of frequencies 2u1, 3u1, 4u1 ........ are present in
its musical sound.

Heat gained by the lead bullet = mcDT + mL


= m 127.7 279.4 + m (0.25 105)
= 60679 m
As heat produced = heat gained,
1 2
mv = 60679m
2

In a closed organ pipe, frequency of fundamental


v 1
note is u1 =
= u . And only alternate
4L 2 1
harmonics of frequencies 3u1, 5u1, 7u1, ..... are
present in its musical sound. The harmonics of
frequencies 2u1, 4u1, 6u1....... are missing.

Q=

18. (i) In

v2 = 2 60679 or v = 348 m s1
OR
(i) Mean kinetic energy per molecule,
1 2 3
mv = kBT
2
2
As the temperature of both the gases in the
mixture is the same, so mean kinetic energy
per molecule of both the gases will be equal.
or

That is why overall musical sound produced by


an open organ pipe is richer than the musical
sound produced by a closed organ pipe.
(ii) In day to day life, a person whose life is an
open book, who shares his successes and failures;
joys and sorrows etc. with the people in his
contact is loved more in society. On the contrary,
a person who is secretive and keeps everything
close to his chest is not appreciated in the society.
Physics for you | December 15

61

19. (i) Number of moles of He

n=

Mass of He
2000
=
= 500
Molecular mass
4

As PAVA = nRTA
PAVA 5 104 10
=
= 120.5 K
500 8.3
nR
For the isochoric process AB (V = constant),
TB PB
P
10
=
... TB = B TA = 120.5 = 241 K
TA PA
5
PA
For the isobaric process BC (P = constant),
V
20
TC VC
... T = C TB = 241 = 482 K
=
VB
10
TB VB
\ TA =

When the tube is horizontal, the length of the air


column on the either side of the mercury thread will
be 45 cm. Initially for each half, we have
P = 76 cm of mercury, V = 45 cm

For the isochoric process DC,


P
5
TD PD
... TD = D TC = 482 = 241 K
=
10
PC
TC PC
(ii) Heat involved in the process ABC,
QABC = DUAC + WABC = nCV (TC TA) + WBC
= nCV (TC TA) + PB (VC VB)
3
= 500 8.3 (482 120.5) + 10 104
2
(20 10) [... C = 3/2 R]
6

= 2.25 10 + 10 = 3.25 10 J = 3.25 MJ


Heat involved in the process ADC,
QADC = DUAC + WADC = DUAC + WAD
= 2.25 106 + PA (VD VA)

= 2.25 106 + 5 104 (20 10)


= 2.75 106 J = 2.75 MJ.
OR

Boyle's law is a fundamental gas law, discovered


by Robert Boyle in 1662. It states that the volume
of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional
to its pressure, provided the temperature remains
constant. Mathematically,
1
K
V
or V =
or PV = K
P
P
where K is a constant. Its value depends on (i) mass
of the gas, (ii) its temperature and (iii) the units in
which P and V are measured.
If P1 and V1 are the initial values of pressure and
volume and P2 and V2 are their final values, then
according to Boyle's law, P1V1 = P2V2
Figure (i) shows graph between P and V and
figure (ii) shows the graph between P and 1/V for a
given mass of a gas at a constant temperature T.
62

Physics for you | December 15

When the tube is held vertically, suppose that


mercury thread moves through a distance x. Let P1
and P2 be pressure of the air in the upper half and
lower half respectively. The volume of air in the two
halves will be
V1 = 45 + x and V2 = 45 x
Using Boyle's law for upper half,
or
76 45 = P1 (45 + x)
PV = P1V1
and for lower half,
PV = P2V2
or
76 45 = P2 (45 x)
Now P2 = P1 + 10 cm of Hg
76 45 76 45
=
+ 10
or
45 x
45 + x
1
1

= 10
or 76 45
45

x
45
+ x

6840 x
= 10
or
2025 x 2
x2 + 684 x 2025 = 0
684 (684)2 + 8100 684 689.9
=
2
2
x = 686.95 cm or 2.95 cm
As x cannot be negative, so x = 2.95 cm
20. Let at any position, x be the extension in the spring
and v be the velocity of centre of mass of the
cylinder. Then,
...

x=

P.E. of spring, U = 1 kx 2
2

K.E. of translation, KT = 1 Mv 2
2
1 2 1
K.E. of rotation, K R = I = Mv 2
2
4
1

2
I = 2 Mr and v = r

Total mechanical energy of the system is


E = U + KT + KR =
1 2 1
1
1
3
kx + Mv 2 + Mv 2 = kx 2 + Mv 2 ...(i)
2
2
4
2
4
As per question, v = 0 if x = 0.25 m, then
1
3
2
E = 3 (0.25) + 0 = J
2
32
At equilibrium position, U = 0 [as x = 0], so from (i)
3
3
= 0 + M v2
32
4

1
Mv 2 = J
8

or

At equilibrium position
1
1 1 1
Mv 2 = = J
2
2 8 16

(a) Translational K.E. =


(b) Rotational K.E. =

1
1 1 1
Mv 2 = = J
4
4 8 32

(c) In SHM, the total energy is conserved, so

dE
=0
dt

From (i), we have


3 d2x
1
1
dx 3
dv
or M 2 = kx
0 = k.2 x + M 2v
4 dt
2
2
dt 4
dt

or

d2x
dt

2k
x
3M

dx
dv d 2 x
= v and
=

dt dt 2
dt
...(ii)

From (ii), we note that acceleration (d2x/dt2) x


and is directed towards equilibrium position.
Hence, the cylinder will execute SHM. Comparing
d2x
(ii) with the equation
= 2 x , we have
2
dt
2
k
2k
2 =
or
=
3M
3M
Time period of SHM, T =

3M
2p
= 2p
2k

OR
The travelling harmonic wave is
y(x, t) = 7.5 sin (0.0050 x + 12 t + p/4)
At x = 1 cm and t = 1 s,
y (1, 1) = 7.5 sin (0.005 1 + 12 1 + p/4)
= 7.5 sin (12.005 + p/4)
...(i)
Now, q = (12.005 + p/4) radian
180
=
(12.005 + p/4) degree
p
12.005 180
=
+ 45 = 732.55
22
7
... from (i), y(1, 1) = 7.5 sin (732.55)
= 7.5 sin (720 + 12.55)
= 7.5 sin 12.55 = 7.5 0.2173
= 1.63 cm
Velocity of oscillation,
d
d
p

v = { y(1, 1)} = 7.5 sin 0.005x + 12t +

dt
dt
4

= 7.5 12 cos 0.005x + 12t +


4

At x = 1 cm, t = 1 s
v = 7.5 12 cos (0.005 + 12 + p/4) = 90 cos (732.55)
= 90 cos (720 + 12.55)
v = 90 cos (12.55) = 90 0.9765 = 87.89 cm s1
Comparing the given eqn. with the standard form
2p

y(x, t) = r sin (vt + x ) + 0


l

6
2pv
we get, r = 7.5 cm,
= 2 p u = 12 or u =
p
l
2p
= 0.005
l
2p
2 3.14
... l =
= 1256 cm = 12.56 m
=
0.005
0.005
velocity of wave propagation,
v=ul=

6
12.56 = 24 m s1
p

We find that velocity at x = 1 cm, t = 1 s is not equal


to velocity of wave propagation.
(b) Now, all points which are at a distance of l,
2 l, 3 l, from x = 1 cm will have same transverse
displacement and velocity. As l = 12.56 m, therefore,
all points at distances 12.6 m, 25.2 m, 37.8 m...
from x = 1 cm will have same displacement and
velocity, as x = 1 cm point at t = 2 s, 5 s and 11s.
nn
Physics for you | December 15

63

PRACTICE PAPER 2016


Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.


(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section
E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

section-A
1. What is the effect of presence of a dielectric medium
on
(i) capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
(ii) electrostatic force between two charges?
2. A wire connected to a bulb does not glow, whereas
the filament of the bulb glows when same current
flows through them. Why?

3. 220 volt ac is more dangerous than 220 volt dc. Why?


4. What is the value of refractive index of a medium of
polarizing angle 60 ?
5. Why is an FM signal less susceptible to noise than
an AM signal ?
section-B

6. A wire of 15 W resistance is gradually stretched


to double its original length. It is then cut into
two equal parts. These parts are then connected
in parallel across a 3.0 V battery. Find the current
drawn from the battery.
7. A thin convex lens of focal length 25 cm is cut
into two pieces 0.5 cm above the principal axis.
64

Physics for you | December 15

The top part is placed at (0,0) and an object placed at


(50 cm, 0). Find the coordinates of the image.
8. Calculate the
(a) momentum, and
(b) de Broglie wavelength of the electrons
accelerated through a potential difference of
56 V.
9. The mean lives of a radioactive substance are
1620 yr and 405 yr for a-emission and b-emission
respectively. Find out the time during which
three-fourth of a sample will decay if it is decaying
by both the a-emission and b-emission.
10. The base current of a transistor is 105 mA and
collector current is 2.05 mA.
(a) Determine the value of b, IE and a.
(b) A change of 27 mA in the base current produces
a change of 0.65 mA in the collector current.
Find bac.
OR
Pure Si at 300 K has equal electron (ne) and hole (nh)
concentrations of 1.5 1016 m3. Doping by indium
increases nh to 4.5 1022 m3. Calculate ne in the
doped silicon.

section-c

11. Assume that the silicon diode in the circuit requires


a minimum current of 1 mA to be above the knee
point (0.7 V) of its I-V characteristic. Also assume
that the voltage across the diode is independent of
current above the knee point.

side parallel to a long straight conductor 2.0 cm


apart carrying a current of 25 A. What is the net
force of the loop?
16. A rectangular coil of 200 turns of wire 15 cm 40 cm
makes 50 rps about an axis perpendicular to
the magnetic field of 0.08 Wb m2. What is the
instantaneous value of the induced emf when the
plane of the coil makes an angle with the magnetic
field lines of : (i) 0, (ii) 60 and (iii) 90?
OR

(a) If VB = 5 V, what should be the maximum


value of R so that the voltage is above the knee
point?
(b) If VB = 5 V, what should be the value of R to
establish the current of 5 mA in the circuit?
(c) What is power dissipated in the resistance R
and in the diode when a current of 5 mA flows
in the circuit at VB = 6 V?
(d) If R = 1 kW, what is the minimum voltage VB
required to keep the diode above the knee
point?
12. In a diode AM detector, the output circuit consists
of R = 1 kW and C = 10 pF. A carrier signal of
100 kHz is to be detected. Is it good? If yes, then
explain why? If not, what value of C would you
suggest?
13. Total charge Q is uniformly spread along length of
a ring of radius R. A small test charge +q of mass m
is kept at the centre of the ring and is given a gentle
push along the axis of the ring.
(a) Show that the particle executes a simple
harmonic oscillation.
(b) Obtain its time period.
14. A room has AC run for 5 hours a day at a voltage of
220 V. The wiring of the room consists of Cu of 1 mm
radius and a length of 10 m. Power consumption
per day is 10 commercial units. What fraction of
it goes in the joule heating in wires? What would
happen if the wiring is made of aluminium of the
same dimensions?

A 100 mH inductor, a 20 mF capacitor and 10 W


resistor are connected in series to a 100 V, 50 Hz ac
source. Calculate
(a) impedance of the circuit at resonance,
(b) current at resonance and
(c) resonant frequency.
17. In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electric
field oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of
2.0 1010 Hz and amplitude 48 V m1.
(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?
(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating
magnetic field?
(c) Find the total average energy density of the
electromagnetic field of the wave.
18. Figure shows a two slit arrangement with a
source which emits unpolarised light. P is a
polariser with axis whose direction is not given.
If I0 is the intensity of the principal maxima when
no polariser is present, calculate in the present case,
the intensity of the principal maxima as well as of
the first minima.

19. In the circuit shown in figure, when the input


voltage of the base resistance is 10 V, Vbe is zero and
Vce is also zero. Find the values of Ib, Ic and b.

[rCu = 1.7 108 W m, rAl = 2.7 108 W m]


15. A rectangular loop of sides 25 cm and 10 cm
carrying a current of 15 A is placed with its longer
Physics for you | December 15

65

20. A convex lens of focal length f1 is kept in contact


with a concave lens of focal length f2. Find the focal
length of the combination.
21. A proton and an alpha particle are accelerated
through the same potential. Which one of the
two has (i) greater value of de Broglie wavelength
associated with it and (ii) less kinetic energy.
Give reasons to justify your answer.
22. The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is
13.6 eV.
(i) What is the kinetic energy of an electron in the
(a) 2nd excited state (b) 3rd excited state?
(ii) If the electron jumps to the ground state from
the (a) 2nd excited state, (b) 3rd excited state,
then calculate the wavelength of the spectral
lines emitted.
section-D

23. Shivansh enquired from his Physics teacher, a few


questions that were in his mind about ac.
(a) Why ac is used for domestic supply and not dc?
(b) Why is multimeter used for measuring ac
and not a galvanometer available in Physics
laboratory?
(c) Why the wires carrying ac are many thin wires
within insulation and wires in laboratory are
thick copper wires?
The teacher was really happy to know the queries
and explained the cause for the same.
(i) What are the values shown by Shivansh and his
Physics teacher?
(ii) What are the explanations by the Physics
teacher for the queries?
section-e

24. A long straight wire of uniform cross section


of radius a is carrying a steady current I.
Use Amperes circuital law to obtain a relation
showing the variation of the magnetic field (B)
inside and outside the wire with distance r, (r < a)
and (r > a) from the centre of its cross section. Plot
a graph showing the nature of this variation.
OR
State Biot-Savarts law. Using this law derive an
expression for the magnetic field at a point situated
at a distance of x metre from the centre of a circular
coil of N turns and radius r carrying a current of
I A.
66

Physics for you | December 15

25. Derive an expression for electric potential at a point


due to an electric dipole.
OR
Obtain the expression for the capacitance of a parallel
plate capacitor. Three capacitors of capacitances
C1, C2 and C3 are connected in parallel. Derive an
expression for the equivalent capacitance.
26. What are coherent sources of light? State two
conditions for two light sources to be coherent.
Derive a mathematical expression for the width of
interference fringes obtained in Youngs double slit
experiment with the help of a suitable diagram.
OR
Describe diffraction of light due to a single slit and
obtain an expresion for width of central maximum.
solutions

1. In the presence of dielectric medium,


(i) capacitance of capacitor increases
(ii) electrostatic force between two
decreases.

charges

2. Filament of bulb and supply wires are connected in


series. Therefore, the same current flows through
them. Since the resistance of connecting wires
is negligibly small as compared to the resistance
from filament and heat produced due to given
current is directly proportional to its resistance
(from Joules law of heating), therefore, the heat
produced in the filament is very large. Hence
the bulb glows, but the connecting wires remain
practically unheated.
3. 220 V ac means the effective or virtual value of ac is
220 V, i.e. V = 220 V.
As peak value V0 = 2 V
\ V0 = 1.414 220 = 311 V
But 220 V dc has the same peak value i.e. 220 V only.
Moreover, the shock of ac is attractive and that of dc
is repulsive. Hence, 220 volt ac is more dangerous
than 220 volt dc.
4. According to Brewsters law,
m = tan i p = tan 60 = 3

5. In FM transmission, message is in the form of


frequency variation of carrier waves. During
modulation, noise gets amplitude modulated,
changing the amplitude of carrier waves.
The message signal, in the form of frequency
variations, is not affected. That is why FM signal is
less susceptible to noise than an AM signal.

6. When a wire is stretched to double its length,


its cross-section is halved and so, its resistance
becomes four times. Thus,
R = 15 4 = 60 W
The resistance of each half,
R
R1 = R2 = = 30 W
2
Equivalent resistance of the parallel combination,
30
Req = = 15 W
2
The current drawn from the supply
3. 0 V
V
=
= 0. 2 A
I=
Req 15 W
7.

Clearly,

1
1
1
1
=
yr 1
=
yr 1 and lb =
tb 405
t a 1620
Combined decay constant,
1
1
1
l = l a + lb =
yr 1 +
yr 1 =
yr 1
1620
405
324
Combined half-life,
0.693
0.693
=
T1/2 =
l
(1 / 324) yr 1
= 0.693 324 yr = 224.53 yr
N0
As
= 2t /T1/2 ,
4 = 2t /T1/2
N
or 22 = 2t /T1/2 , or 2 = t
T1/2
la =

or

AB is original principal axis of convex lens, object is


0.5 cm above AB.

As

1 1
=
v u
1 1
= +
v u

1
f
1
1 1
1
= + =
f
50 25 50

v = 50 cm.
Magnification of image, m = v = 50 = 1
u 50
Therefore image would have been formed at 50 cm
from the pole on right side and 0.5 cm below the
principal axis. Thus, the coordinates of image w.r.t.
the axis passing through the edge of the top part of
the remaining lens are (50 cm, 1 cm).
8. An electron which is accelerated through a
potential difference of 56 V will have kinetic energy
K = 56 eV
(a) Momentum associated with accelerated electron
p = 2Km = 2 56 1.6 1019 9.1 1031
= 4.04 1024 kg m s1
(b) Wavelength of accelerated electron
l=

34
h 6.63 10
= 0.164 nm
=
p 4.04 1024

9. Here, ta = 1620 yr and tb = 405 yr


N0
3
1
N = N 0 N 0 = N 0 or
=4
4
4
N

t = 2T1/2 = 2 224.53 yr = 449.1 yr

10. We are given that


IB = 105 mA = 0.105 103 A,
IC = 2.05 mA = 2.05 103 A
I
2.05 103 A
= 19.5
(a) b = C =
I B 0.105 103 A

IE = IB + IC = 0.105 103 A + 2.05 103A


= 2.155 103A
I
2.05 103 A
= 0.95
a= C =
I E 2.155 103 A
0.65 mA 0.65 103 A
I
(b) bac = C =
= 24.07
=
I B
27 mA
27 106 A
OR

In case of pure Si (intrinsic semiconductor),


ni = ne = nh = 1.5 1016m3
After doping Si by indium (a trivalent atom), the
doped silicon becomes a p-type semiconductor in
which
nh >> ne
In doped Si, nh = 4.5 1022 m3
If ne is the electron concentration in doped Si,
then from nenh = ni2,

ni2 (1.5 1016 )2


=
= 0.5 1010 m 3
22
nh
4.5 10
11. Let VR be the potential difference across the
resistance R and VD be the potential difference
across the diode D.
Clearly, VB = VR + VD
or VB = IR + VD
...(i)
ne =

Physics for you | December 15

67

(a) When I = 1 mA = 103 A,


VD = Vk (knee point voltage) = 0.7 V
Further, as VB = 5 V, from eqn. (i),
5 V = (103 A)R + 0.7 V
5 V 0. 7 V
= 4. 3 k W
or R =
103 A
(b) For I = 5 mA = 5 103 A, from eqn. (i)
V VD 5 V 0.7 V
= 0.86 kW
R= B
=
I
5 103 A
(c) When VB = 6 V, I = 5 mA = 5 103 A,
from eqn. (i),
VR = VB VD = 6 V 0.7 V = 5.3 V
Power dissipated in the resistance
= I VR = (5 103A)(5.3 V) = 26.5 mW
Power dissipated in the diode
= I VD = (5 103 A) (0.7 V) = 3.5 mW
(d) When R = 1 kW = 1000 W,
VB = VR + VD = IR + Vk
VB is minimum when I is minimum as Vk is a
constant. As the minimum value of I is 1 mA
when VD = Vk ,
VB = (103 A)(1000 W) + 0.7 V = 1.7 V
12. We are given that
uc = 100 kHz = 105 Hz, R = 1 kW = 103 W,
C = 10 pF = 10 1012 F = 1011 F
1
For satisfactory detection,
< RC
... (i)
uc
Since 1 = 1 = 105 s
uc 105 Hz

13.

and RC = (103 W) (1011 F) = 108 s,


Condition (i) is not being satisfied. Hence, the
given arrangement of C and R is not a good
arrangement.
In case, C = 1 mF = 106 F; CR = (106 F)(103 W) = 103 s,
condition (i) is satisfied. Thus, a capacitor of 1 mF in
the place of 10 pF should be employed.

Electric field due to ring at the location of charge +q


on the Z-axis, i.e.,
1
Qz
E=
4 p 0 (R2 + z 2 )3/2

Since the ring is negatively charged, E acts along


Z axis.
Force acting on the charge +q, i.e.,
1
Qqz
F = qE =

2
4 p 0 (R + z 2 )3/2
When z << R, (R2 + z2)3/2 = R3

Qqz Qq
Thus, F = 1
=
z
4 p 0 R3 4 p 0 R3
Acceleration produced in the charge +q, i.e.,

Qq
F
=
z

m 4 p 0 mR3

a=
or

a = w2z

where, w2 =
or

w=

Physics for you | December 15

4 p 0 mR3
Qq

(i)
4 p 0 mR3
Since acceleration of charge +q is proportional to
the displacement (z) from the fixed point O (centre
of the ring) and is directed towards it, the charge +q
executes simple harmonic oscillation.
(b) Time period of SHM possessed by charge +q is
given by
2p
(ii)
T=
w
From eqns. (i) and (ii),
T = 2p

4 p 0 mR3
Qq

14. Power consumption of AC,


10 kWh
P=
= 2 kW = 2000 W
5h
Voltage supplied to AC, V = 220 V
Current flowing in the circuit,
P 2000 W
= 9. 1 A
I= =
V
220 V
Resistance of copper wiring of the room,
RCu =

68

Qq

rCu l (1.7 10 W m)(10 m)


=
= 0.054 W
A
p(103 m)2

Power loss in the copper wiring of the room,


PCu = I2RCu
= (9.1 A)2(0.054 W) = 4.5 W
Percentage loss in copper wiring
4. 5 W
=
100% = 0.225%
2000 W
Percentage power loss in aluminium wiring of the
room, i.e.,
2.7 108 W m
r
PA1 = PCu Al = (0.225%)

8
rCu
1.7 10 W m
= 0.357%
15. Force acting per unit length between two parallel
conductors carrying current I1 and I2 and placed a
distance a apart is
2I I
f = km 1 2
a
Force acting between one longer side (ab) of length
25 cm (0.25 m) of the loop and AB, i.e.
2 15 25
0.25 = km (9375)
F1 = km
0.02
(as a = 2 cm = 0.02 m, I1 = 15 A, I2 = 25 A)
Force acting between the other longer side (cd) of
length 25 cm (0.25 m) of the loop and AB, i.e.
(2 15 25)
0.25 = km (1562.5)
F2 = km
0.12
(a = 2 cm + 10 cm = 12 cm = 0.12 m, I1 = 15 A, I2 = 25 A)

Since F1 and F2 act in the opposite directions and


F1 > F2, magnitude of the force acting on the loop,
F = F1 F2 = km (9375 1562.5) = 107(7812.5) N
= 7.8 104 N

16. Here, A = 15 cm 40 cm = 600 cm2 = 0.06 m2,


B = 0.08 Wb m2, N = 200
Frequency, u = 50 rps
As e = e0sin q = NABw sin q
where q is the angle which the plane of the coil
makes with a line perpendicular to the magnetic
field lines.
Thus, e =[(200)(0.06)(0.08)(2p 50) sin q] V
or e = [301.6 sin q] V
(as w = 2pu)
(i) When the plane of the coil makes an angle of 0
with the magnetic field field lines,
q = 90 0 = 90
\ e = e0sin90 = 301.6 V
(ii) When the plane of the coil makes an angle of
60 with the magnetic field lines,
q = 90 60 = 30
\ e = e0sin 30 = (301.6 V)(0.5) = 150.8 V
(iii) When the plane of the coil makes an angle of
90 with the magnetic field lines,
q = 90 90 = 0
\ e = e0sin 0 = 0
OR
Here, L = 100 mH = 100 103 H = 101 H,
C = 20 mF = 20 106 F = 2 105 F,
R = 10 W, erms = 100 V, u = 50 Hz
(a) Impedance of the circuit at resonance,
Z = R = 10 W
(b) Current at resonance,
100 V
e
Irms = rms =
= 10 A
Z
10 W
(c) Resonant frequency,
1
1
=
wr =
= 707 rad s1
1
5
LC
(10 H)(2 10 F)
1

wr 707 rad s
=
= 112.6 Hz
2p
2 3.14
17. We are given that
E0 = 48 V m1, u = 2.0 1010 Hz and c = 3 108 m s1
(a) Wavelength of the wave,
or ur =


It should be noted that the force (F1 , F2 ) on the
two smaller sides ad and bc of the loop cancel each
other. F would be an attractive force if the currents
through the long straight conductor AB and in the
arm of the loop nearer to the long straight conductor
(i.e., ab) are in the same direction and repulsive if
the currents are in the opposite directions.

8
1
c 3 10 m s
= 1.5 102 m
l= =
10

1
u 2.0 10 s
(b) Amplitude of the oscillating magnetic field,

48 V m 1
E0
=
= 1.6 107 T
c 3 108 m s 1
(c) Total average energy density,
1
1
12
2
3
uav = 0 E02 = (8.85 10 )(48) J m
2
2
= 1.0 108 J m3
B0 =

Physics for you | December 15

69

18. Without P:
A = A + A||

and VCC Vce = IcRc


10
Ic =
= 3.33 103 A = 3.33 mA
3
3 10
Ic 3.33 103
= 133
b= =
Ib
25 106

1
A = A
+ A2 = A0 sin(kx wt) + A0sin (kx wt + f)
1

A|| = A || + A||
0

A|| = A ||[sin (kx wt) + sin (kx wt + f]


0
A
,

20.

A|| are the amplitudes of either of the


where
beam in and || polarizations.

Intensity = A0 + A0

}[sin (kx wt)


2

(1 + cos2f + 2sin f) + sin2(kx wt) sin2f]average

= A0 + A 0
=2

A0

} 12 .2(1 + cos f)

(1 + cos f) since

A0 average

A0
average

With P:
2
Assume, A is blocked :

Intensity = A1 + A2

2
2
) + ( A1 )

1
= A0 (1 + cos f) + A0 .
2
2
1 5
0
= A 2 + = I0
2 8
2

(I0 = 4 A0 = Intensity without polariser at principal


maxima)
Intensity at first minima with polariser
A0

(1 1) +

A0
2

I0
.
8

19.

Given, Vi = 10 V, Rb = 400 kW = 400 103 W


Rc = 3 kW = 3 103 W, Vbe = 0
Vce = 0, VCC = 10 V
As Vi Vbe = RbIb
\ 10 0 = (400 103)Ib
10
or Ib =
= 25 106 A = 25 mA
3
400 10
70

Physics for you | December 15

For convex lens


1 1 1
=
f1 v u
For concave lens (f2 = ve)
1 1 1
=
f2 v v
Adding equation (i) and (ii)
1
1
1 1
= +
f1 f2
u v

...(i)

...(ii)

Also, 1 1 = 1
v u f
where f = focal length of combination
1
1 1
\
=
f1 f2 f
So, f =

f1 f2
f2 f1

21. (i) de Broglie wavelength of charged particle


h
l=
2mqV
de Broglie wavelength of a particle depends upon
its mass and charge for same accelerating potential.
Here, mass and charge of a proton are mp and e
respectively, and, mass and charge of an alpha
particle are 4mp and 2e respectively, where, e is the
charge of an electron. Thus, de broglie wavelength
associated with proton is 2 2 times of the de Broglie
wavelength of alpha particle.
(ii) Kinetic energy for same accelerating potential = qV.
Charge of an alpha particle is more as compared to
a proton. So, it will have a greater value of kinetic
energy. Hence, proton will have lesser kinetic
energy.

13.6
eV
n2
Ground state corresponds to n = 1, so E1 = 13.6 eV
(a) In 2nd excited state (n = 3),
13.6
13.6
eV = 1.51 eV
E3 = 2 eV=
9
3
K3 = 1.51 eV
(b) In 3rd excited state (n = 4)
13.6
13.6
eV = 0.85 eV
E4 = 2 eV=
16
4

22. (i)

En =

K4 = 0.85 eV
(ii) For transition of electron

1
1
1
= RH 2 2
l
n f ni

(a) nf = 1 and ni = 3
1 1
1
1 8
= RH 2 2 = RH 1 = RH
l1
9 9
1
3
l1 =

9
9
=
8RH 8 1.1 10+7

= 1.023 107 m = 1023


(b) nf = 1 and ni = 4
1
1
15
1
1

= RH 2 2 = RH 1 = RH
16
16
l2

1
4
or l2 =

16
16
=
15RH 15 1.1 107

or l2 = 0.97 107 m = 970


23. (i) Shivansh is highly observant, ability to
visualisation, confident and inquisitive, on
the other hand, his Physics teacher has a good
practical knowledge, has depth knowledge and
has patience and quality of appreciation.
(ii) Explanations :
(a) It is much more economical to produce
ac using turbine as compared to dc using
batteries. We can regulate and transmit ac
by ensuring less power wastage as compared
to dc.
(b) As alternating current varies in direction
and magnitude periodically at a rate of
100 times in a second, so a galvanometer
pointer will change the direction and
magnitude equal number of times and will
not be visible. We use multimeter because
72

Physics for you | December 15

it has special design to measure ac using


heating effect of current i.e., virtual value
of ac.
(c) Due to skin effect, ac flows at the surface of
wire only, hence in order to obtain larger
surface area, ac wires are made up of a
number of thin wires. On the other hand,
dc flows throughout the thickness of the
wire, hence thick copper wires are used for
dc.
24. Refer point 3.2(5, 6) page no. 171, 172 (MTG Excel
in Physics).
OR
Refer point 3.1(1) page no. 169 and point
3.1(3 (vi)) page no. 170 (MTG Excel in Physics).
25. Refer point 10 page no. 9 (MTG Excel in Physics)
OR
Refer point 1.11 (4, 8) page no. 15, 16 (MTG Excel
in Physics).
26. Refer point 6.13 page no. 446 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
OR
Refer point 6.14 page no. 449 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
nn

Solution Set-28

2 R 2 r R r
=
2 r
r
F T
Stress = Y strain = =
A A
AY (R r )
\ T = AY strain =
r

1. (c): Strain =

2. (b) : Density of pure gold, r = 19.3 g cm3


Weight of gold piece, M = 38.250 g
\ Volume of gold piece,
M 38.250
V=
=
= 1.982 cm3
r
19.3
Mass of gold piece in water, M = 33.865 g
\ Apparent loss in weight of the gold piece in
water
= 38.250 33.865 = 4.385 g
Density of water = 1 g cm3
\ Volume of water displaced
4.385
=
= 4.385 cm3
1
Volume of hollow portion of the gold piece
= 4.385 1.982 = 2.403 cm3.
1
3. (d) : Loss in kinetic energy of the gas = mv 2
2
Heat gained by gas = nCVDT
1 2
m R
\
mv = nCV DT =
DT
2
M 1
DT =

( 1)
Mv 2
2R

4. (a) : The equivalent circuit of the given combination


of cells is as shown in figure. Here, e1 = 7e, r1 = 7r and
e2 = 3e, r2 = 3r. These two cells e1 and e2 are
connected in parallel across R sending the current in
opposite directions. The equivalent emf or potential
difference across R is

e
0
\ Current through R, I = eq = = 0.
R
R
5. (a) : Motional e.m.f. induced in the connector
e = Blv = 2(1) (2) = 4 V
This acts as a cell of e.m.f. 4 V and internal resistance
2 W.
The equivalent circuits are shown in figure. 6 W and
3 W resistors are in parallel.
1 1 1 1+ 2 3 1
\
= + =
= =
Rp 6 3
6
2 2
or Rp = 2 W

\ Current through the connector


e
4
I=
=
=1A
Rp + r 2 + 2
Magnetic force on the connector
= BIl = 2(1)(1) = 2 N
Therefore, to keep the connector moving with a
constant velocity, a force of 2 N has to be applied to
the right side.
6. (c):

1
1
1
= (m2 1)
fa
R1 R2

For upper half of the lens,


1 m2 1
1
= 1
f1 m1 R1 R2
\

f1 =

(m2 1)
(1.5 1) 20
fa =
= 40 cm
1. 5
m2

1
m 1
1. 2
1

Similarly, for lower half of the lens,


(m 1) fa (1.5 1) 20
=
= 25 cm
f2 = 2
m2
1 .5
2 5 1
m 1
.
3

As object is at infinity, images will form at focal


points f1 and f2 only.

e r e r 7e 3r 3e 7r
eeq = 1 2 2 1 =
=0
r1 + r2
7r + 3r
Physics for you | december 15

73

\ Distance between two images,


f1 f2 = 40 (25) = 65 cm
7. (a) : The magnitude of the electric field is maximum
where the equipotentials are close together. The
direction of the field is from high potential to low
potential.
8. (b) : Soap solution film will be formed on both
sides of the frame. Each film is in contact with the
wire along a distance of 10 cm. The force exerted by
the film on the wire
= 2 (10 cm) (25 dyne cm1)
= 500 dyne = 5 103 N.
This force acts vertically upward and should be
balanced by the load. Hence the load that should
be suspended is 5 103 N. The mass of the load
should be
9

5 103 N

= 5 104 kg = 0.5 g

10 m s 2

(a) : As sin 37 = 0.6


2
\ cos 37 = 1 (0.6) = 0.8

Contd. from page no. 25

2016

PRACTICE PAPER

2 r (r ) g
9

3 2
3
3
vT = 2 (10 ) (2.7 10 10 ) 9.8 = 4.6 m s1
9 8 104
40. (c)
RT
dV
41. (c): dW = PdV =
...(i)
V
2
As V = KT 2/3 \ dV = K T 1/3 dT
3
2
K T 1/3dT
dV
2 dT
\
= 3 2/3
=
V
3 T
KT
Terminal speed, vT =

T2

2
dV
2 dT
From (i), W = RT
= RT
V T
3 T
T
1

\W =
42. (b)

2
2
R (T2 T1 ) = R 60 = 40R
3
3

43. (b) : vav =


\
\
74

8kT
3kT
, vrms =
m
m

vav
8/
=
vrms
3
vav

or

vav
8
=
1260
3

8
= 1260
= 1161 m s 1
3

Physics for you | december 15

0. 6
= 0.75
0. 8
m < tanq for both blocks, \ both will move.

tan 37 =

f1max = 2 0.8 10 0.4 = 6.4 N


f2 max = (2 + 4) 10 0.8 0.5 = 24 N
Let both blocks move together
\ 12 f1 = 2a and 24 + f1 24 = 4a
12 = 6a or a = 2 m s2
f1 = 12 2 2 = 8 N
But f1max = 6.4 N
\ both blocks will not move together.
10. (b) : Frictional force acting between the blocks
= 6.4 N
nn
44. (a) : Gravitational potential due to the shell at any
GM
point inside it =
a
Gravitational potential due to the particle at the
a
centre at a point P, distant
from the centre
2
GM
2GM
=
=
a/2
a
\ Net gravitational potential at P
GM 2GM
3GM
=

=
a
a
a
^ ^ ^
45. (a) : Here, r = i + 2 j k

^
^
^
p = 3i + 4 j 2k

Angular momentum, L = r p
^ ^ ^
i j k
L = 1 2 1
3 4 2
^
^
^
L = i (4 (4)) + j(3 (2)) + k(4 6)
^

= i (4 + 4) + j(3 + 2) + k(4 6)
^

= 0 i j 2 k = j 2 k
Hence, the angular momentum is in yz plane, i.e.,
perpendicular to x-axis.
nn

chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
thermodynamics
8

1. A steam engine delivers 5.4 10 J of work per


minute and takes 3.6 109 J of heat per minute from
the boiler. What is the efficiency of the engine?
How much heat is wasted per minute?
(a) 15%, 3.1 109 J (b) 15%, 2 109 J
(c) 85%, 4.5 109 J (d) 85%, 6 109 J
2. An ideal gas at a pressure 1 atm and temperature of
27C is compressed adiabatically until its pressure
becomes 8 times, the initial pressure. Then, the final
3

temperature is Take, g =

2
(a) 627C (b) 527C (c) 427C (d) 327C
3. A cyclic process is shown in figure. Work done
during isobaric expansion is

(N m2)

2 102

p
102

2
V(m3)

(a) 1600 J (b) 100 J (c) 400 J

(d) 600 J

4. For adiabatic expansion of a perfect monoatomic


gas, when volume increases by 24%, what is the
percentage decrease in pressure?
(a) 24% (b) 30% (c) 48% (d) 71%
5. Starting with the same initial conditions, an ideal
gas expands from volume V1 to V2 in three different
ways. The work done by the gas is W1 if the process is
purely isothermal, W2 if the process is purely isobaric
and W3 if the process is purely adiabatic. Then,

(a) W2 > W1 > W3


(c) W1 > W2 > W3

(b) W2 > W3 > W1


(d) W1 > W3 > W2

6. Figure shows four PV curves. Which of these


curves represent isothermal and adiabatic processes
respectively?
P

(a) C and D
(c) A and B

(b) A and C
(d) B and D

7. If DU and DW represent the increase in internal


energy and work done by the system respectively in a
thermodynamical process, which of the following is true?
(a) DU = DW, in an adiabatic process.
(b) DU = DW, in an isothermal process.
(c) DU = DW, in an adiabatic process.
(d) DU = DW, in an isothermal process.
8. An ideal gas is taken
through the cycle
A B C A, as
shown in figure. If the
net heat supplied to the
gas in the cycle is 5 J,
work done by the gas in
the process C A, is

V(m3)
A

5
10
P(N m2)

(a) 5 J (b) 10 J (c) 15 J (d) 20 J


9. Two engines are working in such a way that sink
of one is source of the other. Their efficiencies are
equal. Find the temperature of the sink of first if its
source temperature is 927C and the temperature of
sink of the second is 27C.
Physics for you | december 15

75

(a) 327 K
(c) 600C

(b) 327C
(d) None of these

10. 1 g mole of an ideal gas at STP is subjected to a


reversible adiabatic expansion to double its volume.
Find the change in internal energy. (Take g = 1.4).
(a) 1170 J (b) 970 J (c) 770 J (d) 1370 J
11. A closed cardboard tube one metre long contains
some lead shots at one end and the tube is quickly
inverted so that the shots fall through whole length
of the tube. This operation is repeated 100 times.
Find the rise in temperature if the specific heat of
lead shots is 127.7 J kg1 K1. (Take, g = 9.8 m s2)
(a) 12.7 K (b) 10.7 K (c) 7.7 K (d) 8.7 K
12. Which of the following statements is correct for any
thermodynamic system?
(a) The internal energy changes in all processes.
(b) The work done in an adiabatic process is always
zero.
(c) The change in entropy can never be zero.
(d) Internal energy and entropy are state functions.
13. The heat energy absorbed by a system in going
through a cyclic process shown in figure is
V(litre)
30

10
O

10
2

30

P (kPa)

(a) 103 p J (b) 10 p J (c) 104 p J (d) 107 p J


14. A Carnot engine, whose sink is at 300 K, has
an efficiency of 40%. By how much should the
temperature of the source be increased so as
to increase its efficiency by 50% of its original
efficiency?
(a) 380 K (b) 275 K (c) 325 K (d) 250 K
15. Pressure of one litre of nitrogen (g = 1.4) is 500 cm
of mercury. It is compressed adiabatically to 990 cc.
The final pressure of the gas (in cm of mercury) is
(a) 507 (b) 505
(c) 495
(d) 502
kinetic theory of gases

16. Two gases A and B having the same temperature


T, same pressure P and same volume V are mixed.
If the mixture is at the same temperature T and
occupies a volume V, the pressure of the mixture is
(a) 2 P
(b) P
(c) P/2
(d) 4 P
76

Physics for you | december 15

17. Figure shows graph of pressure versus density for


an ideal gas at two temperatures T1 and T2. Then
from the graph,
P
T1
(a) T1 = T2
T2
(b) T1 > T2
(c) T1 < T2

(d) nothing can be predicted


18. We have a jar A filled with gas characterised by the
parameters P, V and T and another jar B filled with
a gas with parameters 2P, V/4 and 2T, where the
symbols have their usual meanings. The ratio of the
number of molecules of jar A to those of jar B is
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 4 : 1
19. The speed of 6 molecules of a gas (in arbitrary units)
are as follows : 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 6. The root mean square
speed for these molecules is
(a) 5.16
(b) 5.33
(c) 6
(d) None of these
20. The value of molar specific heat at constant
pressure for one mole of triatomic gas (triangular
arrangement) at temperature T K is
7
5
(d) 4 R
R (c) R
2
2
21. Two vessels having equal volumes contain molecular
hydrogen at one atmosphere and helium at two
atmospheres respectively. If both samples are at the
same temperature, the r.m.s. velocity of hydrogen
molecules is
(a) equal to that of helium
(b) twice that of helium
(c) half that of helium
(d) 2 times that of helium
(a) 3 R

(b)

22. Two chambers containing m1 and m2 gram of


a gas at pressures P1 and P2 respectively are put
in communication with each other, temperature
remaining constant. The common pressure reached
will be
P1P2m1
P P (m + m2 )
(a) 1 2 1
(b)
P2m1 + P1m2
P2m1 + P1m2
(c)

m1m2 (P1 + P2 )
P2m1 + P1m2

(d)

m1m2 P2
P2m1 + P1m2

23. A gas in a vessel is at the pressure P0. If the masses


of all the molecules be made half and their speed
be made double, then the percentage increase in
resultant pressure will be
(a) 25% (b) 50% (c) 75% (d) 100%

24. A cylinder contains 10 kg of gas at pressure of


107 N m2, the quantity of gas taken out of the
cylinder, if final pressure is 2.5 106 N m2, is
(a) 7.5 kg
(b) 10.5 kg
(c) 5.2 kg
(d) None of these
25. 0.014 kg of nitrogen is enclosed in a vessel at a
temperature of 27C. How much heat has to be
transferred to the gas to double the rms velocity of
the molecules ?
(a) 1200 J
(b) 9360 J
(c) 1340 J
(d) none of these
26. One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas (g = 5/3)
is mixed with one mole of diatomic gas (g = 7/5).
What is g for the mixture? (g denotes the ratio of the
specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant
volume)
(a) 3/2
(b) 4/3
(c) 35/25 (d) 23/15
27. Pressure of an ideal gas is increased by keeping
temperature constant. What is the effect on kinetic
energy of molecules?
(a) Increases
(b) Decreases
(c) remains same
(d) Cant be determined
28. Pressure versus temperature graph of an ideal gas
at constant volume is shown by a straight line A
in figure. If the mass of the gas is doubled and the
B A
volume is halved, the corresponding P
pressure versus temperature graph
C
is given by line
(a) A
(b) B
T
(c) C
(d) None of these
29. If the pressure and the volume of certain quantity of
ideal gas are halved, then its temperature
(a) is doubled
(b) becomes one-fourth
(c) remains constant (d) becomes four times
30. The diameter of an oxygen molecule is 3 . The ratio
of molecular volume to the actual volume occupied
by the oxygen gas at STP is
(a) 2 104
(b) 1 104
4
(c) 1.5 10
(d) 4 104
solutions
1. (a) : Here, Q1 = Heat absorbed per minute
Q2 = Heat rejected per minute
W = Work done per minute
W
100
We know that % =
Q1
\

% =

5.4 108 J
9

3.6 10 J
Also, Q1 = W + Q2

100

3
100 = 15%
20

Q2 = Q1 W
= 36 108 5.4 108
= 30.6 108 J = 306 107 J = 3.1 109 J
2. (d) : Here, P1 = 1 atm,
T1 = 27C = 27 + 273 = 300 K
P2 = 8 atm, T2 = ?, g = 3/2
As changes are adiabatic,
P1g 1T1 g = P2g 1T2 g

T2
T

P
= 1
P

g 1

2
( g 1)/ g

P
T2 = T1 2
= 300 (8)(1.51)/1.5 = 300 (8)1/3
P1
T2 = 600 K = (600 273)C = 327C
3. (c) : Isobaric expansion is represented by curve AB.
Work done = Area under AB
= 2 102 (3 1) = 4 102 = 400 J
4. (b) :

From, P2V2g
5/3

= P1V1g

V
P2 = P1 1
V

100
P2 =
P1
124
P2 = 0.6985P1
\ % decrease in pressure
P 0.6985P1
P P
100%
= 1 2 100% = 1
P1
P1

0.3015P1
100% = 30.15% 30%
P1
5. (a) : The P-V graphs for the three given processes
are shown in figure.
=

P0

3
V1

Isobaric
Isothermal
Adiabatic
V2

As work done by the gas = area under the P-V graph


(Area)2 > (Area)1 > (Area)3
\ W2 > W1 > W3
1
6. (a) : For isothermal process, P
V
1
and for adiabatic process, P
Vg
7. (a) : According to first law of thermodynamics,
DQ = DU + DW
In an adiabatic process, DQ = 0
\ DU + DW = 0
or DU = DW
Physics for you | december 15

77

22. (a) : According to Boyles law, PV = k (a constant)


m
Pm
or P = k or r =
r
k
P
k
or r = (where = K , a constant)
K
m
P1
So, r1 =
K
m
m1
Km1
and V1 = 1 =
=
r1 P1 / K
P1
Km2
Similarly, V2 =
P2
m m
Total volume = V1 + V2 = K 1 + 2
P1 P2
Let P be the common pressure and r be the common
density of mixture. Then
m + m2
m1 + m2
r= 1
=
V1 + V2
m m
K 1+ 2
P1 P2
m1 + m2 P1P2 (m1 + m2 )
=
\ P =K r=
m1 m2 (m1P2 + m2 P1 )
+
P1 P2
1 mn 2
1 (m / 2)n
23. (d) : P0 =
vrms ; P =
(2vrms )2 = 2P0
3 V
3 V
P P0
% increase in pressure =
100
P0
2P0 P0
=
100 = 100%
P0
P M
1M 2
\ 1= 1
24. (a) : P =
v rms ; so, P M
P2 M2
3V
6
P
2.5 10
or M2 = M1 2 = 10
= 2.5 kg
P1
107
Quantity of gas taken out
= M1 M2 = 10 2.5 = 7.5 kg
25. (b) : We know that vrms T . Thus, to double the
rms speed, temperature should be increased to 4
times its initial value.
Initial temperature = (273 + 27) K = 300 K
Final temperature = 4 300 K = 1200 K
Change in temperature, DT = 1200 K 300 K = 900 K
Number of moles in 0.014 kg of nitrogen i.e.,
0.014 1000 g
n=
= 0. 5
28 g
CV for nitrogen, which is a diatomic gas,
5
5
R = 8.31 J mol 1 K 1
2
2
= 20.8 J mol1 K1

Since the gas is heated in an enclosed vessel


(i.e., at constant volume), amount of heat required,
Q = nCVDT = (0.5 20.8 900) J = 9360 J
26. (a) : g for the mixture is given by
n1 + n2
n
n
= 1 + 2
g1 1 g 2 1
g 1
Here, n1 = 1, n2 = 1, g1 = 5 / 3, g 2 = 7 / 5.
2
1
1
Thus,
=
+
g = 3 / 2.
g 1 (5 / 3) 1 (7 / 5) 1
27. (c) : Kinetic energy of an ideal gas depends only
on its temperature. Hence, it remains constant
whether its pressure is increased or decreased.
nRT mRT
=
V
MV
m
or P = (mR / MV) T, where n =
= number of moles.
M
Thus, at constant volume, P-T graph is straight line
whose slope is (mR / MV). When the mass (m) is
doubled and the volume is halved, slope becomes 4
times. Hence, line B (with greater slope than that of
line A) shows the PT graph.

28. (b) : As PV = nRT, P =

29. (b) : According to ideal gas law


P1V1 P2V2
PV
=
or T2 = T1 2 2
T1
T2
P1V1
Here, P1 = P, V1 = V, T1 = T
P
V
P2 = , V2 = , T2 = ?
2
2
P V
T
2 2 T
\ T2 =
=
4
PV
30. (d) : Here, diameter, d = 3
3
d 3
10
m = 108 cm = 1.5 108 cm
\ r = = 10
2 2
2
Molecular volume of oxygen gas, V = 4 pr 3 N
3
where N is Avogadro number
4
\ V = 3.14 (1.5 108 )3 6.023 1023
3
= 8.51 cm3
Actual volume occupied by 1 mol of oxygen gas at
STP, V1= 22,400 cm3.
Therefore, ratio of the molecular volume to the
actual volume of oxygen
V
8.51
=
= 3.8 104 = 4 104
V1 22, 400
nn
Physics for you | december 15

79

Elasticity
There are certain terms whose meaning is just the
opposite of what we think, for example- elasticity.
If we ask someone (who isn't associated with physics!)
what is more elastic, rubber or iron? He will obviously
say rubber since we can stretch it more.
But in physics, steel is more elastic than rubber! Elasticity
refers to the tendency to oppose deformations being
produced in an object. Now obviously steel is difficult
to deform relative to rubber, so steel is more elastic.
Now suppose equal deforming forces act on two
objects of same material and lengths but of different
cross-sectional area. We notice that the one with
lesser cross-sectional area will deform more. Hence
for measuring the capability of the deforming forces
to produce deformations, the magnitude of force alone
isn't important, but rather force acting per unit area
which is defined as stress.
Force
\ Stress =
Area
Now suppose we apply equal stress on two objects
of same material but different lengths. In such case
changes in length would obviously be more for objects
having larger length. But can we conclude, that the
object which underwent greater change in length was
deformed more? No we cannot!
Let me explain. Say we have a change of 1 mm in a
rod of length 1 m whereas in other rod, a change of
2 mm in rod of length 10 m. Clearly, 2 mm > 1 mm
but 2 mm in 10 m is less compared to 1 mm in 1 m.
Hence, the extent of deformation produced due to
applied stress is measured in terms of strain which is in
general defined as the fractional change in dimension
per unit original dimension.
Change in dimension
Strain =
Original dimension
Classification of Stress and Strain

Depending on the kind of deforming forces acting


on the object, i.e., whether the object is being pulled,
squeezed or twisted, stress and strain are divided into
3 categories.

Longitudinal stress-strain
Here the applied force has to be along the length
of object and hence perpendicular to surface
(cross-sectional area) under concern.
Longitudinal

Compressive

Tensile

l l
F

F
l
l + l

F
\ Longitudinal stress = ^
A
Component of applied force perpendicular
to cross-section
=
urface area of cross-section
Su
Dl
l
Shearing/tangential stress-strain
Here keeping one surface fixed, tangential force
is applied at the other face which is parallel to the
fixed face.
Longitudinal strain =

physics for you | december 15

Fixed (A)

Tangential stress =

F||

A
Component of applied force which is parallel

to surface und
der concern

Surface area under concern


x
Tangential strain = = tan q
h
Bulk stress-strain
When an object is subjected to deforming forces
from all sides, equally, the object is said to be under

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

80

bulk stress. This can happen only in case an object is


inside a liquid. In such case, the change in pressure
itself is the bulk stress.
Bulk stress = DP
DV
Bulk strain = fractional change in volume =
V
(Q in this case volume is decreasing)
Relation between Stress-Strain
For an elastic object, if a graph is plotted between
applied stress and developed strain, we get a variation
which looks as below:
Stress

SB
S2
S1

Elastic
region
A

Permanent
set

Plastic
region

Strain

Initially, producing deformation is very difficult which


is depicted by high steepness of graph.
The part OA is a straight line which indicates that
stress strain [for small deformations].
This is Hooke's law.
The maximum stress for which Hooke's law is obeyed
is proportional limit (S1).
Beyond proportional limit, elastic property is intact
but Hooke's law isn't obeyed, until a maximum stress
S2, which means that uptil this stress if the applied
force is removed, the object will return to its original
dimensions. S2 is said to be elastic limit.
Beyond elastic limit, the object if strained and then the
applied stress is removed, the object would not return
to its original configuration and hence the residual
strain in it is said to be permanent set. For values of
stress less than elastic limit, the object is said to be in
elastic region whereas beyond it, plastic region starts.
In the plastic region, the maximum value of applied
stress for which the object would not break is breaking
stress (SB).
Remember : Breaking stress for a material is its
property which isn't dependent upon the dimensions
of the object.
Now, in the region in which Hooke's law is obeyed, the
constant of elasticity has different names and values
for different types of stress-strain.
Young's modulus (Y) for longitudinal stress-strain
F /A
Y= ^
Dl / l
Shear modulus (h) for shearing stress-strain
F / A
h=
x /h

Bulk modulus (B) for bulk stress-strain


DP
B=
DV / V
DP
If pressure increases, volume decreases, hence
< 0.
DV
Hence to keep B > 0, negative is included.
Compared to solids and liquids, gases are highly
compressible, hence changing the conditions slightly
changes the value of bulk modulus. Hence for gases,
bulk modulus is defined instantaneously.
For gases,
dP
dP
B=
= V
dV
dV / V
But remember that for certain experimental process
(polytropic process) it might happen that increasing
volume increases pressure, in such case we would drop
the negative sign.
Bulk Modulus of Gas for some Standard Processes
(a) For isothermal process
dP
P
PV = constant
=
dV T
V
dP
P
\ BT = (V )
= (V ) = P
dV T
V
The bulk modulus for isothermal process is known
as isothermal elasticity of gas.
(b) For isochoric/isometric process
dV
V = constant
=0
dP V
dP
1
\ BV = (V )
= (V ) =
dV V
0

BV = isochoric elasticity of the gas.


(c) For isobaric process
dP
P = constant
=0
dV P

dP
\ BP = (V )
=0
dV P
BP = isobaric elasticity of the gas.
(d) For adiabatic process
dP
P
PV = constant
=
dV Q
V
dP
P
\ BQ = (V )
= (V ) = P
dV Q
V
BQ = adiabatic elasticity of the gas.
(d) For polytropic process
dP
P
PV N = constant
= N

dV N
V
NP

\ BN = (V )
= NP
V
physics for you | december 15

81

Thermal Stress-Strain

The length of any object is temperature dependent


according to the relation
l = l0(1 + aDq)
where l0 = length at a reference temperature
l = length at a new changed temperature
Dq = change in temperature
a = co-efficient of linear expansion
So, basically when we heat an object, its length increases.
Hence at higher temperature, the increased length of
an object is its natural length and if the object isn't
allowed to go to its natural length then stress as well
as strain will be developed in it. But if it is allowed to
expand freely while heating, neither stress nor strain
would be developed.
l0(1 + ) = l
l0

heated

Even though there has been a change in length with


respect to initial length, but with respect to natural
length at higher temperature, there isn't any change.
Hence strain = 0 \ Stress = 0.
Object fixed between two rigid supports while
heating
l = l0(1 + )
l0

In such case, we can see that the object is in compressed


state, hence
l l0 l0 aDq
Thermal strain =
=
= aDq
l0
l0
\ Thermal stress = Y strain = YaDq
Now let us try solving some questions on concepts
learnt.
1. An object is subjected to longitudinal stress at
different temperatures T1 and T2 within proportional
limit and the graph is obtained as below.
Stress

T2
T1
Strain

Which temperature is higher?


82

physics for you | december 15

Soln.: Do we remember that to change the shape


of an iron bar, a smith first heats it and then uses
hammer. Why does he do so? Since heating makes
deformations easier which means lesser elasticity.
Hence at higher temperature, elasticity and hence
slope is less.
\ T1 > T2

2. The length of a wire is found to be L1 when tension


in it is T1 and L2 when tension in it is T2. Find the
natural length of the wire.
F /A
Soln.: As Y = ^
= constant
Dl / l
T /A
T L T L
T1 / A
= 2
l0 = 1 2 2 1
L1 l0 L2 l0
T1 T2
l0
l0
F /A
Note : Keep in mind that the formula Y = ^
Dl / l
can be used to find elongation if and only if
(i) Tension in the rod (T = F^) is same at all
cross-sections.
(ii) The cross-sectional area of the rod is uniform.
If any of the these two conditions are violated,
we choose a small elemental length dx, which we
treat as our rod, since for such a small length, the
tension as well as cross-sectional area will almost be
identical. Hence we can choose elongation of d (Dl)
in this small element dx, thereafter we can integrate
d(Dl) to find Dl.
T /A
T
Y= x
d(Dl ) = x dx
d(Dl ) / dx
YA
Tx
\ Dl = d(Dl ) =
dx
YA
3. A wire of Young's modulus Y, mass m, crosssectional area A and length l is made to hang
vertically under the action of its own weight.
(i) Plot variation of elongation in a length y from
bottom.
(ii) Find total elongation in the wire.
Soln.: (i)
T + dT T
x

dx
x

Tx

dx
Tx

Obviously, here tension is position dependent.


mx
Tx =
g
l
[weight of hanging portion below cross-section]
T /A
\ Y= x
d(Dl ) / dx

T
\ Dl y = d(Dl ) = x dx
YA
1 y mgx
Dl y =
dx

YA 0 l

ly

mg y
\ Dl y =
YAl 2 (parabolic)
Here Dly is elongation in a length y from below.
(ii) In the entire length, y = l
mgl
\ Total elongation, Dl =
2 AY
Note : Many books/teachers solve this question
incorrectly by saying that since weight of an object
acts from centre of mass, we should have considered
l
a length of as below:
2
l/2
mg
mgl
Y= A
\ Dl =
mg
Dl
2 AY
(l / 2)
The result matches perfectly! So, what was incorrect?
mgl
This result shows that the elongation of
is
2 AY
only in the upper half whereas no elongation in
lower half which obviously isn't true.
So this can be remembered as a trick and not a
shortcut method.
4. A uniform rod of mass m, cross-sectional area A,
length l, Young's modulus Y is subjected to tensile
forces of F1 and F2 (F2 > F1) from both ends as
shown. Find the total elongation.
F1

F2

F F
Soln.: The rod accelerates with a = 2 1 , hence
m
tension at a position x from left end is Tx as below:
a

F1
x

Tx

mx
Tx F1 =
a
l
m (F2 F1 )
Tx F1 =
x
l
m
T
F F
Tx = F1 + 2 1 x \ Dl = d(Dl ) = x dx
l
AY
=

1 l
F2 F1
x dx
F1 +
AY 0
l

1
F F l2
F1l + 2 1
l 2
AY
F +F
1 2 l
2
Dl =
AY
Note here that this elongation is same if we replace
F +F
F1 and F2 with Favg = 1 2 from both ends,
2
which would be easier to remember.
=

5. A rod of uniform cross-sectional area A and Young's


modulus Y is subjected to 3 longitudinal forces F1,
F2 and F3 = F2 F1 as shown.
l2

l1

F1

F2

F3

Find the total elongation.


Soln.: Note that F3 + F1 = (F2 F1) + F1 = F2
Hence the rod isn't accelerating which simplified
our work.
F1

F3

F2

l1

l2

F2

F1

F1

F2
l2

l1

Fl
Fl
\ Dl1 = 1 1 , Dl2 = 2 2
AY
AY
Fl +F l
\ Dl = Dl1 + Dl2 = 1 1 2 2
AY
Comparison of an Elastic Wire with a Spring

For a longitudinal stress,

F
l

F/A
YA
Y=
F=
Dl
l
Dl / l
This clearly shows a nature, Fsp = kx for spring forces.
\ Equivalent spring constant
YA
keq =
l
Hence, similar to springs, as one is required to perform
work to deform a spring which gets stored as spring
potential energy, we can associate potential energy with
deformations of elastic object too, which is known as
elastic potential energy (EPE).
physics for you | december 15

83

1
1 YA
2
\ EPE = keq (Dl )2 =
(Dl )

2
2 l
1 Dl Dl
= Y ( Al )
2 l l
EPE
1
= stress strain
volume 2
= elastic potential energy density
EPE
1 (stress)2 Y
\
=
= (strain)2
volume 2
2
Y
\

6. A mass m is made to hang vertically from an elastic


wire of given Y, A, l. Find the recoverable part of the
lost gravitational potential energy x of the mass.
Soln.:
\ At equilibrium,
keqy = mg
... (i)
Now, loss in gravitational
potential energy (GPE)
m
= mgy = x
1
keqy
Gain in EPE = keq y 2
y
2
m
mgy x
1
= (keq y ) y =
=
mg
2
2
2
\ Only half of the lost GPE gets stored as EPE
whereas the remaining half gets dissipated as heat
energy, which is irrecoverable.
Hence remember that elastic forces have both
conservative as well as non-conservative nature.
Conservative since PE is stored, and nonconservative since heat energy is produced.
7. A rod of Y, l0, A is attached to an unstretched spring
of spring constant k as shown, and heated due to
which temperature
k
rises by Dq.
As a consequence,
the spring gets
compressed by x.
Find x.
Soln:

l0

l0

l = l0 x
k

\ At equilibrium, keqDl = kx
YA

[l aDq x] = kx
(l0 + l0 aDq) 0
84

physics for you | december 15

YAaDq
YA
[l0 aDq x] kx x =
YA
l0
k+
l0

8. A ball has a radius R inside a liquid. The surface of


the liquid is covered with a massless piston. Now a
mass m is placed over the piston due to which the
radius of the ball changes by DR, find DR.
Given : A = surface area of piston
B = Bulk modulus of ball
Soln.: According to Pascal's law, the pressure exerted
anywhere inside a confined liquid gets transmitted
equally and undiminished everywhere.
mg
\ DP =
everywhere
A
DP
DV
mg
\ B=

=
AB
(DV / V )
V
For small changes in V,
4
V = pR3
3
DV 3DR mg \ DR = mgR

=
=
3 AB
AB
V
R
Poisson's Ratio (s)

For an object, its a dimensionless constant which is


the ratio of transverse strain to longitudinal strain on
subjecting an object to longitudinal stress.
d

F
d d

l
l + l

Dd / d
Dl / l
On stretching an object, there might be volumetric
strain also.
Suppose we have a cylindrical wire of radius r and
length l.
\ V = pr2l
Dl Dl
Dl
DV 2Dr Dl
= 2 s +
= (1 2s)
\
=
+

l
l
l
V
r
l
Now if the volume or density is known to be constant
DV = 0 s = 0.5
which is the maximum possible value of s.
Remember that for small changes in volume,
m = rV, where r = density
Dm Dr DV
\
=
+
, but Dm = 0
m
r
V
\ s=

Dr
DV
=
r
V

nn

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3
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6
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9
deposited by flowing water. (8)
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14
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4
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Physics for you | december 15

85

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Physics for you | december 15