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Managing Editor

Mahabir Singh

Editor

Anil Ahlawat

(BE, MBA)

No. 12

December 2015

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PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

29

single oPtion correct tyPe

has dimensions as shown. The centre of mass lies at

a point

6 cm

3 cm

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

6 cm

3 cm to the right of O

O itself

1 cm to the right of O.

thin transparent material. It can be filled with water

(refractive index mw) or either of two liquids L1 or

L2 with refractive indices m1 and m2 respectively

(m2 > mw > m1). The lens will not diverge a parallel

beam of light incident on it, if it is filled with

(a) L2 and immersed in L1

(b) L2 and immersed in water

(c) water and immersed in L1

(d) air and immersed in either water or L1 or L2.

3. A particle of positive charge q and mass m enters

with velocity v j at the origin in a magnetic field

B(k ) which is present in the whole space. The

charge makes a perfectly inelastic collision with

an identical particle (having same charge) at rest

but free to move, placed at its maximum positive

y-coordinate. After collision, the combined charge

will move on trajectory

8

mv

here r = qB

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

y = rx

(x + r)2 + (y r/2)2 = r2/4

(x + r)2 + (y r/2)2 = r2/8

(x r)2 + (y + r/2)2 = r2/4

spherical balloon as shown in the given figure. Its

plane passes through the center of the balloon.

A uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.04 T is

directed perpendicular to the plane of the band. Air

is let out of the balloon at 100 cm3 s1 at an instant

when the radius of the

B

balloon is 10 cm. The

induced emf in the band is

(a) 15 mV

(b) 25 mV

(c) 10 mV

Conducting

band

(d) 20 mV

5. If a direct current of value a ampere is

superimposed on an alternating current

I = b sin wt ampere flowing through a wire, what

is the effective value of the resulting current in

the circuit?

Solution Senders of Physics Musing

set-28

1. Manmohan Krishna (Bihar)

2. Anubhav Jana (WB)

3. Bhavana Krishnan (Kerala)

1.

2.

3.

4.

set-27

Sarthak Gupta (Chhattisgarh)

Dipak Agarwal (Gujarat)

S. Nikhil Panda (Visakhapatnam)

Pratim Majumdar (Gujarat)

1/2

(a) a2 b2

1/2

1/2

a2

(c) + b2

2

(d) a2 + b2

= 3/2

10 cm is cut and separated and a material of

refractive index 3 is filled between them. What will

be the focal length of this

combination?

(a) 10 cm

(b) 10/4 cm

(c) 10/3 cm

(d) None of these

7. A chain of length L and mass M is arranged as shown

in following five cases. The correct decreasing order

of potential energy possessed by chain (assumed

zero at horizontal surface) is

of the distance with velocity v0. The remaining part

of the distance was covered with velocity v1 for half

time and with velocity v2 for the other half of the

time. Then the mean velocity of the point averaged

over the whole time of motion is

(a)

v0 + v1 + v2

v1 + v2 + 2v0

(b)

v02 + (v1 + v2 )

v1v2 + v02

(c)

3(v1 + v2 )

v1 + v2 + v0

(d)

3v0 (v1 + v2 )

v1 + v2 + 4v0

steady state in a long straight wire. A small circular

loop of radius 103 m has its plane parallel to the

wire and is placed at a distance of 1 m from the

wire. The resistance of loop is 8.4 104 W. The

approximate value of induced current in the loop

is

(a) 5.02 1011 A

(b) 3.81 1011 A

(c) 2.75 1011 A

(d) 1.23 1011 A

nn

L/2

(ii)

(i)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(i) = (ii) > (iii) > (iv) > (v)

(i) = (ii) > (iv) > (iii) > (v)

(i) = (ii) > (iv) > (v) > (iii)

6

8

10

D

2

5

U

D

16

C

B

A

13

O

22 23

G R

N

S

T

10

A

20

A

O

U

I

19

21

F

N

17

B

11 12

T

B

A

L

4

E

Y

14

E

V

15

R

A

(b) 30 N

(d) 75 N

(a) 5 N

(c) 60 N

75 N. After an off axis cylindrical hole was drilled

through it as shown, it weighed 60 N. The axes

of the two cylinders are parallel. Assuming the

cylinder does not slip on the table, determine what

the tension T in the cord must be to keep it from

moving.

2a/3

F

E

I

C

24

M

18

W

A

A

25

D

T

H

O

C

A

Akhil Goyal (Delhi)

Mayank Kumar (UP)

solution senders (October 2015)

Divyansh sharma (Delhi)

nitin singhal (Bihar)

Vaibhav Banerjee (WB)

1. A plano-convex lens of focal length 20 cm has

its plane side silvered. Which of the following

statements are correct?

(a) The radius of curvature of curved surface of

plano-convex lens is equal to half of radius of

curvature of a surface of equi-convex lens of

focal length 20 cm.

(b) An object placed at 15 cm on the axis on the

convex side of silvered plano-convex lens gives

an image at a distance of 30 cm from it.

(c) An object placed at a distance of 20 cm on the axis

on the convex side of silvered plano-convex lens

gives an image at a distance of 40 cm from it.

(d) Silvered plano-convex lens acts as a concave

mirror of focal length 10 cm.

2. In Youngs double slit experiment, phase difference

between the waves at a point on screen having

intensity less than the average intensity on screen

may be

(a) p/4

(b) 2p/3 (c) p

(d) 7p/8

3. A point charge q is placed at origin. Let E A , E B and

B(1, 1, 1) and C (2, 2, 2) due to charge q. Then

(a) E A E B

(b) E A || E C

(c) | E B | = 4 | E C |

(d) | E B | = 8 | E C |

4. An uncharged thin conducting

spherical shell A of radius a

3a

is placed concentrically with

A

a

a thick conducting spherical B

2a

shell B of inner radius 2a and

outer radius 3a as shown in the

figure. If the shell B is given a total charge +Q, then

Q

(a) charge on shell A will be

5

12

2Q

5

(c) charge on outer surface of shell B will be 3Q

5

Q

(d) charge on outer surface of shell B will be

5

5. The ammeter connected in following circuits has

zero resistance. The voltmeter in circuit (a) has

infinite resistance and a reading 8 V. The value

of resistance R has not been specified. Which of

the following circuits has same current in the

ammeter?

(b) charge on shell A will be

20 V

(a)

(b)

6

20 V

(c)

6

12

4

A

20 V

(d)

4

6

20 V 6

A

6

6

20 V

complete circuit. At t = 0,

+q

charge on capacitor as a

C = 1F

q

function of time is given

1

by q = 3(1 et) coulomb. 20 V

R

1

P

At t = 0, mark the correct

2V

statement(s).

(a) Current through branch containing capacitor is 3 A.

(b) Current through R is 7 A.

(c) The potential at P is 14 V.

(d) The value of R is 2 W.

7. A conductor ABCDE, shaped as shown, carries

current I. It is placed in the X Y plane with the

ends A and E on the X-axis. A uniform magnetic

acting on it will be

Y

B

a

a

D

(b) lBI in the Z-direction, if B is in the Y-direction

(c) lBI in the negative Y-direction, if B is in the

Z-direction.

(d) laBI, if B is in the X-direction.

8. A circular conducting loop of radius r0 and having

resistance per unit length l as shown in the figure is

placed in a magnetic field B which is constant in

space and time. The ends of the loop are crossed

and pulled in opposite directions with

v

v

loop goes on decreasing, then

vt

(a) radius of the loop changes with t as r0

p

(b) emf induced in the loop as a function of time

vt

is 2 Bv r0

p

Bv

(c) current induced in the loop is

2pl

Bv

(d) current induced in the loop is

.

pl

9. The minimum value of d so that there is a dark fringe

at O is dmin. For the value of dmin, the distance at

which the next bright fringe is formed, is x. Then

P

B

d

A

x

O

O

D

lD

(a) dmin = lD

(b) dmin =

2

dmin

(c) x =

(d) x = dmin

2

10. A ray OP of monochromatic

B

O

60

light is incident on the face

C

P

AB of prism ABCD near

135

vertex B at an incident angle

of 60 as shown in figure. If

the refractive index of the

90

75

A

D

material of the prism is 3,

which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) The ray gets totally internally reflected at face CD.

(b) The ray comes out through face AD.

14

emergent ray is 90.

(d) The angle between the incident ray and the

emergent ray is 120.

11. An 16O nucleus is spherical and has a radius R and

4

a volume V = pR3 . According to the empirical

3

128

observations, the volume of the 54 Xe nucleus,

assumed to be spherical is V and radius is R. Then

(a) V = 8V

(b) V = 2V

(c) R = 2R

(d) R = 8R

12. In a photoelectric effect experiment, if u is the

frequency of radiations incident on the metal surface

and I is the intensity of the incident radiations, then

mark the correct statement(s).

(a) If u is increased keeping I and work function

constant, then stopping potential and maximum

kinetic energy of photoelectron increases.

(b) If distance between cathode and anode is changed,

then stopping potential remains same.

(c) If I is increased keeping u and work function

constant then stopping potential remains same

and saturation current increases.

(d) Work function is decreased keeping u and I constant

then stopping potential increases and maximum

kinetic energy of photoelectron increases.

13. The figure shows electronic

wave function for a hydrogen

atom. Then

(a) the quantum number of

this state is 6.

(b) the wavelength of this

electron is 6pr 0 (r 0 is

radius of ground state).

(c) it can go to ground state

by emitting 3 different photons.

(d) on de-excitation it emits at least one line in

infrared region of spectrum.

14. A small metallic uncharged object is

suspended between two vertical metal + +

+ +

plates having equal and opposite + +

charges, as shown in figure. Due to the + +

+ +

charges on plates, a uniform electric + +

field appears between the plates. Now, + +

the ball is touched to one of the plates

and then released. For this arrangement, select the

correct statements.

(a) Ball moves to and fro between the plates and

in both to and fro motion, it is accelerated

(speeding up).

decreasing and becomes neutral at infinite time.

(c) The charge of the system remains conserved

and it is only transferred between the plates

with the help of ball.

(d) Finally, positive plate acquires negative charge

and negative plate acquires positive charge, but

magnitude of charge on both the plates still

remains the same.

15. An electron moves in a uniform

magnetic field and follows a spiral

path as shown in figure. Which of the

following statement(s) is/are correct ?

(a) Angular velocity of the electron

remains constant.

(b) Magnitude of velocity of the electron decreases

continuously.

(c) Net force on the particle is always perpendicular

to its direction of motion.

(d) Magnitude of net force on the electron decreases

continuously.

solutions

1 1

=

f

R

1

2

For equi-convex lens,

= ( 1)

f

R

R

\ For f = f , R =

2

Let F be the focal length of silvered plano-convex lens,

1 2( 1) 1 2( 1)

=

+ =

F

R

R

1 1 ( 1)

Given, = =

f 20

R

\ F = 10 cm, i.e., it acts as concave mirror.

1 1 1

Now, + =

u v F

1 1 1 32 1

If u = 15 cm, = =

=

v 10 15 30

30

v = 30 cm

1 1 1

1

If u = 20 cm, = = v = 20 cm

v 10 20 20

I

2. (b, c, d) : As I = I0 cos2

\ Iav = 0

2

2

2 1

I < Iav cos <

2 2

1

1

2

2

2

1. (a, c, d) : For plano-convex lens,

16

p

3p

< <

2

2

along OC.

OA = i + 2 j + 3k , OB = i + j k

and OC = 2i + 2 j + 2k

Since OA OB = 0

\EA EB

As OA is not parallel to OC ,

\ E A is not parallel to E C

Further | E | 1 | OC |= 2 | OB |

\ E B = 4 EC

r2

K (Q q) Kq Kq

4. (b, c) : VA =

+

+

=0

2a

a

Also q = q 3a

q

Qq q q

+ =0

3a

2a a

q

2Q

2Q

\ q =

q=

5

5

3Q

and Q q =

5

20 V 20 8

5. (a, d) : For circuit (a), I A =

=

=2 A

6

6

20

For circuit (b), I A = = 5 A

4

For circuit (c), IA = 0

(Balanced Wheatstones Bridge)

For circuit (d), 6 W is in parallel with 6+6 = 12 W.

6 12

Their effective resistance is

=4W

6 + 12

\ Net resistance of the circuit = 4 + 6 = 10 W

Hence, IA = 20/10 = 2 A

6. (a, b, c, d) : Current through branch containing

dq

= I = 3e t A

capacitor is

dt

At t = 0, I = 3 A in downward direction, i.e., towards

P. Let V is the potential of point P, then

q

3

20 V = + 3 1 = + 3 = 6 ( q = 3C at t = 0)

C

1

V = 14 V

Current through branch containing resistor of 1W

only is,

18 14

I2 =

= 4 A, again towards P.

1

Applying KCL at P, current through R is 7A.

Potential difference across R is, V = 14 V = 7R

R=2W

7. (a, b, c) : To find the force on a conductor of any

shape, replace the conductor by an imaginary

straight conductor joining the two ends of the

given conductor. So, if B is in x-direction, then

17

field and the force acting on it will be zero. If B is in

y-direction, then the force will be lBI,acting along

the z-direction. Similarly, if B is in the z-direction,

then the force will be lBI, acting along the negative

y-direction.

8. (a, b, d) : Perimeter is decreasing at a rate of 2v

d

(2 pr ) = 2v

dt

dr v

v

=

\ r = (r0 t )

dt p

p

d

dr

2

=

= B 2p r

(Q = B pr )

dt

dt

v

v v

\ = 2 Bp(r0 t ) = 2 Bv(r0 t )

p

p p

2 Bvr Bv

I= =

=

R l.2 pr pl

9. (b, d) : There is a dark fringe at O if the path

\

difference, = ABO AO O =

l

2

O

D

2 D 2 + d 2 2D =

2d 2 d 2 l

=

=

2D D 2

lD

2

The bright fringe is formed at P if the path difference

= AO P ABP = 0

dmin =

= D + D 2 + x 2 D 2 + d 2 D 2 + (x d )2 = 0

=

x 2 d 2 (x 2 + d 2 2 xd )

=0

2D 2D

2D

lD

2

\ x = dmin =

Given d = dmin

sin 60

= 3 r = 30

sin r

From geometry, angle

of incidence at Q is 45

At Q,

18

3 sin(45) =

3

2

16

For O, R = R0

60

>1

60

30

P

90

60

45

45

30

R

1

(16) 3

1

128 3

12.

13.

14.

15.

60

60

e

11. (a, c) : R = R0 A 3

reflection takes place.

At point R,

angle of incidence is 30.

By symmetry r = 60

\ Net deviation is 90.

For

128

Xe,

54

R = R0

1

(128) 3

\ R =

R = 2R and V = 4 pR 3 = 8V

16

3

(a, b, c, d)

(b, c) :

(a) n = 3

(b) 2pr = nl 2p32r0 = 3l l = 6pr0

(c) 3C1 = 3

(d) All lines in Balmer or Lyman series.

(a, b, c) : Let us consider that ball is first touched to

positive plate, as a result, it acquires positive charge.

Due to electric field from positive to negative plate,

it accelerates and comes into contact with negative

plate. There it releases positive charge and acquires

negative charge, thus again accelerating from

negative to positive plate and this process repeats.

(a, b, d) : (a) Period of revolution of a charged

particle moving in a uniform magnetic field is given

2pm

by T =

. This period T does not depend upon

qB

speed of the particle. In this particular question,

the moving particle is an electron. Hence, its mass

and charge both are constant. Magnetic field is also

uniform. It means, the electron moves with constant

angular velocity.

(b) If a charged particle experiences a resisting

force against its motion, then it follows a decreasing

radius spiral path. In this question, the electron is

moving along a spiral path of decreasing radius. It

means, its speed is decreasing continuously.

(c) Since speed of the electron is continuously

decreasing, therefore it is experiencing a tangential

retardation. It is possible only when the component

of resultant force opposite to the direction of

motion of electron has non-zero value. It means,

net force on the electron cannot be perpendicular

to its direction of motion.

(d) Since speed of the electron is decreasing

continuously, therefore the force exerted by

the magnetic field (F = qvB) is also decreasing

continuously. Hence, magnitude of net force acting

on the electron is decreasing continuously.

2016

PRACTICE PAPER

1. The expression for centripetal force (F) depends

upon mass of body (m), speed of the body (v) and

the radius of circular path (r). What will be the

expression for centripetal force?

2

2

(a) F = mv

(b) F = mv

r

2r 3

2

m2v 2

(c) F = mv

(d) F =

2r

r2

2. The sum of magnitudes of two forces acting at a

point is 16 and magnitude of their resultant is 8 3.

If the resultant is at 90 with the force of smaller

magnitude, their magnitudes are

(a) 3, 13

(b) 2, 14

(c) 5, 11

(d) 4, 12

shorter of the target. When the angle of projection

is 45, it falls 10 m ahead of the target. Both are

projected from the same point with the same speed

in the same direction, the distance of the target

from the point of projection is

(a) 15 m (b) 30 m (c) 45 m

(d) 10 m

4. A rectangular block of mass m and area of cross-section

A floats in a liquid of density r. If it is given a

small vertical displacement from equilibrium, it

undergoes oscillation with a time period T. Then

(a) T m

(b) T r

1

1

(c) T

(d) T

r

A

5. 70 calories of heat are required to raise the

temperature of 2 moles of an ideal diatomic gas at

constant pressure from 30C to 35C. The amount of

heat required to raise the temperature of the same

gas through same range (30C to 35C) at constant

volume is

(a) 30 cal (b) 50 cal (c) 70 cal (d) 90 cal

6. Two masses m1 and m2 are suspended together by a

massless spring of constant k. When the masses are

the system; then the amplitude of vibration is

(a) m1 g/k

(b) m2 g/k

k

(m1 + m2 ) g

(c)

k

m1

(m2 m1 ) g

m2

(d)

k

7. Two wires A and B are of the same material. Their

lengths are in the ratio 1 : 2 and the diameters are in

the ratio 2 : 1. If they are pulled by the same force,

increase in their lengths will be in the ratio

(a) 2 : 1

(b) 1 : 4

(c) 1 : 8

(d) 8 : 1

8. Two glass plates are separated by water. If surface

tension of water is 75 dynes per cm and area of

each plate wetted by water is 8 cm2 and the distance

between the plates is 0.12 mm, then the force

applied to separate the two plates is

(a) 102 dynes

(b) 104 dynes

5

(c) 10 dynes

(d) 106 dynes

9. A sings with a frequency u and B sings with a

1 th

that of A. If the energy remains the

8

same and the amplitude of A is a, then amplitude

of B is

(a) a

(b) 2a

(c) 8a

(d) 16a

10. A particle leaves the origin with an initial velocity

^

1

v = (3.0 i ) m s and a constant acceleration

^

^

a = (1.0 i 0.5 j) m s2. When the particle reaches

its maximum x-coordinate, what is the y-component

of its velocity?

(a) 2.0 m s1

(b) 1.0 m s1

1

(c) 1.5 m s

(d) 0.5 m s1

11. A circular disc rotates at 60 rpm. A coin of 18 g is

placed at a distance of 8 cm from the centre. The

centrifugal force on the coin becomes

(a) 5.7 101 N

(b) 5.7 102 N

1

(c) 3.8 10 N

(d) 3.8 102 N

frequency

19

perpendicular forces 8 N and 6 N. The magnitude

and direction of the acceleration of the body is

(a) 2 m s2 at an angle 37 to force 8 N

(b) 2 m s2 at an angle 57 to force 6 N

(c) 4 m s2 at an angle 37 to force 8 N

(d) 4 m s2 at an angle 57 to force 6 N.

13. The system is released from rest with

the spring initially stretched 75 mm.

The spring has a stiffness of 1050 N m1.

Find the velocity of the block after it

has dropped 12 mm. Neglect the mass

of the small pulley.

45 kg

(a) 0.37 m s1

(b) 0.45 m s1

1

1

(c) 1.13 m s

(d) 2.22 m s

14. A particle executes SHM with amplitude 0.2 m and

time period 24 s. The time required for it to move

from the mean position to a point 0.1 m from the

mean position is

(a) 2 s

(b) 3 s

(c) 8 s

(d) 12 s

15. In the figure given, the system

is in equilibrium. What is

the maximum value that W

can have if the friction

force on the 40 N block

cannot exceed 12 N?

(a) 3.45 N

(b) 6.92 N

(c) 10.35 N

(d) 12.32 N

16. A uniform metal rod is used as a bar pendulum.

If the room temperature rises by 10C and the

coefficient of linear expansion of the metal of the

rod is 2106 per C, the period of the pendulum

will have percentage change of

(a) 2 103

(b) 1 103

3

(c) 2 10

(d) 1 103

17. 250 g of water and equal volume of alcohol of

mass 200 g are replaced successively in the same

calorimeter and cooled from 60C to 55C in

130 seconds and 67 seconds respectively. If the

water equivalent of the calorimeter is 10 g, then the

specific heat of alcohol in cal g1 C1, is

(a) 1.30

(b) 0.67 (c) 0.62

(d) 0.98

18. A hose lying on the ground shoots a stream of water

upward at an angle of 60 to the horizontal with a

velocity of 16 m s1. The height at which the water

strikes the wall 8 m away is

(a) 8.96 m

(b) 10.96 m

(c) 12.96 m

(d) 6.96 m

19. Helium gas goes through a cycle ABCDA (consisting

of two isochoric and two isobaric lines) as shown in

20

(Assume the gas to be close to

ideal gas)

(a) 9.1%

(b) 10.5%

(c) 12.5%

(d) 15.4%

20. When a spring is stretched by 10 cm, the potential

energy stored is E. When the spring is stretched

by 10 cm more, the potential energy stored in the

spring becomes

(a) 2E

(b) 4E

(c) 6E

(d) 10E

21. The frequency of the first overtone of a closed pipe

of length l1 is equal to that of the first overtone of

an open pipe of length l2. The ratio of their lengths,

l1 : l2 is

(a) 2 : 3

(b) 4 : 5 (c) 3 : 5

(d) 3 : 4

22. Three blocks of mass 4 kg, 2 kg, 1 kg respectively

are in contact on a frictionless table as shown

in the figure. If a force of 14 N is applied on the

4 kg block, the contact force between the 4 kg and

the 2 kg block will be

(a) 2 N

(b) 6 N

(c) 8 N

(d) 14 N

is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder

of radius r and kept on a rough floor. The decrease

in the potential energy of the system, when the

carpet is unrolled to a radius r without sliding is

2

3

5

(a) mgr

(b) mgr

4

8

1

7

(c) mgr

(d) mgr

8

8

24. A cosmonaut is circling the earth in a satellite at

7 km s1 at a height of 630 km above the surface of

earth. The centripetal force acting on the cosmonaut

if his mass is 80 kg, is

(Take radius of the earth = 6.37 106 m)

(a) zero

(b) 560 N (c) 600 N (d) 650 N

25. Hot food cools from 94C to 86C in 2 minutes

when the room temperature is 20C. How long

would the food take to cool from 71C to 69C?

(a) 12 s

(b) 25 s (c) 36 s

(d) 42 s

26. A steel rod has a radius 9.5 mm and length

81 cm. A force 6.2 104 N stretches it along its

length. The stress in the rod is

(c) 2.2 108 N m2 (d) 3.2 108 N m2

27. Find the acceleration due to gravity on the surface

of a pulsar of mass 1.98 1030 kg and radius 12 km

rotating with time period 0.041 second.

(Take G = 6.67 1011 MKS)

(a) 9.17 1011 m s2 (b) 8.15 1011 m s2

(c) 7.32 1011 m s2 (d) 6.98 1011 m s2

28. An object floats in water with 10% of its volume

outside and in oil 30% of its volume outside. The

specific gravity of the oil is

(a) 1.3

(b) 0.33 (c) 2

(d) 7

29. The rise in the water level in a capillary tube of

radius 0.07 cm when dipped vertically in a beaker

containing water of surface tension 0.07 N m1 is

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 2 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 1 cm

(d) 3 cm

30. A circular hole of radius 1 cm is cut off from a

disc of radius 6 cm centered at origin. The centre

of hole is 3 cm away from the centre of the disc.

The position of centre of mass of the remaining disc

from the centre of disc is

3

1

(a) cm

(b)

cm

35

35

3

(c)

(d) none of these

cm

10

31. The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis

is 1.2 kg m2. Initially, the body is at rest. In order

to produce a rotational kinetic energy of 1500 J, an

angular acceleration of 25 rad s2 must be applied

about the axis for a duration of

(a) 4 s

(b) 2 s

(c) 8 s

(d) 10 s

32. A point mass m is moving along a plane inclined at

an angle q with acceleration a with

respect to smooth triangular block.

a

The triangular block is moving

a0

The value of a is

(a) g sinq + a0 cosq (b) g sinq a0 cosq

(c) g cosq a0 sinq (d) none of these

33. A ball is projected vertically upward with a certain

initial speed. Another ball of the same mass is

projected at an angle of 60 with the vertical with

the same initial speed. At highest point of their

journeys, the ratio of their potential energies will be

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 2 : 1 (c) 3 : 2

(d) 4 : 1

34. When a rubber cord is stretched, the change

in volume with respect to change in its linear

dimensions is negligible. The Poissons ratio for

rubber is

(a) 1

(b) 0.25 (c) 0.5

(d) 0.75

gravitational field (IG) due to a solid sphere and

distance from its centre (r) will be

IG

IG

(a)

(b)

r

Re

IG

IG

(c)

(d)

O

Re

two litres of nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 atm are

introduced into a vessel of volume 1 litre. If there is

no change in temperature, the final pressure of the

mixture of gas (in atm) is

(a) 1.5

(b) 2.5

(c) 2

(d) 4

37. The motion of a particle varies with time according

to the relation y = a sin wt + b cos wt. Then

(a) the motion is oscillatory but not SHM

(b) the motion is SHM with amplitude a + b

(c) the motion is SHM with amplitude a2 + b2

(d) the motion is SHM with amplitude

a 2 + b2 .

38. A stone is dropped into a well. If the depth of water

below the top be h and velocity of sound in air be v,

then the time after which splash of sound is heard,

will be

(a)

2h h

+

g v

(b)

2h h

g v

3h

2h h

(d)

g

g v

39. The terminal speed attained by an aluminium

sphere of radius 1 mm falling through water at 20C

will be

(Assume laminar flow, specific gravity of

Al = 2.7 and hwater = 8 104 Pl)

(a) 9.2 m s1

(b) 6.9 m s1

1

(c) 4.6 m s

(d) 2.3 m s1

^

^

^

^

40. Let r1(t ) = 3t i + 4t 2 j and r2 (t ) = 4t 2 i + 3t j

represent the positions of particles 1 and 2,

are in meter and t in second. The relative speed of

the two particles at the instant t = 1 s, will be

(c)

21

(a) 1 m s1

(c) 5 2 m s1

(b) 3 2 m s1

(d) 7 2 m s1

relation V = KT2/3. Then the work done when the

temperature changes by 60 K will be

(a) 10R

(b) 30R (c) 40R

(d) 20R

42. A particle moves in a circular orbit of radius r under

k

a central attractive force F = , k is a constant. The

r

time period of its motion shall be proportional to

(a) r1/2

(b) r

(c) r 3/2 (d) r 2/3

43. The root mean square velocity of the molecules of a

gas is 1260 m s1. The average speed of the molecules

is

(a) 1029 m s1

(b) 1161 m s1

1

(c) 1671 m s

(d) 917 m s1

44. A particle of mass M is situated at the centre of a

spherical shell of same mass and radius a. The

gravitational potential at a point situated at distance

a

from the centre, will be

2

3GM

2GM

(a)

(b)

a

a

(c) GM

(d)

a

a

^ ^ ^

45. The position of a particle is given by r = (i + 2 j k) and

^

^

^

its linear momentum is given by p = (3 i + 4 j 2 k).

4GM

(a) x-axis

(b) y-axis

(c) z-axis

(d) line at equal angles to all the three axes

solutions

1. (b) : According to question,

F mav br c

or F = kmav br c

k, being a dimensionless constant.

From homogeneity of dimensions,

[MLT2] = [M]a [LT1]b[L]c

or [MLT2] = [MaLb+c Tb]

Comparing the powers, we obtain

a=1

b+c=1

b=2 b=2

\ 2+c=1 c=1

kmv 2

Therefore, F = kmv 2 r 1 =

r

22

2

\ F = mv

r

2. (b) : Given, A + B = 16

R = (A2 + B2 + 2AB cosq)1/2

8 3 = ( A2 + B2 + 2 AB cos q)1/2

B sin q

A + B cos q

B sin q

=

A + B cos q

A + B cosq = 0

B cosq = A

and tan 90 =

or

or

or

\

8 3 = [ A2 + B2 + 2 A( A)]1/2

or 192 = B2 A2 = (B A) (B + A) = (B A) 16

or B A = 192/16 = 12

On solving, A = 2 and B = 14

3. (b) : If range of target is R then,

u2 sin(2 75)

...(i)

= R 10

g

and

u2 sin(2 45)

= R + 10

g

u2

= R + 10

g

Putting in eqn. (i), (R + 10) sin 150 = R 10

1

or (R + 10) = R 10 or R = 30 m

2

4. (a)

5. (b) : Heat absorbed at constant pressure to increase

the temperature by dT is Q1 = nCP dT

\ Q2 = nCV dT

\ Q2 = CV or Q = Q CV

2

1

CP

Q1 CP

or

1

1

5

= 70

= 70 = 50 cal

7/5

7

6. (a) : With mass m2 alone, the extension of the

spring l is given as m2 g = kl

...(i)

...(ii)

Also, (m1 + m2)g = k(l + Dl)

The change in extension is Dl which is the amplitude

of vibration.

From eqns. (i) and (ii)

mlg = kDl

mg

or Dl = 1

k

F

L

7. (c) : Y =

2 DL

pr

Since Y and F are same for both the wires, we have

or Q2 = 70

L1

2

r1 DL1

or

I2

2

r2 DL2

=

=

DL2 r12 L2 (D1 / 2)2 L2

DL1 D22 L1

D22

L

1

= 2 =

1 =

2

DL2 D1 L2 (2D2 ) 2L1 8

8. (c) : The shape of water layer between the two plates

is shown in the given figure.

Thickness of the film, d = 0.12 mm = 0.012 cm

d

Radius of the face, R =

2

Pressure difference across the surface

T 2T

= =

d

R d

Area of each plate

wetted by water, A = 8 cm2

Force required to separate the two plates is given

by

2T

F = pressure difference area =

A

d

2 75 8

5

= 10 dynes

=

0.012

u

9. (c) : u A = u, u B = , a A = a

8

1 2 1

1

E = mv = m(aw)2 = ma2w2

2

2

2

i.e., E a2 (2pu)2 or E a2u2

or

E A aA u A

=

EB aB u B

22 22

(18 103 ) (8 102 ) 12

7 7

F = 5.7 102 N

12. (a)

13. (a)

14. (a) : Here,

Amplitude, A = 0.2 m

Time period, T = 24 s

Since time is noted from the mean position, hence

displacement x of a particle from its mean position

is given by x = Asinwt

Here, x = 0.1 m

\ 0.1 = 0.2sinwt

1

= sinwt

2

p

or sin = sin wt

6

p

or wt =

6

p p T

2p

t=

=

w=

6w 6 2 p

T

p 24

=

=2 s

6 2p

15. (b) : The free-body diagram of

N

the block is as shown in the

T1

figure.

f

Q (fs)max = 12 N (Given)

40 N

\ (T1)max = 12 N

The free-body diagram of knot is as shown in the

figure.

T2sin30 = W

(i)

T2cos30 = T1

(ii)

Divide (i) by (ii), we get

W

tan30 =

T1

=4

a

2

1 = (8)

aB

or aB = 8a

10. (c) : The velocity of the particle at any time t

v = v0 + at

The x-component is

vx = vox + axt = (3 t) m s1

The y-component is

vy = voy + ayt = ( 0.5t) m s1

When the particle reaches its maximum

x-coordinate, vx = 0. i.e.,

3t=0 t=3s

The y-component of the velocity at this time is

vy = 0.5 3 = 1.5 m s1

60

= 1 rps

11. (b) : Here, u = 60 rpm =

m = 18 g = 18 103 kg 60

r = 8 cm = 8 102 m

Centrifugal force, F = mrw2 = mr(2pu)2

= 4p2mru2

or

\

W = T1tan30 = 0.577T1

Wmax = 0.577(T1)max

= 0.577 12 N = 6.92 N

16. (d)

17. (c) : Mass of water = 250 g

Water equivalent of calorimeter, W = 10 g

Fall of temperature = 60 55 = 5C

Time taken by water to cool = 130 s

Time taken by alcohol to cool = 67 s

Heat lost by water and calorimeter

= (250 + 10) 1 5 = 260 5 = 1300 cal

1300

Rate of loss of heat =

= 10 cal s 1

130

Heat lost by alcohol and calorimeter = (200s + 10 1)5

Physics for you | december 15

23

(200s + 10)5

cal s 1

67

Rate of loss of heat in the two cases are equal

Rate of loss of heat =

(200s + 10)5

= 10

67

or

14 N

14

= ms 2 = 2 ms 2

4 kg + 2 kg + 1 kg 7

Let R be the contact force between 4 kg and

2 kg blocks.

The free body diagram of 4 kg block is as shown in

the figure.

a=

s = 0.62 cal g 1 C 1

1

= 8 m s 1

2

8

Time taken to reach the wall = = 1 s

8

3

Now uV = 16 sin 60 = 16

= 8 3 m s 1

2

1

\ h = 8 3 1 9.8 12 = 13.86 4.9

2

or h = 8.96 m

23.

the cycle is clockwise.

\ Work done by the gas

W = Area of the rectangle ABCD = P0V0

Helium gas is a monoatomic gas,

3

5

\ CV = R and CP = R

2

2

Along the path AB, heat supplied to the gas at

constant volume,

3

3

3

\ DQAB = nCV DT = n RDT = V0 DP = P0V0

2

2

2

Along the path BC, heat supplied to the gas at

constant pressure,

5

5

\ DQBC = nCP DT = n RDT = (2P0 )DV = 5P0V0

2

2

Along the path CD and DA, heat is rejected by the gas

Work done by the gas

Efficiency , h =

100%

Heat supplied to the gas

=

P0V0

100% =

200

% = 15.4%

13

3

P V + 5P0V0

2 0 0

20. (b) : Let k be spring constant of the spring.

1

Potential energy stored in the spring = kx 2

2

In the first case,

1

E = k(10)2

...(i)

2

In the second case,

1

1

E = k(10 + 10)2 = k(20)2

2

2

1

= 4 k(10)2 = 4 E

(Using(i))

2

21. (d)

24

24.

25.

26.

14 R = 4a

\ R = 14 4 2 = 6 N

(c) : The centre of mass of the whole carpet is

originally at a height r above the floor. When the

r

carpet unrolls itself and has a radius , the centre

2

r

of mass is at a height . The mass left over unrolled

2

is

2

mp(r / 2)

m

=

=

2

4

pr

m r

The decrease in potential energy = mgr g

4 2

7

= mgr

8

(b) : Here, orbital speed of the satellite,

vo = 7 km s1 = 7 103 m s1

Radius of the earth, RE = 6.37 106 m

Height, h = 630 km = 630 103 m

Mass of the cosmonaut, m = 80 kg

The centripetal force acting on the cosmonaut is

80 (7 103 )2

mvo2

=

F=

(RE + h) (6.37 106 + 630 103 )

80 49 106

80 49 106

= 3

=

10 (6370 + 630) 103 7000

80 49

=

N = 560 N

7

(d)

(c) : Here, R = 9.5 mm = 9.5 103 m

L = 81 cm = 81 102 m, F = 6.2 104 N

The stress in the rod is

6.2 104 N

F

Stress =

=

pR2 3.14 (9.5 103 m)2

= 0.022 1010 N m2 = 2.2 108 N m2

27. (a)

28. (a) : Let V be the volume of an object. When the

Weight of the object = Weight of the liquid displaced

Vrobject g = Vinside rliquid g

In water,

Vrobject g = 0.9Vrwater g

... (i)

1

1

1

1

= mu2 = mu2

4

2

2

2

u2

8g

2

h1 u

8g

=

2

h2 2 g u

h 4

1=

h2 1

h2 =

In oil,

Vrobject g = 0.7Vroil g

...(ii)

u cos60

u

60

h2

u sin 60

0.9 rwater

roil

0.9 9

1=

or

=

=

0.7 roil

rwater 0.7 7

roil

9

= = 1. 3

Specific gravity of the oil =

rwater 7

29. (a) : Rise of a liquid in a capillary tube,

2S cos q

h=

rrg

Here, r = 0.07 cm = 0.07 102 m

For water, S = 0.07 N m1, r = 103 kg m3

Angle of contact q = 0

2 (0.07 N m 1 ) 1

\ h=

(0.07 102 m)(103 kg m 3 )(10 m s 2 )

or

31. (b)

32. (b) : For discussion of motion of the point mass m,

we assume that observer is situated at the triangular

block.

The force diagram of point mass m is shown in

figure.

30. (a)

co

a0

m

gs

m

in

mg cos +

ma0 sin

mg

mg sinq ma0 cosq = ma

\ a = g sinq a0 cosq

33. (d) : For first ball, mgh1 =

a0

1 2

mu

2

u2

2g

For second ball

1

1

mgh2 = mu2 cos2 q = mu2 cos2 60

2

2

\

h1 =

h1

DV Dl 2Dr

Dl 2Dr

DV

= +

=

(

0)

V

l

r

l

r

V

Now, Poissons ratio

Dr

Dr

r

s=

= r = 0. 5

Dl

Dr

2

l

r

35. (b) : Gravitational field intensity (IG) at a point

inside the solid sphere varies directly as the distance

from the centre of sphere, and outside the sphere

1

IG 2 . Hence, graph (b) is correct.

r

36. (c) : For oxygen, P1V1 = P2V2

or 1 1 = P2 1

or P2 = 1 atm

For nitrogen, P1 V1 = P2V2

or 0.5 2 = P2 1

or P2 = 1 atm

\ P = P2 + P2 = 1 + 1 = 2 atm

37. (d) : y = a sin wt + b cos wt

Let a = r cos q and b = r sinq

Then, y = r cos q sin wt + r sin q cos wt

= r sin (wt + q)

The motion is SHM with amplitude r.

Now, a2 + b2 = r2 (cos2q + sin2q) = r2

or

= 2 102 m = 2 cm

ma0

DV D(pr 2l )

=

V

pr 2l

DV r 2 Dl + 2rlDr

=

V

r 2l

u

m

or r = a2 + b2

38. (a)

39. (c) : Here, r = 1 mm = 103 m

Specific gravity of Al = 2.7

Density of Al, r = 2.7 103 kg m3

Density of water, s = 103 kg m3

h = 8 104 Pl

g = 9.8 m s2

25

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just cant get

answered?

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

glass for divers who do not have perfect vision.

The lenses in a diving mask faceplate often only

have curved surfaces on the inside of the glass.

Why is this design desirable?

Manali Mehta (UP)

Ans. The main reason for curving only the inner surface

of the lenses in the diving mask faceplate is so that

the diver can see clearly when looking at objects

straight ahead while underwater and in the air.

Consider light rays approaching the mask along

a normal to the plane of the faceplate. If curved

surfaces were on both the front and the back of the

diving lens on the faceplate, refraction would occur

at each surface. The lens could be designed so that

these two refractions would give clear vision while

the diver is in air. When the diver is underwater,

however, the refraction between the water and the

glass at the first interface is now different because

the index of refraction of water is different from

that of air. Thus, the vision would not be clear

underwater. By making the outer surface of the

lens flat, light is not refracted at normal incidence

to the faceplate at the outer surface in either

air or water all of the refraction occurs at the

inner glass-air surface. Thus, the same refractive

correction exists in water and in air, and the diver

can see clearly in both environments.

Q2. A bugle has no valves, keys, slides, or finger

holes then how can it play a song?

26

the fundamental frequency because the bugle has

no control over frequencies by means of valves,

keys, slides, or finger holes. The player obtains

different notes by changing the tension in the lips

as the bugle is played, in order to excite different

harmonics. The normal playing range of a bugle is

among the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth harmonics

of the fundamental. For example, Reveille is

played with just the three notesD (294 Hz),

G (392 Hz), and B(494 Hz), and Taps is played

with these same three notes and the D one octave

above the lower D (588 Hz).

Q4. The value of moment of inertia is constant for

a particular axis (direction) of rotation. Then

why moment of inertia is a scalar quantity?

Explain.

Sibat Sidiq (Kashmir)

moment of inertia is intrinsically associated

with the idea of direction as it depends upon the

position and direction of the axis of rotation. It is

not a vector quantity, it is called a tensor. Physical

quantities which have no specified direction and

have different values in different directions are

called tensors.

Q5. What is the dimension of the term Sn used in

4th equation of motion (distance or velocity)? Is

the equation dimensionally correct? Prove its

dimensional correctness.

Suryakant Khilar (Odisha)

a

Sn = u + (2n 1)

2

Here Sn is the distance travelled in nth second which

is basically the difference of distances travelled in

nth second and (n 1)th second. Dimension of Sn

is [L] as it is the measure of distance.

This equation seems to be dimensionally incorrect

but it is correct. This equation is derived for a time

difference of 1 s. It is basically

a

Sn = u(1 s) + (2n(1 s) (1s)2 )

2

So, it is dimensionally consistent.

nn

100 in November

and his revolutionary hypothesis has withstood the test of time, despite

numerous expert attempts to find flaws.

Einstein changed the way we think about the most basic things, which are

space and time. And that opened our eyes to the universe, and how the most

interesting things in it work, like black holes, said David Kaiser, professor of

the history of science, technology and society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Einstein,

a celebrated German born theoretical physicist who spent the final years of his life at Princeton University in

US, presented his theory on November 25, 1915 before the Prussian Academy of Science. The document was

published in March 1916 in a journal called Annalen der Physik.

The general theory of relativity was among the most revolutionary in history; it marked a major leap from the law

of universal gravitation put forth by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687. Einstein believed that space and time are not fixed,

which was what others had thought, but are flexible, dynamic phenomena like other processes of the universe,

said Michael Turner, director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics. So space bends and time warps,

and it was a whole new way at looking at gravity.

blackest material ever

ever made, so dark that it can absorb almost

all light that hits it. The researchers, who were

inspired by a completely white beetle, hope that the

superblack material could help develop better and

more efficient solar panels or completely change

the way that they are made. The material absorbs

99% of light, at all angles, making it 26% darker

than carbon nanotubes, which are the darkest

material before known. The ideal thing to absorb

energy would be a dark material that absorbs

radiation and at all angles and polarisations,

the researchers write. That aim is probably

impossible, but scientists still aspire to create

ever darker materials. The study was published

in Nature Nanotechnology.

People who have seen

record-breaking dark

materials say doing

so is strange and

alien as it is so

dark that the eye

cant comprehend

it, and instead just

sees an unending

abyss.

Stellar discovery:

Rosetta detects

oxygen on comet

spacecraft has made the first in-situ detection of oxygen (O2) molecules

outgassing from a comet, a surprising observation that suggests they

were incorporated into the comet during its formation, according to an

announcement by the space agency on October 29.

This discovery has been published in the science journal, `Nature, dated

October 29, 2015. This is an intriguing result for studies both within and

beyond the comet community with implications for our models of the solar

system, remarked Matt Taylor, ESAs Rosetta project scientist. Rosetta has

been studying Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko for over a year and

has detected an abundance of different gases pouring from its nucleus.

Its also unanticipated because there arent very many examples of the

detection of interstellar O2. And thus, even though it must have been

incorporated into the comet during its formation, this is not so easily

explained by current solar system formation models, says Kathrin Altwegg

of the University of Bern.

The team analysed more than 3000 samples collected around the

comet between September 2014 and March 2015 to identify the oxygen

molecules.

arthquakes can change elastic properties of the Earths crust up to 6,000 kilometres away, altering its ability to withstand

stresses for up to a few weeks, a new study has found. The research demonstrates that the Earth is a dynamic and

interconnected system, where one large earthquake can create a cascading sequence of events thousands of kilometres

away, researchers said. Earthquakes can fundamentally change the elastic properties of the Earths crust in regions up to

6,000 kilometres away, altering its ability to withstand stresses for a period of up to a few weeks, said Kevin Chao, a postdoc in

Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and a member of a research

team led by Andrew Delorey at Los Alamos National Laboratory. When a surface wave from an earthquake some way off passes

through another fault region, it changes the balance between the frictional properties that keep the surfaces locked together, the

elasticity that allows the crust to withstand strain, and the stress state that can cause it to fail, Chao said.

When surface waves pass through, all of these properties rearrange and change. If a fault with high stress is ready to fail, it will

accumulate more stresses in the fault, meaning an earthquake could occur at any time, Chao said.

In the new research, published in the journal Science Advances, scientists studied the 2012 earthquake off the coast of North

Sumatra in the Indian Ocean.

Courtesy : The Times of India

1.

vertical axis with a constant angular velocity w.

Find

4.

point O as shown in figure, the Young's modulus

of elasticity of the bar is Y and the area of

cross-section is A.

O

dx

x

(b) the water pressure distribution over the

bottom of the vessel along its radius at a distance

x, provided the pressure at the central point is P0.

2.

0.75 is hinged at one end to a point l/2 above the

surface of water with the other end immersed.

Find the inclination of the rod with the horizontal

when the rod is in equilibrium.

3.

rotates with a constant angular velocity w about

a stationary vertical axis passing through the end

P. The tube is filled with an ideal liquid of density

r and the end P is open. Find the pressure just

inside the tube at Q as a function of length h of

liquid column.

rod.

(b) Consider a small section dx of the bar at a

distance x from lowest point of the bar. Find

elongation in section dx.

(c) Find the total elongation in bar.

(d) Find the energy density at a distance x from

the bottom end.

(e) Find the elastic potential energy stored in bar.

5.

of area a at the bottom. At time t = 0, a tap starts

to supply water into the tank at a constant rate

a m3 s1.

(a) What is the maximum level of water, hmax in the

tank ?

(b) Find the time when level of water becomes

h(< hmax).

6.

fixed at one end. A tangential force of 4 105 N

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

28

x = l or x = 3l

\ Permissible solution is x = l.

Hence, C and G coincide.

l /2 1

sin q =

= q = 30

l

2

produced in the cylinder if the modulus of rigidity

is 6 1010 N m2.

solutions

1.

having coordinate (x, y). In the rotating frame, the

forces acting on this particle are mg, downwards

and mw2x, away from the axis of rotation. The net

force Fnet must be perpendicular to the free surface.

Hence, the slope of surface,

3.

at a distance x from the axis of rotation. The mass

of the element is dm = rAdx.

(L h)

dy

mw2 x

= tan q =

dx

mg

x w2

dy =

\ y=

xdx

w2 x 2

2g

\ The pressure at the bottom of the vessel at

distance x is

1

P = P0 + rgy = P0 + rw2 x 2

2

y=

l

D

G

C

x

B (hinge)

l/2

water surface

the water. Let A be the area of cross-section and

r be the density of water. Since rod is stationary,

net torque on it must be zero.

Taking moments about B, we get

x

FB 2l cos q = W l cos q

2

(where FB = Buoyant force, W = weight of rod)

x

r( Ax ) g 2l = (0.75r)(2 Al ) gl

2

x2 4lx + 3l2 = 0

Solving, we get

(P + dP)A

PQ

dx

P. Then the pressure on the right side is P + dP.

The net force on the element is

(P + dP)A PA = AdP, towards the axis of

rotation.

\ AdP = (dm)w2x = rAw2 xdx

w2 x 2

2g

FB

P0 PA

equation of surface of water.

(b) The height of the water column at distance x

from the axis of rotation is

2.

PQ

P0

L h

2

dP = rw xdx

rw2 2

[L (L h)2 ]

PQ P0 =

2

\ PQ = P0 +

4.

rw2h

(2L h)

2

Mgx

M

T = (rAx ) g =

Axg =

AL

L

Stress at this point,

Mgx

O

T

= = L

A

A

=

dx

x

Mgx

AL

distance x from the bottom end.

dl Mgx

Strain =

= =

dx Y ALY

\ The elongation in section dx is

Mgxdx

dl =

ALY

physics for you | december 15

29

L Mgxdx MgL

l=

=

2 AY

0 ALY

a = avmax = a 2 ghmax

\ hmax =

1

u = stress strain

2

1 Mgx Mgx M 2 g 2 x 2

=

2 AL ALY 2 A2 L2Y

(e) Elastic potential energy stored in section dx is

2 2 2

M g x dx

0 aa

t=

6.

a 2 ga2 x

A

ag

2 gh

a ln

a a 2 gh

Gr 4

q

2l

\ q=

v = 2gh

2 xdx

On solving, we get

M2 g 2 2

M 2 g 2L

x

dx

=

2

6 AY

0 2 AL Y

2 gh

dt t

=

A

0A

t=A

U=

also increases. When the level is maximum, the

rate of inflow is equal to the rate of outflow.

dh

2 AL2Y

\ Total elastic potential energy stored in the

bar is

5.

2 ga2

dh

A = a av = a a 2 gh

dt

dU = uAdx =

a2

Fr =

Gr 4

q

2l

2 (4 105 ) 1.5

=

Gr 3 (6 1010 ) (2 102 )3

2Fl

nn

The two-stage Joint Entrance Examination

for admission to IITs/NITs will undergo

major changes in future if the Centre

accepts a series of recommendations

of a high-powered committee. The

panel has proposed starting an exam to

test scientific aptitude and innovative

thinking of the candidates. Its format

will be such that coaching centres wont

be able to help a student crack it. The

existing two-tier JEE, though, is set to

continue in 2016 and 2017 with the HRD

ministry making it clear that it will seek

opinion of stakeholders before taking any

decision on the panels proposals. The

Committee of Eminent Persons, headed

by IIT Bombay ex-director Ashok Misra,

has recommended starting a National

Testing Service (NTS) by early 2016. The

online exam can be taken twice or thrice

a year. Four lakh candidates will then be

shortlisted for the JEE to be conducted

30

by CBSE and JEE (Advanced) by IITs.

As per the Misra Committee

recommendations, the proposed JEE

will be on the lines of the current JEE

(Advanced) and designed to specifically

test ones knowledge of Physics, Chemistry

and Mathematics. Over 40,000 students

will then be ranked before they seek

common counselling. The panel has

asked the IITs to develop a system so

that they can take mock JEE exams and

neednt study in coaching institutes. The

possibility of using the Massive Open

Online Courses platform can also be

explored, the committee said. The HRD

ministry has been asked to take measures

for the improvement of school education

and the method of examination of various

Boards so that students with aptitude for

science are well prepared in the concepts

by the time they reach Class XII without

depending on the coaching classes. The

current system is being slightly tweaked.

JEE 2016 will have an enhanced intake

from 1.5 lakh to 2 lakh students into the

JEE (Advanced) stage. The weightage

given to Board marks in JEE (Main) will

not continue for 2016.

Courtesy : The Times of India

from axis is as shown in the figure.

1/r

form of pipe, then the magnetic field inside the

wire is zero. The variation of magnetic field B

with distance r from the axis is as shown in the

figure.

The following conclusions are drawn from this

expression:

magnetic force.

particle experiences no magnetic force.

does not deliver any power to the charged particle.

Magnetic

force is always perpendicular to both

v and B.

The maximum value of magnetic force is equal

to qvB, which occurs when the charge particle is

projected perpendicular to the uniform magnetic

field.

B 1/r

B=0

centripetal force.

If radius of the circular path is R, then

mv 2

= qvB, where m is the mass of the particle.

R

mv

\ R=

qB

solenoid

wound in the form of a helix. Its length is very large as

compared to its diameter.

having n turns per unit length is

m nI

B = 0 (cos a cos b)

2

Special cases :

If the solenoid is of infinite length and point P lies

near the middle of a solenoid, then

a = 0, b = 180 \ B = m0nI

If the solenoid is of infinite length and point is near

one end, then

a = 0, b =

p

2

\ B=

m 0nI

2

field

moving charged particle is given by

F = q(v B) or F = qvB sin

sinqq

2pR or T = 2pm

qB

v

If the charged particle is projected obliquely to the

field then its velocity v can be resolved into two

force and hence has a tendency to move on a circular

path. Due to v|| it experiences no force, and hence

has a tendency to move on a straight path along the

field. So, in this case it moves along a helical path.

T=

mv ^

.

qB

Time taken to complete one revolution is

2pm

T=

.

qB

Radius of the helix is R =

is called pitch.

Pitch = v|| T =

2p

mv

qB ||

33

field

SELF CHECK

by a potential difference V flies

through a uniform transverse

magnetic field B. The field

occupies a region of space

by width d. If a be the angle

of deviation of proton from

initial direction of motion (see

figure), the value of sin a will

be

(a)

B qd

2 mV

(c) Bd

q

2mV

(b)

B

q

d 2mV

Bd

(d) qV

2m

(JEE Main 2015)

field

on it is

F = qE

E,

The direction

of

is

same

as

that

of

if q is positive

F

and E if q is negative.

Motion of charged Particle in combined uniform

electric and Magnetic fields

F = FE + FM = qE + q (v B) = q (E + v B)

This force is known as Lorentz force and is named after

the Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.

cyclotron

E.O. Lawrence for accelerating charged particles such

as protons, deuterons, or alpha particles in the uniform

magnetic field upto energy of the order of MeV.

Bq

Cyclotron frequency u =

2pm

where m and q are mass and charge of the particle and

B is the strength of magnetic field.

34

is placed in magnetic field, it experiences a force given by

F = I(l B) = IlB sin q

Flemings left hand rule

The direction of the force F = I(l B) is given by the

Flemings left hand rule. Close your left hand first and

then shoot your index finger in the direction of the

magnetic field. Relax your middle finger in the direction

of current. The force on the conductor is shown by the

direction of the erect thumb.

force between two parallel current carrying wires

at distance r and carrying current I1 and I2 respectively

in the same direction.

The force per unit length of the wire 2 due to wire 1 is

F m 0I1I 2

=

l

2pr

The same force acts on wire 1 due to wire 2.

The wires attract each other if currents in the wires are

flowing in the same direction and they repel each other

if the currents are in opposite directions.

definition of ampere

Let I1 = I2 = 1 A, r = 1 m

F 4p 10 7 1 1

=

= 2 10 7 N m 1

l

2p 1

Thus, the ampere is that constant current which when

maintained in two straight parallel conductors of

infinite length and of negligible circular cross section

placed one metre apart in a vacuum would produce a

force between the conductors equal to 2 107 newton

per metre.

If two linear current carrying conductors of unequal

length are held parallel to each other, then the force on

a long conductor is due to magnetic field interaction

due to currents of short conductor and long conductor.

If l, L be lengths of short and long conductors and

I1, I2 be currents through short and long conductors

respectively and r is the separation between these two

parallel conductors, then the force on long conductor

then

m 0 2I1I 2

l.

4p r

When two charges q1 and q2 respectively moving with

velocities v1 and v2 are at a distance r apart, then the

force acting between them is

= force on short conductor =

m 0 q1q2 v1v 2

4p

r2

If q1 and q2 are of the same nature and they move in

the same direction, then the force acting between

them is attractive.

If q1 and q2 are of the same nature and they move

in the opposite directions, then the force acting

between them is repulsive.

F=

SELF CHECK

wires, both with current

I, are held by insulating

threads of length L and are in

equilibrium as shown in the

figure, with threads making

an angle q with the vertical.

If wires have mass l per unit

length then the value of I is

(g = gravitational acceleration)

(a) 2

pgL

tan q

m0

(c) sin q

plgL

m 0 cos q

(b)

plgL

tan q

m0

(d) 2 sin q

plgL

m 0 cos q

3. Two long straight parallel wires, carrying

(adjustable) currents I1 and I2, are kept at a distance

d apart. If the force F between the two wires is

taken as positive when the wires repel each other

and negative when the wires attract each other, the

graph showing the dependence of F, on the product

I1I2, would be

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

Magnetic field

magnetic field, the net force on it is always zero but

different parts of the coil experience forces in different

directions. Due to it, the coil may experience a torque

or couple.

When a coil of area A having N turns, carrying current I

is placed in uniform magnetic field B, it will experience

torque which is given by

t = NIABsinq = MBsinq

where M = NIA and q is the angle between the direction

of magnetic field and normal to the plane of the coil.

Special cases:

If the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the

direction of magnetic field i.e. q = 0, then

t = 0 (minimum)

If the plane of the coil is parallel to the direction of

magnetic field i.e. q = 90, then

t = NIAB (maximum)

If a is the angle between plane of the coil and the

magnetic field, then torque on the coil is

t = NIAB cosa = MB cosa

Potential energy of the coil

Potential energy of the coil is

U = MB

Work done in rotating the coil through an angle q from

the field direction is

W = MB(1 cos q)

Moving coil galvanometer

It is an instrument used for detection and measurement

of small currents.

Principle of a moving coil galvanometer: When a

current carrying coil is placed in a magnetic field, it

experiences a torque.

In moving coil galvanometer the current I passing

through the galvanometer is directly proportional to its

deflection (q).

I q or, I = Gq.

k

where G =

= galvanometer constant,

NAB

A = area of coil, N = number of turns in the coil,

B = strength of magnetic field, k = torsional constant of

the spring i.e. restoring torque per unit twist.

Current sensitivity : It is defined as the deflection

produced in the galvanometer, when unit current flows

through it.

q NAB

Is = =

.

I

k

The unit of current sensitivity is rad A1 or div A1.

Physics for you | december 15

35

produced in the galvanometer when a unit voltage is

applied across the two terminals of the galvanometer.

q q NAB

Vs = =

=

.

V IR

kR

ammeter

electrical circuit.

conversion of galvanometer into ammeter

given range by connecting a suitable low resistance

S called shunt in parallel to the given galvanometer,

whose value is given by

Ig

S=

G

I I g

where Ig is the current for full scale deflection of

galvanometer, I is the current to be measured

by the galvanometer and G is the resistance of

galvanometer.

always connected in parallel with the circuit element

across which potential difference is to be measured.

An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance.

In order to increase the range of voltmeter n times

the value of resistance to be connected in series

with galvanometer is R = (n 1)G.

KEY POINT

An ammeter connected in circuit always measures

Magnetic Moment

determines the force that a magnet can exert on electric

currents and the torque that amagnetic field will exert

on it.

The direction of magnetic moments points from the

south to north pole of a magnet.

Magnetic dipole moment

always connected in series to the circuit. An ideal

ammeter has zero resistance.

In order to increase the range of an ammeter n

times, the value of shunt resistance to be connected

in parallel is S = G/(n 1).

Voltmeter

across any element in an electrical circuit.

conversion of galvanometer into Voltmeter

given range by connecting a suitable resistance R in

series with the galvanometer, whose value is given by

V

R= G

Ig

where V is the voltage to be measured, Ig is the

current for full scale deflection of galvanometer and

G is the resistance of galvanometer.

36

of either pole

denoted by M.

Magnetic dipole moment = strength of either pole

magnetic length

M = m (2l )

Magnetic dipole moment is a vector quantity and it is

directed from south to north pole of the magnet.

The SI unit of magnetic dipole moment is A m2.

If a magnet of moment M and pole strength m is cut

into two equal parts along its length, then the pole

strength of each part is m/2 and the magnetic moment

of each part is M/2.

If a magnet of magnetic moment M and pole strength

m is cut into two equal halves along perpendicular to

its length, then the pole strength of each part is m and

magnetic moment of each part is M/2.

current loop as a magnetic dipole

electric current I and has area

M = IA .

A current carrying coil having N turns have magnetic

moment M = NIA .

SELF CHECK

carrying a current I of 12 A is placed in different

orientations as shown in the figure below.

z

(1)

z

I

I

I

(2)

B

I

z

(3)

I

x

I

I

(4)

x

B

I

I

I

the positive z direction, in which orientations

the loop would be in (i) stable equilibrium and

(ii) unstable equilibrium.

(a) (2) and (4), respectively

(b) (2) and (3), respectively

(c) (1) and (2), respectively

(d) (1) and (3), respectively

(JEE Main 2015)

Magnetic field at a Point due to Magnetic dipole

(or Bar Magnet)

on the axial line (end on position) is given by

m

2Mr

Baxial = 0 2 2 2

4p (r l )

where r = distance between the centre of the magnet

and the given point on the axial line, 2l = magnetic

length of the magnet and M = magnetic moment of

the magnet.

For short magnet, l2 << r2

m 2M

Baxial = 0 3

4pr

The direction of Baxial is along SN.

The magnetic field due to a bar magnet at any point

on the equatorial line (broad-side on position) of the

bar magnet is given by

m 0M

Bequatorial =

4p (r 2 + l 2)3/2

For short magnet, l2 < < r2

Bequatorial =

m 0M

4p r 3

length, having total length of 2l and radius a as shown

in figure.

Let I be the current through the solenoid. Consider a

small circular element of thickness dx of the solenoid

at a distance x from the center of the solenoid. Let

number of turns in the element dx be ndx. The

magnetic field at point P on the axial line at a distance

r from the center O of the solenoid, due to the circular

element will be

dB =

m 0ndxIa 2

.

2[(r x)2 + a 2]3/2

due to the entire solenoid,

+l

dx

m nIa 2

...(i)

B= 0

2 [(r x)2 + a 2]3/2

l

If point P lies very far from the center of the solenoid

[(r x)2 + a2]3/2 r3

...(ii)

+l

m 0nIa 2

m 0nIa 2

dx

=

2l

...(iii)

2r 3 l

2r 3

Magnetic moment, m = total number of turns current

area of cross-section

B=

...(iv)

m 2m

B= 0 3

4p r

Magnetic field Lines

They are hypothetical lines

which tell us about the

strength of a magnetic field

in a particular region such as

near a bar magnet. They are

used to represent magnetic

field in a region. They are

closed continuous curves.

Physics for you | december 15

37

magnetic field. They never intersect. Outside a magnet,

magnetic field lines are directed from north to south

pole and inside a magnet they are directed from south

to north.

earths Magnetic field

behaves approximately similar to that of a magnetic

dipole. A freely suspended magnet always point in the

north-south direction even in the absence of any other

magnet. This suggests that the earth itself behaves as a

magnet.

Magnetic elements

place is defined as the angle between the geographic

meridian and magnetic meridian.

Magnetic dip or magnetic inclination : Magnetic dip

at a place is defined as the angle made by the earths

magnetic field with the horizontal in the magnetic

meridian. It is denoted by d.

Horizontal component :It is component of earths

magnetic field along the horizontal direction in the

magnetic meridian. It is denoted by BH.

If B is the earths total magnetic field, then the

horizontal component of earths magnetic field is given

by

BH = B cosd

BH

O

Also, the vertical component

of

earths

magnetic

BV

B

Magnetic

field,

meridian

BV = Bsind

\ B=

earths north pole (geographical north), while the

north pole of earths magnet is towards earths south

pole (geographical south). Thus, there is a magnetic

S-pole near the geographical north and a magnetic

N-pole near the geographical south. The positions of

the earths magnetic poles are not well defined on the

globe, they are spread over an area.

Magnetic equator : The great circle whose plane is

perpendicular to the earths magnetic axis is called

earths magnetic equator.

Geographical equator : The great circle whose

plane is perpendicular to geographical axis is called

geographical equator.

Magnetic meridian : The line joining the earths

magnetic poles is called the magnetic axis and a vertical

plane passing through it is called the magnetic meridian.

Geographical meridian : The line joining the

geographical north and south poles is called the

geographical axis and a vertical plane passing through

it is called the geographical meridian.

KEY POINT

The shape of earths magnetic field resembles

that of a bar magnet of length one-fifth of earths

diameter buried at its centre.

Earth magnetic field near its surface is about

0.5 105 T.

38

BH2

and tan d =

BV2

Geographic meridian

BV

BH

At magnetic poles, d = 90 and at magnetic equator, d = 0.

In a vertical plane at an angle q to magnetic meridian

= BV

BH = BH cos q and BV

\ tan d =

BV

BV

tan d

=

=

BH BH cos q cos q

tan d

cos q

If d1 and d2 are observed angles of dip in two arbitrary

vertical planes which are perpendicular to each other,

then the true angle of dip d is given by the relation

cot2d = cot2d1 + cot2d2

tan d =

d at the place is given by tand = 2tanl

KEY POINT

The magnetic declination is greater at higher

latitudes and smaller near the equator.

Magnetisation and Magnetic intensity

it becomes magnetised. The capability of the magnetic

field to magnetise a material is expressed by means of a

magnetising field H is B = mH

where m is the permeability of medium.

It is a vector quantity and its SI unit is A m1.

substance is given by the sum of magnetic field (B0)

and magnetic field m0I produced due to magnetisation.

intensity of magnetisation

volume.

Magnetic moment M

I=

=

V

Volume

If A = uniform area of cross-section of the magnetised

specimen (a rectangular bar)

2l = magnetic length of the specimen

m = strength of each pole of the specimen,

m 2l m

I=

=

A 2l A

The intensity of magnetisation is a vector quantity

and its SI unit is A m1. Its dimensional formula is

[M0L1T0A].

Magnetic susceptibility

of magnetisation per unit magnetising field i.e.,

I

m =

H

Since, it is the ratio of two quantities having same units

of A m1, hence, it has no unit.

SELF CHECK

5. A 25 cm long solenoid has radius 2 cm and 500

total number of turns. It carries a current of 15 A.

If it is equivalent to a magnet of the same size and

| M | is

(a) 3p Am1

(b) 30000 Am1

1

(c) 300 Am

(d) 30000p Am1

(JEE Main 2015)

6. A short bar magnet is placed in the magnetic

meridian of the earth with north pole pointing north.

Neutral points are found at a distance of 30 cm from

the magnet on the East - West line, drawn through

the middle point of the magnet. The magnetic

moment of the magnet in A m2 is close to

m

(Given 0 = 10 7 in SI units and BH = Horizontal

4p

component of earths magnetic field

= 3.6 105 Tesla.)

(a) 9.7

(b) 4.9

(c) 19.4

(d) 14.6

(JEE Main 2015)

According to behaviour of magnetic substances, they are classified into three classes, which are shown in given table.

Diamagnetic Substances

These substances when placed

in a magnetic field, acquire

feeble magnetism opposite to the

direction of the magnetic field.

These substances are repelled by a

magnet.

Paramagnetic Substances

These substances when placed in

a magnetic field, acquire feeble

magnetism in the direction of the

magnetic field.

These substances are feebly attracted

by a magnet.

Ferromagnetic Substances

These substances when placed

in a magnetic field are strongly

magnetised in the direction of the

field.

These substances are strongly

attracted by a magnet.

freely between two magnetic poles,

its axis becomes perpendicular to

the magnetic field.

freely between two magnetic poles, its

axis becomes parallel to the magnetic

field.

suspended freely between two

magnetic poles, its axis becomes

parallel to the magnetic field.

In non-uniform magnetic field, In non-uniform magnetic field, they In non-uniform magnetic field,

they move from stronger to weaker move from weaker to stronger part of they move from weaker to stronger

magnetic field.

the magnetic field slowly.

magnetic field rapidly.

Physics for you | december 15

39

than one.

than one.

Their susceptibility is small and Their susceptibility is small and Their susceptibility is large and

negative and it is independent of positive and it is inversely proportional positive. At Curie temperature,

temperature.

to absolute temperature.

ferromagnetic substances change

into paramagnetic substances.

In these substances, the magnetic In these substances, the magnetic In these substances, magnetic lines

lines of force are farther than in air. lines of force are closer than in air.

of force are much closer than in

air.

The resultant magnetic moment of These substances have a permanent These substances also have a

these substances is zero.

magnetic moment.

permanent magnetic moment.

curies Law

paramagnetic substances is inversely proportional to

absolute temperature, i.e.,

1

T

On increasing temperature, magnetic susceptibility of

paramagnetic substances decreases or vice-versa. Above

a particular temperature, a ferromagnetic substance

behaves like a paramagnetic substance. This particular

temperature is called the Curie temperature of the

substance.

curie-Wiess Law

susceptibility of ferromagnetic substances is inversely

proportional to (T TC), i.e.,

1

T TC

or

C

T TC

hysteresis

induction (B) or intensity of magnetisation (I) behind

40

through a cycle of magnetisation. From the hysteresis

loop of material, we can study about retentivity, coercivity

etc. of the material. The loss of energy per unit volume

of the specimen per cycle of magnetisation is equal to

area of the I-H loop or 1/4p time the area of B-H loop of

the specimen. The study of these characteristics enables

us to select suitable materials for different purposes.

On the basis of retentivity, coercivity and hysteresis loss,

ferromagnetic materials are divided into two types :

Soft magnetic materials : These have low

retentivity, low coercivity and small hysteresis loss.

These are used for making electromagnets, cores

of transformers, motors and generators. Soft iron,

mu-metal and stalloy are examples of these

materials.

Hard magnetic materials : These have high

retentivity, high coercivity and large hysteresis loss.

These are used in making permanent magnets of

various kinds of electric meters and loudspeakers.

Steel, alnico, alcomax and ticonal are examples of

ferromagnetic materials of these materials.

Permanent magnets

ferromagnetic property for a long period of time are

called permanent magnets.

SELF CHECK

7. The coercivity of a small magnet where the ferromagnet gets demagnetized is 3 103 A m1. The

current required to be passed in a solenoid of length

10 cm and number of turns 100, so that the magnet

gets demagnetized when inside the solenoid, is

(a) 6 A

(b) 30 mA

(c) 60 mA

(d) 3 A

(JEE Main 2014)

Magnetic flux

B

a uniform magnetic field B

A

is defined as,

f = B A = BAcos q

where q is the angle between

B and A.

Special cases :

f = BA (maximum value)

f = 0 (minimum value)

Magnetic flux linked with a plane coil of area A having

f = NBA cosq

Magnetic flux is a scalar quantity. It can be positive,

negative or zero.

The dimensional formula of magnetic flux is [ML2T2A1].

The SI unit of magnetic flux is weber.

The CGS unit of magnetic flux is maxwell.

1 weber = 108 maxwell

eLectroMagnetic induction

circuit) changes with time, an emf and a current are

induced in the circuit. This phenomenon was first observed

by Faraday and is called electromagnetic induction.

Faradays law of electromagnetic induction

First law : Whenever the amount of magnetic flux

linked with a circuit changes, an emf is induced in the

circuit. This induced emf persists as long as the change

in magnetic flux continues.

Second law : The magnitude of the induced emf is

equal to the time rate of change of magnetic flux.

Mathematically, induced emf is given by

df

e=

dt

where negative sign indicates the direction of e.

flux associated with each turn, is the same. Therefore,

the total induced emf is given by

df

e= N

dt

The induced emf can be increased by increasing the

number of turns N of a closed coil.

Here f is the flux linked with one turn of the coil. If the

circuit is closed, a current I = e/R is set up in it, where R

is the resistance of the circuit.

Lenzs law

This law gives us the direction of induced emf. According

to this law, the direction of induced emf in a circuit is such

that it opposes the change in magnetic flux responsible

for its production. Lenzs law is in accordance with the

principle of conservation of energy.

Flemings right hand rule

Flemings right hand rule also gives us the direction of

induced emf or current, in a conductor moving in a

magnetic field. According to this rule, if we stretch the

fore finger, central finger and thumb of our right hand

in mutually perpendicular directions such that fore

finger points along the direction of the field and thumb

is along the direction of motion of the conductor, then

the central finger would give us the direction of induced

current or emf. The direction of induced current or emf

given by Lenzs law and Flemings right hand rule is the same.

KEY POINT

Flemings right hand rule is applied when we are

the direction of the motion of the conductor

and we have to find the direction of the induced

current.

Flemings left hand rule is used when we are given

the direction of the magnetic field, and the direction

of flow of current and we have to find the direction

of force on the conductor.

Motional electromotive force

constant magnetic field.

some important formulae for induced emf

velocity v perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B,

the induced emf across its ends is

|e| = Blv

Physics for you | december 15

41

field, then induced emf is

|e| = Blv sinq

When a conducting rod of length l is rotated perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B, then induced emf

between the ends of the rod is

Bwl 2 B(2pu)l 2

|e|=

=

2

2

2

|e| = Bu (pl ) = BuA

where, w is angular frequency and u is frequency of

rod, A = pl2.

B

of radius r is rotating with a

uniform angular velocity w with

its plane perpendicular to a uniform

magnetic field B, the emf induced

between the centre and rim of disc is

Bwr 2

|e|=

= B uA

2

eddy currents

Eddy currents are basically the currents induced in the

body of a conductor due to change in magnetic flux

linked with the conductor.

The direction of eddy currents is given by Lenzs law, or

Flemings right hand rule.

self induction

changes, the magnetic flux linked with it, also changes.

As a result of this, an emf is induced in the coil or the

circuit which opposes the change that causes it. This

phenomenon is known as self induction and the emf

induced is known as self induced emf or back emf.

When a current I flows through a coil and f is the

magnetic flux linked with the coil, then

f I or f = LI

where L is coefficient of self induction or self inductance

of the coil. The self induced emf is

42

df

dI

=L

dt

dt

The SI unit of L is henry (H) and its dimensional formula

is [ML2T2A2].

Self inductance of a solenoid is L = m0n2lA

where l is length of the coil solenoid, n is number of

turns per unit length of a solenoid and A is area of cross

section of the solenoid.

Self inductance of a circular coil is

m N 2pR

L= 0

2

where R is the radius of a coil and N is the number of

turns.

e=

KEY POINT

Self induction is called so because the changing

circuit itself.

Just as resistance is a measure of the opposition

to the current, inductance is the measure of the

opposition to any change in current.

Mutual induction

changes, the magnetic flux linked with a neighbouring

coil or circuit will also change. Hence an emf will be

induced in the neighbouring coil or circuit. This

phenomenon is known as mutual induction. The coil

or circuit in which the current changes is known as

primary while the other in which emf is set up is known

as secondary.

Let IP be the current flowing through primary coil at any

instant. If fS is the flux linked with secondary coil then

fS IP or fS = MIP

where M is coefficient of mutual inductance of two

coils.

The emf induced in the secondary coil is given by

dI

eS = M P

dt

The SI unit of M is henry (H) and its dimensional

formula is [ML2T2A2].

Coefficient of coupling (K) : Coefficient of coupling

of two coils is a measure of the coupling between the

two coils and is given by

M

K=

L1L2

where L1 and L2 are coefficients of self inductance of

the two coils and M is coefficient of mutual inductance

of the two coils.

co-axial solenoids, each of length l, area of cross

section A, wound on air core is

mNN A

M= 0 1 2

l

where N1, N2 are total number of turns of the two

solenoids.

combination of inductances

far apart that their mutual inductance is zero. These are

connected in series. Then the equivalent inductance is

L = L1 + L2

Two inductors of self-inductance L1 and L2 are

connected in series and they have mutual inductance

M. Then the equivalent inductance of the combination is

L = L1 + L2 2M

The plus sign occurs if windings in the two coils are in

the same sense, while minus sign occurs if windings

are in opposite sense.

Two inductors of self-inductance L1 and L2 are

connected in parallel. The inductors are so far apart

that their mutual inductance is negligible. Then their

equivalent inductance is

LL

1 1

1

L = 1 2 or

= +

L1 + L2

L L1 L2

energy stored in an inductor

When a current I flows through an inductor, the energy

stored in it, is given by

1

U = LI 2

2

The energy stored in an inductor is in the form of

magnetic energy.

SELF CHECK

8. An inductor (L = 0.03 H) and a resistor (R = 0.15 kW)

are connected in series to a battery of 15 V EMF in a

circuit shown below. The key K1 has been kept closed

for a long time. Then at t = 0, K1 is opened and key

K2 is closed simultaneously. At t = 1 ms, the current

in the circuit will be (e5 @ 150)

0.03 H

0.15 k

K2

K1

15 V

(a) 6.7 mA

(c) 100 mA

(b) 0.67 mA

(d) 67 mA

9. When current in a coil changes from 5 A to 2 A in

0.1 s, an average voltage of 50 V is produced. The

self-inductance of the coil is

(a) 0.67 H

(b) 1.67 H

(c) 3 H

(d) 6 H

(JEE Main 2015)

I = I0 (1 eRt/L) = I0(1 et/t)

where I0 is the maximum value of current, t = L/R

= time constant of LR circuit.

During the decay, current in an LR circuit is

I = I0eRt/L = I0et/t

both switches are open initially.

Now switch S1 is closed, S2

kept open. (q is charge on the

capacitor and t = RC is capacitive

time constant). Which of the

following statement is correct?

t

(a) At t = , q = CV(1 e1)

2

(b) Work done by the battery is half of the energy

dissipated in the resistor

(c) At t = t, q = CV/2

(d) At t = 2t, q = CV(1 e2)

(JEE Main 2013)

resistor

aLternating current

q = q0(1 et/RC) = q0(1 et/t)

where q0 is the maximum value of charge.

t = RC is the time constant of CR circuit.

During discharging of capacitor through resistor

q = q0et/RC = q0et/t

and periodically in direction is called alternating

current. It is represented by I = I0sinwt or I = I0coswt

where I is the instantaneous value of alternating

current and I0 is peak value of current and is known as

amplitude of ac.

Physics for you | december 15

43

2p

= 2pu

T

where T is time period and u is frequency of alternating

current.

Mean or average value of alternating current or

voltage over one complete cycle

The mean or average value of alternating current or

voltage over one complete cycle is zero.

w=

I m or I or I av =

I 0 sin wt dt

0

dt

=0

V0 sin wt dt

Vm or V or Vav =

dt

=0

T /2

I av =

I 0 sin wt dt

T /2

dt

2I 0

= 0.637I 0

p

first half cycle is

T /2

Vav =

V0 sin wtdt

T /2

dt

2V

= 0 = 0.637V0

p

T

I av =

I 0 sin wtdt

T /2

dt

2I 0

= 0.637 I 0

p

T /2

second half cycle is

T

Vav =

V0 sin wtdt

T /2

dt

2V0

= 0.637 V0

p

T /2

equal but opposite in sign i.e. they are alternately

positive and negative so that the average over one

cycle is zero.

44

over any half cycle

It is that value of steady current, which would send the

same amount of charge through a circuit in the time

of half cycle i.e. T/2 as is sent by ac through the same

circuit in the same time.

2V

I av = 0 = 0.637I 0

p

Similarly, for alternating voltage

2V

Vav = 0 = 0.637 I 0

p

Root mean square (rms) value of alternating current

It is defined as that value of steady current, which would

generate the same amount of heat in a given resistance

in a given time, as is done by the alternating current,

when passed through the same resistance for the same

time. The rms value of ac is also known as effective value

or virtual value of ac. It is represented by Irms, Ieff or Iv.

I

I rms or I v = 0 = 0.707I 0

2

Similarly, for alternating voltage

V

Vrms = 0 = 0.707 V0

2

All ac instruments measure rms value of ac.

form factor

alternating current or voltage.

I rms I 0 / 2

p

=

=

= 1.11

I av 2I 0 / p 2 2

AC circuit containing pure resistance only

Let V = V0 sinwt

V V

Then, I = = 0 sin wt = I 0 sin wt

R R

Here the alternating voltage is in phase with current,

when ac flows through a resistor.

AC circuit containing pure inductor only

Let V = V0 sinwt

p

Then, I = I 0 sin wt

2

V0

where I 0 =

wL

Thus, the alternating current lags behind the

p

alternating voltage by a phase angle of

when ac

2

flows through an inductor.

Inductive reactance : It is the opposition offered by the

inductor to the flow of alternating current through it.

XL = wL = 2puL

Form factor =

finite value for ac.

AC circuit containing pure capacitor only

Let V = V0 sinwt

p

I = I 0 sin wt +

2

where I0 = (wC)V0.

Thus, the alternating current leads the voltage by a

p

phase angle of , when ac flows through a capacitor.

2

Capacitive reactance : It is the opposition offered by

the capacitor to the flow of alternating current through it.

1

1

XC =

=

wC 2puC

The capacitive reactance is infinite for dc (u = 0) and

has a finite value for ac.

series Lcr circuit

Let V = V0 sinwt

Then, I = I0 sin (wt f)

V

where I 0 = 0

Z

Here Z is the impedance of the series LCR circuit.

2

Z = R 2 + ( X L X C ) 2 = R 2 + wL

wC

The alternating current lags behind the voltage by a

phase angle f.

X XC

tan f = L

R

When XL > XC, tan f is positive. Therefore, f is positive.

Hence current lags behind the voltage by a phase angle

f. The ac circuit is inductance dominated circuit.

When XL < XC, tan f is negative. Therefore, f is

negative. Hence current leads the voltage by a phase

angle f. The ac circuit is capacitance dominated circuit.

Impedance triangle

It is a right angled triangle, whose base represents

ohmic resistance (R), perpendicular represents reactance

(XL XC) and hypotenuse represents impedance (Z) of

the series LCR circuit as shown in figure.

susceptance

known as susceptance. It is represented by S.

1

\ Susceptance =

Reactance

The unit of susceptance is (ohm)1 or siemen.

1

Inductive susceptance =

Inductive reactance

1

1

or SL =

=

X L wL

1

Capacitive susceptance =

Capacitive reactance

1

1

or SC =

=

= wC

X C 1/ wC

resonant series Lcr circuit

When the frequency of ac supply is such that the

inductive reactance and capacitive reactance become

equal (XL = XC), the impedance of the series LCR

circuit is equal to the ohmic resistance in the circuit.

As such, the current in the circuit becomes maximum.

Such a series LCR circuit is known as resonant series

LCR circuit and the frequency of the ac supply is

known as resonant frequency (ur). The resonant

frequency is

1

1

ur =

or w r =

2p LC

LC

The series resonance circuit is known as acceptor

circuit. It is used in radio and TV receivers sets for

tuning a particular radio station/TV channel.

Resonance phenomenon is exhibited by a circuit only

if both L and C are present in the circuit. Then only

voltages across L and C cancel each other. We cannot

have resonance in a RL or RC circuit.

SELF CHECK

Z

(XL XC)

Admittance

The reciprocal of the impedance of an ac circuit is

known as admittance. It is represented by Y.

1

1

\ Admittance =

or Y =

Impedance

Z

The unit of admittance is (ohm)1 or siemen.

Impedance of circuit

Z = R 2 + ( X L X C )2

observed to lead the applied voltage. An additional

capacitor C, when joined with the capacitor C

present in the circuit, makes the power factor of

the circuit unity. The capacitor C, must have been

connected in

Physics for you | december 15

45

Power in an ac circuit

2

(a) series with C and has a magnitude 1 LC

2L

C

( LC 1)

C

(c) parallel with C and has a magnitude

2

( LC 1)

1 LC

2L

(JEE Main 2015)

R

L

to a damped pendulum. In

an LCR circuit the capacitor

is charged to Q0 and then

C

connected to the L and R as

shown here.

If a student plots graphs of the square of maximum

charge (Q2Max) on capacitor with time (t) for two

different values L1 and L2 (L1 > L2) of L then which

of the following represents this graph correctly ?

(plots are schematic and not drawn to scale)

Q2

(a)

Max

L2

Q2

(c)

Max

L2

Q2

L1

Max

(b)

t

Q0 (For both

L1 and L2)

Q2

L1

(d)

t

Max

L2

L1

Quality factor

It is a measure of sharpness of resonance. It is defined

as the ratio of reactance of either the inductance or

capacitance at the resonant angular frequency to the

total resistance of the circuit.

X

L

X

1

Q = L = r ,Q = C =

R

R

R rCR

1 L

\ Q=

R C

Quality factor is also expressed in terms of bandwidth

Resonant frequency

Q=

Bandwidth

48

Instantaneous power : The power in the ac circuit at

any instant of time is known as instantaneous power. It is

equal to the product of values of alternating voltage and

alternating current at that time.

Average power : The power averaged over one full

cycle of ac is known as average power. It is also known

as true power.

VI

Pav = Vrms I rms cos f = 0 0 cos f

2

Apparent power : The product of virtual voltage

(Vrms) and virtual current (Irms) in the circuit is known

as virtual power.

VI

Pv = Vrms I rms = 0 0

2

Power factor

It is defined as the ratio of true power to apparent

power of an ac circuit.

cos f =

True power

Apparent power

resistance to the impedance of an ac circuit.

R

cos f =

Z

It is unitless and dimensionless quantity.

In pure resistive circuit,

f = 0; cos f = 1.

In pure inductive or capacitive circuit

f = ; cos f = 0.

2

R

In RL circuit, Z = R 2 + X L2 and cos f =

Z

2

2

In RC circuit, Z = R + X C and cos f =

Z = R 2 + (X L X C )2 and cos f =

R

Z

R

Z

At resonance, XL = XC

\ Z = R and f = 0

cos f = 1

Wattless current

with a pure inductor or pure capacitor is zero, even

though a current is flowing through them. This current

is known as the wattless current or idle current.

Lc-oscillations

inductor, LC-oscillations are produced. The frequency

of the oscillations is given by

1

=

2 LC

Ac generator/dynamo

energy from mechanical energy of rotation of a coil.

It is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic

induction. The form of emf induced is e = e0sinwt,

where e0 = NABw, max. emf induced. Here, N is total

number of turns in the coil, A is face area of the coil,

B is strength of magnetic field applied and w is angular

velocity of the armature coil.

Transformer

voltage to a high alternating voltage and vice versa. It is

based on phenomenon of mutual induction.

VS I P N S

=

=

=K

VP IS N P

For a step-up transformer, K > 1 i.e. VS > VP, IS < IP and

NS > NP.

For a step-down transformer K < 1 i.e. VS < VP, IS > IP

and NS < NP.

Efficiency of a transformer,

=

Output power VS I S

=

Input power VP I P

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (b)

6. (a)

11. (d)

7. (d)

12. (c)

8. (b)

9. (b)

10. (d)

nn

Science Behind

LOUDSPEAKER

peakers come in all shapes and sizes, enabling you to listen to music, film or hear a

friends voice over the phone. Most loudspeakers operate on the principle that a

magnetic field exerts a force on a current carrying wire. Figure shows a speaker design

that consists of three basic parts, a cone, a voice coil, and a permanent magnet. The cone is

mounted in such a way that it can vibrate back and forth. When vibrating, it pushes and pulls

on the air in front of it, thereby creating sound waves. Attached to the apex of the cone is

the voice coil, which is a hollow cylinder around which coils of wire are wound. The voice coil

is slipped over one of the poles of the stationary permanent magnet (the north pole in the

drawing) and can move freely.

In order to translate an electrical signal into an audible sound, speakers contain an

electromagnet : a metal coil which creates a magnetic field when an electric current flows

through it. This coil behaves much like a permanent magnet, which on reversing the direction

of the current in the coil flips the poles of the magnet.

Inside the speaker, an electromagnet is placed in front of a permanent magnet. The permanent

magnet is fixed firmly into position whereas the electromagnet is mobile. As pulses of electricity

pass through the coil of the electromagnet, the direction of its magnetic field is rapidly

changed. This means that it is in turn attracted to and repelled from the permanent magnet, vibrating back and forth. The electromagnet

is attached to a cone made of a flexible material such as paper or plastic which amplifies these vibrations, pumping sound waves into the

surrounding air and towards your ears.

The frequency of the vibrations governs the pitch of the sound produced, and their amplitude affects the volume. To reproduce all the

different frequencies of sound in a piece of music faithfully, top quality speakers typically use different sized cones dedicated to high,

medium and low frequencies. A microphone uses the same mechanism as a speaker in reverse to convert sound into an electrical signal.

Physics for you | december 15

49

the shape shown in figure

and carries a current I. If

O is the common centre of

all the three circular arcs

of radii r, 2r and 3r, the

magnetic field at the point

O, is

50 I , normally inward

q

(a)

24 pr

(b)

q

24 pr

(c)

50 I , normally outward

q

24 pr

(d)

q

24 pr

Its current sensitivity is 10 divisions mA1 and

voltage sensitivity is 2 divisions mV1. In order that

each division reads 1 V, the resistance needed to be

connected in series with the coil will be

(a) 103 W

(b) 105 W

(c) 99995 W

(d) 9995 W

3. A bar magnet 30 cm long is placed in the magnetic

meridian with its north pole pointing geographical

south. The neutral point is found at a distance of

30 cm from its centre. Find the pole strength of the

magnet. (Take BH = 0.34 G)

(a) 0.34 A m

(b) 3.06 A m

(c) 4.93 A m

(d) 8.61 A m

4. A charge q moves along axis of a current carrying

(a) v = v and | v | | v |

(b) v v and | v | | v |

(c) v v and | v | = | v |

(d) v = v and | v | = | v |

50

and that of O2+ = 16 amu) beam passes a region of

constant perpendicular magnetic fields. If kinetic

energy of all the ions is same, then

(a) He+ ions will be deflected more than O2+ ions

(b) He+ ions will be deflected less than O2+ ions

(c) all the ions will be deflected equally

(d) no ions will be deflected.

6. The flux linked with a coil is given by fB = 4t2 2t + 5.

The ratio of the average emf between 0 to 3 second

and instantaneous emf at 3 second is

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 5 : 11

(c) 11 : 5

(d) 11 : 6

7. A rectangular loop has

a sliding connector

PQ of length l and

resistance R W and

it is moving with a

speed v as shown in

figure. The set-up is

placed in uniform magnetic field going into the

plane of the paper. The three currents I1, I2 and I are

Blv

Blv

,I =

6R

3R

(b) I1 = I2 = Blv , I = 2 Blv

R

3R

Blv

Blv

2

(c) I1 = I2 =

,I =

3R

3R

Blv

(d) I1 = I2 = I =

R

8. A square metal wire loop of side 10 cm and resistance

1 W is moved with a constant velocity v0 in a uniform

magnetic field of induction B = 2 Wb m2 as shown

in figure. The magnetic lines are perpendicular

to the plane of the loop (directed into the paper).

The loop is connected to a network of resistors,

each of value 3 W. The resistance of the loop wires

OS and PQ are negligible. What should be the speed

of the loop so as to have a steady current of 1 mA

in the loop?

(a) I1 = I2 =

(a) 1 cm s1

(c) 3 cm s1

(b) 2 cm s1

(d) 4 cm s1

2

2

(a) T

(b) T

2

2

2

T

(c)

(d) none of these

5

10. In an LCR circuit as shown

in figure, both switches are

open initially. Now, switch

S1 is closed, S2 is kept open.

If q is charge on capacitor

and t = RC is capacitative

time constant, then which

of the following statements

is correct?

(a) Work done by the battery is half of the energy

dissipated in the resistor.

(b) At t = t, q = CV/2.

(c) At t = 2t, q = CV(1 e2).

t

(d) at t = , q = CV (1 e 1 ) .

2

11. In the circuit shown in figure, the cell is ideal. The

coil has an inductance of 4 H and zero resistance.

F is fuse of zero resistance and will blow when the

current through it reaches 5 A. The switch is closed

at t = 0. The fuse will blow

(b) after 2 s

(c) after 5 s

(d) after 10 s

12. A current I0 is flowing through an L-R circuit of

time constant t. The source of current is switched

off at time t = 0. Let r be the value of (dI/dt) at

time t = 0. Assuming this ratio to be constant, the

current will reduce to zero in a time interval of

t

(a)

(b) t

e

(c) et

(d) 1 1 t

e

R is kept on a horizontal plane. A vertical time

varying magnetic field B = 2 t is switched on at time

t = 0. Then which of the following statements is correct?

(a) Power generated in the coil at any time t is

constant.

(b) Flow of charge per unit time from any section

of the coil is constant.

(c) Total charge passed through any section between

2

time t = 0 to t = 2 s is 4 pa .

R

(d) All of these.

14. Two different coils have self-inductances, L1 = 8 mH

and L2 = 2 mH. The current in one coil is increased

at a constant rate. The current in the second coil

is also increased at the same constant rate. At a

certain instant of time, the power given to the

two coils is the same. At this time, the current, the

induced voltage and the energy stored in the first

coil are I1, V1 and U1 respectively. Corresponding

values for the second coil at the same instant are

I2, V2 and U2 respectively. Then which of the

following is incorrect?

U

V

1

(a) 2 = 4

(b) 2 =

U1

V1 4

I

1

(c) 1 =

(d) None of these

I2 4

15. A compass needle placed at a distance r from a

short magnet in Tan A position shows a deflection

of 60. If the distance is increased to r(3)1/3, then

deflection of compass needle is

(a) 30

(b) (60 31/3)

(c) (60 32/3)

(d) (60 22/3)

16. At a certain location in Africa, a compass points

12 west of the geographic north. The north tip of

the magnetic needle of a dip circle placed in the

plane of magnetic meridian points 60 above the

horizontal. The horizontal component of the earths

field is measured to be 0.16 G. The direction and

magnitude of the earths field at the location, is

(a) 32 west of geographical meridian and

3.2 104 T

(b) 12 west of geographical meridian and

0.32 104 T

(c) 12 east of geographical meridian and

0.32 104 T

(d) 32 east of geographical meridian and

3.2 104 T

Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

51

temperature for a diamagnetic substance is best

represented by figure.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

radius are connected in series. A current flowing in

them produces deflections of 60 and 45 respectively.

The ratio of the number of turns in the coils is

(a) 4 : 3

(b) ( 3 + 1): 1

(c) ( 3 + 1) : ( 3 1) (d) 3 : 1

19. A closed loop PQRS

carryingacurrentis placed

in a uniform magnetic

field. If the magnetic

force on segments PS, SR

and RQ are F1, F2 and F3

respectively and are in

the plane of the paper

and along the direction

shown, the force on the

segment QP is

(a)

(F3 F1 )2 F22

(c) F3 F1 + F2

function of radial distance r and time t according

to the relation B = B0rt. The induced electric field

strength at a radial distance R/2 from the centre is

(F3 F1 )2 + F22

a point having coordinates (x, y) in the z = 0 plane, is

I ( yi x j)

0 I (xi y j)

(a) 0

(b)

2 p (x 2 + y 2 )

2 p (x 2 + y 2 )

0 I ( y j xi)

I (x j + yi)

(c) 0

(d)

2 p (x 2 + y 2 )

2 p (x 2 + y 2 )

21. A straight rod of mass m

and length L is suspended

from the identical springs as

shown in figure. The spring

is stretched a distance x0

due to the weight of the wire.

52

B R2

2 B0 R2

B R2

B0 R2

(b) 0

(c)

(d) 0

3

6

8

12

24. In the shown ac circuit, phase difference between

currents I1 and I2 is

X

p

tan 1 L

(a)

R

2

(a)

(b) F3 + F1 F2

(d)

field perpendicular to the plane of paper is switched

on, springs are observed to extend further by the

same distance. The magnetic field strength is

mgR

2mgR

mgR

mgR

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

LE

LE

2LE

E

22. An electron moves uniformly

on a straight line path YY as

shown in figure. A coil is kept

on the right such that YY is

in the plane of the coil. At the

instant when the electron gets

closest to the coil (neglect selfinduction of the coil)

(a) the current in the coil flows clockwise

(b) the current in the coil flows anticlockwise

(c) the current in the coil is zero

(d) the current in the coil does not change the

direction as the electron crosses point O.

23. In the diagram shown, a time varying

non uniform magnetic field passes

through a circular region of radius R.

1 X L + XC

(b) tan

X

(c) p + tan 1 L

R

2

X XC p

(d) tan 1 L

+ 2

R

25. Figure shows four different sets of wires that

cross each other without actually touching. The

magnitude of the current is the same in all four

cases and the directions of current flow are

as indicated. For which configuration will the

magnetic field at the center of the square formed

by the wires be equal to zero?

(a)

(a) 104 T

(c) 2 104 T

(b)

(c)

(d)

body. The body is cut into two

parts about the diameter. One of

hemispherical portion has mass

distribution m while the other

portion has identical charge

distribution q. The body is rotated

about the axis with constant speed

w. Then, the ratio of magnetic moment to angular

momentum is

q

q

(a)

(b) >

2m

2m

q

(c) <

(d) cannot be calculated

2m

27. The network shown in figure is part of a complete

circuit. If at a certain instant, the current I from

A to B is 5 A, and is decreasing at a rate 103 A s1,

then (VB VA) is

(a) 20 V

(b) 15 V

(c) 10 V

(d) None of these

(d) 5 V

itself so that core has two sets of closely wound coils

carrying currents in opposite directions, as shown

in figure. The self-inductance is

(a) zero

(b) 2L

(c) 2L + M

(d) 2L + 2M

29. Some equipotential surfaces of the magnetic scalar

potential are shown in figure. Magnetic field at a

point in the region is

P.

Q.

R.

S.

Column I

Magnetic moment

Permeability

Magnetic intensity

Magnetic induction

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

P - 1, Q - 4, R - 3, S - 2

P - 2, Q - 4, R - 3, S - 1

P - 2, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 1

P - 1, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 2

1.

2.

3.

4.

Column II

[ML0T2A1]

[M0L2T0A]

[MLT2A2]

[M0L1T0A]

SolutionS

1. (a) : Magnetic field at O due to the straight parts

of the wire will be zero. Magnetic fields at O due

to the three circular arcs of radii r, 2r and 3r are

I q

B1 = 0 . , acting normally inward

4p r

I q

B2 = 0 . , acting normally outward

4 p 2r

0 I q

B3 =

. , acting normally inward.

4 p 3r

Thus the total magnetic field at the centre O is

I q q q

B = B1 B2 + B3 = 0 +

4 p r 2r 3r

5 I

= 0 q, acting normally inward.

24 p

2. (d) : Resistance of the galvanometer,

Current sensitivity 10

G=

Voltage sensitivity = 2 = 5 W

Number of divisions on the galvanometer scale,

n = 150

Current required for full scale deflection,

n

150

Ig =

=

Current sensitivity 10

= 15 mA = 15 103A

Required range of voltmeter = 150 1 = 150 V

Required series resistance,

V

150

R = G =

5 = 9995 W

Ig

15 103

3. (d) : Here the neutral point lie on the axial line.

\ Baxial = BH or 0 2mr = BH

4 p (r 2 l 2 )2

Physics for you | dECEMBER 15

53

2

2 2

4 p BH (r l )

2r

0

1 0.34 104 (0.302 0.152 )2

= 7

= 2.582 A m2

2 0.30

10

m 2.582

= 8.61 A m

Pole strength, qm = =

2l 0.30

4. (d) : Since v is parallel to B, Fm = q(v B) = 0 and

hence v remains unchanged, i.e., v = v and as such

| v | = | v |.

or m =

5. (c) : R =

2 mK

qB

For same value of K and B,

m1 / m2

R1

4 / 16

=

=

= 1 or R1 = R2

1/ 2

R2

q1 / q2

are in parallel, equivalent resistance of the network

6W

=

= 3W

2

Since the loop (of resistance 1 W) and the network

(of resistance 3 W) are in series,

effective resistance in the circuit,

R=3W+1W=4W

Induced emf in the loop, e = Blv0

Blv0

Current in the loop, I = e =

R

R

IR

Thus, v0 =

Bl

As, I = 1 mA = 103 A, l = 0.1 m, B = 2 Wb m2

\ v0 =

(103 A)(4 W)

(2 Wb m )(0.1 m)

deflected.

6. (b) : As fB (at t = 0) = 5, f B (at t = 3 s) = 35,

df

35 5

= 10 , | einst. | = B = 8t 2

| eaverage | =

30

dt

einst.(at t = 3 s) = 8 3 2 = 22

eaverage 10 5

= =

\

22 11

einst.

7. (c) : A conductor of length l

moving with velocity v in

a uniform magnetic field

B is equivalent to a cell of

emf e, where e = Blv. The

equivalent circuit is shown

in the figure.

Applying Kirchhoff s loop rule, we get

I1R IR + Blv = 0

... (i)

and I2R IR + Blv = 0

...(ii)

Clearly, I1R + IR = I2R + IR, hence, I1 = I2

Adding eqn. (i) and (ii),

2Blv = I1R + I2R + 2IR = R(I1 + I2) + 2IR = 3IR

2 Blv

hence, I =

( I = I1 + I2 )

3R

As I1 = I2 and I = I1 + I2

Blv

\ I1 = I2 =

3R

8. (b) : The network AQCSA is a balanced wheatstone

bridge, so resistance AC is ineffective.

Resistance in the arm QCS = 3 W+ 3 W = 6 W

Resistance in the arm QAS = 3 W + 3 W = 6 W

54

1/2

9. (c) : Ir.m.s.

T

I 2dt

=

= 2 102 m s 1

= 2 cm s1

1/2

T

(t 2 )2 dt

=

T

1/2

5

= T

5T

T2

5

S2 is kept open, the condenser gets charged through

resistance. At any time t, the charge acquired by the

condenser is

q = q0(1 et/RC), where q0 = CV

At t = 2t, q = q0(1 e2t/t) = CV (1 e2)

dI

e

2

dt

\ dI = dt = dt =

dt

L

4

2

As fuse will blow, when I = 5 A,

dt

\

= dI = 5 or dt = 10 s

2

12. (b) : In LR circuit, decaying current at any time t is

given by I = I0 et/t,

where t0 is time constant.

dI

1

= I0e t /t

dt

t

dI I

or = 0 e t / t

dt t

11. (d) : As | e | = L

At t = 0,

I

dI I0 0

= e , i.e, r = 0 1

dt t

t

zero in time t.

dB

=2

dt

df

dB

Induced e.m.f.,| e | =

=A

dt

dt

2

2

or e = (pa )2 = 2pa

Flow of charge per unit time through any section of

the coil = induced current,

e 2 pa2

I= =

= constant.

R

R

Also, power generated P = I2R = constant.

Total charge passed through any section between

t = 0 to t = 2 second is

2 pa2

4 pa2

q = It =

(2 0) =

R

R

dI

As induced voltage, V = L and

dt

dI

is constant for the two coils,

dt

V

L

2 1

\ V L or 2 = 2 = =

V1 L1 8 4

As power = V I = constant

1

\ I

V

I1 V2 1

=

=

I2 V1 4

As U = 1 LI 2

2

2

U2 L2 I2 2 4 2 4

\

=

= =

U1 L1 I1 8 1

1

15. (a) :

tan q2 d13

r3

1

= 3=

=

1

3

3

/

tan q1 d2 [r (3) ] 3

tan 60

1

3

1

tan q2 = tan q1 =

=

=

\ q2 = 30

3

3

3

3

16. (b) : Given, angle of declination

q = 12 west

Angle of dip, d = 60

Horizontal component of earths

magnetic field, H = 0.16 G

Let the magnitude of earths

magnetic field at that place is B.

Using the formula, H = B cos d

H

0.16

0.16 2

or B =

=

=

cos d cos 60

1

= 0.32 G = 0.32 104 T

The earths magnetic field lies in a vertical 12 west

of geographical meridian at an angle 60 above the

horizontal.

susceptibility is negative and independent of temperature. Therefore, choice (d) is correct in figure.

18. (d) : In series, same current flows through the two

tangent galvanometers.

2rH

2rH

tan q1 =

tan q2

i.e., I =

0n1

0n2

n1 tan q1 tan 60

\

=

=

= 3

n2 tan q2 tan 45

19. (d) : T h e f o r c e s o n t h e

various arms are shown in

the figure. Resolving F4 into

two components, F4 cosq and

F4 sinq acting vertically and

horizontally respectively. In

equilibrium position

F4cosq = F2

F4sinq = (F3 F1) \ F4 = (F3 F1 )2 + F22

0 I

20. (a) : Magnetic field | B | =

2p x 2 + y 2

Unit vector perpendicular to the position vector is

( yi x j)

0 I

( yi x j)

\ B=

2

2

x +y

2 p(x 2 + y 2 )

21. (b) : In the absence of magnetic field

mg = 2kx0

...(i)

BLE

in

Magnetic force on the rod is Fm = BIL =

R

downward direction.

BLE

...(ii)

\ 4kx0 = mg +

R

From eqns. (i) and (ii), we get,

2kx0 R mgR

BLE

4kx0 = 2kx0 +

, B=

=

R

EL

LE

55

the current is constant and hence the magnetic flux

through the coil is constant. Therefore the current

in the coil is zero.

23. (a) : Flux for loop of radius R/2 at time t

f=

R /2

R /2

r3

B2 prdr = B0t 2 p

3 0

df

1 R3

= B0 2 p (t ), As E d l =

3 8

dt

\

E(2 pR / 2) =

E=

24. (c)

moving from A to B

VA VB = [5 1 15 + 5 103 (103)] = 15 V

\ VB VA = 15 V

28. (a) : As currents through the two coils flow in opposite

directions,

\ Leff = L1 + L2 2 M

But M = L1L2 = LL = L

\ Leff = L + L 2 L = zero

29. (c) : As is clear from figure

df

R3

= B0 2 p

dt

24

B0 R2

12

field due to anticlockwise current.

26. (a) : The ratio M/L is always

q

.

2m

DV = (0.2 0.1)104 T m

1

Dx = xsin30=0.1

2

V

D

0

.

1

104

\ B=

=

= 2 104 T

Dx

0. 1 / 2

30. (c)

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Series

44

Series

CHAPTERWISE UNIT TEST : THERMODYNAMICS | KINETIC THEORY | OSCILLATIONS | WAVES

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

In terms of kinetic theory of gases, explain why the

pressure of a gas in a container increases when a gas

is heated?

Two simple pendulums of unequal length meet

each other at mean position while oscillating. What

is their phase difference?

What is the evidence that (i) sound is a wave, (ii)

sound is a mechanical wave and (iii) sound waves

are longitudinal waves?

How a refrigerator can be used as a heat pump to

heat a house in winter?

At what temperature is average speed of oxygen gas

molecule equal to rms velocity of the same gas at

27C ?

A cylindrical piece of cork of base area A and height

h floats in a liquid of density r. The cork is depressed

slightly and released. Show that the cork oscillates

up and down simple harmonically with a period

T = 2p h r / rg , where r is the density of cork.

(Ignore damping due to viscosity etc.)

A train moves towards a stationary observer with

speed 34 m s1. The train sounds a whistle and its

frequency registered by the observer is f1. If the

registered is f2. If the speed of sound is 340 m s1,

then find the ratio f1/f2.

9. Discuss whether the following phenomena are

reversible:

(i) Water fall

(ii) Rusting of iron

(iii) Electrolysis.

OR

Two perfect gases at absolute temperatures T1

and T2 are mixed. There is no loss of energy.

Find the temperature of the mixture if the

masses of the molecules are m1 and m2 and the

number of the molecules in the gases are n1 and

n2 respectively.

10. At what distance from the mean position in SHM,

the energy is half kinetic and half potential ?

11. A particle is moving in a straight line with SHM of

amplitude r. At a distance s from the mean position

of motion, the particle receives a blow in the

direction of motion which instantaneously doubles

the velocity. Find the new amplitude.

12. Determine the P-V relation for a monoatomic gas

57

14.

15.

16.

17.

container is suddenly stopped, find the change in

temperature.

A simple pendulum has a time period T. The

pendulum is completely immersed in a non-viscous

liquid of density s while the density of the material

of the bob of the pendulum is r. What is the time

period of the pendulum immersed in the liquid?

A tuning fork and an air column at 51C produce

4 beats in one second when sounded together. The

same tuning fork produces 1 beat per second when

the temperature of the air column is reduced to

16C. Determine the frequency of the tuning fork.

During the Indo-Pakistan war, a soldier observed

that his lead bullet just melted when stopped by

an obstacle. Assuming that no heat is lost, find the

velocity of the bullet if its temperature was 47.6C.

Given that the melting point of lead = 327C;

specific heat of lead = 127.7 J kg1 K1; latent heat of

fusion of lead = 0.25 105 J kg1.

OR

A vessel is filled with a mixture of two different

gases. However, the number of molecules per unit

volume of the two gases in the mixture are the

same. (i) Will the mean kinetic energy per molecule

of both the gases be equal ? (ii) Will the root

mean square velocities of the molecules be equal?

(iii) Will the pressure be equal ? Give reasons.

A trolley of mass 3.0 kg is connected to two identical

springs, each of force constant 600 N m1, as shown

in the figure. If the trolley is displaced from its

equilibrium position by 5.0 cm and released, what is

600 N m1 3.0 kg

600 N m1

maximum speed of the trolley (c) How much is

the total energy dissipated as heat by the time the

trolley comes to rest due to damping forces?

18. Read the passage and answer the following

questions.

Organ pipes are musical instruments which are

used for producing musical sound by blowing air

into the pipe. Organ pipes are of two types: closed

58

other, open organ pipes are open at both ends.

The study shows that the overall musical sound

produced by an open organ pipe is richer than the

musical sound produced by a closed organ pipe.

(i) Why the overall musical sound produced by

an open organ pipe is richer than the musical

sound produced by a closed organ pipe?

(ii) What does this study imply in day to day life?

19. A sample of 2 kg of monoatomic helium (assumed

ideal) is taken through the process ABC and another

sample of 2 kg of the same gas is taken through the

process ADC (figure). Given molecular mass of

Helium = 4, R = 8.3 J mol1 K1.

(i) What is the temperature of Helium in each of

the states A, B, C and D?

(ii) How much is the heat involved in each of the

processes ABC and ADC?

10

P(104 N m2)

B

A

10

V(m3)

C

D

20

OR

at both ends, is 100 cm long. It lies horizontally, the

middle 10 cm containing mercury and the two

equal ends containing air at standard atmospheric

pressure. If the tube is now turned to a vertical

position, by what amount will the mercury be

displaced?

20. A solid cylinder of mass M is attached to a horizontal

along a horizontal surface as shown in figure.

The spring constant k is 3 N m1. If the system is

released from rest at a point in which the spring

is stretched by 0.25 m, find (a) the translational

kinetic energy and (b) the rotational kinetic energy

of the cylinder as it passes the equilibrium position.

(c) Show that under these conditions, the centre of

mass of cylinder executes SHM with time period,

T = 2p (3M / 2k ) .

According to problem

r

OR

y(x, t) = 7.5 sin (0.0050 x + 12 t + p/4)

(a) What are the displacement and velocity of

oscillation of a point at x = 1 cm, and t = 1 s ?

Is this velocity equal to the velocity of wave

propagation?

(b) Locate the points of the string which have the

same transverse displacement and velocity as

the x = 1 cm point at t = 2 s, 5 s and 11 s.

solutions

1. When solids and liquids are heated, there is only

2.

3.

4.

5.

possess only one specific heat, i.e., specific heat at

constant volume. But in case of gases, pressure and

volume both change and as such these possess two

principal specific heats; one at constant pressure

and one at constant volume.

When a gas is heated, its temperature increases. The

increase in temperature increases the pressure of

the gas due to following reasons:

(i) With the increase in temperature of the gas, the

velocity of gas molecules increases. Therefore,

the number of collisions per second against the

walls of the container increases and so does the

gas pressure.

(ii) Due to increased velocity, the transfer of

momentum per second to the walls increases

and so does the pressure.

If both pendulums are moving in the same direction,

then f = 0 and if they are moving in opposite

directions, then f = 180 or p radian.

(i) Sound waves show the phenomenon of diffraction.

(ii) Sound waves require material medium for

propagation.

(iii) Sound waves cannot be polarised.

When the outside environment is colder than

the inside of a room, we leave a refrigerator open

with its radiator (backside) facing the room. The

refrigerator pumps in heat from the environment

to the room. This heats up the room.

6. ... vrms =

3RT1 and v =

av

M

8RT2

pM

8RT2

3R 300

=

pM

M

8T2

or

= 900

p

or T2 = 353.2 K

7. When the cylindrical cork is in equilibrium,

weight of the cork = weight of the liquid displaced, i.e.,

(Ah)rg = (Al) rg

hr

or

l=

r

T = 2p

Thus,

l

hr

= 2p

g

r g

f=

...

f1 =

v

f

v vs

340

340 34

340

f

340 17

f1 340 17 19

=

=

Hence,

f2 340 34 18

and f2 =

energy is converted into kinetic energy of the

water. However, on striking the ground, a part

of it is converted into heat and sound. It is not

possible to convert the heat and the sound

produced alongwith the kinetic energy of water

into potential energy, so that the water may rise

back to its initial height. Therefore, water fall is

not a reversible process.

(ii) Rusting of iron: During rusting, iron gets

oxidised by the oxygen of the air. Since it is a

chemical change, it is not a reversible process.

(iii) Electrolysis: It is a reversible process, provided

the electrolyte does not offer any resistance to

the flow of current. If we reverse the direction

of current, the direction of motion of ions is

also reversed.

OR

According to kinetic theory, the average K.E. per

3

molecule of a gas = kBT

2

Physics for you | December 15

59

the molecules of two gases

3

3

= kBn1T1 + kBn2T2

2

2

After mixing, the average K.E. of both the gases

3

= kB (n1 + n2 )T

2

where T is the temperature of mixture. Since there

is no loss of energy, therefore,

3

3

3

kB (n1 + n2 )T = kBn1T1 + kBn2T2

2

2

2

n

T

+

n

T

or T = 1 1 2 2

(n1 + n2 )

1

2 2

10. Ek = mw (a x2), (Here a is amplitude of motion)

2

1

Ep = m w2 x 2

2

As, Ek = Ep

1

1

m w2 (a2 x 2 ) = m w2 x 2

2

2

a

2

2

or 2x = a or x =

2

\

11. Velocity, v = w r 2 y 2

...(i)

Due to blow, the new velocity at y = s is v = 2v0

Let r = r, therefore, from (i)

(2v0)2 = w2(r2 s2)

...(ii)

r 2 s2

Dividing (ii) by (i), we have, 2 2 = 4

r s

On solving, r = 4r 2 3s 2

or TV2/3 = constant

As PV = RT, T = PV/R

Thus, (PV/R)V2/3 = constant

or PV5/3 = constant

13. Let container contains n number of moles of gas, at

Initial internal energy, Ui

f

3

= n RT1 = nRT1

2

2

where m = molar mass

Final internal energy, Uf =

DU = DKE

3

1

nR DT = mv02 n

2

2

mv02

3R

14. If V is the volume of the bob, then mass of the bob,

m = Vs

Weight of the bob when immersed completely in

the liquid = Vrg Vsg = V(r s)g

Effective acceleration due to gravity when the bob

is in the liquid,

DT =

V (r s) g V (r s) g r s

=

=

g

m

Vr

r

g

r

or

=

g r s

g =

Now, T = 2p

...

dU = dW

...(i)

3

For a monoatomic gas, U = RT and as such

2

3

dU = RdT

...(ii)

2

RT

Also dW = PdV =

...(iii)

dV

V

From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),

3

RT

RdT =

dV

2

V

or

or

60

dT 2 dV

+

=0

T 3 V

2

ln T + ln V = constant

3

Physics for you | December 15

3

nRT2

2

or

T

=

T

l

g

and T = 2p

l

g

g

g

...(i)

...(ii)

T

r

=

T

rs

r

(r s)

15. When the temperature of the air column is

decreased, the speed of sound in the air column is

decreased.

v

Since u =

therefore u is decreased. Since

l

the number of beats per second is less at lower

or T = T

of the air column is higher than the frequency of

the tuning fork.

Let u be the frequency of the tuning fork. Then,

at 51C, the frequency of air column is (u + 4).

At 16C, the frequency of the air column is (u + 1).

Now, v51 = (u + 4)l and v16 = (u + 1)l

v

u+4

Dividing, 51 =

v16 u + 1

or

or

or

3kBT

m

Due to different masses of the molecules, the r.m.s.

velocities for the two gases will not be equal.

1

(iii) As P = mnv 2

3

Due to different masses of the molecules, the pressure

exerted by the two gases will not be equal.

(ii) As vrms =

324 u + 4

273 + 51 u + 4

=

or

=

289 u + 1

273 + 16 u + 1

18 u + 4

=

17 u + 1

18u + 18 = 17u + 68 or u = 50 Hz

= final temperature of the bullet

= 327C

Rise in temperature, DT = (327 47.6)C

= 279.4 C = 279.4 K

Specific heat of lead, c = 127.7 J kg1 K1

Latent heat of lead, L = 0.25 105 J kg1

Let mass of the lead bullet = m

Velocity of the lead bullet = v

1

Kinetic energy of the bullet = mv 2

2

Heat produced when the bullet is stopped,

maximum displacement of the trolley from its mean

position, i.e., amplitude, A = 5.0 cm = 0.05 m

With the two springs attached to the trolley, the

resultant force constant = 2k

= 2 600 N m1 = 1200 N m1.

(a) If T is the period of oscillation of the trolley,

m

3

= 2 3.14

s = 0.31 s

2k

1200

(b) Maximum velocity of the trolley,

2p

2 3.14

vmax = wA =

A=

0.05 = 1m s 1

T

0.31

(c) Total energy of the trolley,

1 2

1

E = mvmax

= 3 (1)2 = 1.5 J

2

2

It is this energy which is dissipated as heat due to

damping forces by the time the trolley comes to rest.

T = 2p

1 2

mv

2

v

. And all harmonics

fundamental note is u1 =

2L

of frequencies 2u1, 3u1, 4u1 ........ are present in

its musical sound.

= m 127.7 279.4 + m (0.25 105)

= 60679 m

As heat produced = heat gained,

1 2

mv = 60679m

2

v 1

note is u1 =

= u . And only alternate

4L 2 1

harmonics of frequencies 3u1, 5u1, 7u1, ..... are

present in its musical sound. The harmonics of

frequencies 2u1, 4u1, 6u1....... are missing.

Q=

18. (i) In

v2 = 2 60679 or v = 348 m s1

OR

(i) Mean kinetic energy per molecule,

1 2 3

mv = kBT

2

2

As the temperature of both the gases in the

mixture is the same, so mean kinetic energy

per molecule of both the gases will be equal.

or

an open organ pipe is richer than the musical

sound produced by a closed organ pipe.

(ii) In day to day life, a person whose life is an

open book, who shares his successes and failures;

joys and sorrows etc. with the people in his

contact is loved more in society. On the contrary,

a person who is secretive and keeps everything

close to his chest is not appreciated in the society.

Physics for you | December 15

61

n=

Mass of He

2000

=

= 500

Molecular mass

4

As PAVA = nRTA

PAVA 5 104 10

=

= 120.5 K

500 8.3

nR

For the isochoric process AB (V = constant),

TB PB

P

10

=

... TB = B TA = 120.5 = 241 K

TA PA

5

PA

For the isobaric process BC (P = constant),

V

20

TC VC

... T = C TB = 241 = 482 K

=

VB

10

TB VB

\ TA =

column on the either side of the mercury thread will

be 45 cm. Initially for each half, we have

P = 76 cm of mercury, V = 45 cm

P

5

TD PD

... TD = D TC = 482 = 241 K

=

10

PC

TC PC

(ii) Heat involved in the process ABC,

QABC = DUAC + WABC = nCV (TC TA) + WBC

= nCV (TC TA) + PB (VC VB)

3

= 500 8.3 (482 120.5) + 10 104

2

(20 10) [... C = 3/2 R]

6

Heat involved in the process ADC,

QADC = DUAC + WADC = DUAC + WAD

= 2.25 106 + PA (VD VA)

= 2.75 106 J = 2.75 MJ.

OR

by Robert Boyle in 1662. It states that the volume

of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional

to its pressure, provided the temperature remains

constant. Mathematically,

1

K

V

or V =

or PV = K

P

P

where K is a constant. Its value depends on (i) mass

of the gas, (ii) its temperature and (iii) the units in

which P and V are measured.

If P1 and V1 are the initial values of pressure and

volume and P2 and V2 are their final values, then

according to Boyle's law, P1V1 = P2V2

Figure (i) shows graph between P and V and

figure (ii) shows the graph between P and 1/V for a

given mass of a gas at a constant temperature T.

62

mercury thread moves through a distance x. Let P1

and P2 be pressure of the air in the upper half and

lower half respectively. The volume of air in the two

halves will be

V1 = 45 + x and V2 = 45 x

Using Boyle's law for upper half,

or

76 45 = P1 (45 + x)

PV = P1V1

and for lower half,

PV = P2V2

or

76 45 = P2 (45 x)

Now P2 = P1 + 10 cm of Hg

76 45 76 45

=

+ 10

or

45 x

45 + x

1

1

= 10

or 76 45

45

x

45

+ x

6840 x

= 10

or

2025 x 2

x2 + 684 x 2025 = 0

684 (684)2 + 8100 684 689.9

=

2

2

x = 686.95 cm or 2.95 cm

As x cannot be negative, so x = 2.95 cm

20. Let at any position, x be the extension in the spring

and v be the velocity of centre of mass of the

cylinder. Then,

...

x=

P.E. of spring, U = 1 kx 2

2

K.E. of translation, KT = 1 Mv 2

2

1 2 1

K.E. of rotation, K R = I = Mv 2

2

4

1

2

I = 2 Mr and v = r

E = U + KT + KR =

1 2 1

1

1

3

kx + Mv 2 + Mv 2 = kx 2 + Mv 2 ...(i)

2

2

4

2

4

As per question, v = 0 if x = 0.25 m, then

1

3

2

E = 3 (0.25) + 0 = J

2

32

At equilibrium position, U = 0 [as x = 0], so from (i)

3

3

= 0 + M v2

32

4

1

Mv 2 = J

8

or

At equilibrium position

1

1 1 1

Mv 2 = = J

2

2 8 16

(b) Rotational K.E. =

1

1 1 1

Mv 2 = = J

4

4 8 32

dE

=0

dt

3 d2x

1

1

dx 3

dv

or M 2 = kx

0 = k.2 x + M 2v

4 dt

2

2

dt 4

dt

or

d2x

dt

2k

x

3M

dx

dv d 2 x

= v and

=

dt dt 2

dt

...(ii)

and is directed towards equilibrium position.

Hence, the cylinder will execute SHM. Comparing

d2x

(ii) with the equation

= 2 x , we have

2

dt

2

k

2k

2 =

or

=

3M

3M

Time period of SHM, T =

3M

2p

= 2p

2k

OR

The travelling harmonic wave is

y(x, t) = 7.5 sin (0.0050 x + 12 t + p/4)

At x = 1 cm and t = 1 s,

y (1, 1) = 7.5 sin (0.005 1 + 12 1 + p/4)

= 7.5 sin (12.005 + p/4)

...(i)

Now, q = (12.005 + p/4) radian

180

=

(12.005 + p/4) degree

p

12.005 180

=

+ 45 = 732.55

22

7

... from (i), y(1, 1) = 7.5 sin (732.55)

= 7.5 sin (720 + 12.55)

= 7.5 sin 12.55 = 7.5 0.2173

= 1.63 cm

Velocity of oscillation,

d

d

p

dt

dt

4

4

At x = 1 cm, t = 1 s

v = 7.5 12 cos (0.005 + 12 + p/4) = 90 cos (732.55)

= 90 cos (720 + 12.55)

v = 90 cos (12.55) = 90 0.9765 = 87.89 cm s1

Comparing the given eqn. with the standard form

2p

l

6

2pv

we get, r = 7.5 cm,

= 2 p u = 12 or u =

p

l

2p

= 0.005

l

2p

2 3.14

... l =

= 1256 cm = 12.56 m

=

0.005

0.005

velocity of wave propagation,

v=ul=

6

12.56 = 24 m s1

p

to velocity of wave propagation.

(b) Now, all points which are at a distance of l,

2 l, 3 l, from x = 1 cm will have same transverse

displacement and velocity. As l = 12.56 m, therefore,

all points at distances 12.6 m, 25.2 m, 37.8 m...

from x = 1 cm will have same displacement and

velocity, as x = 1 cm point at t = 2 s, 5 s and 11s.

nn

Physics for you | December 15

63

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section

E contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

section-A

1. What is the effect of presence of a dielectric medium

on

(i) capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor

(ii) electrostatic force between two charges?

2. A wire connected to a bulb does not glow, whereas

the filament of the bulb glows when same current

flows through them. Why?

4. What is the value of refractive index of a medium of

polarizing angle 60 ?

5. Why is an FM signal less susceptible to noise than

an AM signal ?

section-B

to double its original length. It is then cut into

two equal parts. These parts are then connected

in parallel across a 3.0 V battery. Find the current

drawn from the battery.

7. A thin convex lens of focal length 25 cm is cut

into two pieces 0.5 cm above the principal axis.

64

(50 cm, 0). Find the coordinates of the image.

8. Calculate the

(a) momentum, and

(b) de Broglie wavelength of the electrons

accelerated through a potential difference of

56 V.

9. The mean lives of a radioactive substance are

1620 yr and 405 yr for a-emission and b-emission

respectively. Find out the time during which

three-fourth of a sample will decay if it is decaying

by both the a-emission and b-emission.

10. The base current of a transistor is 105 mA and

collector current is 2.05 mA.

(a) Determine the value of b, IE and a.

(b) A change of 27 mA in the base current produces

a change of 0.65 mA in the collector current.

Find bac.

OR

Pure Si at 300 K has equal electron (ne) and hole (nh)

concentrations of 1.5 1016 m3. Doping by indium

increases nh to 4.5 1022 m3. Calculate ne in the

doped silicon.

section-c

a minimum current of 1 mA to be above the knee

point (0.7 V) of its I-V characteristic. Also assume

that the voltage across the diode is independent of

current above the knee point.

apart carrying a current of 25 A. What is the net

force of the loop?

16. A rectangular coil of 200 turns of wire 15 cm 40 cm

makes 50 rps about an axis perpendicular to

the magnetic field of 0.08 Wb m2. What is the

instantaneous value of the induced emf when the

plane of the coil makes an angle with the magnetic

field lines of : (i) 0, (ii) 60 and (iii) 90?

OR

value of R so that the voltage is above the knee

point?

(b) If VB = 5 V, what should be the value of R to

establish the current of 5 mA in the circuit?

(c) What is power dissipated in the resistance R

and in the diode when a current of 5 mA flows

in the circuit at VB = 6 V?

(d) If R = 1 kW, what is the minimum voltage VB

required to keep the diode above the knee

point?

12. In a diode AM detector, the output circuit consists

of R = 1 kW and C = 10 pF. A carrier signal of

100 kHz is to be detected. Is it good? If yes, then

explain why? If not, what value of C would you

suggest?

13. Total charge Q is uniformly spread along length of

a ring of radius R. A small test charge +q of mass m

is kept at the centre of the ring and is given a gentle

push along the axis of the ring.

(a) Show that the particle executes a simple

harmonic oscillation.

(b) Obtain its time period.

14. A room has AC run for 5 hours a day at a voltage of

220 V. The wiring of the room consists of Cu of 1 mm

radius and a length of 10 m. Power consumption

per day is 10 commercial units. What fraction of

it goes in the joule heating in wires? What would

happen if the wiring is made of aluminium of the

same dimensions?

resistor are connected in series to a 100 V, 50 Hz ac

source. Calculate

(a) impedance of the circuit at resonance,

(b) current at resonance and

(c) resonant frequency.

17. In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electric

field oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of

2.0 1010 Hz and amplitude 48 V m1.

(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?

(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating

magnetic field?

(c) Find the total average energy density of the

electromagnetic field of the wave.

18. Figure shows a two slit arrangement with a

source which emits unpolarised light. P is a

polariser with axis whose direction is not given.

If I0 is the intensity of the principal maxima when

no polariser is present, calculate in the present case,

the intensity of the principal maxima as well as of

the first minima.

voltage of the base resistance is 10 V, Vbe is zero and

Vce is also zero. Find the values of Ib, Ic and b.

15. A rectangular loop of sides 25 cm and 10 cm

carrying a current of 15 A is placed with its longer

Physics for you | December 15

65

with a concave lens of focal length f2. Find the focal

length of the combination.

21. A proton and an alpha particle are accelerated

through the same potential. Which one of the

two has (i) greater value of de Broglie wavelength

associated with it and (ii) less kinetic energy.

Give reasons to justify your answer.

22. The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is

13.6 eV.

(i) What is the kinetic energy of an electron in the

(a) 2nd excited state (b) 3rd excited state?

(ii) If the electron jumps to the ground state from

the (a) 2nd excited state, (b) 3rd excited state,

then calculate the wavelength of the spectral

lines emitted.

section-D

questions that were in his mind about ac.

(a) Why ac is used for domestic supply and not dc?

(b) Why is multimeter used for measuring ac

and not a galvanometer available in Physics

laboratory?

(c) Why the wires carrying ac are many thin wires

within insulation and wires in laboratory are

thick copper wires?

The teacher was really happy to know the queries

and explained the cause for the same.

(i) What are the values shown by Shivansh and his

Physics teacher?

(ii) What are the explanations by the Physics

teacher for the queries?

section-e

of radius a is carrying a steady current I.

Use Amperes circuital law to obtain a relation

showing the variation of the magnetic field (B)

inside and outside the wire with distance r, (r < a)

and (r > a) from the centre of its cross section. Plot

a graph showing the nature of this variation.

OR

State Biot-Savarts law. Using this law derive an

expression for the magnetic field at a point situated

at a distance of x metre from the centre of a circular

coil of N turns and radius r carrying a current of

I A.

66

due to an electric dipole.

OR

Obtain the expression for the capacitance of a parallel

plate capacitor. Three capacitors of capacitances

C1, C2 and C3 are connected in parallel. Derive an

expression for the equivalent capacitance.

26. What are coherent sources of light? State two

conditions for two light sources to be coherent.

Derive a mathematical expression for the width of

interference fringes obtained in Youngs double slit

experiment with the help of a suitable diagram.

OR

Describe diffraction of light due to a single slit and

obtain an expresion for width of central maximum.

solutions

(i) capacitance of capacitor increases

(ii) electrostatic force between two

decreases.

charges

series. Therefore, the same current flows through

them. Since the resistance of connecting wires

is negligibly small as compared to the resistance

from filament and heat produced due to given

current is directly proportional to its resistance

(from Joules law of heating), therefore, the heat

produced in the filament is very large. Hence

the bulb glows, but the connecting wires remain

practically unheated.

3. 220 V ac means the effective or virtual value of ac is

220 V, i.e. V = 220 V.

As peak value V0 = 2 V

\ V0 = 1.414 220 = 311 V

But 220 V dc has the same peak value i.e. 220 V only.

Moreover, the shock of ac is attractive and that of dc

is repulsive. Hence, 220 volt ac is more dangerous

than 220 volt dc.

4. According to Brewsters law,

m = tan i p = tan 60 = 3

frequency variation of carrier waves. During

modulation, noise gets amplitude modulated,

changing the amplitude of carrier waves.

The message signal, in the form of frequency

variations, is not affected. That is why FM signal is

less susceptible to noise than an AM signal.

its cross-section is halved and so, its resistance

becomes four times. Thus,

R = 15 4 = 60 W

The resistance of each half,

R

R1 = R2 = = 30 W

2

Equivalent resistance of the parallel combination,

30

Req = = 15 W

2

The current drawn from the supply

3. 0 V

V

=

= 0. 2 A

I=

Req 15 W

7.

Clearly,

1

1

1

1

=

yr 1

=

yr 1 and lb =

tb 405

t a 1620

Combined decay constant,

1

1

1

l = l a + lb =

yr 1 +

yr 1 =

yr 1

1620

405

324

Combined half-life,

0.693

0.693

=

T1/2 =

l

(1 / 324) yr 1

= 0.693 324 yr = 224.53 yr

N0

As

= 2t /T1/2 ,

4 = 2t /T1/2

N

or 22 = 2t /T1/2 , or 2 = t

T1/2

la =

or

0.5 cm above AB.

As

1 1

=

v u

1 1

= +

v u

1

f

1

1 1

1

= + =

f

50 25 50

v = 50 cm.

Magnification of image, m = v = 50 = 1

u 50

Therefore image would have been formed at 50 cm

from the pole on right side and 0.5 cm below the

principal axis. Thus, the coordinates of image w.r.t.

the axis passing through the edge of the top part of

the remaining lens are (50 cm, 1 cm).

8. An electron which is accelerated through a

potential difference of 56 V will have kinetic energy

K = 56 eV

(a) Momentum associated with accelerated electron

p = 2Km = 2 56 1.6 1019 9.1 1031

= 4.04 1024 kg m s1

(b) Wavelength of accelerated electron

l=

34

h 6.63 10

= 0.164 nm

=

p 4.04 1024

N0

3

1

N = N 0 N 0 = N 0 or

=4

4

4

N

IB = 105 mA = 0.105 103 A,

IC = 2.05 mA = 2.05 103 A

I

2.05 103 A

= 19.5

(a) b = C =

I B 0.105 103 A

= 2.155 103A

I

2.05 103 A

= 0.95

a= C =

I E 2.155 103 A

0.65 mA 0.65 103 A

I

(b) bac = C =

= 24.07

=

I B

27 mA

27 106 A

OR

ni = ne = nh = 1.5 1016m3

After doping Si by indium (a trivalent atom), the

doped silicon becomes a p-type semiconductor in

which

nh >> ne

In doped Si, nh = 4.5 1022 m3

If ne is the electron concentration in doped Si,

then from nenh = ni2,

=

= 0.5 1010 m 3

22

nh

4.5 10

11. Let VR be the potential difference across the

resistance R and VD be the potential difference

across the diode D.

Clearly, VB = VR + VD

or VB = IR + VD

...(i)

ne =

67

VD = Vk (knee point voltage) = 0.7 V

Further, as VB = 5 V, from eqn. (i),

5 V = (103 A)R + 0.7 V

5 V 0. 7 V

= 4. 3 k W

or R =

103 A

(b) For I = 5 mA = 5 103 A, from eqn. (i)

V VD 5 V 0.7 V

= 0.86 kW

R= B

=

I

5 103 A

(c) When VB = 6 V, I = 5 mA = 5 103 A,

from eqn. (i),

VR = VB VD = 6 V 0.7 V = 5.3 V

Power dissipated in the resistance

= I VR = (5 103A)(5.3 V) = 26.5 mW

Power dissipated in the diode

= I VD = (5 103 A) (0.7 V) = 3.5 mW

(d) When R = 1 kW = 1000 W,

VB = VR + VD = IR + Vk

VB is minimum when I is minimum as Vk is a

constant. As the minimum value of I is 1 mA

when VD = Vk ,

VB = (103 A)(1000 W) + 0.7 V = 1.7 V

12. We are given that

uc = 100 kHz = 105 Hz, R = 1 kW = 103 W,

C = 10 pF = 10 1012 F = 1011 F

1

For satisfactory detection,

< RC

... (i)

uc

Since 1 = 1 = 105 s

uc 105 Hz

13.

Condition (i) is not being satisfied. Hence, the

given arrangement of C and R is not a good

arrangement.

In case, C = 1 mF = 106 F; CR = (106 F)(103 W) = 103 s,

condition (i) is satisfied. Thus, a capacitor of 1 mF in

the place of 10 pF should be employed.

on the Z-axis, i.e.,

1

Qz

E=

4 p 0 (R2 + z 2 )3/2

Z axis.

Force acting on the charge +q, i.e.,

1

Qqz

F = qE =

2

4 p 0 (R + z 2 )3/2

When z << R, (R2 + z2)3/2 = R3

Qqz Qq

Thus, F = 1

=

z

4 p 0 R3 4 p 0 R3

Acceleration produced in the charge +q, i.e.,

Qq

F

=

z

m 4 p 0 mR3

a=

or

a = w2z

where, w2 =

or

w=

4 p 0 mR3

Qq

(i)

4 p 0 mR3

Since acceleration of charge +q is proportional to

the displacement (z) from the fixed point O (centre

of the ring) and is directed towards it, the charge +q

executes simple harmonic oscillation.

(b) Time period of SHM possessed by charge +q is

given by

2p

(ii)

T=

w

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

T = 2p

4 p 0 mR3

Qq

10 kWh

P=

= 2 kW = 2000 W

5h

Voltage supplied to AC, V = 220 V

Current flowing in the circuit,

P 2000 W

= 9. 1 A

I= =

V

220 V

Resistance of copper wiring of the room,

RCu =

68

=

= 0.054 W

A

p(103 m)2

PCu = I2RCu

= (9.1 A)2(0.054 W) = 4.5 W

Percentage loss in copper wiring

4. 5 W

=

100% = 0.225%

2000 W

Percentage power loss in aluminium wiring of the

room, i.e.,

2.7 108 W m

r

PA1 = PCu Al = (0.225%)

8

rCu

1.7 10 W m

= 0.357%

15. Force acting per unit length between two parallel

conductors carrying current I1 and I2 and placed a

distance a apart is

2I I

f = km 1 2

a

Force acting between one longer side (ab) of length

25 cm (0.25 m) of the loop and AB, i.e.

2 15 25

0.25 = km (9375)

F1 = km

0.02

(as a = 2 cm = 0.02 m, I1 = 15 A, I2 = 25 A)

Force acting between the other longer side (cd) of

length 25 cm (0.25 m) of the loop and AB, i.e.

(2 15 25)

0.25 = km (1562.5)

F2 = km

0.12

(a = 2 cm + 10 cm = 12 cm = 0.12 m, I1 = 15 A, I2 = 25 A)

F1 > F2, magnitude of the force acting on the loop,

F = F1 F2 = km (9375 1562.5) = 107(7812.5) N

= 7.8 104 N

B = 0.08 Wb m2, N = 200

Frequency, u = 50 rps

As e = e0sin q = NABw sin q

where q is the angle which the plane of the coil

makes with a line perpendicular to the magnetic

field lines.

Thus, e =[(200)(0.06)(0.08)(2p 50) sin q] V

or e = [301.6 sin q] V

(as w = 2pu)

(i) When the plane of the coil makes an angle of 0

with the magnetic field field lines,

q = 90 0 = 90

\ e = e0sin90 = 301.6 V

(ii) When the plane of the coil makes an angle of

60 with the magnetic field lines,

q = 90 60 = 30

\ e = e0sin 30 = (301.6 V)(0.5) = 150.8 V

(iii) When the plane of the coil makes an angle of

90 with the magnetic field lines,

q = 90 90 = 0

\ e = e0sin 0 = 0

OR

Here, L = 100 mH = 100 103 H = 101 H,

C = 20 mF = 20 106 F = 2 105 F,

R = 10 W, erms = 100 V, u = 50 Hz

(a) Impedance of the circuit at resonance,

Z = R = 10 W

(b) Current at resonance,

100 V

e

Irms = rms =

= 10 A

Z

10 W

(c) Resonant frequency,

1

1

=

wr =

= 707 rad s1

1

5

LC

(10 H)(2 10 F)

1

wr 707 rad s

=

= 112.6 Hz

2p

2 3.14

17. We are given that

E0 = 48 V m1, u = 2.0 1010 Hz and c = 3 108 m s1

(a) Wavelength of the wave,

or ur =

It should be noted that the force (F1 , F2 ) on the

two smaller sides ad and bc of the loop cancel each

other. F would be an attractive force if the currents

through the long straight conductor AB and in the

arm of the loop nearer to the long straight conductor

(i.e., ab) are in the same direction and repulsive if

the currents are in the opposite directions.

8

1

c 3 10 m s

= 1.5 102 m

l= =

10

1

u 2.0 10 s

(b) Amplitude of the oscillating magnetic field,

48 V m 1

E0

=

= 1.6 107 T

c 3 108 m s 1

(c) Total average energy density,

1

1

12

2

3

uav = 0 E02 = (8.85 10 )(48) J m

2

2

= 1.0 108 J m3

B0 =

69

18. Without P:

A = A + A||

10

Ic =

= 3.33 103 A = 3.33 mA

3

3 10

Ic 3.33 103

= 133

b= =

Ib

25 106

1

A = A

+ A2 = A0 sin(kx wt) + A0sin (kx wt + f)

1

A|| = A || + A||

0

0

A

,

20.

where

beam in and || polarizations.

Intensity = A0 + A0

2

= A0 + A 0

=2

A0

} 12 .2(1 + cos f)

(1 + cos f) since

A0 average

A0

average

With P:

2

Assume, A is blocked :

Intensity = A1 + A2

2

2

) + ( A1 )

1

= A0 (1 + cos f) + A0 .

2

2

1 5

0

= A 2 + = I0

2 8

2

maxima)

Intensity at first minima with polariser

A0

(1 1) +

A0

2

I0

.

8

19.

Rc = 3 kW = 3 103 W, Vbe = 0

Vce = 0, VCC = 10 V

As Vi Vbe = RbIb

\ 10 0 = (400 103)Ib

10

or Ib =

= 25 106 A = 25 mA

3

400 10

70

1 1 1

=

f1 v u

For concave lens (f2 = ve)

1 1 1

=

f2 v v

Adding equation (i) and (ii)

1

1

1 1

= +

f1 f2

u v

...(i)

...(ii)

Also, 1 1 = 1

v u f

where f = focal length of combination

1

1 1

\

=

f1 f2 f

So, f =

f1 f2

f2 f1

h

l=

2mqV

de Broglie wavelength of a particle depends upon

its mass and charge for same accelerating potential.

Here, mass and charge of a proton are mp and e

respectively, and, mass and charge of an alpha

particle are 4mp and 2e respectively, where, e is the

charge of an electron. Thus, de broglie wavelength

associated with proton is 2 2 times of the de Broglie

wavelength of alpha particle.

(ii) Kinetic energy for same accelerating potential = qV.

Charge of an alpha particle is more as compared to

a proton. So, it will have a greater value of kinetic

energy. Hence, proton will have lesser kinetic

energy.

13.6

eV

n2

Ground state corresponds to n = 1, so E1 = 13.6 eV

(a) In 2nd excited state (n = 3),

13.6

13.6

eV = 1.51 eV

E3 = 2 eV=

9

3

K3 = 1.51 eV

(b) In 3rd excited state (n = 4)

13.6

13.6

eV = 0.85 eV

E4 = 2 eV=

16

4

22. (i)

En =

K4 = 0.85 eV

(ii) For transition of electron

1

1

1

= RH 2 2

l

n f ni

(a) nf = 1 and ni = 3

1 1

1

1 8

= RH 2 2 = RH 1 = RH

l1

9 9

1

3

l1 =

9

9

=

8RH 8 1.1 10+7

(b) nf = 1 and ni = 4

1

1

15

1

1

= RH 2 2 = RH 1 = RH

16

16

l2

1

4

or l2 =

16

16

=

15RH 15 1.1 107

23. (i) Shivansh is highly observant, ability to

visualisation, confident and inquisitive, on

the other hand, his Physics teacher has a good

practical knowledge, has depth knowledge and

has patience and quality of appreciation.

(ii) Explanations :

(a) It is much more economical to produce

ac using turbine as compared to dc using

batteries. We can regulate and transmit ac

by ensuring less power wastage as compared

to dc.

(b) As alternating current varies in direction

and magnitude periodically at a rate of

100 times in a second, so a galvanometer

pointer will change the direction and

magnitude equal number of times and will

not be visible. We use multimeter because

72

heating effect of current i.e., virtual value

of ac.

(c) Due to skin effect, ac flows at the surface of

wire only, hence in order to obtain larger

surface area, ac wires are made up of a

number of thin wires. On the other hand,

dc flows throughout the thickness of the

wire, hence thick copper wires are used for

dc.

24. Refer point 3.2(5, 6) page no. 171, 172 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

OR

Refer point 3.1(1) page no. 169 and point

3.1(3 (vi)) page no. 170 (MTG Excel in Physics).

25. Refer point 10 page no. 9 (MTG Excel in Physics)

OR

Refer point 1.11 (4, 8) page no. 15, 16 (MTG Excel

in Physics).

26. Refer point 6.13 page no. 446 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

OR

Refer point 6.14 page no. 449 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

nn

Solution Set-28

2 R 2 r R r

=

2 r

r

F T

Stress = Y strain = =

A A

AY (R r )

\ T = AY strain =

r

1. (c): Strain =

Weight of gold piece, M = 38.250 g

\ Volume of gold piece,

M 38.250

V=

=

= 1.982 cm3

r

19.3

Mass of gold piece in water, M = 33.865 g

\ Apparent loss in weight of the gold piece in

water

= 38.250 33.865 = 4.385 g

Density of water = 1 g cm3

\ Volume of water displaced

4.385

=

= 4.385 cm3

1

Volume of hollow portion of the gold piece

= 4.385 1.982 = 2.403 cm3.

1

3. (d) : Loss in kinetic energy of the gas = mv 2

2

Heat gained by gas = nCVDT

1 2

m R

\

mv = nCV DT =

DT

2

M 1

DT =

( 1)

Mv 2

2R

of cells is as shown in figure. Here, e1 = 7e, r1 = 7r and

e2 = 3e, r2 = 3r. These two cells e1 and e2 are

connected in parallel across R sending the current in

opposite directions. The equivalent emf or potential

difference across R is

e

0

\ Current through R, I = eq = = 0.

R

R

5. (a) : Motional e.m.f. induced in the connector

e = Blv = 2(1) (2) = 4 V

This acts as a cell of e.m.f. 4 V and internal resistance

2 W.

The equivalent circuits are shown in figure. 6 W and

3 W resistors are in parallel.

1 1 1 1+ 2 3 1

\

= + =

= =

Rp 6 3

6

2 2

or Rp = 2 W

e

4

I=

=

=1A

Rp + r 2 + 2

Magnetic force on the connector

= BIl = 2(1)(1) = 2 N

Therefore, to keep the connector moving with a

constant velocity, a force of 2 N has to be applied to

the right side.

6. (c):

1

1

1

= (m2 1)

fa

R1 R2

1 m2 1

1

= 1

f1 m1 R1 R2

\

f1 =

(m2 1)

(1.5 1) 20

fa =

= 40 cm

1. 5

m2

1

m 1

1. 2

1

(m 1) fa (1.5 1) 20

=

= 25 cm

f2 = 2

m2

1 .5

2 5 1

m 1

.

3

points f1 and f2 only.

e r e r 7e 3r 3e 7r

eeq = 1 2 2 1 =

=0

r1 + r2

7r + 3r

Physics for you | december 15

73

f1 f2 = 40 (25) = 65 cm

7. (a) : The magnitude of the electric field is maximum

where the equipotentials are close together. The

direction of the field is from high potential to low

potential.

8. (b) : Soap solution film will be formed on both

sides of the frame. Each film is in contact with the

wire along a distance of 10 cm. The force exerted by

the film on the wire

= 2 (10 cm) (25 dyne cm1)

= 500 dyne = 5 103 N.

This force acts vertically upward and should be

balanced by the load. Hence the load that should

be suspended is 5 103 N. The mass of the load

should be

9

5 103 N

= 5 104 kg = 0.5 g

10 m s 2

2

\ cos 37 = 1 (0.6) = 0.8

2016

PRACTICE PAPER

2 r (r ) g

9

3 2

3

3

vT = 2 (10 ) (2.7 10 10 ) 9.8 = 4.6 m s1

9 8 104

40. (c)

RT

dV

41. (c): dW = PdV =

...(i)

V

2

As V = KT 2/3 \ dV = K T 1/3 dT

3

2

K T 1/3dT

dV

2 dT

\

= 3 2/3

=

V

3 T

KT

Terminal speed, vT =

T2

2

dV

2 dT

From (i), W = RT

= RT

V T

3 T

T

1

\W =

42. (b)

2

2

R (T2 T1 ) = R 60 = 40R

3

3

\

\

74

8kT

3kT

, vrms =

m

m

vav

8/

=

vrms

3

vav

or

vav

8

=

1260

3

8

= 1260

= 1161 m s 1

3

0. 6

= 0.75

0. 8

m < tanq for both blocks, \ both will move.

tan 37 =

f2 max = (2 + 4) 10 0.8 0.5 = 24 N

Let both blocks move together

\ 12 f1 = 2a and 24 + f1 24 = 4a

12 = 6a or a = 2 m s2

f1 = 12 2 2 = 8 N

But f1max = 6.4 N

\ both blocks will not move together.

10. (b) : Frictional force acting between the blocks

= 6.4 N

nn

44. (a) : Gravitational potential due to the shell at any

GM

point inside it =

a

Gravitational potential due to the particle at the

a

centre at a point P, distant

from the centre

2

GM

2GM

=

=

a/2

a

\ Net gravitational potential at P

GM 2GM

3GM

=

=

a

a

a

^ ^ ^

45. (a) : Here, r = i + 2 j k

^

^

^

p = 3i + 4 j 2k

Angular momentum, L = r p

^ ^ ^

i j k

L = 1 2 1

3 4 2

^

^

^

L = i (4 (4)) + j(3 (2)) + k(4 6)

^

= i (4 + 4) + j(3 + 2) + k(4 6)

^

= 0 i j 2 k = j 2 k

Hence, the angular momentum is in yz plane, i.e.,

perpendicular to x-axis.

nn

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

thermodynamics

8

minute and takes 3.6 109 J of heat per minute from

the boiler. What is the efficiency of the engine?

How much heat is wasted per minute?

(a) 15%, 3.1 109 J (b) 15%, 2 109 J

(c) 85%, 4.5 109 J (d) 85%, 6 109 J

2. An ideal gas at a pressure 1 atm and temperature of

27C is compressed adiabatically until its pressure

becomes 8 times, the initial pressure. Then, the final

3

temperature is Take, g =

2

(a) 627C (b) 527C (c) 427C (d) 327C

3. A cyclic process is shown in figure. Work done

during isobaric expansion is

(N m2)

2 102

p

102

2

V(m3)

(d) 600 J

gas, when volume increases by 24%, what is the

percentage decrease in pressure?

(a) 24% (b) 30% (c) 48% (d) 71%

5. Starting with the same initial conditions, an ideal

gas expands from volume V1 to V2 in three different

ways. The work done by the gas is W1 if the process is

purely isothermal, W2 if the process is purely isobaric

and W3 if the process is purely adiabatic. Then,

(c) W1 > W2 > W3

(d) W1 > W3 > W2

curves represent isothermal and adiabatic processes

respectively?

P

(a) C and D

(c) A and B

(b) A and C

(d) B and D

energy and work done by the system respectively in a

thermodynamical process, which of the following is true?

(a) DU = DW, in an adiabatic process.

(b) DU = DW, in an isothermal process.

(c) DU = DW, in an adiabatic process.

(d) DU = DW, in an isothermal process.

8. An ideal gas is taken

through the cycle

A B C A, as

shown in figure. If the

net heat supplied to the

gas in the cycle is 5 J,

work done by the gas in

the process C A, is

V(m3)

A

5

10

P(N m2)

9. Two engines are working in such a way that sink

of one is source of the other. Their efficiencies are

equal. Find the temperature of the sink of first if its

source temperature is 927C and the temperature of

sink of the second is 27C.

Physics for you | december 15

75

(a) 327 K

(c) 600C

(b) 327C

(d) None of these

reversible adiabatic expansion to double its volume.

Find the change in internal energy. (Take g = 1.4).

(a) 1170 J (b) 970 J (c) 770 J (d) 1370 J

11. A closed cardboard tube one metre long contains

some lead shots at one end and the tube is quickly

inverted so that the shots fall through whole length

of the tube. This operation is repeated 100 times.

Find the rise in temperature if the specific heat of

lead shots is 127.7 J kg1 K1. (Take, g = 9.8 m s2)

(a) 12.7 K (b) 10.7 K (c) 7.7 K (d) 8.7 K

12. Which of the following statements is correct for any

thermodynamic system?

(a) The internal energy changes in all processes.

(b) The work done in an adiabatic process is always

zero.

(c) The change in entropy can never be zero.

(d) Internal energy and entropy are state functions.

13. The heat energy absorbed by a system in going

through a cyclic process shown in figure is

V(litre)

30

10

O

10

2

30

P (kPa)

14. A Carnot engine, whose sink is at 300 K, has

an efficiency of 40%. By how much should the

temperature of the source be increased so as

to increase its efficiency by 50% of its original

efficiency?

(a) 380 K (b) 275 K (c) 325 K (d) 250 K

15. Pressure of one litre of nitrogen (g = 1.4) is 500 cm

of mercury. It is compressed adiabatically to 990 cc.

The final pressure of the gas (in cm of mercury) is

(a) 507 (b) 505

(c) 495

(d) 502

kinetic theory of gases

T, same pressure P and same volume V are mixed.

If the mixture is at the same temperature T and

occupies a volume V, the pressure of the mixture is

(a) 2 P

(b) P

(c) P/2

(d) 4 P

76

an ideal gas at two temperatures T1 and T2. Then

from the graph,

P

T1

(a) T1 = T2

T2

(b) T1 > T2

(c) T1 < T2

18. We have a jar A filled with gas characterised by the

parameters P, V and T and another jar B filled with

a gas with parameters 2P, V/4 and 2T, where the

symbols have their usual meanings. The ratio of the

number of molecules of jar A to those of jar B is

(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 4 : 1

19. The speed of 6 molecules of a gas (in arbitrary units)

are as follows : 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 6. The root mean square

speed for these molecules is

(a) 5.16

(b) 5.33

(c) 6

(d) None of these

20. The value of molar specific heat at constant

pressure for one mole of triatomic gas (triangular

arrangement) at temperature T K is

7

5

(d) 4 R

R (c) R

2

2

21. Two vessels having equal volumes contain molecular

hydrogen at one atmosphere and helium at two

atmospheres respectively. If both samples are at the

same temperature, the r.m.s. velocity of hydrogen

molecules is

(a) equal to that of helium

(b) twice that of helium

(c) half that of helium

(d) 2 times that of helium

(a) 3 R

(b)

a gas at pressures P1 and P2 respectively are put

in communication with each other, temperature

remaining constant. The common pressure reached

will be

P1P2m1

P P (m + m2 )

(a) 1 2 1

(b)

P2m1 + P1m2

P2m1 + P1m2

(c)

m1m2 (P1 + P2 )

P2m1 + P1m2

(d)

m1m2 P2

P2m1 + P1m2

of all the molecules be made half and their speed

be made double, then the percentage increase in

resultant pressure will be

(a) 25% (b) 50% (c) 75% (d) 100%

107 N m2, the quantity of gas taken out of the

cylinder, if final pressure is 2.5 106 N m2, is

(a) 7.5 kg

(b) 10.5 kg

(c) 5.2 kg

(d) None of these

25. 0.014 kg of nitrogen is enclosed in a vessel at a

temperature of 27C. How much heat has to be

transferred to the gas to double the rms velocity of

the molecules ?

(a) 1200 J

(b) 9360 J

(c) 1340 J

(d) none of these

26. One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas (g = 5/3)

is mixed with one mole of diatomic gas (g = 7/5).

What is g for the mixture? (g denotes the ratio of the

specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant

volume)

(a) 3/2

(b) 4/3

(c) 35/25 (d) 23/15

27. Pressure of an ideal gas is increased by keeping

temperature constant. What is the effect on kinetic

energy of molecules?

(a) Increases

(b) Decreases

(c) remains same

(d) Cant be determined

28. Pressure versus temperature graph of an ideal gas

at constant volume is shown by a straight line A

in figure. If the mass of the gas is doubled and the

B A

volume is halved, the corresponding P

pressure versus temperature graph

C

is given by line

(a) A

(b) B

T

(c) C

(d) None of these

29. If the pressure and the volume of certain quantity of

ideal gas are halved, then its temperature

(a) is doubled

(b) becomes one-fourth

(c) remains constant (d) becomes four times

30. The diameter of an oxygen molecule is 3 . The ratio

of molecular volume to the actual volume occupied

by the oxygen gas at STP is

(a) 2 104

(b) 1 104

4

(c) 1.5 10

(d) 4 104

solutions

1. (a) : Here, Q1 = Heat absorbed per minute

Q2 = Heat rejected per minute

W = Work done per minute

W

100

We know that % =

Q1

\

% =

5.4 108 J

9

3.6 10 J

Also, Q1 = W + Q2

100

3

100 = 15%

20

Q2 = Q1 W

= 36 108 5.4 108

= 30.6 108 J = 306 107 J = 3.1 109 J

2. (d) : Here, P1 = 1 atm,

T1 = 27C = 27 + 273 = 300 K

P2 = 8 atm, T2 = ?, g = 3/2

As changes are adiabatic,

P1g 1T1 g = P2g 1T2 g

T2

T

P

= 1

P

g 1

2

( g 1)/ g

P

T2 = T1 2

= 300 (8)(1.51)/1.5 = 300 (8)1/3

P1

T2 = 600 K = (600 273)C = 327C

3. (c) : Isobaric expansion is represented by curve AB.

Work done = Area under AB

= 2 102 (3 1) = 4 102 = 400 J

4. (b) :

From, P2V2g

5/3

= P1V1g

V

P2 = P1 1

V

100

P2 =

P1

124

P2 = 0.6985P1

\ % decrease in pressure

P 0.6985P1

P P

100%

= 1 2 100% = 1

P1

P1

0.3015P1

100% = 30.15% 30%

P1

5. (a) : The P-V graphs for the three given processes

are shown in figure.

=

P0

3

V1

Isobaric

Isothermal

Adiabatic

V2

(Area)2 > (Area)1 > (Area)3

\ W2 > W1 > W3

1

6. (a) : For isothermal process, P

V

1

and for adiabatic process, P

Vg

7. (a) : According to first law of thermodynamics,

DQ = DU + DW

In an adiabatic process, DQ = 0

\ DU + DW = 0

or DU = DW

Physics for you | december 15

77

m

Pm

or P = k or r =

r

k

P

k

or r = (where = K , a constant)

K

m

P1

So, r1 =

K

m

m1

Km1

and V1 = 1 =

=

r1 P1 / K

P1

Km2

Similarly, V2 =

P2

m m

Total volume = V1 + V2 = K 1 + 2

P1 P2

Let P be the common pressure and r be the common

density of mixture. Then

m + m2

m1 + m2

r= 1

=

V1 + V2

m m

K 1+ 2

P1 P2

m1 + m2 P1P2 (m1 + m2 )

=

\ P =K r=

m1 m2 (m1P2 + m2 P1 )

+

P1 P2

1 mn 2

1 (m / 2)n

23. (d) : P0 =

vrms ; P =

(2vrms )2 = 2P0

3 V

3 V

P P0

% increase in pressure =

100

P0

2P0 P0

=

100 = 100%

P0

P M

1M 2

\ 1= 1

24. (a) : P =

v rms ; so, P M

P2 M2

3V

6

P

2.5 10

or M2 = M1 2 = 10

= 2.5 kg

P1

107

Quantity of gas taken out

= M1 M2 = 10 2.5 = 7.5 kg

25. (b) : We know that vrms T . Thus, to double the

rms speed, temperature should be increased to 4

times its initial value.

Initial temperature = (273 + 27) K = 300 K

Final temperature = 4 300 K = 1200 K

Change in temperature, DT = 1200 K 300 K = 900 K

Number of moles in 0.014 kg of nitrogen i.e.,

0.014 1000 g

n=

= 0. 5

28 g

CV for nitrogen, which is a diatomic gas,

5

5

R = 8.31 J mol 1 K 1

2

2

= 20.8 J mol1 K1

(i.e., at constant volume), amount of heat required,

Q = nCVDT = (0.5 20.8 900) J = 9360 J

26. (a) : g for the mixture is given by

n1 + n2

n

n

= 1 + 2

g1 1 g 2 1

g 1

Here, n1 = 1, n2 = 1, g1 = 5 / 3, g 2 = 7 / 5.

2

1

1

Thus,

=

+

g = 3 / 2.

g 1 (5 / 3) 1 (7 / 5) 1

27. (c) : Kinetic energy of an ideal gas depends only

on its temperature. Hence, it remains constant

whether its pressure is increased or decreased.

nRT mRT

=

V

MV

m

or P = (mR / MV) T, where n =

= number of moles.

M

Thus, at constant volume, P-T graph is straight line

whose slope is (mR / MV). When the mass (m) is

doubled and the volume is halved, slope becomes 4

times. Hence, line B (with greater slope than that of

line A) shows the PT graph.

P1V1 P2V2

PV

=

or T2 = T1 2 2

T1

T2

P1V1

Here, P1 = P, V1 = V, T1 = T

P

V

P2 = , V2 = , T2 = ?

2

2

P V

T

2 2 T

\ T2 =

=

4

PV

30. (d) : Here, diameter, d = 3

3

d 3

10

m = 108 cm = 1.5 108 cm

\ r = = 10

2 2

2

Molecular volume of oxygen gas, V = 4 pr 3 N

3

where N is Avogadro number

4

\ V = 3.14 (1.5 108 )3 6.023 1023

3

= 8.51 cm3

Actual volume occupied by 1 mol of oxygen gas at

STP, V1= 22,400 cm3.

Therefore, ratio of the molecular volume to the

actual volume of oxygen

V

8.51

=

= 3.8 104 = 4 104

V1 22, 400

nn

Physics for you | december 15

79

Elasticity

There are certain terms whose meaning is just the

opposite of what we think, for example- elasticity.

If we ask someone (who isn't associated with physics!)

what is more elastic, rubber or iron? He will obviously

say rubber since we can stretch it more.

But in physics, steel is more elastic than rubber! Elasticity

refers to the tendency to oppose deformations being

produced in an object. Now obviously steel is difficult

to deform relative to rubber, so steel is more elastic.

Now suppose equal deforming forces act on two

objects of same material and lengths but of different

cross-sectional area. We notice that the one with

lesser cross-sectional area will deform more. Hence

for measuring the capability of the deforming forces

to produce deformations, the magnitude of force alone

isn't important, but rather force acting per unit area

which is defined as stress.

Force

\ Stress =

Area

Now suppose we apply equal stress on two objects

of same material but different lengths. In such case

changes in length would obviously be more for objects

having larger length. But can we conclude, that the

object which underwent greater change in length was

deformed more? No we cannot!

Let me explain. Say we have a change of 1 mm in a

rod of length 1 m whereas in other rod, a change of

2 mm in rod of length 10 m. Clearly, 2 mm > 1 mm

but 2 mm in 10 m is less compared to 1 mm in 1 m.

Hence, the extent of deformation produced due to

applied stress is measured in terms of strain which is in

general defined as the fractional change in dimension

per unit original dimension.

Change in dimension

Strain =

Original dimension

Classification of Stress and Strain

on the object, i.e., whether the object is being pulled,

squeezed or twisted, stress and strain are divided into

3 categories.

Longitudinal stress-strain

Here the applied force has to be along the length

of object and hence perpendicular to surface

(cross-sectional area) under concern.

Longitudinal

Compressive

Tensile

l l

F

F

l

l + l

F

\ Longitudinal stress = ^

A

Component of applied force perpendicular

to cross-section

=

urface area of cross-section

Su

Dl

l

Shearing/tangential stress-strain

Here keeping one surface fixed, tangential force

is applied at the other face which is parallel to the

fixed face.

Longitudinal strain =

Fixed (A)

Tangential stress =

F||

A

Component of applied force which is parallel

to surface und

der concern

x

Tangential strain = = tan q

h

Bulk stress-strain

When an object is subjected to deforming forces

from all sides, equally, the object is said to be under

80

inside a liquid. In such case, the change in pressure

itself is the bulk stress.

Bulk stress = DP

DV

Bulk strain = fractional change in volume =

V

(Q in this case volume is decreasing)

Relation between Stress-Strain

For an elastic object, if a graph is plotted between

applied stress and developed strain, we get a variation

which looks as below:

Stress

SB

S2

S1

Elastic

region

A

Permanent

set

Plastic

region

Strain

is depicted by high steepness of graph.

The part OA is a straight line which indicates that

stress strain [for small deformations].

This is Hooke's law.

The maximum stress for which Hooke's law is obeyed

is proportional limit (S1).

Beyond proportional limit, elastic property is intact

but Hooke's law isn't obeyed, until a maximum stress

S2, which means that uptil this stress if the applied

force is removed, the object will return to its original

dimensions. S2 is said to be elastic limit.

Beyond elastic limit, the object if strained and then the

applied stress is removed, the object would not return

to its original configuration and hence the residual

strain in it is said to be permanent set. For values of

stress less than elastic limit, the object is said to be in

elastic region whereas beyond it, plastic region starts.

In the plastic region, the maximum value of applied

stress for which the object would not break is breaking

stress (SB).

Remember : Breaking stress for a material is its

property which isn't dependent upon the dimensions

of the object.

Now, in the region in which Hooke's law is obeyed, the

constant of elasticity has different names and values

for different types of stress-strain.

Young's modulus (Y) for longitudinal stress-strain

F /A

Y= ^

Dl / l

Shear modulus (h) for shearing stress-strain

F / A

h=

x /h

DP

B=

DV / V

DP

If pressure increases, volume decreases, hence

< 0.

DV

Hence to keep B > 0, negative is included.

Compared to solids and liquids, gases are highly

compressible, hence changing the conditions slightly

changes the value of bulk modulus. Hence for gases,

bulk modulus is defined instantaneously.

For gases,

dP

dP

B=

= V

dV

dV / V

But remember that for certain experimental process

(polytropic process) it might happen that increasing

volume increases pressure, in such case we would drop

the negative sign.

Bulk Modulus of Gas for some Standard Processes

(a) For isothermal process

dP

P

PV = constant

=

dV T

V

dP

P

\ BT = (V )

= (V ) = P

dV T

V

The bulk modulus for isothermal process is known

as isothermal elasticity of gas.

(b) For isochoric/isometric process

dV

V = constant

=0

dP V

dP

1

\ BV = (V )

= (V ) =

dV V

0

(c) For isobaric process

dP

P = constant

=0

dV P

dP

\ BP = (V )

=0

dV P

BP = isobaric elasticity of the gas.

(d) For adiabatic process

dP

P

PV = constant

=

dV Q

V

dP

P

\ BQ = (V )

= (V ) = P

dV Q

V

BQ = adiabatic elasticity of the gas.

(d) For polytropic process

dP

P

PV N = constant

= N

dV N

V

NP

\ BN = (V )

= NP

V

physics for you | december 15

81

Thermal Stress-Strain

according to the relation

l = l0(1 + aDq)

where l0 = length at a reference temperature

l = length at a new changed temperature

Dq = change in temperature

a = co-efficient of linear expansion

So, basically when we heat an object, its length increases.

Hence at higher temperature, the increased length of

an object is its natural length and if the object isn't

allowed to go to its natural length then stress as well

as strain will be developed in it. But if it is allowed to

expand freely while heating, neither stress nor strain

would be developed.

l0(1 + ) = l

l0

heated

respect to initial length, but with respect to natural

length at higher temperature, there isn't any change.

Hence strain = 0 \ Stress = 0.

Object fixed between two rigid supports while

heating

l = l0(1 + )

l0

state, hence

l l0 l0 aDq

Thermal strain =

=

= aDq

l0

l0

\ Thermal stress = Y strain = YaDq

Now let us try solving some questions on concepts

learnt.

1. An object is subjected to longitudinal stress at

different temperatures T1 and T2 within proportional

limit and the graph is obtained as below.

Stress

T2

T1

Strain

82

of an iron bar, a smith first heats it and then uses

hammer. Why does he do so? Since heating makes

deformations easier which means lesser elasticity.

Hence at higher temperature, elasticity and hence

slope is less.

\ T1 > T2

in it is T1 and L2 when tension in it is T2. Find the

natural length of the wire.

F /A

Soln.: As Y = ^

= constant

Dl / l

T /A

T L T L

T1 / A

= 2

l0 = 1 2 2 1

L1 l0 L2 l0

T1 T2

l0

l0

F /A

Note : Keep in mind that the formula Y = ^

Dl / l

can be used to find elongation if and only if

(i) Tension in the rod (T = F^) is same at all

cross-sections.

(ii) The cross-sectional area of the rod is uniform.

If any of the these two conditions are violated,

we choose a small elemental length dx, which we

treat as our rod, since for such a small length, the

tension as well as cross-sectional area will almost be

identical. Hence we can choose elongation of d (Dl)

in this small element dx, thereafter we can integrate

d(Dl) to find Dl.

T /A

T

Y= x

d(Dl ) = x dx

d(Dl ) / dx

YA

Tx

\ Dl = d(Dl ) =

dx

YA

3. A wire of Young's modulus Y, mass m, crosssectional area A and length l is made to hang

vertically under the action of its own weight.

(i) Plot variation of elongation in a length y from

bottom.

(ii) Find total elongation in the wire.

Soln.: (i)

T + dT T

x

dx

x

Tx

dx

Tx

mx

Tx =

g

l

[weight of hanging portion below cross-section]

T /A

\ Y= x

d(Dl ) / dx

T

\ Dl y = d(Dl ) = x dx

YA

1 y mgx

Dl y =

dx

YA 0 l

ly

mg y

\ Dl y =

YAl 2 (parabolic)

Here Dly is elongation in a length y from below.

(ii) In the entire length, y = l

mgl

\ Total elongation, Dl =

2 AY

Note : Many books/teachers solve this question

incorrectly by saying that since weight of an object

acts from centre of mass, we should have considered

l

a length of as below:

2

l/2

mg

mgl

Y= A

\ Dl =

mg

Dl

2 AY

(l / 2)

The result matches perfectly! So, what was incorrect?

mgl

This result shows that the elongation of

is

2 AY

only in the upper half whereas no elongation in

lower half which obviously isn't true.

So this can be remembered as a trick and not a

shortcut method.

4. A uniform rod of mass m, cross-sectional area A,

length l, Young's modulus Y is subjected to tensile

forces of F1 and F2 (F2 > F1) from both ends as

shown. Find the total elongation.

F1

F2

F F

Soln.: The rod accelerates with a = 2 1 , hence

m

tension at a position x from left end is Tx as below:

a

F1

x

Tx

mx

Tx F1 =

a

l

m (F2 F1 )

Tx F1 =

x

l

m

T

F F

Tx = F1 + 2 1 x \ Dl = d(Dl ) = x dx

l

AY

=

1 l

F2 F1

x dx

F1 +

AY 0

l

1

F F l2

F1l + 2 1

l 2

AY

F +F

1 2 l

2

Dl =

AY

Note here that this elongation is same if we replace

F +F

F1 and F2 with Favg = 1 2 from both ends,

2

which would be easier to remember.

=

modulus Y is subjected to 3 longitudinal forces F1,

F2 and F3 = F2 F1 as shown.

l2

l1

F1

F2

F3

Soln.: Note that F3 + F1 = (F2 F1) + F1 = F2

Hence the rod isn't accelerating which simplified

our work.

F1

F3

F2

l1

l2

F2

F1

F1

F2

l2

l1

Fl

Fl

\ Dl1 = 1 1 , Dl2 = 2 2

AY

AY

Fl +F l

\ Dl = Dl1 + Dl2 = 1 1 2 2

AY

Comparison of an Elastic Wire with a Spring

F

l

F/A

YA

Y=

F=

Dl

l

Dl / l

This clearly shows a nature, Fsp = kx for spring forces.

\ Equivalent spring constant

YA

keq =

l

Hence, similar to springs, as one is required to perform

work to deform a spring which gets stored as spring

potential energy, we can associate potential energy with

deformations of elastic object too, which is known as

elastic potential energy (EPE).

physics for you | december 15

83

1

1 YA

2

\ EPE = keq (Dl )2 =

(Dl )

2

2 l

1 Dl Dl

= Y ( Al )

2 l l

EPE

1

= stress strain

volume 2

= elastic potential energy density

EPE

1 (stress)2 Y

\

=

= (strain)2

volume 2

2

Y

\

wire of given Y, A, l. Find the recoverable part of the

lost gravitational potential energy x of the mass.

Soln.:

\ At equilibrium,

keqy = mg

... (i)

Now, loss in gravitational

potential energy (GPE)

m

= mgy = x

1

keqy

Gain in EPE = keq y 2

y

2

m

mgy x

1

= (keq y ) y =

=

mg

2

2

2

\ Only half of the lost GPE gets stored as EPE

whereas the remaining half gets dissipated as heat

energy, which is irrecoverable.

Hence remember that elastic forces have both

conservative as well as non-conservative nature.

Conservative since PE is stored, and nonconservative since heat energy is produced.

7. A rod of Y, l0, A is attached to an unstretched spring

of spring constant k as shown, and heated due to

which temperature

k

rises by Dq.

As a consequence,

the spring gets

compressed by x.

Find x.

Soln:

l0

l0

l = l0 x

k

\ At equilibrium, keqDl = kx

YA

[l aDq x] = kx

(l0 + l0 aDq) 0

84

YAaDq

YA

[l0 aDq x] kx x =

YA

l0

k+

l0

the liquid is covered with a massless piston. Now a

mass m is placed over the piston due to which the

radius of the ball changes by DR, find DR.

Given : A = surface area of piston

B = Bulk modulus of ball

Soln.: According to Pascal's law, the pressure exerted

anywhere inside a confined liquid gets transmitted

equally and undiminished everywhere.

mg

\ DP =

everywhere

A

DP

DV

mg

\ B=

=

AB

(DV / V )

V

For small changes in V,

4

V = pR3

3

DV 3DR mg \ DR = mgR

=

=

3 AB

AB

V

R

Poisson's Ratio (s)

the ratio of transverse strain to longitudinal strain on

subjecting an object to longitudinal stress.

d

F

d d

l

l + l

Dd / d

Dl / l

On stretching an object, there might be volumetric

strain also.

Suppose we have a cylindrical wire of radius r and

length l.

\ V = pr2l

Dl Dl

Dl

DV 2Dr Dl

= 2 s +

= (1 2s)

\

=

+

l

l

l

V

r

l

Now if the volume or density is known to be constant

DV = 0 s = 0.5

which is the maximum possible value of s.

Remember that for small changes in volume,

m = rV, where r = density

Dm Dr DV

\

=

+

, but Dm = 0

m

r

V

\ s=

Dr

DV

=

r

V

nn

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

Cut Here

across

1. A path between two or more points along

which an electrical current can be carried.

3

(7)

3. A small transparent device containing

gas, used to detect infrared radiation.

6

(5, 4)

4. Related to or composed of sediment

9

deposited by flowing water. (8)

5. A thermometer designed for the

14

measurement of very low temperatures.

(9)

6. A proprietary glass ceramic material that

alters very little in size or shape when

subjected to normal temperature changes

(3, 3).

7. A line on a map joining points at which

20

the acceleration of free fall is constant.

(6)

23

9. A measure of the rate at which heat

diffuses through a substance. (11)

10. The number of neutrons, the most

common hydrogen have. (4)

12. The final stable element produced by the

radioactive decay scheme of uranium. (4)

14. A communication line that connects a users terminal

equipment to a switching node. (6, 4)

17. An apparatus for studying thermal expansion. (11)

20. The CGS unit of kinematic viscosity. (6)

21. Sound wave of frequency below 20 Hz. (10)

22. According to one of the most common color triangle,

the third primary color , if blue and green are other

two primary colors. (3)

23. A technique or means enabling a system to bring it

self into source desired state. (9)

24. The lepton which was first discovered. (8)

25. This color has the greatest angle of refraction in

normal glass. (6)

26. A recording of depth or distance under water made by

an echo sounder. (8)

4

5

7

10

11

13

12

15

16

17

18

19

21

22

25

24

26

down

2. The load in which the current and the voltage at the

terminals are out of phase with each other. (8, 4)

8. The point in the orbit of the moon or an artificial

satellite that is nearest to the earth. (7)

11. The nucleus of this element is the same as an alpha

particle. (6)

13. A plot showing variation of discharge vs time in fluids.

(10)

14. Moon of Jupiter, designated JXV (8)

15. An instrument that gives an electrical indication of

deviation from the vertical. (10)

16. A compact, coherent, collimated stream of relatively

fast moving fluids impinging into still fluids. (3)

18. Source of all waves is objects that _____ . (7)

19. Pivot point around which a lever turns. (7)

85

86

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