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Bridge Superstructure Design

AASHTO 2014

CSiBridge 2015
Bridge Superstructure Design
AASHTO 2014

ISO BRG030315M31 Rev. 0

Proudly developed in the United States of America

March 2015

Copyright
Copyright Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2015
All rights reserved.
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Computers & Structures, Inc.
www.csiamerica.com
info@csiamerica.com (for general information)
support@csiamerica.com (for technical support)

DISCLAIMER

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DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY
OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
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INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

Bridge Superstructure Design


1

Introduction
1.1

Organization

1-1

1.2

Recommended Reading/Practice

1-2

Define Loads and Load Combinations


2.1

Load Pattern Types

2-1

2.2

Design Load Combinations

2-3

2.3

Default Load Combinations

2-5

Live Load Distribution


3.1

Methods for Determining Live Load Distribution

3-1

3.2

Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

3-2

3.3

Apply LLD Factors

3-3

3.3.1 User Specified

3-4

CSiBridge Superstructure Design

3.4

3.5

3.6

3-4
3-4
3-4

Generate Virtual Combinations

3-5

3.4.1 Stress Check


3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check

3-5
3-6

Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders

3-6

3.5.1 Stress Check


3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check

3-6
3-6

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3-7

Define a Bridge Design Request


4.1

Name and Bridge Object

4-4

4.2

Check Type

4-4

4.3

Station Range

4-6

4.4

Design Parameters

4-6

4.5

Demand Sets

4-18

4.6

Live Load Distribution Factors

4-18

Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges


5.1

5.2

ii

3.3.2 Calculated by CSiBridge in Accordance


with AASHTO LFRD
3.3.3 Forces Read Directly from Girders
3.3.4 Uniformly Distribution to Girders

Stress Design AASHTO LFRD

5-2

5.1.1 Capacity Parameters


5.1.2 Algorithm
5.1.3 Stress Design Example

5-2
5-2
5-2

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5-5

5.2.1 Capacity Parameters


5.2.2 Variables
5.2.3 Design Process

5-5
5-5
5-6

Contents

5.3

5.4

5-7
5-10

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5-15

5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5

5-15
5-15
5-17
5-18
5-24

Capacity Parameters
Variables
Design Process
Algorithm
Shear Design Example

Principal Stress Design, AASHTO LRFD

5-31

5.4.1 Capacity Parameters


5.4.2 Demand Parameters

5-31
5-31

Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA


6.1

Stress Design

6-2

6.2

Shear Design

6-3

6.2.1 Variables
6.2.2 Design Process
6.2.3 Algorithms

6-4
6-5
6-6

6.3

5.2.4 Algorithm
5.2.5 Flexure Design Example

Flexure Design

6-10

6.3.1 Variables
6.3.2 Design Process
6.3.3 Algorithms

6-10
6-11
6-12

Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges


7.1

Stress Design

7-1

7.2

Shear Design

7-2

7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4

7-3
7-5
7-5
7-9

7.3

Variables
Design Process
Algorithms
Shear Design Example

Flexure Design

7-14
iii

CSiBridge Superstructure Design

7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4

8.2

Section Properties

8-1

8.1.1 Yield Moments


8.1.2 Plastic Moments
8.1.3 Section Classification and Factors

8-1
8-3
8-7

Demand Sets

8-11

8.2.1 Demand Flange Stresses fbu and ff


8.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending
Stress f1
8.2.3 Depth of the Web in Compression

8-12
8-13
8-14

Strength Design Request

8-15

8.3.1 Flexure
8.3.2 Shear

8-15
8-22

8.4

Service Design Request

8-24

8.5

Web Fatigue Design Request

8-26

8.6

Constructability Design Request

8-27

8.6.1 Staged (Steel I Comp Construct Stgd)


8.6.2 Non-staged (Steel I Comp Construct
Non-staged)
8.6.3 Slab Status vs Unbraced Length
8.6.4 Flexure
8.6.5 Shear

8-27
8-27
8-28
8-28
8-30

Section Optimization

8-33

8.3

8.7

Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab


9.1

iv

7-15
7-16
7-16
7-20

Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab


8.1

Variables
Design Process
Algorithms
Flexure Capacity Design Example

Section Properties

9-1

Contents

9.2

9-1
9-2
9-7

Demand Sets

9-9

9.2.1 Demand Flange Stresses fbu and ff


9.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending
Stress f1
9.2.3 Depth of the Web in Compression

9-11
9-12

Strength Design Request

9-13

9.3.1 Flexure
9.3.2 Shear

9-13
9-16

9.4

Service Design Request

9-19

9.5

Web Fatigue Design Request

9-20

9.6

Constructability Design Request

9-22

9.6.1
9.6.2
9.6.3
9.6.4
9.6.5

9-22
9-22
9-22
9-23
9-27

9.3

9.7

10

9.1.1 Yield Moments


9.1.2 Plastic Moments
9.1.3 Section Classification and Factors

Staged (Steel-U Comp Construct Stgd)


Non-staged (Steel-U Comp Construct NonStgd)
Slab Status vs Unbraced Length
Flexure
Shear

Section Optimization

9-10

9-30

Run a Bridge Design Request


10.1 Description of Example Model

10-2

10.2 Design Preferences

10-3

10.3 Load Combinations

10-3

10.4 Bridge Design Request

10-5

10.5 Start Design/Check of the Bridge

10-6

CSiBridge Superstructure Design

11

Display Bridge Design Results


11.1 Display Results as a Plot
11.1.1 Additional Display Examples

11-2

11.2 Display Data Tables

11-7

11.3 Advanced Report Writer

11-8

11.4 Verification

Bibliography

vi

11-1

11-11

Chapter 1
Introduction

As the ultimate versatile, integrated tool for modeling, analysis, and design of
bridge structures, CSiBridge can apply appropriate code-specific design processes to concrete box girder bridge design, design when the superstructure includes Precast Concrete Box bridges with a composite slab and steel I-beam or
U-tub bridges with composite slabs. The ease with which these tasks can be accomplished makes CSiBridge the most productive bridge design package in the
industry.
Design using CSiBridge is based on load patterns, load cases, load combinations and design requests. The design output can then be displayed graphically
and printed using a customized reporting format.
It should be noted that the design of bridge superstructure is a complex subject
and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. CSiBridge is a tool to
help the user with that process. Only the aspects of design documented in this
manual are automated by the CSiBridge design capabilities. The user must
check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by
CSiBridge.

1.1

Organization
This manual is designed to help you become productive using CSiBridge design in accordance with the available codes when modeling concrete box girder
1-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design


bridges and precast concrete girder bridges. Chapter 2 describes code-specific
design prerequisites. Chapter 3 describes Live Load Distribution Factors.
Chapter 4 describes defining the design request, which includes the design request name, a bridge object name (i.e., the bridge model), check type (i.e., the
type of design), station range (i.e., portion of the bridge to be designed), design
parameters (i.e., overwrites for default parameters) and demand sets (i.e., loading combinations). Chapter 5 identifies code-specific algorithms used by
CSiBridge in completing concrete box girder bridges. Chapter 6 provides codespecific algorithms used by CSiBridge in completing concrete box and multicell box girder bridges. Chapter 7 describes code-speicifc design parameters for
precast I and U girder. Chapter 8 explains how to design and optimize a steel Ibeam bridge with composite slab. Chapter 9 describes how to design and optimize a steel U-beam bridge with composite slab. Chapter 10 describes how to
run a Design Request using an example that applies the AASHTO LRFD code,
and Chapter 11 describes design output for the example in Chapter 10, which
can be presented graphically as plots, in data tables, and in reports generated
using the Advanced Report Writer feature.

1.2

Recommended Reading/Practice
It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable Watch & Learn Series tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiamerica.com, before attempting to design a concrete box girder
or precast concrete bridge using CSiBridge. Additional information can be
found in the on-line Help facility available from within the softwares main
menu.

1-2

Recommended Reading/Practice

Chapter 2
Define Loads and Load Combinations

This chapter describes the steps that are necessary to define the loads and load
combinations that the user intends to use in the design of the bridge superstructure. The user may define the load combinations manually or have CSiBridge
automatically generate the code generated load combinations. The appropriate
design code may be selected using the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Preference command.
When the code generated load combinations are going to be used, it is important for users to define the load pattern type in accordance with the applicable code. The load pattern type can be defined using the Loads > Load Patterns command. The user options for defining the load pattern types are summarized in the Tables 2-1 and 2-2 for the AASHTO LRFD code.

2.1

Load Pattern Types


Tables 2-1 and 2-2 show the permanent and transient load pattern types that
can be defined in CSiBridge. The tables also show the AASHTO abbreviation
and the load pattern descriptions. Users may choose any name to identify a
load pattern type.

Load Pattern Types

2-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 2-1 PERMANENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO-LRFD Code
CSiBridge
Load Pattern Type

AASHTO
Reference

Description of Load Pattern

CREEP

CR

Force effects due to creep

DOWNDRAG

DD

Downdrag force

DEAD

DC

Dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments

SUPERDEAD

DW

Superimposed dead load of wearing surfaces


and utilities

BRAKING

BR

Vehicle braking force

HORIZ. EARTH PR

EH

Horizontal earth pressures

LOCKED IN

EL

Misc. locked-in force effects resulting from the


construction process

EARTH SURCHARGE

ES

Earth surcharge loads

VERT. EARTH PR

EV

Vertical earth pressure

PRESTRESS

PS

Hyperstatic forces from post-tensioning

Table 2-2 TRANSIENT Load Pattern Types Used in the AASHTO LRFD Design Code
CSiBridge
AASHTO
Load Pattern Type
Reference
Description of Load Pattern
BRAKING

BR

Vehicle braking force

CENTRIFUGAL

CE

Vehicular centrifugal loads

VEHICLE COLLISION

CT

Vehicular collision force

VESSEL COLLISION

CV

Vessel collision force

QUAKE

EQ

Earthquake

FRICTION

FR

Friction effects

ICE

IC

Ice loads

IM

Vehicle Dynamic Load Allowance

BRIDGE LL

LL

Vehicular live load

LL SURCHARGE

LS

Live load surcharge

PEDESTRIAN LL

PL

Pedestrian live load

SETTLEMENT

SE

Force effects due settlement

TEMP GRADIENT

TG

Temperature gradient loads

TEMPERATURE

TU

Uniform temperature effects

STEAM FLOW

WA

Water load and steam pressure

WINDLIVE LOAD

WL

Wind on live load

WIND

WS

Wind loads on structure

2-2

Load Pattern Types

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

2.2

Design Load Combinations


The code generated design load combinations make use of the load pattern
types noted in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Table 2-3 shows the load factors and combinations that are required in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD code.
Table 2-3 Load Combinations and Load Factors Used in the AASHTO LRFD Code
DC
DD
DW
EH
EV
ES
EL
PS
CR
SH

LL
IM
CE
BR
PL
LS

LL
IM
CE

WA

WS

WL

FR

TU

TU

SE

EQ

IC

CT

CV

1.75

1.00

1.00

0.5/
1.20

TG

SE

Str II

1.35

1.00

1.00

0.5/
1.20

TG

SE

Str III

1.00

1.40

1.00

0.5/
1.20

TG

SE

Str IV

1.00

1.00

0.5/
1.20

Str V

1.35

1.00

0.40

1.00

1.00

0.5/
1.20

TG

SE

Load
Combo
Limit
State
Str I

Ext Ev I

1.00

EQ

1.00

1.00

1.00

Ext Ev
II

1.00

0.5

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Serv I

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.30

1.00

1.00

1.00/
1.20

TG

SE

Serv II

1.00

1.30

1.00

1.00

1.00/
1.20

Serv III

1.00

0.80

1.00

1.00

1.00/
1.20

TG

SE

Serv IV

1.00

1.00

0.70

1.00

1.00/
1.20

1.00

Fatigue
I-LL, IM
& CE
Only

0.875
/1.75

Fatigue
II-LL, IM

1.00

Design Load Combinations

2-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 2-4 shows the maximum and minimum factors for the permanent loads
in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD code.
Table 2-4 Load Factors for Permanent Loads,

P , AASHTO LRFD Code

Type of Load
DC: Components and Attachments
DC: Strength IV only

Load Factor
Maximum
Minimum
1.25
1.50

0.90
0.90

1.40
1.05
1.25

0.25
0.30
0.35

DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities

1.50

0.65

EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure


Active
At-Rest
AEP for Anchored Walls

1.50
1.35
1.35

0.90
0.90
N/A

EL: Locked in Construction Stresses

1.00

1.00

DD: Downdrag
Piles, Tomlinson Method
Piles, Method
Drilled Shafts, ONeill and Reese (1999) Method

EV: Vertical Earth Pressure


Overall Stability
Retaining Walls and Abutments
Rigid Buried Structure
Rigid Frames
Flexible Buried Structures other than Metal Box
Culverts
Flexible Metal Box Culverts
ES: Earth Surcharge

1.00

N/A

1.35

1.00

1.30

0.90

1.35

0.90

1.95

0.90

1.50

0.90

1.50

0.75

Table 2-5 Load Factors for Permanent Loads due to Superimposed Deformations,

P,

AASHTO LRFD Code


PS

CR, SH

Superstructures, Segmental
Concrete Substructures supporting Segmental Superstructures

Bridge Component

1.0

See Table 2-5,


DC

Concrete Superstructures, non-segmental

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

Substructures supporting non-segmental Superstructures


Using Ig
Using Ieffective

2-4

Design Load Combinations

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

Table 2-5 Load Factors for Permanent Loads due to Superimposed Deformations,

P,

AASHTO LRFD Code


Bridge Component
Steel Substructures

PS

CR, SH

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Two combinations for each permanent load pattern are required because of the
maximum and minimum factors. When the default load combinations are used,
CSiBridge automatically creates both load combinations (one for the maximum
and one for the minimum factor), and then automatically creates a third combination that represents an enveloped combination of the max/min combos.

2.3

Default Load Combinations


Default design load combinations can be activated using the Design/Rating >
Load Combinations > Add Default command. Users can set the load combinations by selecting the Bridge option. Users may select the desired limit
states and load cases using the Code Generated Load Combinations for Bridge
Design form. The form shown in Figure 2-1 illustrates the options when the
AASHTO LRFD code has been selected for design.

Default Load Combinations

2-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 2-1 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design Form


AASHTO LRFD
After the desired limit states and load cases have been selected, CSiBridge will
generate all of the code-required load combinations. These can be viewed using the Home > Display > Show Tables command or by using the
Show/Modify button on the Define Combinations form, which is shown in
Figure 2-2.

2-6

Default Load Combinations

Chapter 2 - Define Loads and Load Combinations

Figure 2-2 Define Load Combinations Form AASHTO LRFD


The load combinations denoted as Str-I1, Str-I2, and so forth refer to Strength I
load combinations. The load case StrIGroup1 is the name given to enveloped
load combination of all of the Strength I combinations. Enveloped load combinations will allow for some efficiency later when the bridge design requests are
defined (see Chapter 4).

Default Load Combinations

2-7

Chapter 3
Live Load Distribution

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge to determine the live
load distribution factors used to assign live load demands to individual girders.
An explanation is given with respect to how the distribution factors are applied
in a shear, stress, and moment check.
The live load distribution factors derived using the code-based Method 2 described in Section 3.1 of this manual are applicable only to superstructures of
the following types: precast I- or U-girders with composite slabs, steel I-girders
with composite slabs, and multi-cell concrete box girders. These deck section
types may also have the live loads distributed based on Methods 1, 3 or 4 described in Section 3.1 of this manual.
Legend:
Girder = beam + tributary area of composite slab
Section Cut = all girders present in the cross-section at the cut location
LLD = Live Load Distribution

3.1

Methods for Determining Live Load Distribution


CSiBridge gives the user a choice of four methods to address distribution of
live load to individual girders.
Method 1 The LLD factors are specified directly by the user.

3-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Method 2 CSiBridge calculates the LLD factors by following procedures outlined in AASHTO LRFD Section 4.6.2.2.
Method 3 CSiBridge reads the calculated live load demands directly from individual girders (available only for Area models).
Method 4 CSiBridge distributes the live load uniformly to all girders.
It is important to note that to obtain relevant results, the definition of a Moving
Load case must be adjusted depending on which method is selected.
When the LLD factors are user specified or specified in accordance with the
code (Method 1 or 2), only one lane with a MultiLane Scale Factor = 1
should be loaded into a Moving Load cases included in the demand set combinations.
When CSiBridge reads the LLD factors directly from individual girders
(Method 3, applicable to area and solid models only) or when CSiBridge applies the LLD factors uniformly (Method 4), multiple traffic lanes with relevant Multilane Scale Factors should be loaded in accordance with code requirements.

3.2

Determine Live Load Distribution Factors


At every section cut, the following geometric information is evaluated to determine the LLD factors.
span lengththe length of span for which moment or shear is being calculated
the number of girders
girder designationthe first and last girder are designated as exterior girders
and the other girders are classified as interior girders
roadway widthmeasured as the distance between curbs/barriers; medians
are ignored

3-2

Determine Live Load Distribution Factors

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

overhangconsists of the horizontal distance from the centerline of the exterior web of the left exterior beam at deck level to the interior edge of the curb
or traffic barrier
the beamsincludes the area, moment of inertia, torsion constant, center of
gravity
the thickness of the composite slab t1 and the thickness of concrete slab
haunch t2
the tributary area of the composite slabwhich is bounded at the interior
girder by the midway distances to neighboring girders and at the exterior
girder; includes the entire overhang on one side, and is bounded by the midway distances to neighboring girder on the other side
Youngs modulus for both the slab and the beamsangle of skew support.
CSiBridge then evaluates the longitudinal stiffness parameter, Kg, in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 (eq. 4.6.2.2.1-1). The center of gravity of
the composite slab measured from the bottom of the beam is calculated as the
sum of the beam depth, thickness of the concrete slab haunch t2, and one-half
the thickness of the composite slab t1. Spacing of the girders is calculated as
the average distance between the centerlines of neighboring girders.
CSiBridge then verifies that the selected LLD factors are compatible with the
type of model: spine, area, or solid. If the LLD factors are read by CSiBridge
directly from the individual girders, the model type must be area or solid. This
is the case because with the spine model option, CSiBridge models the entire
cross section as one frame element and there is no way to extract forces on individual girders. All other model types and LLD factor method permutations
are allowed.

3.3

Apply LLD Factors


The application of live load distribution factors varies, depending on which
method has been selected: user specified; in accordance with code; directly
from individual girders; or uniformly distributed onto all girders.

Apply LLD Factors

3-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

3.3.1 User Specified


When this method is selected, CSiBridge reads the girder designations (i.e., exterior and interior) and assigns live load distribution factors to the individual
girders accordingly.

3.3.2 Calculated by CSiBridge in Accordance with AASHTO


LRFD
When this method is selected, CSiBridge considers the data input by the user
for truck wheel spacing, minimum distance from wheel to curb/barrier and
multiple presence factor for one loaded lane.
Depending on the section type, CSiBridge validates several section parameters
against requirements specified in the code (AASHTO LRFD Tables 4.6.2.2.2b1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1 and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). When any of the parameter values are outside the range required by the code, the section cut is excluded from
the Design Request.
At every section cut, CSiBridge then evaluates the live load distribution factors
for moment and shear for exterior and interior girders using formulas specified
in the code (AASHTO LRFD Tables 4.6.2.2.2b-1, 4.6.2.2.2d-1, 4.6.2.2.3a-1
and 4.6.2.2.3b-1). After evaluation, the LLD factor values are assigned to individual girders based on their designation (exterior, interior). The same value
equal to the average of the LLD factors calculated for the left and right girders
is assigned to both exterior girders. Similarly, all interior girders use the same
LLD factors equal to the average of the LLD factors of all of the individual interior girders.

3.3.3 Forces Read Directly from Girders


When this method is selected, CSiBridge sets the live load distribution factor
for all girders to 1.

3.3.4 Uniformly Distributed to Girders


When this method is selected, the live load distribution factor is equal to 1/n
where n is the number of girders in the section. All girders have identical LLD
3-4

Apply LLD Factors

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

factors disregarding their designation (exterior, interior) and demand type


(shear, moment).

3.4

Generate Virtual Combinations


When the method for determining the live load distribution factors is userspecified, code-specified, or uniformly distributed (Methods 1, 2 or 4),
CSiBridge generates virtual load combination for every valid section cut selected for design. The virtual combinations are used during a stress check and
check of the shear and moment to calculate the forces on the girders. After
those forces have been calculated, the virtual combinations are deleted. The
process is repeated for all section cuts selected for design.
Four virtual COMBO cases are generated for each COMBO that the user has
specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4). The program analyzes the design type of each load case present in the user specified COMBO and multiplies all non-moving load case types by 1/ n (where n is the number of girders)
and the moving load case type by the section cut values of the LLD factors (exterior moment, exterior shear, interior moment and interior shear LLD factors).
This ensures that dead load is shared evenly by all girders, while live load is
distributed based on the LLD factors.
The program then completes a stress check and a check of the shear and the
moment for each section cut selected for design.

3.4.1 Stress Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points
are read from CSiBridge for every virtual COMBO generated. To ensure that
live load demands are shared equally irrespective of lane eccentricity by all
girders, CSiBridge uses averaging when calculating the girder stresses. It calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial and M3 moment demands on
all the beams in the entire section cut and dividing the demands by the number
of girders. Similarly, P and M3 forces in the composite slab are integrated and
stresses are calculated in the individual tributary areas of the slab by dividing
the total slab demand by the number of girders.

Generate Virtual Combinations

3-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

When stresses are read from analysis into design, the stresses are multiplied by
n (where n is number of girders) to make up for the reduction applied in the
Virtual Combinations.

3.4.2 Shear or Moment Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the entire section cut forces are read from
CSiBridge for every Virtual COMBO generated. The forces are assigned to individual girders based on their designation. (Forces from two virtual Combinationsone for shear and one for momentgenerated for exterior beam are assigned to both exterior beams, and similarly, Virtual Combinations for interior
beams are assigned to interior beams.)

3.5

Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders


When the method for determining the live load distribution is based on forces
read directly from the girders, the method varies based on which Design Check
has been specified in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

3.5.1 Stress Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder stresses at all stress output points
are read from CSiBridge for every COMBO specified in the Design Request.
CSiBridge calculates the stresses on a beam by integrating axial, M3 and M2
moment demands on the beam at the center of gravity of the beam. Similarly P,
M3 and M2 demands in the composite slab are integrated at the center of gravity of the slab tributary area.

3.5.2 Shear or Moment Check


At the Section Cut being analyzed, the girder forces are read from CSiBridge
for every COMBO specified in the Design Request. CSiBridge calculates the
demands on a girder by integrating axial, M3 and M2 moment demands on the
girder at the center of gravity of the girder.

3-6

Read Forces/Stresses Directly from Girders

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

3.6

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2


The AASHTO LRFD Specifications allow the use of advanced methods of
analysis to determine the live load distribution factors. However, for typical
bridges, the specifications list equations to calculate the distribution factors for
different types of bridge superstructures. The types of superstructures covered
by these equations are described in AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.1-1. From
this table, bridges with concrete decks supported on precast concrete I or bulbtee girders are designated as cross-section K. Other tables in AASHTO
LRFD 4.6.2.2.2 list the distribution factors for interior and exterior girders including cross-section K.
The distribution factor equations are largely based on work conducted in the
NCHRP Project 12-26 and have been verified to give accurate results compared to 3-dimensional bridge analysis and field measurements. The multiple
presence factors are already included in the distribution factor equations except
when the tables call for the use of the lever rule. In these cases, the computations need to account for the multiple presence factors. The user is providing
those as part of the Design Request definition together with wheel spacing,
curb to wheel distance and lane width.
Notice that the distribution factor tables include a column with the heading
range of applicability. The ranges of applicability listed for each equation are
based on the range for each parameter used in the study leading to the development of the equation. When any of the parameters exceeds the listed value in
the range of applicability column, CSiBridge reports the incompliance and
excludes the section from design.
AASHTO LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.2d of the specifications states: In beam-slab
bridge cross-sections with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor
for the exterior beam shall not be taken less than that which would be obtained
by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.
This provision was added to the specifications because the original study that
developed the distribution factor equations did not consider intermediate diaphragms. Application of this provision requires the presence of a sufficient
number of intermediate diaphragms whose stiffness is adequate to force the
cross section to act as a rigid section. For prestressed girders, different jurisdictions use different types and numbers of intermediate diaphragms. Depending
on the number and stiffness of the intermediate diaphragms, the provisions of
LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d may not be applicable. If the user specifies option
Yes in the Diaphragms Present option the program follows the procedure
outlined in the provision AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d.
For this example, one deep reinforced concrete diaphragm is located at the
midspan of each span. The stiffness of the diaphragm was deemed sufficient to
force the cross-section to act as a rigid section; therefore, the provisions of
AASHTO LRFD S4.6.2.2.2d apply.

Figure 3-1 General Dimensions


Required information:
AASHTO Type I-Beam (28/72)
Noncomposite beam area, Ag
Noncomposite beam moment of inertia, Ig
Deck slab thickness, ts
Span length, L
Girder spacing, S
Modulus of elasticity of the beam, EB
Modulus of elasticity of the deck, ED
C.G. to top of the basic beam
C.G. to bottom of the basic beam
1.

3-8

= 1,085 in2
= 733,320 in4
= 8 in.
= 110 ft.
= 9 ft.-8 in.
= 4,696 ksi
= 3,834 ksi
= 35.62 in.
= 36.38 in.

Calculate n, the modular ratio between the beam and the deck.

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

= EB ED

(AASHTO 2014 4.6.2.2.1-2)

= 4696 3834 = 1.225


2.

Calculate eg, the distance between the center of gravity of the noncomposite beam and the deck. Ignore the thickness of the haunch in determining eg
eg = NAYT + t s 2 = 35.62 + 8 2 = 39.62 in.

3.

Calculate Kg, the longitudinal stiffness parameter.

Kg = n I + Aeg2 (4.6.2.2.1-1)
2
= 1.225 733 320 + 1 085 ( 39.62 ) =
2 984 704 in 4

4.

Interior girder. Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior


beam with two or more design lanes loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table S4.6.2.2.2b-1.
DM = 0.075 + ( S 9.5 )

0.6

( S L )0.2 ( K g

= 0.075 + ( 9.667 9.5 )

0.6

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

( 9.667 110 )0.2 2 984 704

{12 (110 )(8) }


3

= 0.796 lane
5.

0.1

(eq. 1)

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.2e, a skew correction factor


for moment may be applied for bridge skews greater than 30 degrees.
The bridge in this example is skewed 20 degrees, and therefore, no skew
correction factor for moment is allowed.
Calculate the moment distribution factor for an interior beam with one
design lane loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1.
DM = 0.06 + ( S 14 )

0.4

( S L )0.3 ( K g

= 0.06 + ( 9.667 14 )

0.4

12.0 Lt s 3

0.1

( 9.667 110 )0.3 2984704

3
12 (100 )( 8 )

= 0.542 lane

0.1

(eq. 2)

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Notice that the distribution factor calculated above for a single lane loaded already includes the 1.2 multiple presence factor for a single lane,
therefore, this value may be used for the service and strength limit states.
However, multiple presence factors should not be used for the fatigue
limit state. Therefore, the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for the single
lane is required to be removed from the value calculated above to determine the factor used for the fatigue limit state.
6.

Skew correction factor for shear.


In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.3c, a skew correction factor
for support shear at the obtuse corner must be applied to the distribution
factor of all skewed bridges. The value of the correction factor is calculated using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1.

SC = 1.0 + 0.20 12.0 Lt s3 K g

0.3

tan

= 1.0 + 0.20 12.0 (110 )( 8 ) 2 984 704


3

0.3

tan 20

= 1.047
7.

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with two or
more design lanes loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.
DV = 0.2 + ( S 12 ) ( S 35 )

= 0.2 + ( 9.667 12 ) ( 9.667 35 )

= 0.929 lane
Apply the skew correction factor:
DV = 1.047 ( 0.929 ) = 0.973 lane
8.

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an interior beam with one design lane loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table S4.6.2.2.3a-1.
DV = 0.36 + ( S 25.0 )
= 0.36 + ( 9.667 25.0 )

3 - 10

(eq. 4)

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

= 0.747 lane
Apply the skew correction factor:
DV = 1.047 ( 0.747 )
= 0.782 lane
9.

(eq. 5)

From (1) and (2), the service and strength limit state moment distribution
factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.796 and 0.542 lane.
Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.796 lane.
From (4) and (5), the service and strength limit state shear distribution
factor for the interior girder is equal to the larger of 0.973 and 0.782 lane.
Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.973 lane.

10.

Exterior girder

11.

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with two
or more design lanes using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.
DM = eDVinterior
e

= 0.77 + de 9.1

where de is the distance from the centerline of the exterior girder to the
inside face of the curb or barrier.
e

= 0.77 + 1.83/9.1 = 0.97

DM = 0.97(0.796)
12.

= 0.772 lane

(eq. (7)

Calculate the moment distribution factor for an exterior beam with one
design lane using the lever rule in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1.

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 3-2 Lever Rule

DM = [( 3.5 + 6 ) + 3.5] 9.667 =


1.344 wheels 2
= 0.672 lane

(eq. 8)

Notice that this value does not include the multiple presence factor,
therefore, it is adequate for use with the fatigue limit state. For service
and strength limit states, the multiple presence factor for a single lane
loaded needs to be included.
DM = 0.672 (1.2 )
= 0.806 lane
13.

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with two or
more design lanes loaded using AASHTO LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1.
DV = eDVinterior

3 - 12

(eq. 9) (Strength and Service)

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

where:
e = 0.6 + de 10
= 0.6 + 1.83 10
= 0.783
DV = 0.783 ( 0.973 )
= 0.762 lane
14.

(eq. 10)

Calculate the shear distribution factor for an exterior beam with one
design lane loaded using the lever rule in accordance with AASHTO
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1. This value will be the same as the moment
distribution factor with the skew correction factor applied.
DV

= 1.047 ( 0.806 )
= 0.845 lane

(eq. 12) (Strength and Service)

Notice that AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2.2d includes additional requirements


for the calculation of the distribution factors for exterior girders when the
girders are connected with relatively stiff cross-frames that force the
cross-section to act as a rigid section. As indicated in the introduction,
these provisions are applied to this example; the calculations are shown
below.
15.

Additional check for rigidly connected girders (AASHTO LRFD


4.6.2.2.2d)
The multiple presence factor, m, is applied to the reaction of the exterior
beam (AASHTO LRFD Table 3.6.1.1.2-1)
m1 = 1.20
m2 = 1.00
m3 = 0.85
R

= N L N b + X ext

( e) x

(4.6.2.2.2d-1)

where:

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

= reaction on exterior beam in terms of lanes

NL = number of loaded lanes under consideration


e

= eccentricity of a design truck or a design land load from


the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft.)

= horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to each girder (ft.)

Xext = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern to the exterior girder (ft.) See Figure 1 for dimensions.
One lane loaded (only the leftmost lane applied):
2
2
2
R = 1 6 + 24.167 ( 21) 2 ( ( 24.1672 ) + (14.52 ) + ( 4.8332 ) )

= 0.1667 + 0.310
= 0.477 (Fatigue)
Add the multiple presence factor of 1.2 for a single lane:
R = 1.2 ( 0.477 )
= 0.572 (Strength)
Two lanes loaded:
2
2
2
R = 2 6 + 24.167 ( 21 + 9 ) 2 ( ( 24.1672 ) + (14.52 ) + ( 4.8332 ) )

= 0.333 + 0.443
= 0.776
Add the multiple presence factor of 1.0 for two lanes loaded:
R = 1.0 ( 0.776 )
= 0.776 (Strength)

3 - 14

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

Chapter 3 - Live Load Distribution

Three lanes loaded:


R =

2
2
2
3 6 + 24.167 ( 21 + 9 3 ) 2 ( ( 24.1672 ) + (14.52 ) + ( 4.8332 ) )

= 0.5 + 0.399
= 0.899
Add the multiple presence factor of 0.85 for three or more lanes loaded:
R = 0.85 ( 0.899 )
= 0.764 (Strength)
These values do not control over the distribution factors summarized in
Design Step 16.
16.

From (7) and (9), the service and strength limit state moment distribution
factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.772 and 0.806
lane. Therefore, the moment distribution factor is 0.806 lane.
From (10) and (12), the service and strength limit state shear distribution
factor for the exterior girder is equal to the larger of 0.762 and 0.845
lane. Therefore, the shear distribution factor is 0.845 lane.

Table 3-1 Summary of Service and Strength Limit State Distribution Factors -AASHTO LRFD
Moment
interior
beams

Moment
exterior
beams

Shear
interior
beams

Shear
exterior
beams

Multiple lanes loaded

0.796

0.772

0.973

0.762

Single lane loaded

0.542

0.806

0.782

0.845

Multiple lanes loaded

NA

0.776

NA

0.776

Single lane loaded

NA

0.572

NA

0.572

Design Value

0.796

0.806

0.973

0.845

Value reported by
CSiBridge

0.796

0.807

0.973

0.845

Load Case

Distribution factors from


Tables in 4.6.2.2.2
Additional check for rigidly
connected girders

LLD Factor Design Example Using Method 2

3 - 15

Chapter 4
Define a Bridge Design Request

This chapter describes the Bridge Design Request, which is defined using the
Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Requests command.
Each Bridge Design Request is unique and specifies which bridge object is to
be designed, the type of check to be performed (e.g., concrete box stress, precast composite stress, and so on), the station range (i.e., the particular zone or
portion of the bridge that is to be designed), the design parameters (i.e., parameters that may be used to overwrite the default values automatically set by the
program) and demand sets (i.e., the load combination[s] to be considered).
Multiple Bridge Design Requests may be defined for the same bridge object.
Before defining a design request, the applicable code should be specified using
the Design/Rating > Superstructure > Preferences command. Currently, the
AASHTO STD 2002, AASHTO LRFD 2007, AASHTO LRFD 2012,
CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992, and Indian IRC codes are available for the design of a
concrete box girder; the AASHTO 2007 LRFD, AASHTO LRFD 2012,
AASHTO LRFD 2014, CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992, and Indian IRC codes are
available for the design of a Precast I or U Beam with Composite Slab; the
AASHTO LFRD 2007, AASHTO LRFD 2012, AASHTO LRFD 2014,
CAN/CSA S6, and EN 1992-1-1 are available for Steel I-Beam with Composite Slab superstructures; and the AASHTO LRFD 2012 and AASHTO LRFD
2014 are available for a U tub bridge with a composite slab.

Name and Bridge Object

4-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 4-1 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for
a concrete box girder bridge, and the check type is concrete box stress. Figure
4-2 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for a
Composite I or U girder bridge and the check type is precast composite stress.
Figure 4-3 shows the Bridge Design Request form when the bridge object is for
a Steel I-Beam bridge and the check type is composite strength.

Figure 4-1 Bridge Design


Request - Concrete Box
Girder Bridges

4-2

Name and Bridge Object

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Figure 4-2 Bridge Design


Request - Composite I or
U Girder Bridges

Figure 4-3 Bridge Design


Request Steel I Beam
with Composite Slab

Name and Bridge Object

4-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

4.1

Name and Bridge Object


Each Bridge Design Request must have unique name. Any name can be used.
If multiple Bridge Objects are used to define a bridge model, select the bridge
object to be designed for the Design Request. If a bridge model contains only a
single bridge object, the name of that bridge object will be the only item available from the Bridge Object drop-down list.

4.2

Check Type
The Check Type refers to the type of design to be performed and the available
options depend on the type of bridge deck being modeled.
For a Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following check
type options:
AASHTO STD 2002
Concrete Box Stress
AASHTO LRFD
Concrete Box Stress
Concrete Box Flexure
Concrete Box Shear and Torsion
Concrete Box Principal
CAN/CSA S6, and EN 1992-1-1 and IRC: 112
Concrete Box Stress
Concrete Box Flexure
Concrete Box Shear
For Multi-Cell Concrete Box Girder bridge, CSiBridge provides the following
check type options:

4-4

Name and Bridge Object

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

AASHTO LRFD, CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992-1-1, and IRC: 112


Concrete Box Stress
Concrete Box Flexure
Concrete Box Shear
For bridge models with precast I or U Beams with Composite Slabs,
CSiBridge provides three check type options, as follows:
AASHTO LRFD, CAN/CSA S6, EN 1992-1-1, and IRC: 112
Precast Comp Stress
Precast Comp Shear
Precast Comp Flexure
For bridge models with steel I-beam with composite slab superstructures,
CSiBridge provides the following check type option:
AASHTO LRFD

Steel Comp Strength

Steel Comp Service

Steel Comp Fatigue

Steel Comp Constructability Staged

Steel Comp Constructability NonStaged

EN 1994-2:2005
Steel Comp Ultimate
Steel Comp Service Stresses
Steel Comp Service Rebar
Steel Comp Constructability Staged

Check Type

4-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Steel Comp Constructability NonStaged


For bridge models with steel U-tub with composite slab superstructures,
CSiBridge provides the following check type option:
AASHTO LRFD

Steel Comp Strength

Steel Comp Service

Steel Comp Fatigue

Steel Comp Constructability Staged

Steel Comp Constructability NonStaged

The bold type denotes the name that appears in the check type drop-down list.
A detailed description of the design algorithm can be found in Chapter 5 for
concrete box girder bridges, in Chapter 6 for multi-cell box girder bridges, in
Chapter 7 for precast I or U beam with composite slabs, and in Chapter 8 for
steel I-beam with composite slab.

4.3

Station Range
The station range refers to the particular zone or portion of the bridge that is to
be designed. The user may choose the entire length of the bridge, or specify
specific zones using station ranges. Multiple zones (i.e., station ranges) may be
specified as part of a single design request.
When defining a station range, the user specifies the Location Type, which determines if the superstructure forces are to be considered before or at a station
point. The user may choose the location type as before the point, after the
point, or both.

4.4

Design Parameters
Design parameters are overwrites that can be used to change the default values
set automatically by the program. The parameters are specific to each code,

4-6

Station Range

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

deck type, and check type. Figure 4-4 shows the Superstructure Design Request Parameters form.

Figure 4-3 Superstructure Design Request Parameters form

Table 4-1 shows the parameters for concrete box girder bridges. Table 4-2
shows the parameters for multi-cell concrete box bridges. Table 4-3 shows the
parameters applicable when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast
I or U girders with composite slabs. Table 4-4 shows the parameters applicable
when the superstructure has a deck that includes steel I-beams.
Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders
AASHTO STD 2002
Concrete Box Stress

Resistance Factor - multiplies both compression and tension


stress limits
Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
Multiplier on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit,
given in the units specified
The tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or
ksi units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Design Parameters

4-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


AASHTO LRFD
Concrete Box Stress

Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits
Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier
on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier
on sqrt( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the
units specified
Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit
factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for f c
and the resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear

Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits
Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor
that multiplies nominal shear resistance to obtain factored
resistance for light-weight concrete
Include Resal (Hunching-girder) shear effects Yes or No.
Specifies whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in
variable depth members shall or shall not be considered
when determining the design factored shear force in accordance with Article 5.8.6.2.
Concrete Box Shear Rebar Material - A previously defined
rebar material label that will be used to determine the area
of shear rebar required
Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material - A previously defined
rebar material that will be used to determine the area of longitudinal torsional rebar required

Concrete Box
Flexure

Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

Concrete Box
Principal

See the Box Stress design parameter specifications

CAN/CSA S6
Concrete Box Stress

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The
tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi
units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Concrete Box Shear

4-8

Design Parameters

Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


Clause 8.4.6)
Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause
8.4.6)
Cracking Strength Factor Multiplies sqrt( f c ) to obtain
cracking strength
EpsilonX Negative Limit -- Longitudinal negative strain limit
(see Clause 8.9.3.8)
EpsilonX Positive Limit -- Longitudinal positive strain limit
(see Clause 8.9.3.8)
Tab slab rebar cover Distance from the outside face of the
top slab to the centerline of the exterior closed transverse
torsion reinforcement
Web rebar cover Distance from the outside face of the web
to the centerline of the exterior closed transverse torsion reinforcement
Bottom Slab rebar cover Distance from the outside face of
the bottoms lab to the centerline of the exterior closed transverse torsion reinforcement
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material
label that will be used to determine the required area of
transverse rebar in the girder
Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar
material that will be used to determine the required area of
longitudinal rebar in the girder
Concrete Box
Flexure

Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA


Clause 8.4.6)
Phi Pt p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause
8.4.6)
Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see
CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Eurocode EN 1992
Concrete Box Stress

Compression limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the compression stress limit


Tension limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the tension
stress limit

Concrete Box Shear

Gamma C for Concrete Partial factor for concrete.


Gamma C for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing
steel.
Gamma C for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing
steel.
Angle Theta The angle between the concrete compression
strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force.

Design Parameters

4-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-1 Design Request Parameters for Concrete Box Girders


The value must be between 21.8 degrees and 45 degrees.
Factor for PT Duct Diameter Factor that multiplies posttensioning duct diameter when evaluating the nominal web
thickness in accordance with section 6.2.3(6) of the code.
Typical values 0.5 to 1.2.
Factor for PT Transmission Length Factor for the transmission length of the post tensioning used in shear resistance equation 6.4 of the code. Typical value 1.0 for post
tensioning.
Inner Arm Method The method used to calculate the inner
lever arm z of the section (integer).
Inner Arm Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the section to get the lower limit of the inner lever arm z of the section.
Effective Depth Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the
section to get the lower limit of the effective depth to the tensile reinforcement d of the section.
Type of Section Type of section for shear design.
Determining Factor Nu1 Method that will be used to calculate the 1 factor.
Factor Nu1 1 factor
Determining Factor AlphaCW Method that will be used to
calculate the cw factor.
Factor AlphaCW cw factor
Factor Fywk Multiplier of vertical shear rebar characteristic
yield strength to obtain a stress limit in shear rebar used in
6.10.aN. Typical value 0.8 to 1.0.
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined material label
that will be used to determine the required area of transverse
rebar in the girder.
Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined material
that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder.
Concrete Box
Flexure

Gamma c for Concrete Partial safety factor for concrete.


Gamma c for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing
steel.
Gamma c for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.
PT pre-strain Factor to estimate pre-strain in the posttensioning. Multiplies fpk to obtain the stress in the tendons
after losses. Typical value between 0.4 and 0.9.

4 - 10

Design Parameters

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Multi-Cell Concrete Box


AASHTO LRFD
Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Stress

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor


that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits
Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit Units Multiplier on sqrt ( f c ) to calculate the tension stress limit,
given in the units specified
Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The
tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi
units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Shear

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, - Resistance Factor


that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits
Multi-Cell Concrete Box Shear, PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that multiplies nominal shear resistance to
obtain factored resistance for light-weight concrete
Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default
Value = -0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3
Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default
Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3
PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0
Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0
Specifies which method for shear design will be used either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with 5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with
5.8.3.4.3. Currently only the MCFT option is available.
A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to
determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.
A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Flexure

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor


that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

CAN/CSA S6

Design Parameters

4 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Multi-Cell Concrete Box


Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Stress

Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Compression Limit Multiplier on f c to calculate the compression stress limit
Multi-Cell Concrete Box Stress Factor Tension Limit - The
tension limit factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi
units for f c and the resulting tension limit

Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Shear

Highway Class The highway class shall be determined in


accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for
which the structure is designed
Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA
Clause 8.4.6)
Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause
8.4.6)
Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see
CSA Clause 8.4.6)
Cracking Strength Factor -- Multiplies sqrt( f c ) to obtain
cracking strength
EpsilonX Negative Limit -- Longitudinal negative strain limit
(see Clause 8.9.3.8)
EpsilonX Positive Limit -- Longitudinal positive strain limit
(see Clause 8.9.3.8)
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material
that will be used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder
Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar
material that will be used to determine the required area of
longitudinal rebar in the girder

Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Flexure

Highway Class The highway class shall be determined in


accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for
which the structure is designed
Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA
Clause 8.4.6)
Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause
8.4.6)
Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see
CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Eurocode EN 1992
Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Stress

4 - 12

Design Parameters

Compression limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the compression stress limit

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Multi-Cell Concrete Box


Tension limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the tension
stress limit
Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Shear

Gamma C for Concrete Partial factor for concrete.


Gamma C for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing
steel.
Gamma C for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing
steel.
Angle Theta The angle between the concrete compression
strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force.
The value must be between 21.8 degrees and 45 degrees.
Factor for PT Duct Diameter Factor that multiplies posttensioning duct diameter when evaluating the nominal web
thickness in accordance with section 6.2.3(6) of the code.
Typical values 0.5 to 1.2.
Factor for PT Transmission Length Factor for the transmission length of the post tensioning used in shear resistance equation 6.4 of the code. Typical value 1.0 for post
tensioning.
Inner Arm Method The method used to calculate the inner
lever arm z of the section (integer).
Inner Arm Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the section to get the lower limit of the inner lever arm z of the section.
Effective Depth Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the
section to get the lower limit of the effective depth to the tensile reinforcement d of the section.
Type of Section Type of section for shear design.
Determining Factor Nu1 Method that will be used to calculate the 1 factor.
Factor Nu1 1 factor
Determining Factor AlphaCW Method that will be used to
calculate the cw factor.
Factor AlphaCW cw factor
Factor Fywk Multiplier of vertical shear rebar characteristic
yield strength to obtain a stress limit in shear rebar used in
6.10.aN. Typical value 0.8 to 1.0.
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined material label
that will be used to determine the required area of transverse
rebar in the girder.
Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined material
that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder.

Design Parameters

4 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-2 Design Request Parameters for Multi-Cell Concrete Box


Multi-Cell Concrete
Box Flexure

Gamma c for Concrete Partial safety factor for concrete.


Gamma c for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing
steel.
Gamma c for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.
PT pre-strain Factor to estimate pre-strain in the posttensioning. Multiplies fpk to obtain the stress in the tendons
after losses. Typical value between 0.4 and 0.9.

Table 4-3 Design Request Parameters for Precast I or U Beams


AASHTO LRFD
Precast Comp
Stress

Precast Comp Stress, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits
Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier
on fc to calculate the compression stress limit
Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit Units - Multiplier
on sqrt(fc) to calculate the tension stress limit, given in the
units specified

Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit


factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for fc
and the resulting tension limit
Precast Comp
Shear

PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression


and tension stress limits
PhiC, Lightweight Resistance Factor that multiplies nominal
shear resistance to obtain factored resistance for light-weight
concrete
Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default
Value = -0.4x10-3, Typical value(s): 0 to -0.4x10-3

4 - 14

Design Parameters

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-3 Design Request Parameters for Precast I or U Beams


Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement - in accordance with section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical value(s): 6.0x10-3
PhiC for Nu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 0.75 to 1.0
Phif for Mu - Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 0.9, Typical value(s): 0.9 to 1.0
Specifies what method for shear design will be used - either
Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance
with 5.8.3.4.2 or Vci Vcw method in accordance with 5.8.3.4.3
Currently only the MCFT option is available.
A previously defined rebar material label that will be used to
determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder
A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder
Precast Comp
Flexure

Precast Comp Flexure, PhiC, - Resistance Factor that multiplies both compression and tension stress limits

CAN/CSA S6
Precast Comp
Stress

Precast Comp Stress Factor Compression Limit - Multiplier


on fc to calculate the compression stress limit
Precast Comp Stress Factor Tension Limit - The tension limit
factor may be specified using either MPa or ksi units for fc
and the resulting tension limit

Precast Comp
Shear

Highway Class The highway class shall be determined in


accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for
which the structure is designed
Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA
Clause 8.4.6)
Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause
8.4.6)
Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see
CSA Clause 8.4.6)
Cracking Strength Factor -- Multiplies sqrt( f c ) to obtain
cracking strength
EpsilonX Negative Limit -- Longitudinal negative strain limit
(see Clause 8.9.3.8)
EpsilonX Positive Limit -- Longitudinal positive strain limit (see
Clause 8.9.3.8)
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material
label that will be used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.

Design Parameters

4 - 15

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-3 Design Request Parameters for Precast I or U Beams


Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar n the girder
Precast Comp
Flexure

Highway Class The highway class shall be determined in


accordance with CSA Clause 1.4.2.2, Table 1.1 for the average daily traffic and average daily truck traffic volumes for
which the structure is designed
Phi Concrete c -- Resistance factor for concrete (see CSA
Clause 8.4.6)
Phi PT p -- Resistance factor for tendons (see CSA Clause
8.4.6)
Phi Rebar s -- Resistance factor for reinforcing bars (see
CSA Clause 8.4.6)

Eurocode EN 1992
Precast Comp
Stress

Compression limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the compression stress limit


Tension limit Multiplier on fc k to calculate the tension stress
limit

Precast Comp
Shear

Gamma C for Concrete Partial factor for concrete.


Gamma C for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing
steel.
Gamma C for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.
Angle Theta The angle between the concrete compression
strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force. The
value must be between 21.8 degrees and 45 degrees.
Factor for PT Transmission Length Factor for the transmission length of the post tensioning used in shear resistance
equation 6.4 of the code. Typical value 1.0 for post tensioning.
Inner Arm Method The method used to calculate the inner
lever arm z of the section (integer).
Inner Arm Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the section to get the lower limit of the inner lever arm z of the section.
Effective Depth Limit Factor that multiplies the depth of the
section to get the lower limit of the effective depth to the tensile reinforcement d of the section.
Type of Section Type of section for shear design.
Determining Factor Nu1 Method that will be used to calculate the 1 factor.
Factor Nu1 1 factor

4 - 16

Design Parameters

Chapter 4 - Define a Bridge Design Request

Table 4-3 Design Request Parameters for Precast I or U Beams


Determining Factor AlphaCW Method that will be used to
calculate the cw factor.
Factor AlphaCW cw factor
Factor Fywk Multiplier of vertical shear rebar characteristic
yield strength to obtain a stress limit in shear rebar used in
6.10.aN. Typical value 0.8 to 1.0.
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined material label
that will be used to determine the required area of transverse
rebar in the girder.
Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined material
that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal
rebar in the girder.
Precast Comp
Flexure

Gamma c for Concrete Partial safety factor for concrete.


Gamma c for Rebar Partial safety factor for reinforcing
steel.
Gamma c for PT Partial safety factor for prestressing steel.
PT pre-strain Factor to estimate pre-strain in the posttensioning. Multiplies fpk to obtain the stress in the tendons after losses. Typical value between 0.4 and 0.9.

Table 4-4 Design Request Parameters for Steel I-Beam


AASHTO LRFD
Steel I-Beam Strength

Resistance factor Phi for flexure


Resistance factor Phi for shear
Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners?
Use Stage Analysis load case to determine stresses on composite section?
Multiplies short term modular ratio (Es/Ec) to obtain long-term
modular ratio
Use AASHTO, Appendix A to determine resistance in negative moment regions?

Steel I Beam Comp Service

Use Stage Analysis load case to determine stresses on composite section?


Shored Construction?
Does concrete slab resist tension?
Multiplies short term modular ratio (Es/Ec) to obtain long-term
modular ratio

Design Parameters

4 - 17

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 4-4 Design Request Parameters for Steel I-Beam


Steel-I Comp Fatigue

There are no user defined design request parameters for


fatigue

Steel I Comp
Construct Stgd

Resistance factor Phi for flexure


Resistance factor Phi for shear
Resistance factor Phi for Concrete in Tension
Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners?
Concrete modulus of rupture factor in accordance with
AASHTO LRFD Section 5.4.2.6, factor that multiplies sqrt of
f'c to obtain modulus of rupture, default value 0.24 (ksi) or
0.63 (MPa), must be > 0
The modulus of rupture factor may be specified using either
MPa or ksi units

Steel I Comp
Construct Non Stgd

Resistance factor Phi for flexure


Resistance factor Phi for shear
Resistance factor Phi for Concrete in Tension
Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners?
Concrete modulus of rupture factor in accordance with
AASHTO LRFD Section 5.4.2.6, factor that multiplies sqrt of
f'c to obtain modulus of rupture, default value 0.24 (ksi) or
0.63 (MPa), must be > 0
The modulus of rupture factor may be specified using either
MPa or ksi units

4.5

Demand Sets
A demand set name is required for each load combination that is to be considered in a design request. The load combinations may be selected from a list of
user defined or default load combinations that are program determined (see
Chapter 2).

4.6

Live Load Distribution Factors


When the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders with
composite slabs or multi-cell boxes, Live Load Distribution Factors can be
specified. LLD factors are described in Chapter 3.

4 - 18

Demand Sets

Chapter 5
Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms applied in accordance with the AASHTO
LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD) for design and stress check of the superstructure of a concrete box type bridge deck section.
When interim revisions of the codes are published by the relevant authorities,
and (when applicable) they are subsequently incorporated into CSiBridge, the
program gives the user an option to select what type of interims shall be used
for the design. The interims can be selected by clicking on the Code Preferences button.
In CSiBridge, when distributing loads for concrete box design, the section is
always treated as one beam; all load demands (permanent and transient) are
distributed evenly to the webs for stress and flexure and proportionally to the
slope of the web for shear. Torsion effects are always considered and assigned
to the outer webs and the top and bottom slabs.
With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with AASHTO Article
5.8.6, torsion is considered.
The user has an option to select No Interims or YYYY Interims on the
Bridge Design Preferences form. The form can be opened by clicking the Code
Preferences button.

5-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The revisions published in the 2015 interims were incorporated into the Flexure Design.

5.1

Stress Design AASHTO LRFD

5.1.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor
FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to
0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression
limit.
FactorTensLim

f c multiplier; Default Values = 0.19 (ksi), 0.5(MPa);

Typical values: 0 to 0.24 (ksi), 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The


FactorTensLim to obtain the tension limit.

f c is multiplied by the

5.1.2 Algorithm
The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber and three points at the
bottom fiber: extreme left, Bridge Layout Line, and extreme right. The stresses
assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and both bending
moments (M2 and M3).
The stresses are evaluated for each demand set (Chapter 4). If the demand set
contains live load, the program positions the load to capture extreme stress at
each of the evaluation points.
Extremes are found for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.
The stress limits are evaluated by applying the Capacity Parameters (see Section 5.2.1).

5-2

Stress Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.1.3 Stress Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48 as shown in Figure 5-1

Figure 5-1 AASHTO LRFD Stress Design, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII48
=
0.150 kcf
Concrete unit weight, w c
Concrete strength at 28 days, f c =
5.0 ksi
Design span
=
95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
Area of one strand
=
0.153 in2
=
270.0 ksi
Ultimate strength f pu
=
0.9 ksi
Yield strength f py
=
243 ksi
f pu
=
28500 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, E p

Stress Design AASHTO LRFD

5-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 5-2 Reinforcement, AASHTO LRFD Stress Design


AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48
Reinforcing bars:
yield strength, f y
Section Properties
A
= area of cross-section of beam
h
= overall depth of precast beam
I
= moment of inertia about centroid of the beam
y b ,y t = distance from centroid to the extreme
bottom (top) fiber of the beam

=
826 in2
=
39 in
= 170812 in4
=

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 570:


P
= 856.51 kip
M3
= 897.599 kip-in
Top fiber stress =
P M
856.51 897.599
top = 3 ytop =

19.5 =
0.9344 ksi
A I
826
170812

5-4

Stress Design AASHTO LRFD

60.0 ksi

19.5 in

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Bottom fiber stress =


P M
856.51 897.599
bot = + 3 ybot =
+
19.5 =
1.139 ksi
A
I
826
170812
Stresses reported by CSiBridge:
top fiber stress envelope
= 0.9345 ksi
bottom fiber stress envelope
= 1.13945 ksi

5.2

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5.2.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0
The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain
factored resistance.

5.2.2 Variables
A PS

Area of PT in the tension zone

AS

Area of reinforcement in the tension zone

A slab

Area of the slab

b slab

Effective flange width = horizontal width of the slab, measured from


out to out

b webeq

Equivalent thickness of all webs in the section

dP

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the prestressing tendons

dS

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of rebar in


the tension zone

f ps

Average stress in prestressing steel (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

f pu

Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average


of all tendons in the tensile zone)

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

f py

Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all


tendons in the tensile zone)

fy

Yield strength of rebar

PT material constant (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Mn

Nominal flexural resistance

Mr

Factored flexural resistance

t slabeq

Equivalent thickness of the slab

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim Section 5.7.2.2.

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 5.7.2.2.

Resistance factor for flexure

5.2.3 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on the approximate stress distribution specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by
an equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 1 over a
zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression
fiber. If the AASHTO LRFD 2015 interim is selected the factor 1 is taken as
0.85 for specified compressive strengths not exceeding 10.0 ksi. For specified
concrete compressive strengths exceeding 10.0ksi, 1 is reduced at rate of 0.02
for each 1.0ksi of strength in excess of 10.0ksi, except that 1 is not taken less
than 0.75. For AASHTO LRFD no interim the 1 is always taken as 0.85 independent of concrete compressive strength. The factor The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi,
1 is reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi,
except that 1 is not to be taken to be less than 0.65.

5-6

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resistance is evaluated for bending about horizontal axis 3
only. Separate capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The
capacity is based on bonded tendons and mild steel located in the tension zone
as defined in the Bridge Object. Tendons and mild steel reinforcement located
in the compression zone are not considered. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, have f pe (effective stress after loses) larger
than 0.5 f pu (specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.
The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation have been applied. This is consistent with the demands being
reported in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the
flange (slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

5.2.4 Algorithm
At each section:
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.
The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the slab area and slab
width, assuming a rectangular shape.
tslabeq =

Aslab
bslab

The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as the summation of all web horizontal thicknesses.

bwebeq =

nweb

web

The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD


5.7.2.2 based on section f c
For AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

> 10.0, 1 = 0.85


else 1 = 0.85

10
0.02; 0.75
1.0

For AASHTO LRFD No Interim


1 = 0.85

The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD


5.7.2.2 based on section f c
f 28

If f c > 28 MPa, =
then 1 max 0.85 c
0.05; 0.65 ;
7

else 1 =0.85.
The tendon and rebar location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.
Tendons and rebar are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they resistnegative or positive. A tendon or rebar is considered to resist a positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression
stress block and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located
outside of the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress
block extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a
straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from
the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to
the neutral axis.
For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

5-8

sum of the tendon areas, A PS

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressing tendons, d P

specified tensile strength of prestressing steel, f pu

constant k (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

For each rebar group, the following values are determined:

sum of the tension rebar areas, A s

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension rebar, d s

The distance c between the neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated
in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).
c=

APS f PU + As f s
1 f c1bslab + kAPS

f pu
dp

The distance c is compared against requirement of Section 5.7.2.1 to verify if


stress in mild reinforcement f s can be taken as equal to f y . The limit on ratio
c/d s is calculated depending on what kind of code and its interim are specified in the Bridge Design Preferences form as shown in the table below:

Code

AASHTO LRFD 2012


No Interims

AASHTO LRFD 2012


with 2013 Interims or
later

0.6

0.003
0.003 +

where the compression control strain limit is per AASHTO LRFD 2013
Interims table C5.7.2.1-1
When the limit is not satisfied the stress in mild reinforcement f s is reduced
to satisfy the requirement of Section 5.7.2.1.
The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if
the section is a T-section or rectangular section.

If c1 > tslabeq , the section is a T-section.

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance with


(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c=

APS f PU + As f s 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq


f pu
1 f c 1bwebeq + kAPS
y pt

Average stress in prestressing steel f ps is calculated in accordance with


(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1).
c

=
fPS fPU 1 k
dp

Nominal flexural resistance M n is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO


LRFD eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1).

If the section is a T-section,

c tslabeq
c
c

=
M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 + 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1
;
2
2
2

else
c
c

=
M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 .
2
2

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying M n by .


M r = M n
Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.

5.2.5 Flexure Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-3.
Concrete unit weight, w c
=
Concrete strength at 28 days, f c =
Design span
=

5 - 10

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

0.150 kcf
5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)
95.0 ft

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Prestressing strands: in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation


Area of one strand
=
0.153 in2
=
270.0 ksi
Ultimate strength f pu
=
0.9 ksi
Yield strength f py
= 243 ksi
f pu
= 28 500 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, E p
Reinforcing bar yield strength, f y

60.0 ksi

Figure 5-3 LRFD Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 5-4 Reinforcement, AASHTO LRFD Flexure Design


Cross-Section, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48
Section Properties
A
= area of cross-section of beam
h
= overall depth of precast beam
I
= moment of inertia about centroid of the beam
y b , y t = distance from centroid to the extreme
bottom (top) fiber of the beam

=
826 in2
=
39 in
= 170812 in4
=

19.5 in

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 570:


P
= 856.51 kip
M3
= 897.599 kip-in
The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the slab area and slab
width, assuming a rectangular shape.
tslabeq
=

Aslab 48 5.5
=
= 5.5in
bslab
48

Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.5 in


The equivalent web thickness is evaluated as the summation of all web horizontal thicknesses.

5 - 12

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

bwebeq =

nweb

web

= 5 + 5 = 10 in

Value reported by CSiBridge = 10.0 in


Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and
is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the
bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends
over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral
axis.
For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

) 4.437 in 2
sum of the tendon areas, APTbottom
= 0.153 ( 6 + 23
=
Value reported by CSiBridge = 4.437 in2

distance from the center of gravity of the tendons to the extreme com23 2 + 6 4
=
pression fiber, yPTbottom =
39
36.586 in
23 + 6
Value reported by CSiBridge = 19.5 + 17.0862 = 36.586 in

specified tensile strength of prestressing steel, f pu = 270 kip


Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

constant k (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

f py

243

k= 2 1.04
= 0.28
= 2 1.04
f pu
270

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.28


The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD
5.7.2.2 based on section f c .

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If f c > 28 MPa, then


f 28

=
1 max 0.85 c
0.05;0.65
7

34.473 28

=
max 0.85
0.05;0.65 =
0.80376
7

Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.8037 (not reported)

The distance c between the neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated
in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4).

c=

APT f pu
0.85 f c1bslab + kAPT

f pu
y pt

4.437 270
=
6.91in
270
0.85 5 0.8037 48 + 0.28 4.437 36.586
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 6.919 in (not reported)
The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if
the section is a T-section or a rectangular section.

= 5.56 in > 5.5in , the section is a


If c1 > tslabeq 6.91 0.80376
T-section.
Value reported by CSiBridge, section = T-section

If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance


with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

=
c

APT f pu 0.85 f c (bslab bwebeq )tslabeq


=
f pu
0.85 f c1bwebeq + kAPT
y pt
4.437 270 0.85 5(48 10)5.5
= 7.149 in
270
0.85 5 0.8037 10 + 0.28 4.437 36.586

Value reported by CSiBridge = 7.1487 in


Average stress in prestressing steel f ps is calculated in accordance with
(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1).

5 - 14

Flexure Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

7.149
c

f ps = f pu 1 k
=270 1 0.28
=255.23 ksi

36.586
y pt

Value reported by CSiBridge = 255.228 ksi

Nominal flexural resistance M n is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO


LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1).

If the section is a T-section, then

c tslabeq
c

=
M n APT f ps yPT 1 + 0.85 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

2
2

2
7.149 0.80376

=
4.437 255.228 36.586
+
2

7.149 0.80376 5.5

0.85 5 ( 48 10 ) 5.5

2
2

= 38287.42 kip-in
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in (not reported)
Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying M n by .
Mr =
M n =
1.0 38287.42 =
38287.42 kip-in

Value reported by CSiBridge = 38287.721 kip-in

5.3

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5.3.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical value: 0.7 to 0.9. The
nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by the
resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.
PhiC (Lightweight) Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default Value = 0.7, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of light-weight
concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 15

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Include Resal (haunched girder) Shear Effect Typical value: Yes. Specifies
whether the component of inclined flexural compression or tension, in the direction of the applied shear, in variable depth members shall or shall not be
considered when determining the design factored shear force.
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that will be
used to determine the area of shear rebar required.
Longitudinal Torsional Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material
label that will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal torsional
rebar.

5.3.2 Variables
A

Gross area of the section

AO

Area enclosed by the shear flow path, including the area of holes, if any

Al

Area of longitudinal torsion reinforcement

Avsweb

Area of shear reinforcement in web per unit length

Avtweb

Area of transverse torsion reinforcement in web per unit length

Minimum horizontal gross width of the web (not adjusted for ducts)

bv

Minimum effective horizontal width of the web adjusted for the presence of ducts

be

Minimum effective normal width of the shear flow path adjusted to account for the presence of ducts

dv

Effective vertical height of the section = max(0.8h, distance from the


extreme compression fiber to the center of gravity of the tensile PT)

CGtop, CGbot Distance from the center of gravity of the section to the top and
bottom fiber

5 - 16

Vertical height of the section

ph

Perimeter of the polygon defined by the centroids of the longitudinal


chords of the space truss resisting torsion

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Pu ,Vu 2 , M u 3 , Tu Factored demand forces and moments per section


t

Minimum normal gross width of the web (not adjusted for ducts) =
b cos ( web )

tv

Minimum effective normal width of the web = bv cos ( web )

web

Web angle of inclination from the vertical

Resistance factor for shear

web

Distribution factor for the web

Normal or light-weight concrete factor

5.3.3 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.8.6 (Shear and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges). The procedure is not applicable to discontinuity regions and applies only to sections
where it is reasonable to assume that plane sections remain plane after loading.
The user should select for design only those sections that comply with the preceding assumptions by defining appropriate station ranges in the Bridge Design
Request (see Chapter 4).
If the option to consider real effects is activated, the component of the inclined
flexural compression or tension in the direction of the demand shear in variable
depth members is considered when determining the design section shear force
(AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.8.6.1).
The section design shear force is distributed into individual webs assuming that
the vertical shear that is carried by a web decreases with increased inclination
of the web from vertical. Section torsion moments are assigned to external
webs and slabs.
The rebar area and ratio are calculated using measurements normal to the web.
Thus, vertical shear forces are divided by cos(alpha_web). The rebar area calculated is the actual, normal cross-section of the bars. The rebar ratio is calculated using the normal width of the web, t web = b web cos(alpha_web).

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 17

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The effects of ducts in members are considered in accordance with paragraph


5.8.6.1 of the code. In determining the web or flange effective thickness, b e ,
one-half of the diameter of the ducts is subtracted. All defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, are assumed to be grouted. Each tendon at a section is
checked for presence in the web or flange, and the minimum controlling effective web and flange thicknesses are evaluated.
The tendon duct is considered as having effect on the web or flange effective
thickness even if only part of the duct is within the element boundaries. In such
cases, the entire one-half of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the element thickness.
If several tendon ducts overlap in one flange or web (when projected on the
horizontal axis for flange, or when projected on vertical axis for the web), the
diameters of ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thickness. In the web, the effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom
of each duct; in the flange, the effective thickness is evaluated at the left and
right sides of the duct.
The Shear and Torsion Design is completed first on a per web basis. Rebar
needed for individual webs is then summed and reported for the entire section.
The D/C ratio is calculated for each web. Then the shear area of all webs is
summed and the entire section D/C is calculated. Therefore, the controlling
section D/C does not necessarily match the controlling web D/C (in
other words, other webs can make up the capacity for a weak web).

5.3.4 Algorithm
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.
If the option to consider resal effects is activated, the component of the inclined flexural compression or tension in the direction of the demand shear in
variable depth members is evaluated as follows:

Inclination angles of the top and bottom slabs are determined


yslab top2 yslab top1
slab top =
arctan

Stat2 Stat1

5 - 18

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

yslab bot2 yslab bot1


slab bot =
arctan

Stat2 Stat1
where

yslab top2 , yslab top1 vertical coordinate of the center of gravity of the top
slab at stations 1 and 2. The y origin is assumed to be at the top
of the section and the + direction is up.
Stat1 , Stat2 stations of adjacent sections. When the section being
analyzed is Before, the current section station is Stat 2 ; when
the section being analyzed is After, the current section station
is Stat 1 . Therefore, the statement Stat1 < Stat2 is always valid.

The magnitudes of normal forces in slabs are determined as follows:

P M

=
Pslab top Aslab top u u 3 dslab top
I3
A

P M

=
Pslab bot Aslab bot u + u 3 dslab bot
I3
A

where dslab top , dslab bot are distances from the center of gravity of the
section to the center of gravity of the slab (positive).
The magnitudes of vertical components of slab normal forces are determined
as follows:

Presal top = Pslab top tan slab top


Presal bot = Pslab bot tan slab bot
On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand
values are evaluated.
Location
Shear
and
Torsion

Outer Web
V uweb
abs(Vu 2 + Presal top + Presal bot )
cos web

T uweb
Abs(T u )

Inner Web
V uweb
abs(Vu 2 + Presal top + Presal bot )
cos web

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

T uweb
0

5 - 19

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Check

where web =

cos ( | web |)

nweb
1

cos ( | web |)

Evaluate effective thicknesses:


Evaluate dv bv be tv

If b v 0, then

D
WebPassFlag
0; Avt=
0; Avs=
2; Avt=
2
= 2,= 0; Avs=
web
web
flag
flag
C
proceed to report web results

If b e < 0, then SectionPassFlag = 2.

Evaluate design
f c min(

f c :
f c , 8.3 MPa)

Evaluate the stress variable K:

Calculate the extreme fiber stress:

bot =

P M3
P M3
CGtop tens= max ( top , bot )
+
CGbot top =
A I 33
A I 33

If tens > 0.5 f c , then K = 1; else K


=

|P|
A
1+
,
0.166 f c

where K < 2.
Evaluate V c per web (shear capacity of concrete):

=
Vcweb 0.1663K f c bv dv .

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.6.5-3)

Evaluate V s per web (shear force that is left to be carried by rebar):

5 - 20

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Vsweb =

Vuweb Vcweb
.

If Vsweb < 0, then Avsweb = 0;


else Avsweb =

Vsweb
.
f y dv

Verify the minimum reinforcement requirement:

If Avsweb < 0.35t f y (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5-2), then

Avsweb = 0.35t f y and Aswebflag = 0;


else Avswebflag = 1.
Evaluate the nominal capacities:

Vsweb = Avsweb f y dv
V=
Vcweb + Vsweb
nweb

Evaluate the shear D/C for the web:


D

C sweb

Vuweb

=
.
bv dv f c

Evaluate T cr (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.6.3-2):

Tcr = 0.166 K f c 2 A0 be .
Evaluate torsion rebar:

1
If Tuweb < Tcr , then:
3

Avtflag = 0
Avtweb = 0
Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 21

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Al = 0

Torsion Effects Flag = 0;


else:

Avtflag = 1
Avtweb =

Al =

Tuweb
A0 2 f y

Tuweb ph
A0 2 f ylong

Torsion Effects Flag = 1.


Evaluate the combined shear and torsion D/C for the web:
D

C tweb

Vuweb
T
+ uweb
b d
2 A0 be
= v v
.
1.25 f c

Evaluate the controlling D/C for the web:

D
D
If
> , then Ratio Flag = 0;
C sweb C tweb

else
Ratio Flag = 1

D
D
D
= max , .
C
C sweb C tweb

If

D
> 1, then Web Pass Flag = 1;
C

else
Web Pass Flag = 0.

5 - 22

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Assign web rebar flags where the rebar flag convention is:
Flag = 0 rebar governed by minimum code requirement
Flag = 1 rebar governed by demand
Flag = 2 rebar not calculated since the web b v < 0
Flag = 3 rebar not calculated since the web is not part of the shear flow
path for torsion
Evaluate entire section values:

V
= V
= V
=A
=A

Vcsection =

cweb

Vssection

sweb

Vnsection

nweb

Avssection

vsweb

Avtsection

vtweb

Alsection = Al

Evaluate entire section D/C:

nweb
1

D
=

C ssection

tv

Vuweb
bv dv

nweb
1

tv

f c

This is equivalent to:


| Vu |

D
=

C s sec tion

nweb
1

t v dv

f c

and
| Vu |

D
=

C tsection

nweb
1

t v dv

1.25 f c

| Tu |
2 A0 be
.

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 23

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Evaluate controlling D/C for section:

D
D
If
, then Ratio Flag = 0 else Ratio Flag = 1
>
C ssection C tsection

D
D
,
= max
.
C
C ssection C tsection

If

D
> 1, then Section Pass Flag = 1;
C

else
Section Pass Flag = 0.
Assign section design flags where flag convention is:
Flag = 0 Section Passed all code checks
Flag = 1 Section D/C > 1
Flag = 2 Section b e < 0 (section invalid)

5.3.5 Shear Design Example


Cross Section: AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48, as shown in Figure 5-5.

5 - 24

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5-5 Shear Design Example, AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48

=
0.9
=
0.150 kcf
Concrete unit weight, w c

=
1.0
=
5.0 ksi (~34.473 MPa)
Concrete strength at 28 days, f c
Design span
=
95.0 ft
Prestressing strands: in. dia., seven wire, low relaxation
Area of one strand
=
0.153 in2
= 270.0 ksi
Ultimate strength fpu
=
0.9
Yield strength fpy
= 243 ksi
fpu
= 28500 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, Ep
Reinforcing bars: yield strength, fy
Section Properties
A
= area of cross-section of beam
h
= overall depth of precast beam
I
= moment of inertia about
centroid of the beam
yb,yt = distance from centroid to the
extreme bottom (top) fiber of
the beam
Aslabtop= Aslabbot = 485.5

=
=
=

60.0 ksi (~413.68 MPa)


826 in2 (~532902 mm2)
39 in (~990.6 mm)

= 170812 in4 (~71097322269 mm4)

= 19.5 in (~495.3 mm)


= 264 in2 (~170322 mm2)
Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 25

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Ao
Ph

= (48 5) (39 5.5)


= 2 (48 5 + 39 5.5)

= 1440.5 in2 (~929353 mm2)


= 153 in (~3886.2 mm)

Demand forces from Dead and PT (COMB1) at station 114 before:


P
= 800 kip (~ 3560 E+03 N)
M3 = 7541 kip-in (~ 852 E+06 Nmm)
V2 = 33 kip (~ 148.3 E+03 N)
T
= 4560 kip-in (515.2 E+06 Nmm)

Figure 5-6 Shear Design Example Reinforcement


AASHTO Box Beam, Type BIII-48
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.
On the basis of the location and inclination of each web, the per-web demand
values are evaluated.

Outer Web
Location
Shear and
Torsion
Check

5 - 26

Vuweb
abs(Vu 2 + Presal top + Presal bot )
cos web

Tuweb
=

abs(148.3E + 03 + 0 + 0) 1
= 74151.9 N
cos0

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Inner Web
Vuweb
Tuweb

Abs(Tu)=515.2E+06

N/A

0
N/A

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

where
=
web

cos ( | web |)
=
cos
(| web |)
1
nweb

cos ( | 0 |)
= 0.5
2
cos ( | 0 |)
1

Evaluate the effective shear flow path thicknesses:

be = min(tfirstweb , t lastweb , t topslabv , t botslabv )


= min(127,127,139.7,139.7)
= 127mm
Evaluate the effective web width and normal thickness:
Since the web is vertical, bv = tv = 127 mm.
Evaluate the effective depth:
Since M3 < 0 then

=
dv max(0.8h, ybot + yPTtop )
= max(0.8 990.6,495.3 + 419.1) = 914.4mm
f c :

Evaluate design

f c min
f c ,8.3MPa min (=
=
=
34.473,8.3MPa ) 5.871

Evaluate stress variable K:


Calculate the extreme fiber stress

P M3
3560E + 03 852 E + 06
bot = +
CGbot =
+
495.3 =
12.616 MPa.
A I 33
532902
71097322269
P M3
3560E + 03 852 E + 06
0.745MPa
top =
CGtop =

495.3 =
A I 33
532902
71097322269

tens =
max(top , bot ) =
max(12.61, 0.745) =
0.745MPa
If tens > 0.5 f c , then K = 1 false;

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 27

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

| 3560E + 03 |
|P|
532902
A
else K =
1+
=
1+
=
2.8
0.166
5.871

0.166 f c

where K < 2; therefore K = 2.


Evaluate Vc per web (shear capacity of concrete; AASHTO LRFD 5.8.6.5-3):

V=
0.1663K f c b=
0.1663 2 1.0 5.871 127 914.4
cweb
v dv
= 226781N.
Evaluate Vs per web (shear force that is left to be carried by the rebar):
Vsweb =

Vuweb Vcweb 74151.9 0.9 226781


=
= 144392 N.

0.9

If Vsweb < 0, then Avsweb = 0 true;


else Avsweb =

Vsweb
.
f y dv

Verify minimum reinforcement requirement:

If Avsweb < 0.35t f y (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5-2), then true


=
Avsweb 0.35
=
t fy

0.35 127
= 0.10745mm 2 / mm and Aswebflag = 0;
413.68

else Avswebflag = 1.
Evaluate the nominal capacities:

Vsweb= Avsweb f y dv= 0.10745 413.68 914.4= 40645N


Vn web = Vcweb + Vsweb = 226781 + 40645 = 267426 N

5 - 28

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Evaluate the shear D/C for the web:


Vuweb
74151.9

D
0.9= 0.1208
=
=

C sweb bv dv f c 127 914.4 5.871

Evaluate Tcr (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.6.3-2):

T=
0.166 K f c 2 A0=
be 0.166 2 5.871 2 929353 127
cr
= 460 147 419 Nmm
Evaluate the torsion rebar:

1
1
If Tuweb < Tcr =
> 515.2E6 < 0.9 460E6 false, then:
3
3

Avtflag = 1
=
Avtweb

=
Al

Tuweb
515.2E6
=
= 0.7444mm 2 / mm
A0 2 f y 0.9 929352 2 413.68

Tuweb ph
515.2E6 3886.2
=
= 2893mm 2
A0 2 f ylong 0.9 929352 2 413.68

Torsion Effects Flag = 1.


Evaluate the combined shear and torsion D/C for the web:
Vuweb
T
74151.9
515.2E6
+ uweb
+
bv dv 2 A0 be 0.9 127 914.4 0.9 2 929352 127
D
=
=

1.25 5.871
C tweb
1.25 f c
= 0.427.

Evaluate the controlling D/C for the web:

D
D
If
> , then Ratio Flag = 0 false;
C sweb C tweb

else

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 29

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Ratio Flag =1 true

D
D
D
= max =
=
( 0.1208, 0.427 ) 0.427.
, max
C
C sweb C tweb

If

D
> 1, then Web Pass Flag =1 true;
C

else
Web Pass Flag = 0.
Assign web rebar flags where rebar flag convention is:
Flag = 0 rebar governed by minimum code requirement
Flag = 1 rebar governed by demand => true
Flag = 2 rebar not calculated since web bv< 0
Flag = 3 rebar not calculated since the web is not part of the shear flow
path for torsion.
Evaluate the entire section values:

=
2 40645 =
81290 N
V =
2 267 426 =
534852 N
=
V =
=
2 0.10 745 =
0.2149 mm / mm
A =
=
2 0.7444887 =
1.48898mm / mm
A =

Vcsection =
Vcweb =
2 226 781 =
453562 N
Vssection
Vnsection

Avssection
Avtsection

sweb

nweb

vsweb

vtweb

Alsection= A=
2893mm 2
l

Evaluate entire section D/C:

D
=

C ssection

5 - 30

nweb
1

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

tv

Vuweb
bv dv

nweb
1

f c

tv

. This is equivalent to:

Chapter 5 - Design Concrete Box Girder Bridges

| Vu |

148.3E3

nweb

1 t v dv 0.9
D
=
=

C ssection
f c

127 914.4
=
2

5.871

0.1208

and

| Vu |

D
=

C tsection

nweb
1

t v dv

| Tu |
2 A0 be

1.25 f c
148.3E3

515.2E6
0.9
2

929352 127
0.9 1 127 914.4
= = 0.427.
1.25 5.871

Evaluate the controlling D/C for the section:

D
D
If
, then Ratio Flag = 0 false;
>
C ssection C tsection

else Ratio Flag = 1 true

D
D
( 0.1208,0.427 ) 0.427.
,
= max =
=
max
C
C ssection C tsection

If

D
> 1, then SectionPassFlag = 1 true;
C

else
Section Pass Flag = 0.
Assign the section design flags where the flag convention is:
Flag = 0 Section Passed all code checks true
Flag = 1 Section D/C >1
Flag = 2 Section be < 0 (section invalid)

Shear Design AASHTO LRFD

5 - 31

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

5.4

Principal Stress Design, AASHTO LRFD

5.4.1 Capacity Parameters


PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0.
The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.
FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to
0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain the compression
limit.
FactorTensLim

f c multiplier; Default Values = 0.19 (ksi), 0.5(MPa);

Typical values: 0 to 0.24 (ksi), 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The


FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit.

f c is multiplied by the

5.4.2 Demand Parameters


FactorCompLim Percentage of the basic unit stress for compression service
design; Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand compressive stresses are divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be selected and compared against one compression limit.
FactorTensLim Percentage of the basic unit stress for tension service design;
Default value = 1.0; Typical values 1.0 to 1.5. The demand tensile stresses are
divided by the FactorCompLim factor. This way the controlling stress can be
selected and compared against one tension limit.

5 - 32

Principal Stress Design, AASHTO LRFD

Chapter 6
Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge for design checks
when the superstructure has a deck that includes cast-in-place multi-cell concrete box design and uses the Approximate Method of Analysis, as described in
the AASHTO LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD) code.
When interim revisions of the codes are published by the relevant authorities,
and (when applicable) they are subsequently incorporated into CSiBridge, the
program gives the user an option to select what type of interims shall be used
for the design. The interims can be selected by clicking on the Code Preferences button.
For MulticellConcBox design in CSiBridge, each web and its tributary slabs
are designed separately. Moments and shears due to live load are distributed to
individual webs in accordance with the factors specified in AASHTO LRFD
Articles 4.6.2.2.2 and 4.6.2.2.3 of the code. To control if the section is designed
as a whole-width structure in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Article
4.6.2.2.1 of the code, select Yes for the Diaphragms Present option. When
CSiBridge calculates the Live Load Distribution (LLD) factors, the section and
span qualification criteria stated in AASHTO LRFD 4.6.2.2 are verified and
non-compliant sections are not designed.

Stress Design

6-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

With respect to shear and torsion check, in accordance with AASHTO LRFD
Article 5.8.3.4.2 of the code, torsion is ignored.
The user has an option to select No Interims or YYYY Interims on the
Bridge Design Preferences form. The form can be opened by clicking the Code
Preferences button.
The revisions published in the 2015 interims were incorporated into the Flexure Design.

6.1

Stress Design
The following parameters are considered during stress design:
PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0. The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.
FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to
0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.
FactorTensLim

f 'c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi), 0.5(MPa); Typi-

cal values: 0 to 0.24 (ksi), 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The

f 'c

is multiplied by the Fac-

torTensLim to obtain tension limit.


The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the top slab and
three points at the bottom fiber of the bottom slab: the left corner, the centerline web and the right corner of the relevant slab tributary area. The location is
labeled in the output plots and tables. See Chapter 9, Section 9.1.1.
Concrete strength f c is read at every point, and compression and tension limits
are evaluated using the FactorCompLim - f c multiplier and FactorTensLim f 'c multiplier.
The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and either both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on
which method for determining LLD factors have been specified in the Design
Request (see Chapters 3 and 4).

6-2

Stress Design

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

The stresses are evaluated for each demand set (Chapter 4). Extremes are found
for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.
The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding parameters.

6.2

Shear Design
The following parameters are considered during shear design:
PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The
nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by the
resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.
PhiC (Lightweight) Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default Value = 0.7, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of light-weight
concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.
Check Sub Type Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear design will be used: either Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.2; or the Vci/Vcw method in
accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.3. Currently only the MCFT
option is available.
Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x103,
Typical value(s): 0 to 0.4x103.
Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x103, Typical value: 6.0x103.
PhiC for N u Resistance Factor used in AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 1.0, Typical values: 0.75 to 1.0.
Phif for M u Resistance Factor used in AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.9 to 1.0.
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that will be
used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.
Shear Design

6-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that


will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder.

6.2.1 Variables

6-4

Ac

Area of concrete on the flexural tension side of the member

Aps

Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member

Avl

Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the member at the section under consideration

AVS

Area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length

AVS min

Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length in


accordance with AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.8.2.5

Depth of equivalent stress block in accordance with AASHTO LRFD


Section 5.7.3.2.2. Varies for positive and negative moment.

Minimum web width

bv

Effective web width adjusted for presence of prestressing ducts in


accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section 5.8.2.9

dgirder

Depth of the girder

dPTbot

Distance from the top of the top slab to the center of gravity of the
tendons in the bottom of the precast beam

dv

Effective shear depth in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 5.8.2.9

Ec

Youngs modulus of concrete

Ep

Prestressing steel Youngs modulus

Es

Reinforcement Youngs modulus

f pu

Specified tensile strength of the prestressing steel

Shear Design

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

Mu

Factored moment at the section

Nu

Applied factored axial force, taken as positive if tensile

Vp

Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force; if Vp has the same sign as Vu, the component is resisting the applied shear.

Vu

Factored shear demand per girder excluding force in tendons

V2 c

Shear in the Section Cut excluding the force in tendons

V2Tot

Shear in the Section Cut including the force in tendons

Strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

sLimitPos , sLimitNeg = Max and min value of strain in nonprestressed longitudinal

tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request


V

Resistance factor for shear

Resistance factor for axial load

Resistance factor for moment

6.2.2 Design Process


The shear resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 (derived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over
an area b v wide and d v deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses
(defined by angle and shown as D) remains constant over d v , and that the
shear strength of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress
conditions at just one location in the web. For design, the user should select only those sections that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate
station ranges in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).

Shear Design

6-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The effective web width is taken as the minimum web width, measured parallel
to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces
as a result of flexure. In determining the effective web width at a particular level, one-quarter the diameter of grouted ducts at that level is subtracted from the
web width.
All defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, are assumed to be grouted.
Each tendon at a section is checked for presence in the web, and the minimum
controlling effective web thicknesses are evaluated.
The tendon duct is considered to have an effect on the web effective thickness
even if only part of the duct is within the web boundaries. In such cases, the entire one-quarter of the tendon duct diameter is subtracted from the element
thickness.
If several tendon ducts overlap in one web (when projected on the vertical axis), the diameters of the ducts are added for the sake of evaluation of the effective thickness. The effective web thickness is calculated at the top and bottom
of each duct.
Shear design is completed on a per-web basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a
description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

6.2.3 Algorithms
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model units
to N, mm.
For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes, a
new force demand set is generated. The new force demand set is built up from
the maximum tension values of P and the maximum absolute values of V2 and
M3 of the two StepTypes (Max and Min) present in the envelope COMBO
case. The StepType of this new force demand set is named ABS and the signs
of the P, V2 and M3 are preserved. The ABS case follows the industry practice
where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments that are not necessarily corresponding to the same design vehicle position. The section cut is designed for all three StepTypes in the COMBOMax, Min and ABSand the
controlling StepType is reported.

6-6

Shear Design

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

In cases where the demand moment Mu < Vu Vp dv , two new force demand
sets are generated where Mupos
= Vu Vp dvneg . The acro= Vu Vp dvpos and Muneg
nyms -CodeMinMuPos and -CodeMinMuNeg are added to the end of the
StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved.
The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:
Vp =

V2 c V2Tot
ngirders

The depth of the equivalent stress block a for both positive and negative moment is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Equation 5.7.3.1.1.
Effective shear depth is evaluated.
If M u > 0, then
=
dv max ( 0.72 dgirder , 0.9 dPTbot , dPTbot 0.5 a ) .
If M u < 0, then
=
dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 (dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ),(dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a .

The demand/capacity ratio (D/C) is calculated based on the maximum permissible shear capacity at a section in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Section
5.8.3.2-2.
Vu
Vp
V
D
=
C 0.25 f 'c b dv

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.2-2)

Evaluate the numerator and denominator of (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4).

snumerator =

Mu
dV

+ 0.5 N u + Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl


Adjust denominator values as follows.

Shear Design

6-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If sdenominator = 0 and snumerator > 0, then s = sLimitPos and

snumerator
E p Aps
s
.
Avl =
Es
If snumerator <0, then sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl + Ec Ac
Evaluate (eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4).

s = snumerator
sdenominator

Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face of
the section.
If

Nu
> 0.52 f 'c , then s = 2 s .
Agirder

Check against the limit on the strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate how
much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit.

=
s max( s , sLimitNeg ) and =
min( s , sLimitPos )
s
Evaluate the angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.
18 29 + 3500 s 45

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.4)

Evaluate the factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to


transmit tension and shear, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.
=

4.8
1 + 750 s

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.4)

Evaluate the nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-3).
=
Vc 0.083

6-8

Shear Design

f 'c b d v

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar.

VS =

Vu
Vp Vc
s

If VS < 0 , then AVS = 0; else AVS =

Vs

.
1
tan
(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

f y dv

Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement.


If Vu > 0.5 s Vc + Vp , then AVSmin =

0.083 f 'c b
in accordfy

ance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5-1); else AVS min = 0.


If VS < 0, then AVS = AVSmin ; else AVS = max( AVSmin , AVS ).
Recalculate V s in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4).

VS = AVS f y dv

1
.
tan

Evaluate the longitudinal rebar on the flexure tension side in accordance with
(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.5-1).

Vu
VU
VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU
S

NU
1

A=
E p Aps
SLreq
d + 0.5 +
tan
f
P
v
fy
AVL = max( AVL , ASLreq )

Assign longitudinal rebar to the top or bottom side of the girder based on the
moment sign.
If MU < 0, then AVLCompSlabU = AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange = 0,
else AVLCompSlabU = 0 and AVLBeamBotFlange = AVL .

Shear Design

6-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

6.3

Flexure Design
The following parameter is used in the design of flexure:
PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value(s): 1.0. The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored
resistance

6.3.1 Variables
A PS

Area of the PT in the tension zone

AS

Area of reinforcement in the tension zone

Aslab

Tributary area of the slab

Depth of the equivalent stress block in accordance with AASHTO


LRFD 5.7.3.2.2

bslab

Effective flange width = horizontal width of the slab tributary area,


measured from out to out

bwebeq

Thickness of the beam web

dP

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons in the tension zone

dS

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


rebar in the tension zone

f ps

Average stress in prestressing steel (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

f pu

Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all tendons in the tensile zone)

f py

Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of


all tendons are in the tensile zone)

fy

6 - 10

Yield strength of rebar

Flexure Design

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

PT material constant (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Mn

Nominal flexural resistance

Mr

Factored flexural resistance

tslabeq

Thickness of the composite slab

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim Section 5.7.2.2.

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 5.7.2.2

Resistance factor for flexure

6.3.2 Design Process


The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on the approximate stress distribution specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by an
equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 1 over a zone
bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to
the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression fiber. If
the AASHTO LRFD 2015 interim is selected the factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for
specified compressive strengths not exceeding 10.0 ksi. For specified concrete
compressive strengths exceeding 10.0ksi, 1 is reduced at rate of 0.02 for each
1.0ksi of strength in excess of 10.0ksi, except that 1 is not taken less than
0.75. For AASHTO LRFD no interim the 1 is always taken as 0.85 independent of concrete compressive strength. The distance c is measured perpendicular
to the neutral axis. The factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi, 1 is reduced at a rate
of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi, except that 1 is not to
be taken to be less than 0.65.
The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resistance is evaluated for bending about horizontal axis 3
only. Separate capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The capacity is based on bonded tendons and mild steel located in the tension zone as
defined in the Bridge Object. Tendons and mild steel reinforcement located in

Flexure Design

6 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

the compression zone are not considered. It is assumed that all defined tendons
in a section, stressed or not, have f pe (effective stress after loses) larger than 0.5
f pu (specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for
the flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.
The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation have been applied. This is consistent with the demands being
reported in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the
flange (slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

6.3.3 Algorithms
At each section:
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model units
to N, mm.
The equivalent slab thickness is evaluated based on the tributary slab area and
the slab width assuming a rectangular shape.
tslabeq =

Aslab
bslab

The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD


5.7.2.2 based on section f c
For AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim
> 10.0, 1 = 0.85
else 1 = 0.85

For AASHTO LRFD No Interim


1 = 0.85

6 - 12

Flexure Design

10
0.02; 0.75
1.0

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 5.7.2.2


based on section f c .
f 28

If f c > 28 MPa,=
then 1 max 0.85 c
0.05; 0.65 ;
7

else 1 =0.85.
The tendon and rebar location, area, and material are read. Only bonded tendons are processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.
Tendons and rebar are split into two groups depending on the sign of moment
they resistnegative or positive. A tendon or rebar is considered to resist a
positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress
block and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside
of the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line
located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme
compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.
For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:
sum of the tendon areas, A PS
center of gravity of the tendons, d P
specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu
constant k (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)
f py

=
k 2 1.04

f pu

For each rebar group, the following values are determined:


sum of tension rebar areas, A s
distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension
rebar, d s

Flexure Design

6 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Positive moment resistance first it is assumed that the equivalent compression stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis and
the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq.
5.7.3.1.1-4)
APS f PU + As f s

c=

1 f c1bslab + kAPS

f pu
dp

The distance c is compared against requirement of Section 5.7.2.1 to verify if


stress in mild reinforcement f s can be taken as equal to f y . The limit on ratio
c/d s is calculated depending on what kind of code and its interim are specified
in the Bridge Design Preferences form as shown in the table below:
Code

AASHTO LRFD 2012


No Interims

AASHTO LRFD 2012


with 2013 Interims or
later

0.6

0.003
0.003 +

where the compression control strain limit is per AASHTO LRFD 2013 Interims table C5.7.2.1-1
When the limit is not satisfied the stress in mild reinforcement f s is reduced to
satisfy the requirement of Section 5.7.2.1.
The distance c is compared to the equivalent slab thickness to determine if the
section is a T-section or rectangular section.
If c1 > tslabeq , the section is a T-section.
If the section is a T-section, the distance c is recalculated in accordance with
(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c=

6 - 14

Flexure Design

APS f PU + As f s 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq


f pu
1 f c 1bwebeq + kAPS
y pt

Chapter 6 - Design Multi-Cell Concrete Box Bridges using AMA

Average stress in prestressing steel f ps is calculated in accordance with


(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1).

=
fPS fPU 1 k
d
p

Nominal flexural resistance M n is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO


LRFD eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1).
If the section is a T-section, then
c tslabeq
c
c

=
M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 + 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1
2
2
2

else
c
c

=
M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 .
2
2

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying M n by .


Mr = M n

Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.
The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous.

Flexure Design

6 - 15

Chapter 7
Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

This chapter describes the algorithms used by CSiBridge for design and stress
check when the superstructure has a deck that includes precast I or U girders
with composite slabs in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD 2014 (AASHTO
LRFD) code.
When interim revisions of the codes are published by the relevant authorities,
and (when applicable) they are subsequently incorporated into CSiBridge, the
program gives the user an option to select what type of interims shall be used
for the design. The interims can be selected by clicking on the Code Preferences button.
The user has an option to select No Interims or YYYY Interims on the
Bridge Design Preferences form. The form can be opened by clicking the Code
Preferences button.
The revisions published in the 2015 interims were incorporated into the Flexure Design.

7.1

Stress Design
The following parameters are considered during stress design:

Stress Design

7-1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0. The compression and tension limits are multiplied by the C factor.
FactorCompLim f c multiplier; Default Value = 0.4; Typical values: 0.4 to
0.6. The f c is multiplied by the FactorCompLim to obtain compression limit.
FactorTensLim

f ' c multiplier; Default Value = 0.19 (ksi), 0.5(MPa); Typ-

ical values: 0 to 0.24 (ksi), 0 to 0.63 (MPa). The

f'c

is multiplied by the

FactorTensLim to obtain tension limit.


The stresses are evaluated at three points at the top fiber of the composite slab:
the left corner, the centerline beam and the right corner of the composite slab
tributary area. The locations of stress output points at the slab bottom fiber and
the beam top and bottom fibers depend on the type of precast beam present in
the section cut. The locations are labeled in the output plots and tables.
Concrete strength f c is read at every point and compression and tension limits
are evaluated using the FactorCompLim f c multiplier and FactorTensLim
f ' c multiplier.

The stresses assume linear distribution and take into account axial (P) and either both bending moments (M2 and M3) or only P and M3, depending on
which method for determining the LLD factor has been specified in the Design
Request (see Chapters 3 and 4).
The stresses are evaluated for each demand set (Chapter 4). Extremes are found
for each point and the controlling demand set name is recorded.
The stress limits are evaluated by applying the preceding Parameters.

7.2

Shear Design
The following parameters are considered during shear design:
PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The
nominal shear capacity of normal weight concrete sections is multiplied by the
resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.

7-2

Shear Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

PhiC (Lightweight) Resistance Factor for light-weight concrete; Default Value = 0.7, Typical values: 0.7 to 0.9. The nominal shear capacity of light-weight
concrete sections is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance.
Check Sub Type Typical value: MCFT. Specifies which method for shear design will be used: Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) in accordance
with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.2; or the Vci/Vcw method in accordance
with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.3. Currently, only the MCFT option is
available.
Negative limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 0.4x10-3,
Typical value(s): 0 to 0.4x10-3.
Positive limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with AASHTO LRFD section 5.8.3.4.2; Default Value = 6.0x10-3, Typical
value(s): 6.0x10-3.
PhiC for Nu Resistance Factor used in equation 5.8.3.5-1 of the code; Default
Value = 1.0, Typical values: 0.75 to 1.0.
Phif for Mu Resistance Factor used in AASHTO LRFD equation 5.8.3.5-1;
Default Value = 0.9, Typical values: 0.9 to 1.0.
Shear Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that will be
used to determine the required area of transverse rebar in the girder.
Longitudinal Rebar Material A previously defined rebar material label that
will be used to determine the required area of longitudinal rebar in the girder

7.2.1

Variables
a

Depth of the equivalent stress block in accordance with AASHTO


LRFD section 5.7.3.2.2. Varies for positive and negative moment.

Ac

Area of concrete on the flexural tension side of the member

A ps

Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of the member

A VS

Area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length


Shear Design

7-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

7-4

A VSmin

Minimum area of transverse shear reinforcement per unit length in


accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5)

A vl

Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the member at the section under consideration

Minimum web width of the beam

dv

Effective shear depth in accordance with AASHTO LRFD section


5.8.2.9

d girder

Depth of the girder

d compslab

Depth of the composite slab (includes concrete haunch t2)

d PTBot

Distance from the top of the composite slab to the center of gravity
of the tendons in the bottom of the precast beam

Ec

Youngs modulus of concrete

Ep

Prestressing steel Youngs modulus

Es

Reinforcement Youngs modulus

f pu

Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel

Mu

Factored moment at the section

Nu

Applied factored axial force, taken as positive if tensile

V 2c

Shear in Section Cut, excluding the force in the tendons

V 2tot

Shear in Section Cut, including the force in the tendons

Vp

Component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force; if V p has the same sign as V u , the component is resisting the applied shear.

Vu

Factored shear demand per girder, excluding the force in the tendons

Strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Shear Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

sLimitPos , sLimitNeg = Max and min value of strain in nonprestressed longitudinal


tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request

7.2.2

Resistance factor for shear

Resistance factor for axial load

Resistance factor for moment

Design Process
The shear resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 5.8.3.4.2 (derived from Modified Compression Field Theory). The procedure assumes that the concrete shear stresses are distributed uniformly over
an area b v wide and d v deep, that the direction of principal compressive stresses
(defined by angle and shown as D) remains constant over d v , and that the
shear strength of the section can be determined by considering the biaxial stress
conditions at just one location in the web. The user should select for design only those sections that comply with these assumptions by defining appropriate
station ranges in the Design Request (see Chapter 4).
It is assumed that the precast beams are pre-tensioned, and therefore, no ducts
are present in webs. The effective web width is taken as the minimum web
width, measured parallel to the neutral axis, between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces as a result of flexure.
Shear design is completed on a per-girder basis. Please refer to Chapter 3 for a
description of the live load distribution to individual girders.

7.2.3

Algorithms
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.
For every COMBO specified in the Design Request that contains envelopes,
two new force demand sets are generated. The new force demand sets are
built up from the maximum tension values of P and the maximum and minimum values of V2 and minimum values of M3 of the two StepTypes (Max
and Min) present in the envelope COMBO case. The StepType of these new

Shear Design

7-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

force demand sets are named MaxM3MinV2 and MinM3MaxV2, respectively. The signs of all force components are preserved. The two new cases are
added to comply with industry practice where sections are designed for extreme shear and moments that are not necessarily corresponding to the same
design vehicle position. The section cut is designed for all four StepTypes in
the COMBOMax, Min, MaxM3MinV2, and MinM3MaxV2and the controlling StepType is reported.
In cases where the demand moment Mu < Vu Vp dv , two new force demand
sets are generated where Mupos
= Vu Vp dvpos and Muneg =
Vu Vp dvnneg . The
acronyms -CodeMinMuPos and -CodeMinMuNeg are added to the end
of the StepType name. The signs of the P and V2 are preserved. The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force,
positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:
Vp =

V2 c V2tot
ngirders

Depth of equivalent stress block a for both positive and negative moment is
evaluated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1).
Effective shear depth is evaluated.

=
dv max ( 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 dPTbot , dPTbot 0.5 a ) .
If M u > 0, then
If M u < 0, then
=
dv max 0.72 dgirder ,0.9 ( dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) , ( dgirder 0.5 dcompslab ) 0.5 a .

If Mu < Vu Vp dv , then Mu = (Vu Vp ) dv .


The demand/capacity (D/C) ratio is calculated based on the maximum permissible shear capacity at a section in accordance with AASHTO LRFD
5.8.3.2-2.

Vu
Vp
V
D
=
C 0.25 f 'c b dv

7-6

Shear Design

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.2-2)

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Evaluate the numerator and denominator of (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4):


snumerator =

Mu
dV

+ 0.5 N u + Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl


Adjust denominator values as follows

0 and snumerator > 0, then s = sLimitPos and


If sdenominator =
Avl =

snumerator
E p Aps
s
Es

If snumerator < 0, then sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl + Ec Ac .


Evaluate (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4):

s = snumerator
sdenominator
Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section.
If

Nu
> 0.52 f 'c , then s = 2 s .
Agirder

Check against the limit on the strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension


reinforcement specified in the Design Request, and if necessary, recalculate
how much longitudinal rebar is needed to reach the EpsSpos tension limit.

=
s max ( s , sLimitNeg ) and =
s min ( s , sLimitPos )
Evaluate the angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

18 29 + 3500 s 45

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.4)

Shear Design

7-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Evaluate the factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to


transmit tension and shear, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

4.8
1 + 750 s

(AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.4)

Evaluate nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete


AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-3.
=
Vc 0.083

f 'c b d v

Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar.

VS =

Vu
Vp Vc
s

If VS < 0 , then AVS = 0,


else AVS =

Vs
1
f y dv
tan

(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement.


If Vu > 0.5 s Vc + Vp , then AVSmin =

0.083 f 'c b
in accordfy

ance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5-1); else AVS min = 0.


If VS < 0 , then AVS = AVSmin , else AVS = max( AVSmin , AVS ).
Recalculate Vs in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4).
VS = AVS f y dv

1
tan

Evaluate longitudinal rebar on flexure tension side in accordance with


(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.5-1).

7-8

Shear Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Vu
VU
VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU
S

NU
1

A=
E p Aps
SLreq
d + 0.5 +
tan
f
P
v
fy
AVL = max( AVL , ASLreq )
Assign longitudinal rebar to the top or bottom side of the girder based on
moment sign.
If M U < 0 , then AVLCompSlabU = AVL and AVLBeamBotFlange = 0;
else AVLCompSlabU = 0 and AVLBeamBotFlange = AVL .

7.2.4

Shear Design Example


The girder spacing is 9'-8". The girder type is AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72inch-deep, 42-inch-wide top flange and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO
28/72 Girders). The concrete deck is 8 inches thick, with the haunch thickness
assumed = 0.

Figure 7-1 Shear design example deck section


Materials
Concrete strength
=
6 ksi,
Prestressed girders 28-day strength, f c
Girder final elastic modulus, E c
= 4,415 ksi
Deck slab: 4.0 ksi, Deck slab elastic modulus, E s = 3,834 ksi

Shear Design

7-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Reinforcing steel Yield strength, f y

60 ksi

Figure 7-2 Shear design example beam section

Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270


=
0.153 in2
Strand area, A ps
=
243 ksi
Steel yield strength, f py
=
270 ksi
Steel ultimate strength, f pu
= 28,500 ksi
Prestressing steel modulus, E p
Basic beam section properties
Depth
Thickness of web
Area, A g
7 - 10

Shear Design

=
=
=

72 in.
8 in.
1,085 in2

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

A c = Area of concrete on the flexural


tension side of the member (bordered
at mid depth of the beam + slab height)
Moment of inertia, Ig
N.A. to top, y t
N.A. to bottom, y b
P/S force eccentricity e

=
551 in2
= 733,320 in4
=
35.62 in.
=
36.38 in.
=
31.380 in.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD 2012 4.6.2.6, the effective flange


width of the concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width. For the interior beam, the b slab = 9'-8" = 116 in.
Demands at interior girder Section 2 = station 10,
after girder Section 2, V u = 319.1 kip; M u = 3678 kip-ft
The component in the direction of the applied shear of the effective prestressing force, positive if resisting the applied shear, is evaluated:
Vp =

V2c V2tot
V p = 0 since no inclined tendons are present.
ngirders

Depth of equivalent stress block a for both positive and negative moment is
evaluated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1).
Effective shear depth is evaluated:
Since M u > 0, then (for calculation of the depth of the compression
block, refer to the Flexure example in Section 7.3 of this manual)
=
dv max ( 0.72 dgirder , 0.9 dPTbot , dPTbot 0.5 a )
= max ( 0.72 80", 0.9 75", 75" 0.5 5.314 0.85 )

( 57.6",67.5",72.74") 72.74"
=
d v max
=
Value reported by CSiBridge = 72.74"
Check if Mu < Vu Vp dv

M=
3,678 12
= 44,136 kip-in > ( 319 0 ) 72.74
= 23,204 kip-in
u

Shear Design

7 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

D/C is calculated based on the maximum permissible shear capacity at a section in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 5.8.3.2-2.

Vu
319
Vp
0
V
D
0.9
= =
= 0.406
C 0.25 f 'c b dv 0.25 6 8 72.74
Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.406
Evaluate the numerator and denominator of (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.24)
snumerator =

Mu
dV

+ 0.5 N u + Vu Vp Aps 0.7 f pu

3678 12
=
+ 0.5 0 + 319 0 6.73 0.7 270 =346.2 kip
72.74
sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl = 28500 ksi 6.73 in 2 = 191805 kip

Adjust denominator values as follows

0 and snumerator > 0, then s = sLimitPos and


If sdenominator =
snumerator
E p Aps
s
is not applicable.
Avl =
Es
If snumerator < 0, then
sdenominator = E p Aps + Es Avl + Ec Ac
= 28500 6.73 + 4415 551.4= 26 263 461 kip

Evaluate (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

346.2
s = snumerator =
=1.318E-4
sdenominator 2626346
Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.318E-4
Check if axial tension is large enough to crack the flexural compression face
of the section.

7 - 12

Shear Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

If

Nu
> 0.52 f 'c , then s = 2 s ; this is not applicable since N u = 0.
Agirder

Check against the limit on strain in nonprestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement as specified in the Design Request, and recalculate Avl.
s =max ( s , sLimitPos ) =max ( 1.318E-4, 1.318E-4 4 ) =1.318E-4

Evaluate angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

18 = 29 + 3500 s 45 = 29 + 3500 1.318E-4= 28.5deg


Value reported by CSiBridge = 28.5 deg
Evaluate factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit
tension and shear as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.

4.8
4.8
=
= 5.3265
1 + 750 s 1 + 750 1.318E-4
Value reported by CSiBridge = 5.3267

Evaluate nominal shear resistance provided by tensile stresses in the concrete


(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-3).

=
Vc 0.0316 f 'c b dv
= 0.0316 5.32 1.0 6 8 72.74
= 239.92 kip
Value reported by CSiBridge = 240.00 kip
Evaluate how much shear demand is left to be carried by rebar:

VS =

Vu

Vp Vc =

319
0 239.6 = 114.8 kip
0.9

Value reported by CSiBridge = 114.64 kip


If VS < 0, then AVS = 0; else

Shear Design

7 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

=
AVS

Vs
114.8
=
= 1.43E-2 in 2 /in
1
1
f y dv
60 72.74
tan
tan 28.5
(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4)

Check against minimum transverse shear reinforcement.

119.8 kip is true,


If Vu > 0.5 s Vc + Vp > 319.1 kip > 0.5 239.6 =

AVS min
=

0.0316 f 'c b 0.0316 1.0 6 8


= = 0.01032in 2 /in
fy
60
(AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.2.5-1)

AVSmin ; else AVS max


If VS < 0 , then AVS = =
=
( AVS min , AVS ) 1.43E-2in 2 /2
Value reported by CSiBridge = 1.43E-2in2/in
Recalculate Vs in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.3-4).
1
1
= 0.0143 60 72.74
= 114.9 kip
tan
tan 28.5
Value reported by CSiBridge = 114.6 kip
VS = AVS f y dv

Evaluate longitudinal rebar on flexure tension side in accordance with


AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.8.3.5-1:

Vu
VU
VP 0.5 min VS ,

MU
S
S
NU
1

A=
E p Aps
SLreq
d + 0.5 +
f

tan
f
P
v
y

319
0 0.5 114.9
3678 12
1
0
0.9

=
+ 0.5
+
28500 6.73
=
3176.3 in 2
1.0
tan 28.5
72.74 0.9
60
Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.00 in2 no additional longitudinal rebar is required in the beam bottom flange.

7.3

Flexure Design
The following parameter is used in the design of flexure:

7 - 14

Flexure Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

PhiC Resistance Factor; Default Value = 1.0, Typical value: 1.0. The nominal flexural capacity is multiplied by the resistance factor to obtain factored resistance

7.3.1

Variables
A PS

Area of PT in the tension zone

AS

Area of reinforcement in the tension zone

A slab

Tributary area of the slab

Depth of the equivalent stress block in accordance with AASHTO


LRFD 5.7.3.2.2.

b slab

Effective flange width = horizontal width of slab tributary area,


measured from out to out

b webeq

Thickness of the beam web

dP

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


prestressing tendons in the tension zone

dS

Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the


rebar in the tension zone

f ps

Average stress in prestressing steel (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

f pu

Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of all tendons in the tensile zone)

f py

Yield tensile strength of prestressing steel (area weighted average of


all tendons in the tensile zone)

fy

Yield strength of rebar

PT material constant (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Mn

Nominal flexural resistance

Mr

Factored flexural resistance

Flexure Design

7 - 15

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

t slabeq
1

7.3.2

Thickness of the composite slab


Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim Section 5.7.2.2.

Stress block factor, as specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 5.7.2.2

Resistance factor for flexure

Design Process
The derivation of the moment resistance of the section is based on the approximate stress distribution specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.2.2. The natural relationship between concrete stress and strain is considered satisfied by
an equivalent rectangular concrete compressive stress block of 1 over a
zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression
fiber. If the AASHTO LRFD 2015 interim is selected the factor 1 is taken as
0.85 for specified compressive strengths not exceeding 10.0 ksi. For specified
concrete compressive strengths exceeding 10.0ksi, 1 is reduced at rate of 0.02
for each 1.0ksi of strength in excess of 10.0ksi, except that 1 is not taken less
than 0.75. For AASHTO LRFD no interim the 1 is always taken as 0.85 independent of concrete compressive strength. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis. The factor 1 is taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths
not exceeding 4.0 ksi. For concrete strengths exceeding 4.0 ksi, 1 is reduced at
a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of strength in excess of 4.0 ksi, except that 1 is
not to be taken to be less than 0.65.
The flexural resistance is determined in accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 5.7.3.2. The resistance is evaluated only for bending about horizontal
axis 3. Separate capacity is calculated for positive and negative moment. The
capacity is based on bonded tendons and mild steel located in the tension zone
as defined in the Bridge Object. Tendons and mild steel reinforcement located
in the compression zone are not considered. It is assumed that all defined tendons in a section, stressed or not, have f pe (effective stress after loses) larger
than 0.5 f pu (specified tensile strength). If a certain tendon should not be considered for the flexural capacity calculation, its area must be set to zero.

7 - 16

Flexure Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

The section properties are calculated for the section before skew, grade, and
superelevation are applied. This is consistent with the demands being reported
in the section local axis. It is assumed that the effective width of the flange
(slab) in compression is equal to the width of the slab.

7.3.3

Algorithms
At each section:
All section properties and demands are converted from CSiBridge model
units to N, mm.
The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD
5.7.2.2 based on section f c
For AASHTO LRFD 2015 Interim

> 10.0, 1 = 0.85


else 1 = 0.85

10
0.02; 0.75
1.0

For AASHTO LRFD No Interim

1 = 0.85

The 1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD


5.7.2.2 based on section fc.

f 28

0.05; 0.65 ;
If f c > 28 MPa, =
then 1 max 0.85 c
7

else 1 = 0.85.
The tendon and rebar location, area and material are read. Only bonded tendons are processed; unbonded tendons are ignored.
Tendons and rebar are split into two groups depending on what sign of moment they resistnegative or positive. A tendon or rebar is considered to resist a positive moment when it is located outside of the top fiber compression
stress block, and it is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom fiber compression stress block. The compression
Flexure Design

7 - 17

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

stress block extends over a zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section
and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c
from the extreme compression fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.
For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

sum of the tendon areas, A PS

center of gravity of the tendons, d P

specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu

constant k (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

f py

=
k 2 1.04

f pu

For each rebar group the following values are determined:

sum of tension rebar areas, A s

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension rebar, d s

Positive moment resistance First it is assumed that the equivalent compression stress block is within the top slab. Distance c between the neutral axis
and the compressive face is calculated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD
eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)
APS f PU + As f s

c=

1 f c1bslab + kAPS

f pu
dp

The distance c is compared against requirement of Section 5.7.2.1 to verify if


stress in mild reinforcement fs can be taken as equal to fy. The limit on ratio
c/ds is calculated depending on what kind of code and its interim are specified in the Bridge Design Preferences form as shown in the table below:
Code

7 - 18

Flexure Design

AASHTO LRFD 2012

AASHTO LRFD 2012


with 2013 Interims or

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

No Interims

later

0.6

0.003
0.003 +

Ratio limit

where the compression control strain limit is per AASHTO LRFD 2013
Interims table C5.7.2.1-1
When the limit is not satisfied the stress in mild reinforcement f s is reduced
to satisfy the requirement of Section 5.7.2.1.The distance c is compared to
the slab thickness. If the distance to the neutral axis c is larger than the composite slab thickness, the distance c is re-evaluated. For this calculation, the
beam flange width and area are converted to their equivalents in slab concrete by multiplying the beam flange width by the modular ratio between the
precast girder concrete and the slab concrete. The web width in the equation
for c is substituted for the effective converted girder flange width. The distance c is recalculated in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3).

c=

APS f PU + As f s 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq


f pu
1 f c 1bwebeq + kAPS
y pt

If the calculated value of c exceeds the sum of the deck thickness and the
equivalent precast girder flange thickness, the program assumes the neutral
axis is below the flange of the precast girder and recalculates c. The term
1 ( ) in the calculation is broken into two terms, one refers to the
contribution of the deck to the composite section flange and the second refers
to the contribution of the precast girder flange to the composite girder flange.
Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with
AASHTO LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-1.

=
fPS fPU 1 k
dp

Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with AASHTO


LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1.

If the section is a T-section, then

Flexure Design

7 - 19

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

c tslabeq
c
c

=
M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1 + 1 f c ( bslab bwebeq ) tslabeq 1
;
2
2
2

2
else
c
c

=
M n APS f PS d p 1 + AS f s d s 1
2
2

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .

Mr = M n
Extreme moment M3 demands are found from the specified demand sets and
the controlling demand set name is recorded.
The process for evaluating negative moment resistance is analogous, except
that calculation of positive moment resistance is not applicable.

7.3.4

Flexure Capacity Design Example

Figure 7-3 Flexure capacity design example deck section


Girder spacing: 9'-8"
Girder type: AASHTO Type VI Girders, 72 inches deep, 42-inch-wide top
flange, and 28-inch-wide bottom flange (AASHTO 28/72 Girders)
Concrete deck: 8 inches thick, haunch thickness assumed = 0

7 - 20

Flexure Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

Figure 7-4 Flexure capacity design example beam section


Materials
Concrete strength
=
6 ksi,
Prestressed girders 28-day strength, fc
Girder final elastic modulus, E c
=
4,696 ksi
Deck slab
=
4.0 ksi,
=
3,834 ksi
Deck slab elastic modulus, E s
=
60 ksi
Reinforcing steel yield strength, f y
Prestressing strands 0.5-inch-diameter low relaxation strands Grade 270
=
0.153 in2
Strand area, A ps

Flexure Design

7 - 21

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Steel yield strength, f py


Steel ultimate strength, f pu
Prestressing steel modulus, E p

=
=
=

243 ksi
270 ksi
28,500 ksi

Basic beam section properties


Depth
Thickness of web
Area, A g
Moment of inertia, I g
N.A. to top, y t
N.A. to bottom, y b
P/S force eccentricity e

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

72 in.
8 in.
1,085 in2
733,320 in4
35.62 in.
36.38 in.
31.380 in.

In accordance with AASHTO LRFD paragraph 4.6.2.6, the effective


flange width of the concrete deck slab is taken as the tributary width.
For the interior beam, the b slab = 9'-8" = 116 in.
Tendons are split into two groups depending on which sign of moment they
resistnegative or positive. A tendon is considered to resist a positive moment
when it is located outside of the top fiber compression stress block and is considered to resist a negative moment when it is located outside of the bottom
fiber compression stress block. The compression stress block extends over a
zone bounded by the edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at the distance a = 1 c from the extreme compression
fiber. The distance c is measured perpendicular to the neutral axis.
For each tendon group, an area weighted average of the following values is
determined:

7 - 22

sum of tendon areas


APTbottom =
44 0.153 =
6.732 in 2
Value reported by CSiBridge = 6.732 in2

distance from center of gravity of tendons to extreme compression fiber


12 2 + 12 4 + 10 6 + 6 8 + 4 10
yPTbottom = ( 72 + 8 )
= 75 in
12 + 12 + 10 + 6 + 4

specified tensile strength of prestressing steel f pu = 270 kip


Value reported by CSiBridge = 270 kip

Flexure Design

Chapter 7 - Design Precast Concrete Girder Bridges

constant k (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)


f py

243

k= 2 1.04
= 0.28
= 2 1.04
f
270

pu

Value reported by CSiBridge = 0.28


1 stress block factor is evaluated in accordance with AASHTO LRFD
5.7.2.2 based on the composite slab f c
1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strength not exceeding 4.0 ksi. If
f c > 4 ksi, then 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1.0 ksi of
strength in excess of 4.0 ksi. Since fc = 4 ksi, 1 = 0.85.
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 0.85 (not reported)

The distance c between neutral axis and the compressive face is evaluated in
accordance with AASHTO LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-4.
c=

APTbottom f pu
0.85 f c 1 bslab + k APTbottom

f pu
yPTbottom

6.732 * 270
= 5.314 in
270
0.85 4 0.85 116 + 0.28 6.732
75
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 5.314 in

The distance c is compared to the composite slab thickness to determine if


the c needs to be re-evaluated to include the precast beam flange in the
equivalent compression block.
Since c = 5.314 in < 8 in, the c is valid.
Average stress in prestressing steel fps is calculated in accordance with
AASHTO LRFD 5.7.3.1.1-1.
c
5.314

f ps = f pu 1 k
= 270 1 0.28
= 264.64 ksi

75
yPTbottom

Value reported by CSiBridge = 264.643 ksi

Nominal flexural resistance Mn is calculated in accordance with AASHTO


LRFD 5.7.3.2.2-1.

Flexure Design

7 - 23

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Since the section is rectangular,


c
5.314 0.85

M n = APTbottom f ps yPTbottom 1 = 6.732 264.64 75

2
2

= 129593.17
=
12 10 799.4 kip-ft
Value calculated by CSiBridge = 107 99 kip-ft (not reported)

Factored flexural resistance is obtained by multiplying Mn by .


Mr =
M n =
0.9 10 799.4 =
9719.5 kip-ft

Value reported by CSiBridge = 9719.5 kip-ft (116633.5 kip-in)

7 - 24

Flexure Design

Chapter 8
Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

This chapter describes the algorithms CSiBridge applies when designing steel
I-beam with composite slab superstructures in accordance with, the AASHTO
LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD).

8.1

Section Properties

8.1.1 Yield Moments


8.1.1.1

Composite Section in Positive Flexure

The positive yield moment, My, is determined by the program in accordance


with AASHTO LRFD Section D6.2.2 using the following user-defined input,
which is part of the Design Request (see Chapter 4 for more information about
Design Request).
Mdnc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that
represents the moment caused by the factored permanent load applied
before the concrete deck has hardened or is made composite.
Mdc =

The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that
represents the moment caused by the remainder of the factored permanent load (applied to the composite section).

The program solves for MAD from the following equation,

8- 1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Fyt =

M dnc M dc M AD
+
+
S NC
SLT
SST

(AASHTO LRFD D6.2.2-1)

and then calculates yield moment based on the following equation


M y = M dnc + M dc + M AD

(AASHTO LRFD D6.2.2-2)

where
SNC =

Noncomposite section modulus (in.3)

SLT =

Long-term composite section modulus (in.3)

SST =

Short-term composite section modulus (in.3)

My is taken as the lesser value calculated for the compression flange, Myc,
or the tension flange, Myt. The positive My is calculated only once based
on Mdnc and Mdc demands specified by the user in the Design Request. It
should be noted that the My calculated in the procedure described here is
used by the program only to determine Mnpos for a compact section in
positive bending in a continuous span, where the nominal flexural resistance may be controlled by My in accordance with (AASHTO LRFD
eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3).
M n 1.3 Rh M y

8.1.1.2

Composite Section in Negative Flexure

For composite sections in negative flexure, the procedure described for positive
yield moment is followed, except that the composite section for both short-term
and long-term moments consists of the steel section and the longitudinal reinforcement within the tributary width of the concrete deck. Thus, SST and SLT are
the same value. Also, Myt is taken with respect to either the tension flange or
the longitudinal reinforcement, whichever yields first.
The negative My is calculated only once based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands
specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted that the My calculated in the procedure described here is used by the program solely to determine the limiting slenderness ratio for a compact web corresponding to 2Dcp /tw
in (AASHTO LRFD eq. A6.2.1-2).

8-2

Section Properties

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

=
pw( Dcp )

E
Fyc

Dcp
rw

Mp
Dc

0.09
0.54
Rh M y

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.1-2)

and web plastification factors in (AASHTO LRFD eqs. A.6.2.2-4 and A6.2.25).

Rh M yc
R pc = 1 1
Mp

w pw( Dc )

rw pw( Dc )

M p
Mp

M yc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A.6.2.2-4)

Rh M yt
R pt = 1 1
Mp

w pw( Dc )

rw pw( Dc )

M p M p

M yt M yt

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-5)

8.1.2 Plastic Moments


8.1.2.1

Composite Section in Positive Flexure

The positive plastic moment, Mp, is calculated as the moment of the plastic
forces about the plastic neutral axis. Plastic forces in the steel portions of a
cross-section are calculated using the yield strengths of the flanges, the web,
and reinforcing steel, as appropriate. Plastic forces in the concrete portions of
the cross-section that are in compression are based on a rectangular stress block
with the magnitude of the compressive stress equal to 0.85 fc. Concrete in tension is neglected. The position of the plastic neutral axis is determined by the
equilibrium condition that there is no net axial force.
The plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is determined by:
Calculating the element forces and using them to determine if the plastic neutral axis is in the web, top flange, or concrete deck
Calculating the location of the plastic neutral axis within the element determined in the first step
Calculating Mp.
Section Properties

8-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Equations for the various potential locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA)
are given in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1 Calculation of PNA and M p for Sections in Positive Flexure
Case

PNA

In Web

D P Pc Ps Prt Prb
=
+ 1
Y t
Pw
2

Pt + Pw
2
Pw 2 (

P c + P s + P rb + P n
=
M
Y + D Y ) + [ Ps ds + Prt drt + Prb d rb + Pc dc + Pt dt ]
p
2D

t P + Pt Ps Prt Prb

=
+ 1
Y c w
Pc
2

Pt + Pw + Pc
2
P
c 2
Ps + Prb + Pn
=
M
Y + ( tc Y ) + [ Ps ds + Pn dn + Prb d rb + Pw dw + Pt dt ]
p
2tc

II

In Top
Flange

III

Concrete
Deck
Below
Prb

Pt + P w + Pc
crb

Ps + Prb + Pn
t2

IV

Concrete
Deck at
Prb

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb
crb

Ps + Pn
ts

Concrete
Deck
Above
Prb and
Below
Prt

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb
crt
Ps + Pn
ts

VI

Concrete
Deck at
Prt

Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Pn
crt
Ps
ts

8-4

Y and M p

Condition

Section Properties

P + Pw + Pt Prt Prb
Y = ( ts ) c

Ps

2
Y Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Prb d rb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]


p
2t s

Y = crb
Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]
p
2t s

P + Pc + Pw + Pt Prt
Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]


p
2t s
Y = crt
Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]
p
2t s

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

Table 8-1 Calculation of PNA and M p for Sections in Positive Flexure


Case

PNA

VII

Concrete
Deck
Above
Prt

Y and M p

Condition
Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Prt <
crt
Ps
ts

P + Pc + Pw + Pt + Prt
Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]


p
2t s

Next the section is checked for ductility requirement in accordance with


(AASHTO LRFD eq. 6.10.7.3)
Dp 0.42Dt
where Dp is the distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of
the composite section at the plastic moment, and Dt is the total depth of the
composite section. At the section where the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is set to zero.
bs

Art

ts

Crt

Arb
Prt

Crb

Ps
Prb
bc

tc

tw

Pc

PNA

PNA
Y

Y
PNA

Pw

Pt

tt

CASE I

CASES III-VII

CASE II

bt
Figure 8-1 Plastic Neutral Axis Cases -- Positive Flexure

8.1.2.2

Composite Section in Negative Flexure

The plastic moment of a composite section in negative flexure is calculated by


an analogous procedure. Equations for the two cases most likely to occur in

Section Properties

8-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

practice are given in Table 8-2. The plastic moment of a noncomposite section
is calculated by eliminating the terms pertaining to the concrete deck and longitudinal reinforcement from the equations in Tables 8-1 and 8-2 for composite
sections.
Table 8-2 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Negative Flexure
Case

PNA

Condition

Y and Mp

In Web

D P Pt Prt Prb

Y c
=
+ 1
2
P

w

Pc + Pw Pt + Prb + Pn
2
Pw 2 (

M
=
Y + D Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pt dt + Pd
p
l l]
2D

II

In Top
Flange

t P Pc Prt Prb

Y l w
=
+ 1
Pt
2

Pc + Pw + Pt Prb + Pn
2
Pt 2
M
=
Y + ( tl Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pw dw + Pc dc ]
p
2tl

Art

Arb
Prt
Prb

ts
bc

tt

tw

Pt

Y
PNA

Pw
Pc

tc

bc

CASE I

CASE V

Figure 8-2 Plastic Neutral Axis Cases -- Negative Flexure

in which
Prt = Fyrt Art
Ps = 0.85 fc bsts
8-6

PNA
Y

Section Properties

CASE II

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

Prb = Fyrb Arb


Pc = Fycbctc
Pw = Fyw Dtw
Pt = Fyt bttt
In the equations for Mp given in Tables 8-1 and 8-2, d is the distance from an
element force to the plastic neutral axis. Element forces act at (a) mid-thickness
for the flanges and the concrete deck, (b) mid-depth of the web, and (c) center
of reinforcement. All element forces, dimensions, and distances are taken as
positive. The conditions are checked in the order listed in Tables 8-1 and 8-2.

8.1.3 Section Classification and Factors


8.1.3.1

Compact or Non-Compact Positive Flexure

The program determines if the section can be qualified as compact based on the
following criteria:
the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,
the web satisfies the requirement of AASHTO LRFD Article (6.10.2.1.1),
D
150
tw

the section satisfies the web slenderness limit,


2 Dcp
tw

3.76

E
.
Fyc

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.6.2.2-1)

The program does not verify if the composite section is kinked (chorded) continuous or horizontally curved.

8.1.3.2

Design in Accordance with Appendix A

The program determines if a section qualifies to be designed using Appendix A


of the AASHTO LRFD Edition based on the following criteria:
the Design Request Parameter Use Appendix A? is set to Yes (see Chapter
4 for more information about setting parameters in the Design Request),

Section Properties

8-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,
the web satisfies the noncompact slenderness limit,
2 Dc
E
< 5.7
tw
Fyc

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.6.2.3-1)

the flanges satisfy the following ratio,

I yc
I yt

0.3.

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.6.2.3-2)

The program does not verify if the composite section is kinked (chorded) continuous or horizontally curved.

8.1.3.3

Hybrid Factor Rh Composite Section Positive Flexure

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a
higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid factor is taken as:

Rh =

12 + ( 3 3 )
12 + 2

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.1-1)

where
=the smaller of Fyw fn and 1.0

2 Dn t w
A fn

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.1-2)

Afn = bottom flange area


Dn = the distance from the elastic neutral axis of the cross-section to
the inside face of bottom flange
Fn = fy of the bottom flange

8-8

Section Properties

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

8.1.3.4

Hybrid Factor Rh Composite Section Negative Flexure

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a
higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid factor is taken as:

Rh =

12 + ( 3 3 )
12 + 2

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.1-1)

where
=

2 Dn t w
A fn

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.1-2)

=the smaller of Fyw fn and 1.0

Afn = Flange area on the side of the neutral axis corresponding to Dn.
If the top flange controls, then the area of longitudinal rebar in
the slab is included in calculating Afn.
Dn = The larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the
cross-section to the inside face of either flange. For sections
where the neutral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, this distance is from the neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on
the side of the neutral axis where yielding occurs first.
Fn = fy of the controlling flange. When the top flange controls, then
Fn is equal to the largest of the minimum specified yield
strengths of the top flange or the longitudinal rebar in the slab.

8.1.3.5

Hybrid Factor Rh Non Composite Section

For rolled shapes, homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a
higher-strength steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid factor is taken as:

Rh =

12 + ( 3 3 )
12 + 2

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.1-1)

where

Section Properties

8-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

=the smaller of Fyw fn and 1.0

2 Dn t w
A fn

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.1-2)

Afn = Flange area on the side of the neutral axis corresponding to Dn.
Dn = The larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the
cross-section to the inside face of either flange. For sections
where the neutral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, this distance is from the neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on
the side of the neutral axis where yielding occurs first.
Fn = fy of the controlling flange.

8.1.3.6

Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb

When checking constructability in accordance with the provisions of AASHTO


LRFD Article 6.10.2.1 or for composite sections in positive flexure, the Rb factor is taken as equal to 1.0. For composite sections in negative flexure, the Rb
factor is taken as:
awc

2 Dc

rw 1.0
Rb =
1

1200 + 300 awc t w


(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.2)

where
rw =
5.7

awc =

E
Fyc

2 Dc t w
b fc t fc

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.10.2-4)

(AASHTO LRFD 2008 6.10.1.10.2-5)

When the user specifies the Design Request parameter Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners? as yes, the Rb factor is set to 1.0 (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying Design Request parameters).

8 - 10

Section Properties

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

8.1.3.7

Unbraced Length Lb and Section Transitions

The program assumes that the top flange is continuously braced for all Design
Requests, except for Constructability. For more information about flange lateral bracing in a Constructability Design Request, see Section 8.6 of this manual.
The unbraced length Lb for the bottom flange is equal to the distance between
the nearest downstation and upstation qualifying cross diaphragms or span end
as defined in the Bridge Object [the preceding sentence needs to be clarified].
Some of the diaphragm types available in CSiBridge may not necessarily provide restraint to the bottom flange. The program assumes that the following diaphragm qualifies as providing lateral restraint to the bottom flange: single
beam, all types of chords and braces except V braces without bottom beams.
The program calculates demands and capacities pertaining to a given section
cut at a given station without considering section transition within the unbraced
length. It does not search for the highest demands vs. the smallest resistance Fnc
within the unbraced length as the code suggests. It is also setting the value of
the moment gradient modifier equal to 1.0. It is the responsibility of the user to
pay special attention to the section transition within the unbraced length and to
follow the guidelines in AASHTO LRFD C6.10.8.2.3.

8.2

Demand Sets
Demand Set combos (at least one is required) are user-defined combinations
based on LRFD combinations (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying Demand Sets). The demands from all specified demand combos are enveloped and used to calculate D/C ratios. The way the demands are used depends on if the design parameter "Use Stage Analysis? is set to Yes or No.
If Use Stage Analysis? = Yes, the program reads the stresses on beams and
slabs directly from the section cut results. The program assumes that the effects
of the staging of loads applied to non-composite versus composite sections, as
well as the concrete slab material time dependent properties, were captured by
using the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case available in CSiBridge.
Note that the Design Request for staged constructability check (Steel-I Comp
Construct Stgd) allows only Nonlinear Staged Construction load cases to be
used as Demand Sets.
Demand Sets

8 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If Use Stage Analysis? = No, the program decomposes load cases present in
every demand set combo to three Bridge Design Action categories: noncomposite, composite long term, and composite short term. The program uses
the load case Bridge Design Action parameter to assign the load cases to the
appropriate categories. A default Bridge Design Action parameter is assigned
to a load case based on its Design Type. However, the parameter can be overwritten: click the Analysis > Load Cases > {Type} > New command to display the Load Case Data {Type} form; click the Design button next to the
Load case type dropdown list; under the heading Bridge Design Action, select
the User Defined option and select a value from the list. The assigned Bridge
Designed Action values are handled by the program in the following manner:
Table 8-3 Bridge Design Action
Bridge Design Action Value
Specified by the User

Bridge Design Action Category Used in


the Design Algorithm

Non-Composite

Non-Composite

Long-Term Composite

Long-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Staged

Non-Composite

Other

Non-Composite

8.2.1 Demand Flange Stresses fbu and ff


Evaluation of the flange stress, fbu, calculated without consideration of flange
lateral bending is dependent on setting the Design Request parameter Use
Stage Analysis?
If the Use Stage Analysis? = No, then
fbu =

P
Acomp

M NC M LTC M STC
+
+
Ssteel
SLTC
SSTC

where MNC is the demand moment on the non-composite section, MLTC is the
demand moment on the long-term composite section, and MSTC is the demand
moment on the short-term composite section.

8 - 12

Demand Sets

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

The short-term section modulus for positive moment is calculated by transforming the concrete deck using the steel-to-concrete modular ratio. The longterm section modulus for positive moment is calculated using a modular ratio
factored by n, where n is specified in the Design Parameter as the Modular
ratio long-term multiplier. The effect of compression reinforcement is ignored. For negative moment, the concrete deck is assumed cracked and is not
included in the section modulus calculations while tension reinforcement is accounted for.
If Use Stage Analysis? = Yes, then the fbu stresses on each flange are read directly from the section cut results. The program assumes that the effects of the
staging of loads applied to non-composite versus composite sections, as well as
the concrete slab material time dependent properties, were captured by using
the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case available in CSiBridge.
In the Strength Design Check, the program verifies the sign of the stress in the
composite slab, and if stress is positive (tension), the program assumes that the
entire section cut demand moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to
reflect the fact that the concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not
contribute to the resistance of the section. Flange stress ff , used in the Service
Design Check, is evaluated in the same manner as stress fbu, with one exception. When the Steel Service Design Request parameter Does concrete slab resist tension? is set to Yes, the program uses section properties based on a
transformed section that assumes the concrete slab to be fully effective in both
tension and compression.
In the Constructability checks, the program proceeds based on the status of the
concrete slab. When no slab is present or the slab is non-composite, the fbu
stresses on each flange are read directly from the section cut results. When the
slab status is composite, the program verifies the sign of the stress in the composite slab, and if stress is positive (tension), the program assumes that the entire section cut demand moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to
reflect the fact that the concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not
contribute to the resistance of the section.

8.2.2 Demand Flange Lateral Bending Stress fl


The flange lateral bending stress fl is evaluated only when all of the following
conditions are met:

Demand Sets

8 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Steel Girders has been selected for the deck section type (Components >
Superstructure Item > Deck Sections command) and the Girder Modeling
In Area Object Models Model Girders Using Area Objects option is set to
Yes on the Define Bridge Section Data Steel Girder form.
The bridge object is modeled using Area Objects. This option can be set using the Bridge > Update command to display the Update Bridge Structural
Model form; then select the Update as Area Object Model option.
The Design Parameter Use Stage Analysis is set to Yes
Set the Live Load Distribution to Girders method to Use Forces Directly
from CSiBridge on the Bridge Design Request Superstructure {Code}
form, which displays when the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design >
Design Requests command is used (see Chapter 3 for more information
about Live Load Distribution). Since there is no live load used in the Constructability design, request this setting does not apply in that case.
In all other cases, the flange lateral bending stress is set to zero. The fl stresses
on each flange are read directly from the section cut results.

8.2.3 Depth of the Web in Compression


For composite sections in positive flexure, the depth of the web in compression
is computed using the following equation:

fc
=
Dc
d t fc 0
fc + ft

(AASHTO LRFD D6.3-1)

Figure 8-3 Web in Compression Positive Flexure

where

8 - 14

Demand Sets

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

fc = Sum of the compression-flange stresses caused by the different loads, i.e.,


DC1, the permanent load acting on the noncomposite section; DC2, the
permanent load acting on the long-term composite section; DW, the wearing surface load; and LL+IM; acting on their respective sections. fc is taken
as negative when the stress is in compression. Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.
ft = Sum of the tension-flange stresses caused by the different loads. Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.
For composite sections in negative flexure, Dc is computed for the section consisting of the steel girder plus the longitudinal reinforcement, with the exception of the following. For composite sections in negative flexure at the Service
Design Check Request where the concrete deck is considered effective in tension for computing flexural stresses on the composite section (Design Parameter Does concrete slab resist tension? = Yes), Dc is computed from AASHTO
LRFD Eq. D 6.3.1-1. For this case, the stresses fc and ft are switched, the signs
shown in the stress diagram are reversed, tfc is the thickness of the bottom
flange, and Dc instead extends from the neutral axis down to the top of the bottom flange.

8.3

Strength Design Request


The Strength Design Check calculates at every section cut positive flexural
capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. It then compares the
capacities against the envelope of demands specified in the Design Request.

8.3.1 Flexure
8.3.1.1

Positive Flexure Compact

The nominal flexural resistance of the section is evaluated as follows:


If Dp 0.1 Dt, then Mn = Mp; otherwise
Dp

=
M n M p 1.07 0.7

Dt

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.7.1.2-2)

In a continuous span, the nominal flexural resistance of the section is determined as


Strength Design Request

8 - 15

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Mn 1.3RhMy
where Rh is a hybrid factor for the section in positive flexure.
The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as
1

Mu + 3 f1S xt
f
DoverC = max
, l
f Mn
0.6 Fyf

8.3.1.2

Positive Flexure Non-Compact

Nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flange is taken as:


Fnc = RbRhFyc

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.7.2.2-1)

Nominal flexural resistance of the bottom tension flange is taken as:


Fnt = RhFyt

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.7.2.2-1)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


1

fbu + 3 f1 fbu
f
DoverC = max
,
, l
f Fnt f Fnc 0.6 Fyf

8.3.1.3

Negative Flexure in Accordance with Article 6.10.8

The local buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(FLB) as specified in


AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2.2 is taken as:
If f pf, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.2-1)

Otherwise

Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1

Rb Rh Fyc
Rh Fyc rf pf

in which

8 - 16

Strength Design Request

(6.10.8.2.2-2)

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

b fc
f =
2t fc

(6.10.8.2.2-3)

0.38
pf =

E
Fyc

(6.10.8.2.2-4)

0.56
rf =

E
Fyr

(6.10.8.2.2-5)

Fyr = Compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding within


the cross-section, including residual stress effects, but not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the smaller of
0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5 Fyc.
The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange Fnc(LTB) as
specified in AASHTO LRFD Article (6.10.8.2.3) is taken as follows:
If Lb Lp, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.3-1)

If Lp < Lb Lr, then



Fyr Lb L p
Fnc= Cb 1 1

Rh Fyc Lr L p

If Lb > Lr, then Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc

Rb Rh Fyc Rb Rh Fyc

(6.10.8.2.3-2)

(6.10.8.2.3-3)

in which
Lb = unbraced length,

L p = 1.0rt

E
,
Fyc

Lr = rt

E
Fyr

Cb = 1 (moment gradient modifier)

Fcr =

Cb Rb 2 E
Lb
r
t

(6.10.8.2.3-8)

Strength Design Request

8 - 17

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

rt =

b fc

(6.10.8.2.3-9)

1 Dc t w
12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

The nominal flexural resistance of the bottom compression flange is taken as


the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling
resistance:

Fnc = min Fnc( FLB) , Fnc( LTB)


The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:
f Rh Fyf

(6.10.8.1.3-1)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


1

fbu + 3 f1
fbu
f
DoverC = max
,
, 1
f Fm f Rh Fyf 0.6 Fyc

8.3.1.4

Negative Flexure in Accordance with Appendix A6

Sections that satisfy the following requirement qualify as compact web sections:
2 Dcp
tw

pw( Dcp )

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.1-2)

where

=
pw( Dcp )

5.7
rw =

8 - 18

E
Fyc

Dcp

Mp

Dc
0.09
0.54
Rh M y

E
Fyc

Strength Design Request

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.1-2)

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.1-3)

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

Dc

= depth of the web in compression in the elastic range

Dcp

= depth of the web in compression at the plastic moment

Then web plastification factors are determined as

R pc =

R pt =

Mp

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.1-4)

M yc
Mp

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.1-5)

M yt

Sections that do not satisfy the requirement for compact web sections, but for
which the web slenderness satisfies the following requirement:

w < rw

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-1)

2D
w = c
tw

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-2)

where

5.7
rw =

E
Fyc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-3)

The web plastification factors are taken as:

Rh M yc
R pc = 1 1
Mp

w pw( Dc )

tw pw( Dc )

M p
Mp

M yc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-4)

Rh M yt
R pt = 1 1
Mp

w pw( Dc )

rw pw( Dc )

M p M p

M yt M yt

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-5)

where

Strength Design Request

8 - 19

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

D
pw( Dc ) = pw( Dc p ) c
Dcp

rw

(AASHTO LRFD A6.2.2-6)

The local buckling resistance of the compression flange MncFLB as specified in


AASHTO LRFD Article A6.3.2 is taken as:
If f pf , then M nc = R pc M yc

F S pf
Otherwise M nc = 1 1 yr xc f
R pc M yc rf pf

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-1)

R pc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-2)

in which

b fc
f =
2t fc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-3)

0.38
pf =

E
Fyc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-4)

0.95
rf =

Ekc
Fyr

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-5)

For built-up sections, kc =

4
D
tw

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.2-6)

For rolled shapes (eFramePropType =SECTION_I as defined in API function


SapObject.SapModel.PropFrame.GetNameList; PropType argument)
kc = 0.76
The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the compression flange MncLTB as
specified in AASHTO LRFD Article A6.3.3 is taken as Mnc = RpcMyc:
If Lb L p , then M nc = R pc M yc .
If L p < Lb Lr , then

8 - 20

Strength Design Request

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-1)

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab


Fyr S xc Lb L p
M nc= Cb 1 1

R pc M yc Lr L p

R pc M yc R pc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-2)

If Lb > Lr , then=
M nc Fcr S xc R pc M yc

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-3)

in which

Lb = unbraced length,
L p = 1.0rt

=
Lr 1.95rt

E
Fyc

E
Fyr

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-4)

Fyr S xc h
1 + 1 + 6.76

S xc h
E J
J

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-5)

Cb = 1 moment gradient modifier.


=
Fcr

C b 2 E

( Lb rt )

3
Dt 3 b fc t ft
J =w +
3
3

rt =

1 + 0.078

J
S xc h

t fc

1 0.63
b fc

b fc
1 Dc t w
12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

( Lb rt )

b ft t 3ft
+
3

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-8)

t ft

1 0.63
b ft

(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-9)


(AASHTO LRFD A6.3.3-10)

The nominal flexural resistance of the bottom compression flange is taken as


the smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling
resistance:

M nc = min M nc( FLB) , M nc( LTB)

Strength Design Request

8 - 21

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The nominal flexural resistance of the top tension flange is taken as:
f R pt M yt

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


1

Mu + 3 f1S xc
Mu
f
, 1
DoverC = max
,
f M nc
f R pt M yt 0.6 Fyc

8.3.2 Shear
When processing the Design Request from the Design module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all web panels
as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is
not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the Design Request, the program
recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a Demand over Capacity
ratio equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table under the column heading d0req.
In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffeners locations and the program recalculates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified
in AASHTO LRFD section 6.10.9.1e. It should be noted that stiffeners are not
modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does
not affect the magnitude of the demands.

8.3.2.1

Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs

The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:


Vn = CVp

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.2-1)

in which
Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.2-2)

C = the ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength


that is determined as follows:

8 - 22

Strength Design Request

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

If

D
Ek
1.12
, then C = 1.0.
tw
Fyw

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-4)


If 1.12

Ek D
Ek
1.12
, then C =
< 1.40
D
Fyw t w
Fyw
tw

Ek
.
Fyw

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-5)


If

D
Ek
1.57 Ek
, then C =
> 1.40
,
2
tw
Fyw
D Fyw
t
w
(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-6)

in which k= 5 +

8.3.2.2

5
dc

D

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-7)

Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Interior Web Panels

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at
the section cut proportioned such that:

2 Dt w
2.5
( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-1)

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
1+

in which Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-2)

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-3)

where
do = transverse stiffener spacing.

Strength Design Request

8 - 23

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
do

1
+
+

D
D

8.3.2.3

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-8)

Nominal Resistance of End Panels

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:


Vn = Vcr = CVp

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.3-1)

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.3-2)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


DoverC =

8.4

Vu
.
vVn

Service Design Request


The Service Design Check calculates at every section cut stresses ff at the top
steel flange of the composite section and the bottom steel flange of the composite section and compares them against limits specified in AASHTO LRFD
Section 6.10.4.2.2.
For the top steel flange of composite sections:
DoverC =

ff
0.95 Rh Fyf

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.4.2.2-1)

For the bottom steel flange of composite sections:


fl
2 .
DoverC =
0.95 Rh Fyf
ff +

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.4.2.2-2)

For both steel flanges of noncomposite sections:


8 - 24

Service Design Request

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

fl
2 .
DoverC =
0.80 Rh Fyf
ff +

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.4.2.2-3)

The flange stresses are derived in the same way as fbu stress demands (see Section 8.2.1 of this manual). The user has an option to specify if the concrete slab
resists tension or not by setting the Does concrete slab resist tension? Design
Request parameter. It is the responsibility of the user to verify if the slab qualifies, in accordance with Does concrete slab resist tension? Section 6.10.4.2.1,
to resist tension.
For compact composite sections in positive flexure used in shored construction,
the longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete deck, determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.1.1d, is checked against 0.6 f c .
DoverC = fdeck/0.6 f c
Except for composite sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the
requirement of AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.2.1.1, all section cuts are checked
against the following requirement:

DoverC =

fc
Fcrw

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.2.2-4)

where:
fc

= Compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due to demand loads calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending.

Fcrw = Nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs without longitudinal stiffeners determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9

Fcrw =

0.9 Ek
D
t
w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.9.1-1)

but not to exceed the smaller of RhFyc and Fyw/0.7. In which


k

= bend buckling coefficient

Service Design Request

8 - 25

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

k=

( Dc

D)

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.9.1-2)

where
Dc = Depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article D6.3.1.
When both edges of the web are in compression, k is taken as 7.2.
The highest Demand over Capacity ratio together with controlling equation is
reported for each section cut.

8.5

Web Fatigue Design Request


Web Fatigue Design Request is used to calculate the Demand over Capacity ratio as defined in AASHTO LRFD Section 6.10.5.3 Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs. The requirement is applicable to interior panels of webs with
transverse stiffeners. When processing the Design Request from the Design
module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and
classifies all web panels as unstiffened. Therefore, when the Design Request is
completed from the Design module, the Design Result Status table shows the
message text No stiffeners defined use optimization form to define stiffeners.
In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffener locations, and then the program
can recalculate the Web Fatigue Request. In that case the program classifies the
web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria
specified in AASHTO LRFD Section 6.10.9.1. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not affect the magnitude of the demands.
DoverC = Vu Vcr

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.5.3-1)

where
Vu = Shear in the web at the section under consideration due to demand specified in the Design Request demand set combos. If the live load distribution to girders method Use Factor Specified by Design Code is select8 - 26

Web Fatigue Design Request

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

ed in the Design Request, the program adjusts for the multiple presence
factor to account for the fact that fatigue load occupies only one lane
(AASHTO LRFD Section 3.6.1.4.3b) and multiple presence factors shall
not be applied when checking for the fatigue limit state (AASHTO
LRFD Section 3.6.1.1.2).
Vcr = Shear-buckling resistance determined from AASHTO LRFD eq.
6.10.9.3.3-1 (see Section 8.3.2.3 of this manual)

8.6

Constructability Design Request

8.6.1 Staged (Steel-I Comp Construct Stgd)


This request enables the user to verify the superstructure during construction
using a Nonlinear Staged Construction load case. The use of nonlinear staged
analysis allows the user to define multiple snapshots of the structure during
construction where parts of the bridge deck may be at various completion stages. The user can control which stages the program will include in the calculations of controlling demand over capacity ratios.
For each section cut specified in the Design Request, the constructability design check loops through the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case output
steps that correspond to Output Labels specified in the Demand Set. At each
step the program determines the status of the concrete slab at the girder section
cut. The slab status can be non present, present non-composite, or composite.
The Staged Constructability Design Check accepts Area Object models. The
Staged Constructability Design Check cannot be run on Solid or Spine models.

8.6.2 Non-Staged (Steel-I Comp Construct NonStgd)


This request enables the user to verify Demand over Capacity ratios during
construction without the need to define and analyze a Nonlinear Staged Construction load case. For each section cut specified in the Design Request the
Constructability Design Check loops through all combos specified in the Demand Set list. At each combo the program assumes the status of the concrete
slab as specified by the user in the Slab Status column. The slab status can be
non-composite or composite and applies to all the section cuts.

Constructability Design Request

8 - 27

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The Non-Staged Constructability Design Check accepts all Bridge Object


Structural Model Options available in the Update Bridge Structural Model
form (Bridge > Update > Structural Model Options option).

8.6.3 Slab Status vs. Unbraced Length


On the basis of the slab status, the program calculates corresponding positive
flexural capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. Next the program compares the capacities against demands specified in the Demand Set by
calculating the Demand over Capacity ratio. The controlling Demand Set and
Output Label on a girder basis are reported for every section cut.
When the slab status is composite, the program assumes that the top flange is
continuously braced. When slab status in not present or non-composite, the
program treats both flanges as discretely braced. It should be noted that the
program does not verify the presence of diaphragms at a particular output step.
It assumes that anytime a steel beam is activated at a given section cut that the
unbraced length Lb for the bottom flange is equal to the distance between the
nearest downstation and the upstation qualifying cross diaphragms or span ends
as defined in the Bridge Object. The program assumes the same Lb for the top
flange. In other words the unbraced length Lb is based on the cross diaphragms
that qualify as providing restraint to the bottom flange. Some of the diaphragm
types available in CSiBridge may not necessarily provide restraint to the top
flange. It is the users responsibility to provide top flange temporary bracing at
the diaphragm locations before slabs acting compositely.

8.6.4 Flexure
8.6.4.1

Positive Flexure Non Composite

The Demand over Capacity ratio is evaluated as:


1

fbucomp + fltop fbucomp + 3 fltop fbucomp fbutens + flbot


D
= max
,
,
,
f Rh Fyctop
C

F
f Rh Fytbot
f
nc
top
f
crw
top

where Fnctop is the nominal flexural resistance of the discretely braced top
flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2 (also see
Section 8.3.1.3 of this manual) and Fcrwtop is the nominal bendbuckling re-

8 - 28

Constructability Design Request

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

sistance for webs specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs
without longitudinal stiffeners.

Fcrw =

0.9 Ek
D
t
w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.1.9.1-1)

but not to exceed the smaller of RhFyc and Fyw /0.7


where

k=

9
Dc

When both edges of the web are in compression, k = 7.2.

8.6.4.2

Positive Flexure Composite

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as:


fbucomp fbutens + flbot
fbucomp
,
,
D C = max

f Rh Fyctop f Fcrwtop f Rh Fytbot

where Fcrwtop is nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs specified in


AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners
(also see Section 8.6.4.1 of this manual).

8.6.4.3

Negative Flexure Non Composite

The Demand over Capacity ratio is evaluated as:


1

fbucomp + flbot fbucomp + 3 flbot fbucomp fbutens + fltop


D C = max
,
,
,
f Rh Fycbot
f Fncbot
f Fcrwbot f Rh Fyttop

where Fncbot is the nominal flexural resistance of the discretely braced bottom
flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2 (also see
Section 8.3.1.3 of this manual) and Fcrwbot is nominal bend-buckling resistance

Constructability Design Request

8 - 29

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

for webs specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners (also see Section 8.6.4.1 of this manual).

8.6.4.4

Negative Flexure Composite

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as:


1

fbucomp + flbot fbucomp + 3 flbot fbucomp


f
f
D C = max
,
,
, butens , deck
f Rh Fycbot
f Fncbot
f Fcrwbot f Rh Fyttop t fr

where Fncbot is the nominal flexural resistance of the discretely braced bottom
flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.8.2 (also see
Section 8.3.1.3 of this manual), Fcrwbot is the nominal bendbuckling resistance
for webs specified in AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners (also see Section 8.6.4.1 of this manual), and fdeck is the demand tensile stress in the deck and fr is the modulus of rupture of concrete as
determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.4.2.6.

8.6.5 Shear
When processing the Design Request from the Design module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all web panels
as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is
not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the Design Request and the controlling D over C ratio is occurring at a step when the slab status is composite,
the program recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a Demand
over Capacity ratio equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported
in the result table under the column heading d0req.
In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and then the program
can recalculate the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web
panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified in Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not
modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does
not affect the magnitude of the demands. Adding stiffeners also does not increase capacity of sections cuts where the concrete slab status is other than
composite.

8 - 30

Constructability Design Request

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

8.6.5.1

Non Composite Sections

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:


V=
V=
CVP
n
cr

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.3-1)

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.3-2)

The Demand over Capacity ratio is evaluated as


DoverC =

8.6.5.2

Vu
vVn

Composite Section

8.6.5.2.1 Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs


The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:
Vn = CVp

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.2-1)

in which
Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.2-2)

C = the ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength


that is determined as follows:
If

D
Ek
, then C = 1.0.
1.12
tw
Fyw

If 1.12

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-4)

Ek D
Ek
1.12
, then C =
< 1.40
D
Fyw t w
Fyw
tw

Ek
.
Fyw

AASHTO LRFD (6.10.9.3.2-5)

Constructability Design Request

8 - 31

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

If

D
Ek
1.57 Ek
, then C =
> 1.40
,
2
tw
Fyw
D Fyw
t
w
AASHTO LRFD (6.10.9.3.2-6)

in which k= 5 +

5
dc

D

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-7)

8.6.5.2.2 Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Interior Web Panels


The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel, with the section at the
section cut proportioned such that

2 Dt w
2.5,
( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-1)

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
1+

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-2)

in which Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-3)

where
do = transverse stiffener spacing.
Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
do

1
+
+

D
D

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-8)

8.6.5.2.3 Nominal Resistance of End Panels


The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:
V=
V=
CVP
n
cr

8 - 32

Constructability Design Request

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.3-1)

Chapter 8 - Design Steel I-Beam Bridge with Composite Slab

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.3-2)

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


DoverC =

8.7

Vu
vVn

Section Optimization
After at least one Steel Design Request has been successfully processed,
CSiBridge enables the user to open a Steel Section Optimization module. The
Optimization module allows interactive modification of steel plate sizes and
definition of vertical stiffeners along each girder and span. It recalculates resistance on the fly based on the modified section without the need to unlock
the model and rerun the analysis. It should be noted that in the optimization
process the demands are not recalculated and are based on the current
CSiBridge analysis results.
The Optimization form allows simultaneous display of three versions of section
sizes and associated resistance results. The section plate size versions are As
Analyzed, As Designed, and Current. The section plots use distinct colors
for each version black for As Analyzed, blue for As Designed, and red for
Current. When the Optimization form is initially opened, all three versions are
identical and equal to As Analyzed.
Two graphs are available to display various forces, moments, stresses, and ratios for the As Analyzed or As Designed versions. The values plotted can be
controlled by clicking the Select Series to Plot button. The As Analyzed series are plotted as solid lines and the As Designed series as dashed lines.
To modify steel plate sizes or vertical stiffeners, a new form can be displayed
by clicking on the Modify Section button. After the section modification is
completed, the Current version is shown in red in the elevation and cross section views. After the resistance has been recalculated successfully by clicking
the Recalculate Resistance button, the Current version is designated to As Designed and displayed in blue.

Section Optimization

8 - 33

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

After the section optimization has been completed, the As Designed plate sizes
and materials can be applied to the analysis bridge object by clicking the OK
button. The button opens a new form that can be used to Unlock the existing
model (in that case all analysis results will be deleted) or save the file under a
new name (New File button). Clicking the Exit button does not apply the new
plate sizes to the bridge object and keeps the model locked. The As Designed
version of the plate sizes will be available the next time the form is opened, and
the Current version is discarded.

8 - 34

Section Optimization

Chapter 9
Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

This chapter describes the algorithms CSiBridge applies when designing steel
U-tub with composite slab superstructures in accordance with the AASHTO
LRFD 2014 (AASHTO LRFD).

9.1

Section Properties

9.1.1

Yield Moments
9.1.1.1

Composite Section in Positive Flexure

The positive yield moment, My, is determined by the program in accordance


with section D6.2.2 of the code using the following user-defined input, which
is part of the Design Request (see Chapter 4 for more information about Design
Request).
Mdnc = The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that
represents the moment caused by the factored permanent load applied
before the concrete deck has hardened or is made composite.
Mdc =

The user specifies in the Design Request the name of the combo that
represents the moment caused by the remainder of the factored permanent load (applied to the composite section).

The program solves for MAD from the following equation,

9- 1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Fyt =

M dnc M dc M AD
+
+
S NC
SLT
SST

(D6.2.2-1)

and then calculates yield moment based on the following equation

M y = M dnc + M dc + M AD

(D6.2.2-2)

where
SNC =

Noncomposite section modulus (in.3)

SLT =

Long-term composite section modulus (in.3)

SST =

Short-term composite section modulus (in.3)

My is taken as the lesser value calculated for the compression flange, Myc, or the
tension flange, Myt. The positive My is calculated only once based on Mdnc and
Mdc demands specified by the user in the Design Request. It should be noted
that the My calculated in the procedure described here is used by the program
only to determine Mnpos for compact sections in positive bending in a continuous span, where the nominal flexural resistance may be controlled by My in accordance with (eq. 6.10.7.1.2-3).

M n 1.3 Rh M y

9.1.1.2

Composite Section in Negative Flexure

For composite sections in negative flexure, the procedure described for positive
yield moment is followed, except that the composite section for both short-term
and long-term moments consists of the steel section and the longitudinal reinforcement within the tributary width of the concrete deck. Thus, SST and SLT are
the same value. Also, Myt is taken with respect to either the tension flange or
the longitudinal reinforcement, whichever yields first. The negative My is calculated only once based on the Mdnc and Mdc demands specified by the user in
the Design Request.

9.1.2

Plastic Moments
9.1.2.1

Composite Section in Positive Flexure

The positive plastic moment, Mp, is calculated as the moment of the plastic
forces about the plastic neutral axis. Plastic forces in the steel portions of a

9-2

Section Properties

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

cross-section are calculated using the yield strengths of the flanges, the web,
and reinforcing steel, as appropriate. Plastic forces in the concrete portions of
the cross-section that are in compression are based on a rectangular stress block
with the magnitude of the compressive stress equal to 0.85 fc. Concrete in tension is neglected. The position of the plastic neutral axis is determined by the
equilibrium condition, where there is no net axial force.
The plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is determined by:
Calculating the effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1
Calculating the element forces and using them to determine if the plastic neutral axis is in the web, top flange, or concrete deck;
Calculating the location of the plastic neutral axis within the element determined in the first step;
and
Calculating Mp.
Equations for the various potential locations of the plastic neutral axis (PNA)
are given in Table 9-1.
Table 9-1 Calculation of PNA and M p for Sections in Positive Flexure
Case

PNA

In Web

II

In Top
Flanges

Section Properties

Condition

Y and M p

D P Pc Ps Prt Prb
Y t
=
+ 1
Pw
2

P t + P w P c + P s + P rb +
2
Pw 2 (

Pn
M
=
Y + D Y ) + [ Ps ds + Prt drt + Prb d rb + Pc dc + Pt dt ]
p
2D
t P + Pt Ps Prt Prb

Y c w
=
+ 1
Pc
2
P t + P w + P c Ps + Prb +

Pn
2
Pc 2

=
M
Y + ( tc Y ) + [ Ps ds + Pn dn + Prb d rb + Pw dw + Pt dt ]
p
2t c

9-3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 9-1 Calculation of PNA and M p for Sections in Positive Flexure

Y and M p

Case

PNA

III

Concrete
Deck
Below
Prb

c
Pt + Pw + Pc rb
t2

IV

Concrete
Deck at
Prb

c
Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb rb Ps + Pn
ts

Concrete
Deck
Above
Prb and
Below
Prt

c
Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb rt Ps + Pn
ts

VI

Concrete
Deck at
Prt

c
Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Pn rt Ps
ts

VII

Concrete
Deck
Above
Prt

9-4

Condition

Ps + Prb + Pn

c
Pt + Pw + Pc + Prb + Prt < rt
ts

Section Properties

Ps

P + Pw + Pt Prt Prb
Y = ( ts ) c

Ps

Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Prb d rb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]


p
2t s
Y = crb
Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]
p
2t s

P + Pc + Pw + Pt Prt
Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

2
Y Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]


p
2t s
Y = crt
Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]
p
2t s

P + Pc + Pw + Pt + Prt
Y = ( t s ) rb

Ps

Y 2 Ps
M=

+ [ Prt drt + Prb drb + Pc dc + Pw dw + Pt dt ]


p
2t s

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

Art

Crt

Arb
Prt
Ps
Prb

Crb
PNA
Y

Pc

Y
PNA

PNA

Pw
Pt
CASE I

CASE II

CASES III -VII

Figure 9-1 Plastic Neutral Axis Cases Positive Flexure

Prt
Ps
Prb
Pc
Pw
Pt

=
=
=
=
=
=

Fyrt Art
0.85 fc bsts
Fyrb Arb
2 Fycbctc
(2 Fyw Dtw)/cos web
Fyt bttt where bt is effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1

Next the section is checked for ductility requirement in accordance with (eq.
6.10.7.3)
Dp 0.42Dt
where,
Dp is the distance from the top of the concrete deck to the neutral axis of the
composite section at the plastic moment.
Dt is the total depth of the composite section.
At the section where the ductility requirement is not satisfied, the plastic moment of a composite section in positive flexure is set to zero.

9.1.2.2

Composite Section in Negative Flexure

The plastic moment of a composite section in negative flexure is calculated by


an analogous procedure. Equations for the two cases most likely to occur in
practice are given in Table 9-2. The plastic moment of a noncomposite section

Section Properties

9-5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

is calculated by eliminating the terms pertaining to the concrete deck and longitudinal reinforcement from the equations for composite sections.
Table 9-2 Calculation of PNA and Mp for Sections in Negative Flexure
Case

PNA

Condition

Y and Mp

In Web

D P Pt Prt Prb

Y c
=
+ 1
Pw
2

Pc + Pw Pt + Prb + Pn
2
Pw 2 (

M
=
Y + D Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pt dt + Pd
p
l l]
2D

II

In Top
Flange

t P Pc Prt Prb

Y l w
=
+ 1
Pt
2

Pc + Pw + Pt Prb + Pn
2
Pt 2

M
=
Y + ( tl Y ) + [ Pn dn + Prb drb + Pw dw + Pc dc ]
p
2tl

Art

Arb
Prt
Prb
Pt

PNA
Y

Y
PNA

Pw
Pc
CASE I

CASE II

Figure 9-2 Plastic Neutral Axis Cases Negative Flexure

Prt
Ps
Prb
Pc

9-6

=
=
=
=

Fyrt Art
0
Fyrb Arb
Fycbctc where bc is effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1

Section Properties

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

Pw = (2Fyw Dtw)/cos web


Pt = 2Fyt bttt
In the equations for Mp, d is the distance from an element force to the plastic
neutral axis. Element forces act at (a) mid-thickness for the flanges and the
concrete deck, (b) mid-depth of the web, and (c) center of reinforcement. All
element forces, dimensions, and distances are taken as positive. The conditions
are checked in the order listed.

9.1.3

Section Classification and Factors


9.1.3.1

Compact or Non-Compact - Positive Flexure

The program determines if the section can be qualified as compact based on the
following criteria:
the bridge is not horizontally curved
the specified minimum yield strengths of the flanges do not exceed 70.0 ksi,
the web satisfies the requirement of Article (6.11.2.1.2),

D
150
tw
the section satisfies requirements of 6.11.2.3
the box flange is fully effective as specified in 6.11.1.1
the section satisfies web slenderness limit
2 Dcp
tw

3.76

E
.
Fyc

(6.11.6.2.2-1)

The user can control in the design request parameters how the program shall
determine if the bridge is straight or horizontally. If the Determined by program option is selected the algorithm checks for radius of the layout line at
every valid section cut. If the radius is a definite number the bridge is classified
as horizontally curved.

Section Properties

9-7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

9.1.3.2

Hybrid Factor Rh Positive Flexure

For homogenous built-up sections, and built-up sections with a higher-strength


steel in the web than in both flanges, Rh is taken as 1.0. Otherwise the hybrid
factor is taken as:
12 + ( 3 3 )
12 + 2

(6.10.1.10.1-1)

2 Dn t w
A fn

(6.10.1.10.1-2)

Rh =

where

= the smaller of Fyw fn and 1.0


Afn = bottom flange area.
Dn = the larger of the distances from the elastic neutral axis of the crosssection to the inside face of either flange. For sections where the neutral axis is at the mid-depth of the web, Dn is the distance from the
neutral axis to the inside face of the flange on the side of the neutral
axis where yielding occurs first.
Fn = fy of the bottom flange.

9.1.3.3

Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb Positive Flexure

For composite sections in positive flexure, the Rb factor is taken as equal to 1.0.

9.1.3.4

Web Load-Shedding Factor Rb Negative Flexure

For composite sections in negative flexure, the Rb factor is taken as:

awc

2 Dc

1
Rb =
t rw 1.0
+
1200
300
awc
w

(6.10.1.10.2)

where

rw = 5.7

9-8

Section Properties

E
Fyc

(6.10.1.10.2-4)

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

awc =

2 Dc t w
b fc t fc

(6.10.1.10.2-5)

When the user specifies the design request parameter Do webs have longitudinal stiffeners? as yes, the Rb factor is set to 1.0 (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying Design Request parameters).

9.2

Demand Sets
Demand Set combos (at least one required) are user-defined combination based
on LRFD combinations (see Chapter 4 for more information about specifying
Demand Sets). The demands from all specified demand combos are enveloped
and used to calculate D/C ratios. The way the demands are used depends on if
the parameter "Use Stage Analysis? is set to Yes or No.
If Yes, the program reads the stresses on beams and slabs directly from the
section cut results. The program assumes that the effects of the staging of loads
applied to non-composite versus composite section and the concrete slab material time dependent properties were captured by using the nonlinear stage analysis load case available in CSiBridge.
If Use Stage Analysis? = No, the program decomposes load cases present in
every demand set combo to three Bridge Design Action categories: noncomposite, composite long term, and composite short term. The program uses
the load case Bridge Design Action parameter to assign the load cases to the
appropriate categories. A default Bridge Design Action parameter is assigned
to a load case based on its Design Type. However, the parameter can be
overwritten: click the Analysis > Load Cases > {Type} > New command to
display the Load Case Data {Type} form; click the Design button next to the
Load case type drop down list, under the heading Bridge Design Action select
the User Defined option and select a value from the list. The assigned Bridge
Designed Action values are handled by the program in the following manner:
Table 9-3 Bridge Design Action

Demand Sets

Bridge Design Action Value


specified by the user

Bridge Design Action Category


used in the design algorithm

Non-Composite

Non-Composite

9-9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Table 9-3 Bridge Design Action

9.2.1

Bridge Design Action Value


specified by the user

Bridge Design Action Category


used in the design algorithm

Long-Term Composite

Long-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Short-Term Composite

Staged

Non-Composite

Other

Non-Composite

Demand Flange Stresses fbu and ff


Evaluation of the flange stress, fbu, calculated without consideration of flange
lateral bending is dependent on setting the Use Stage Analysis? design request parameter.
If the Use Stage Analysis? = No, then
fbu =

P
Acomp

M NC M LTC M STC
+
+
Ssteel
SLTC
SSTC

where,
MNC is the demand moment on the noncomposite section.
MLTC is the demand moment on the long-term composite section.
MSTC is the demand moment on the short-term composite section.
The short term section modulus for positive moment is calculated by transforming the concrete deck using steel to concrete modular ratio. The long term
section modulus for positive moment is using a modular ratio factored by n,
where n is specified in the Modular ratio long term multiplier Design Parameter. The effect of compression reinforcement is ignored. For negative moment,
the concrete deck is assumed cracked and is not included in the section modulus calculations, whereas tension reinforcement is taken into account.
The effective width of bottom flange per 6.11.1.1. is used to calculate the
stresses. However, when design request parameter Use Stage Analysis? =

9 - 10

Demand Sets

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

Yes, then the fbu stresses on both top and bottom flanges are read directly from
the section cut results. In that case the stresses are calculated based on gross
section; the use of effective section properties cannot be accommodated with
this option. Therefore, if the section bottom flange does not satisfy criteria of
6.11.1.1 as being fully effective, the design parameter "Use Stage Analysis?
should be set to No.
When Use Stage Analysis? = Yes, the program assumes that the effects of
the staging of loads applied to non-composite versus composite sections and
the concrete slab material time dependent properties were captured by using the
Nonlinear Staged Construction load case available in CSiBridge. The Modular
ratio long-term multiplier. is not used in this case.
The program verifies the sign of the stress in the composite slab, and if stress is
positive (tension), the program assumes that the entire section cut demand
moment is carried by the steel section only. This is to reflect the fact that the
concrete in the composite slab is cracked and does not contribute to the resistance of the section.
Flange stress ff used in the Service design check is evaluated in the same manner as the stress fbu, with one exception. When the Design Parameter Does
concrete slab resist tension? in the Steel Service Design request is set to
Yes, the program uses section properties based on a transformed section assuming the concrete slab to be fully effective in both tension and compression.

9.2.2

Demand Flange Lateral Bending Stress fl


The top flange lateral bending stress fl is evaluated only for constructability design check when slab status is non-composite and when all of the following
conditions are met:
Steel Girders has been selected for the deck section type (Components >
Superstructure Item > Deck Sections command) and the Girder Modeling
In Area Object Models Model Girders Using Area Objects option is set to
Yes on the Define Bridge Section Data Steel Girder form.
The bridge object is modeled using Area Objects. This option can be set using the Bridge > Update command to display the Update Bridge Structural
Model form; then select the Update as Area Object Model option.

Demand Sets

9 - 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

In all other cases, the top flange lateral bending stress is set to zero. The fl
stresses on each top flange are read directly from the section cut results and the
maximum absolute value stress from the two top flanges is reported.

9.2.3

Depth of the Web in Compression


For composite sections in positive flexure, the depth of web in compression is
computed using the following equation:

fc
=
Dc
fc + ft

d t fc 0

(D6.3.1-1)

Figure 9-3 Web in Compression Positive Flexure

where,
fc = sum of the compression-flange stresses caused by the different loads, i.e.,
DC1, the permanent load acting on the noncomposite section; DC2, the
permanent load acting on the long-term composite section; DW, the wearing surface load; and LL+IM acting on their respective sections. fc is taken as negative when the stress is in compression. Flange lateral bending
is disregarded in this calculation.
ft = the sum of the tension-flange stresses caused by the different loads.
Flange lateral bending is disregarded in this calculation.
For composite sections in negative flexure, DC is computed for the section consisting of the steel U-tub plus the longitudinal reinforcement, with the excep9 - 12

Demand Sets

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

tion of the following. For composite sections in negative flexure at the Service
Design Check Request where the concrete deck is considered effective in tension for computing flexural stresses on the composite section (Design Parameter Does concrete slab resist tension? = Yes), DC is computed from (eq. D
6.3.1-1). For this case, the stresses fc and ft are switched, the signs shown in the
stress diagram are reversed, tfc is the thickness of the bottom flange, and DC instead extends from the neutral axis down to the top of the bottom flange.

9.3

Strength Design Request


The strength design check calculates at every section cut positive flexural capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. It then compares the capacities against the envelope of demands specified in the design request.

9.3.1

Flexure
9.3.1.1

Positive Flexure Compact

The nominal flexural resistance of the section is evaluated as follows:


If Dp 0.1 Dt, then Mn = Mp, otherwise

Dp

=
M n M p 1.07 0.7

Dt

(6.10.7.1.2-2)

In a continuous span the nominal flexural resistance of the section is determined as


Mn 1.3RhMy
where Rh is a hybrid factor for the section in positive flexure.
The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

9.3.1.2

Positive Flexure Non-Compact

Nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flanges is taken as:

Strength Design Request

9 - 13

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Fnc = RbRhFyc

(6.11.7.2.1-1)

Nominal flexural resistance of the bottom tension flange is taken as:


Fnt = RhFyt

(6.10.7.2.1-2)

Where

Where =

= 1 3

20

is St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the

factored loads and A0 is enclosed area within the box section


The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

9.3.1.3

Negative Flexure

Nominal flexural resistance of continuously braced top flange in tension is taken as:
Fnt = RhFyt

(6.11.8.3)

Nominal flexural resistance of the bottom unstiffened compression flange is


taken as:
2

= 1

In which:

(6.11.8.2.2-1)

=
nominal axial compression buckling resistance of the flange under compression alone calculated as follows:

If , then:

=
9 - 14

Strength Design Request

(6.11.8.2.2-2)

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

If , then:

=
If , then:


0.3
f p
Rh
r
p

0.9
2

(6.11.8.2.2-3)

(6.11.8.2.2-4)

= nominal shear buckling resistance of the flange under shear alone


calculated as follows:

If 1.12
= 0.58

then:
(6.11.8.2.2-5)

If 1.12 < 1.40 , then:

0.65

If > 1.40

=
=

Strength Design Request

0.9
2

(6.11.8.2.2-6)

then:
(6.11.8.2.2-7)

slenderness ratio for the compression flange

0.57

0.95

(6.11.8.2.2-8)

(6.11.8.2.2-9)

(6.11.8.2.2-10)

9 - 15

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

ks

= 1 3

(6.11.8.2.2-11)

St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the factored
loads at the section under consideration (ksi)

20

(6.11.8.2.2-12)

smaller of the compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal


yielding, with consideration of residual stress effects, or the
specified minimum yield strength of the web (ksi)

=
=

( 0.3)

4.0

plate-buckling coefficient for shear stress

5.34

(6.11.8.2.2-13)

plate-buckling coefficient for uniform normal stress

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as

9.3.2

Shear

When processing the design request from the Design module, the program assumes that no vertical stiffeners are present and classifies all web panels as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the design request, the program recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a demand over capacity ratio
equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table
under the column heading d0req.
In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffener locations and the program recalculates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels
9 - 16

Strength Design Request

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified in


Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled
in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not affect
the magnitude of the demands.

9.3.2.1

Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs

In the following equations D is taken as depth of the web plate measured along
the slope and each web demand over capacity ratio is calculated based on shear
due to factored loads taken as
=

cos

Where Vu is vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web and
web is the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical. The Vui value is
reported in the result tables.
The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:

Vn = CVp

(6.10.9.2-1)

in which

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(6.10.9.2-2)

C = the ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength


that is determined as follows:
If

D
Ek
, then C = 1.0.
1.12
tw
Fyw

If 1.12

If

Strength Design Request

(6.10.9.3.2-4)

1.12
Ek
D
Ek
, then C =
< 1.40
D
Fyw t w
Fyw
tw

D
Ek
1.57 Ek
, then C =
> 1.40
2
tw
Fyw
D Fyw
t
w

Ek
.
Fyw

(6.10.9.3.2-5)

(6.10.9.3.2-6)

9 - 17

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

in which k= 5 +

9.3.2.2

5
dc

D

(6.10.9.3.2-7)

Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Interior Web Panels

The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at
the section cut proportioned such that
2 Dt w
2.5
( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

(6.10.9.3.2-1)

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
1+

(6.10.9.3.2-2)

in which Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(6.10.9.3.2-3)

where
do = transverse stiffener spacing.
Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

d
do

1
+
+ o

D
D

9.3.2.3

(6.10.9.3.2-8)

Nominal Resistance of End Panels

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:

V=
V=
CVp
n
cr

(6.10.9.3.3-1)

in which
Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

9 - 18

Strength Design Request

(6.10.9.3.3-2)

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

9.3.2.4

Torsion Effects

For all single box sections, horizontally curved section, and multiple box sections in bridges not satisfying the requirements of Article 6.11.2.3, or with bottom flange that is not fully effective according to the provisions of Article
6.11.1.1 Vui is taken as the sum of the flexural and St. Venant torsional shears.
The St. Venant torsional shear is calculated as:
=

20

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


=

9.4

Service Design Request


The service design check calculates at every section cut stresses ff at top steel
flange of composite section, bottom steel flange of composite section and compares them against limits specified in Section 6.10.4.2.2 of the code.
For the top and bottom steel flange of composite sections:
=

0.95

(6.10.4.2.2-2)

The flange stresses are derived in the same way as fbu stress demands (see Section 9.2 of this manual). The user has an option to specify whether concrete
slab resists tension or not by setting the design request parameter Does concrete slab resist tension?. It is the responsibility of the user to verify if the slab
qualifies per Section 6.10.4.2.1 of the code to resist tension.
For compact composite sections in positive flexure utilized in shored construction, the longitudinal compressive stress in the concrete deck, determined as
specified in Article 6.10.1.1.1d, is checked against 0.6fc.
DoverC = fdeck/0.6fc

Service Design Request

9 - 19

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Except for composite sections in positive flexure in which the web satisfies the
requirement of Article 6.10.2.1.1, all section cuts are shall checked against the
following requirement:

where:

DoverC =

(6.10.4.2.2-4)

fc - compression-flange stress at the section under consideration due to demand


loads calculated without consideration of flange lateral bending
Fcrw - nominal bend-buckling resistance for webs without longitudinal stiffeners
determined as specified in Article 6.10.1.9
=

0.9

(6.10.1.9.1-1)

but not to exceed the smaller of RhFyc and Fyw/0.7. In which


k=bend buckling coefficient
=

(6.10.1.9.1-2)

where Dc= depth of the web in compression in the elastic range determined as
specified in Article D6.3.1 of the code.
When both edges of the web are in compression, k is taken as 7.2.
The highest demand over capacity ratio together with controlling equation is
reported for each section cut.

9.5

Web Fatigue Design Request


Web Fatigue Design Request is used to calculate the demand over capacity ratio as defined in Section 6.10.5.3 of the code Special Fatigue Requirement for
Webs. The requirement is applicable to interior panels of webs with transverse
stiffeners. When processing the design request from the Design module, the
program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all
web panels as unstiffened. Therefore when the design request is completed

9 - 20

Web Fatigue Design Request

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

from the Design module the Design Result Status table shows message text
No stiffeners defined use optimization form to define stiffeners.
In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize
command), the user can specify stiffeners locations and the program recalculates the Web Fatigue Request. In that case the program classifies the web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified
in Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not
affect the magnitude of the demands.
In the following equations D is taken as depth of the web plate measured along
the slope and each web demand over capacity ratio is calculated based on shear
due to factored loads taken as
=

cos

Where Vu is vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web and
web is the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical. The Vui value is
reported in the result tables.
For all single box sections, horizontally curved section, and multiple box sections in bridges not satisfying the requirements of Article 6.11.2.3, or with bottom flange that is not fully effective according to the provisions of Article
6.11.1.1 Vui is taken as the sum of the flexural and St. Venant torsional shears.
The St. Venant torsional shear is calculated as:
=
=

20

If live load distribution to girders method Use Factor Specified by Design


Code is selected in the design request the program adjusts for the multiple
presence factor to account for the fact that fatigue load occupies only one lane
(code Section 3.6.1.4.3b) and multiple presence factors shall not be applied
when checking for fatigue limit state (code Section 3.6.1.1.2).
Vcr = shear-buckling resistance determined from eq. 6.10.9.3.3-1 (see Section
9.3.2.3 of this manual)
Web Fatigue Design Request

9 - 21

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

DoverC=Vui/Vcr

9.6

Constructability Design Request

9.6.1

Staged (Steel-U Comp Construct Stgd)

(6.10.5.3-1)

This request enables the user to verify the superstructure during construction
by utilizing the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case. The use of nonlinear
staged analysis allows the user to define multiple snapshots of the structure
during construction where parts of the bridge deck may be at various completion stages. The user has a control of which stages the program will include in
the calculations of controlling demand over capacity ratios.
For each section cut specified in the design request the constructability design
check loops through the Nonlinear Staged Construction load case output steps
that correspond to Output Labels specified in the Demand Set. At each step the
program determines the status of the concrete slab at the girder section cut. The
slab status can be non-composite or composite.
The Staged Constructability design check accepts the following Bridge Object
Structural Model Options:
Area Object Model
Solid Object Model
The Staged Constructability design check cannot be run on Spine models.

9.6.2

Non-staged (Steel-U Comp Construct NonStgd)


This request enables the user to verify demand over capacity ratios during construction without the need to define and analyze Nonlinear Staged Construction
load case. For each section cut specified in the design request the constructability design check loops through all combos specified in the Demand Set list. At
each combo the program assumes the status of the concrete slab as specified by
the user in the Slab Status column. The slab status can be non-composite or
composite and applies to all the section cuts.
The Non-Staged Constructability design check accepts all Bridge Object Structural Model Options available in Update Bridge Structural Model form.
(Bridge > Update > Structural Model Options option)

9.6.3

Slab Status vs Unbraced Length


Based on the slab status the program calculates corresponding positive flexural
capacity, negative flexural capacity, and shear capacity. Next the program

9 - 22

Constructability Design Request

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

compares the capacities against demands specified in the Demand Set by calculating the demand over capacity ratio. The controlling Demand Set and Output
Label on girder basis are reported for every section cut.
When slab status is composite the program assumes that both top and bottom
flanges are continuously braced. When slab status in not present or noncomposite the program treats both top flanges as discretely braced. It should be
noted that the program does not verify presence of diaphragms at a particular
output step. It assumes that anytime a steel beam is activated at a given section
cut that the unbraced length Lb for the top flanges is equal to distance between
the nearest downstation and upstation qualifying cross diaphragms or span ends
as defined in the Bridge Object. In other words the unbraced length Lb is based
on the cross diaphragms that qualify as providing restraint to the bottom flange.
Some of the diaphragm types available in CSiBridge may not necessarily provide restraint to the top flanges. It is the user responsibility to provide top
flanges temporary bracing at the diaphragm locations prior to the slab acting
compositely.

9.6.4

Flexure
9.6.4.1

Positive Flexure Non Composite

The local buckling resistance of the top compression flange Fnc(FLB) as specified
in Article 6.10.8.2.2 is taken as:
If f pf, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.2-1)

Otherwise


Fyr f pf
Fnc = 1 1

Rb Rh Fyc
Rh Fyc rf pf

(6.10.8.2.2-2)

in which

f =

b fc

(6.10.8.2.2-3)

2t fc

pf = 0.38

E
Fyc

Constructability Design Request

(6.10.8.2.2-4)

9 - 23

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

rf = 0.56
Fyr

E
Fyr

(6.10.8.2.2-5)

compression-flange stress at the onset of nominal yielding


within the cross-section, including residual stress effects, but
not including compression-flange lateral bending, taken as the
smaller of 0.7Fyc and Fyw, but not less than 0.5 Fyc

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of the top compression flange Fnc(LTB)
as specified in Article (6.10.8.2.3) is taken as follows:
If Lb Lp, then Fnc = RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.3-1)

If Lp < Lb Lr, then


Fyr Lb L p
Fnc= Cb 1 1

Rb Rh Fyc Rb Rh Fyc .
Rh Fyc Lr L p

If Lb > Lr, then Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc.

(6.10.8.2.3-2)

(6.10.8.2.3-3)

in which
E
E
=
=
length, L p 1.0
=
,
Lb unbraced
rt
Lr rt
Fyc
Fyr

Cb = 1 (moment gradient modifier)


Fcr =

rt =

Cb Rb 2 E
Lb
r
t

b fc
1 Dc t w
12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

(6.10.8.2.3-8)

(6.10.8.2.3-9)

The nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flange is taken as the
smaller of the local buckling resistance and the lateral torsional buckling resistance:

9 - 24

Constructability Design Request

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

Fnc = min Fnc( FLB) , Fnc( LTB)

Nominal flexural resistance of the bottom tension flange is taken as:


Fnt = RhFyt

(6.10.7.2.1-2)

Where
= 1 3

Where =

20

is St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the

factored loads and A0 is enclosed area within the box section

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


1
+ + 3

/ = max
,
,
,
,



0.6

Where Fcrwtop is nominal bendbucking resistance for webs specified in


AASHTO LRFD Article 6.10.1.9.1 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners.
=

0.9

(6.10.1.9.1-1)

but not to exceed the smaller of RhFyc and Fyw /0.7


where =

9.6.4.2

. When both edges of the web are in compression then k=7.2

Positive Flexure Composite

Nominal flexural resistance of the top compression flanges is taken as:


Fnctop= RhFyc

(6.11.3.2.-3)

Where

Constructability Design Request

9 - 25

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Where =

= 1 3

20

is St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the

factored loads and A0 is enclosed area within the box section

Nominal flexural resistance of the bottom tension flange is taken as:


Fntbot = RhFyt

(6.11.3.2.-3)

Where

Where =

= 1 3

20

is St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the

factored loads and A0 is enclosed area within the box section


The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as:

9.6.4.3

/ = max

Negative Flexure Non Composite

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as:


/ = max

+
,
,

0.6

Where Fnctbot is nominal flexural resistance of the continuously braced unstiffened bottom flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article
6.11.8.2.2-1 (also see Section 9.3.1.3 of this manual).

9.6.4.4

Negative Flexure Composite

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as:


=
9 - 26

Constructability Design Request

,
,

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

Where Fnctbot is nominal flexural resistance of the continuously braced unstiffened bottom flange determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article
6.11.8.2.2-1 (also see Section 9.3.1.3 of this manual), and

Where =

= 1 3

20

is St. Venant torsional shear stress in the flange due to the

factored loads and A0 is enclosed area within the box section and fdeck is demand tensile stress in the deck and fr is modulus of rupture of concrete as determined in AASHTO LRFD Article 5.4.2.6

9.6.5

Shear
When processing the design request from the Design module, the program assumes that there are no vertical stiffeners present and classifies all web panels
as unstiffened. If the shear capacity calculated based on this classification is
not sufficient to resist the demand specified in the design request and the controlling demand over capacity ratio is occurring at step when the slab status is
composite, the program recommends minimum stiffener spacing to achieve a
demand over apacity ratio equal to 1. The recommended stiffener spacing is reported in the result table under the column heading d0req.
In the Optimization form (Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Optimize command), the user can specify stiffeners locations and the program recalculates the shear resistance. In that case the program classifies the web panels as interior or exterior and stiffened or unstiffened based on criteria specified
in Section 6.10.9.1 of the code. It should be noted that stiffeners are not modeled in the Bridge Object and therefore adding/modifying stiffeners does not
affect the magnitude of the demands. Adding stiffeners also does not increase
capacity of sections cuts where concrete slab status is other then composite.
In the following equations D is taken as depth of the web plate measured along
the slope and each web demand over capacity ratio is calculated based on shear
due to factored loads taken as
=

Constructability Design Request

cos
9 - 27

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Where Vu is vertical shear due to the factored loads on one inclined web and
web is the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical. The Vui value is
reported in the result tables.

9.6.5.1

Torsion Effects

For all single box sections, horizontally curved section, and multiple box sections in bridges not satisfying the requirements of Article 6.11.2.3, or with bottom flange that is not fully effective according to the provisions of Article
6.11.1.1 Vui is taken as the sum of the flexural and St. Venant torsional shears.
The St. Venant torsional shear is calculated as:
=

9.6.5.2

20

Non Composite Sections

The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:


= =

(6.10.9.3.3-1)

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(6.10.9.3.3-2)

in which

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


DoverC =

9.6.5.3

Vu
vVn

Composite Sections

9.6.5.3.1 Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs


The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs is taken as:
Vn = CVp

(6.10.9.2-1)

in which
Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w
9 - 28

Constructability Design Request

(6.10.9.2-2)

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

C = the ratio of the shear-buckling resistance to the shear yield strength


that is determined as follows:
If

D
Ek
1.12
, then C = 1.0.
tw
Fyw

If 1.12

If

(6.10.9.3.2-4)

Ek
D
Ek
1.12
, then C =
< 1.40
D
Fyw t w
Fyw
tw

D
Ek
1.57 Ek
, then C =
> 1.40
2
tw
Fyw
D Fyw
t
w

in which k= 5 +

5
dc

D

Ek
.
Fyw

(6.10.9.3.2-5)

(6.10.9.3.2-6)

(6.10.9.3.2-7)

9.6.5.3.2 Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Interior Web Panels


The nominal shear resistance of an interior web panel and with the section at
the section cut proportioned such that:

2 Dt w
2.5
( b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

(6.10.9.3.2-1)

is taken as

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
1+

in which Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w

(6.10.9.3.2-2)

(6.10.9.3.2-3)

where
do = transverse stiffener spacing.
Otherwise, the nominal shear resistance is taken as follows:

Constructability Design Request

9 - 29

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

0.87 (1 C )
Vn Vp C +
=
2

do
do

1
+
+

D
D

(6.10.9.3.2-8)

9.6.5.3.3 Nominal Resistance of End Panels


The nominal shear resistance of a web end panel is taken as:
= =

(6.10.9.3.3-1)

Vp = 0.58 Fyw Dt w .

(6.10.9.3.3-2)

in which

The demand over capacity ratio is evaluated as


DoverC =

9.7

Vu
vVn

Section Optimization
After at least one Steel Design Request has been successfully processed,
CSiBridge enables the user to open a Steel Section Optimization module. The
Optimization module allows interactive modification of certain steel plate sizes, materials, and definition of vertical stiffeners along each girder and span.
The U tub section plate parameters that are available for modification are:
Top flange thickness, width and material
Webs thickness, material
Bottom flange thickness, material
The program recalculates resistance on the fly based on the modified section
without the need to unlock the model and rerun the analysis. It should be noted
that in the optimization process the demands are not recalculated and are based
on the current CSiBridge analysis results.

9 - 30

Section Optimization

Chapter 9 - Design Steel U-Tub Bridge with Composite Slab

The Optimization form allows simultaneous display of three versions of section


sizes and associated resistance results. The section plate size versions are As
Analyzed, As Designed, and Current. The section plots use distinct colors
for each version black for As Analyzed, blue for As Designed, and red for
Current. When the Optimization form is initially opened, all three versions are
identical and equal to As Analyzed.
Two graphs are available to display various forces, moments, stresses, and ratios for the As Analyzed or As Designed versions. The values plotted can be
controlled by clicking the Select Series to Plot button. The As Analyzed series are plotted as solid lines and the As Designed series as dashed lines.
To modify steel plate sizes or vertical stiffeners, a new form can be displayed
by clicking on the Modify Section button. After the section modification is
completed, the Current version is shown in red in the elevation and cross section views. After the resistance has been recalculated successfully by clicking
the Recalculate Resistance button, the Current version is designated to As Designed and displayed in blue.
After the section optimization has been completed, the As Designed plate sizes
and materials can be applied to the analysis bridge object by clicking the OK
button. The button opens a new form that can be used to Unlock the existing
model (in that case all analysis results will be deleted) or save the file under a
new name (New File button). Clicking the Exit button does not apply the new
plate sizes to the bridge object and keeps the model locked. The As Designed
version of the plate sizes will be available the next time the form is opened, and
the Current version is discarded.
The previously defined stiffeners can be recalled in the Steel Beam Section
Variation form by clicking the Copy/Reset/Recall button in the top menu of
the form. The form can be displayed by clicking on the Modify Section button.

Section Optimization

9 - 31

Chapter 10
Run a Bridge Design Request

This chapter identifies the steps involved in running a Bridge Design Request.
(Chapter 4 explains how to define the Request.) Running the Request applies
the following to the specified Bridge Object:
Program defaults in accordance with the selected codethe Preferences
Type of design to be performedthe check type (Section 4.2.1)
Portion of the bridge to be designedthe station ranges (Section 4.1.3)
Overwrites of the Preferencesthe Design Request parameters (Section
4.1.4)
Load combinationsthe demand sets (Chapter 2)
Live Load Distribution factors, where applicable (Chapter 3)
For this example, the AASHTO LRFD 2007 code is applied to the model of a
concrete box-girder bridge shown in Figure 10-1.
It is assumed that the user is familiar with the steps that are necessary to create
a CSiBridge model of a concrete box girder bridge. If additional assistance is
needed to create the model, a 30-minute Watch and Learn video entitled,
Bridge Bridge Information Modeler is available at the CSI website

10 - 1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

www.csiamerica.com. The tutorial video guides the user through the creation
of the bridge model referenced in this chapter.

Figure 10-1 3D view of example concrete box girder bridge model

10.1

Description of Example Model


The example bridge is a two-span prestressed concrete box girder bridge with
the following features:
Abutments: The abutments are skewed by 15 degrees and connected to the
bottom of the box girder only.
Prestress: The concrete box girder bridge is prestressed with four 10-in2
tendons (one in each girder) and a jacking force of 2160 kips per tendon.
Bents: The one interior bent has three 5-foot-square columns.
Deck: The concrete box girder has a nominal depth of 5 feet. The deck has
a parabolic variation in depth from 5 feet at the abutments to a maximum
of 10 feet at the interior bent support.
Spans: The two spans are each approximately 100 feet long.

Figure 10-2 Elevation view of example bridge

10 - 2

Description of Example Model

Chapter 10 - Run a Bridge Design Request

Figure 10-3 Plan view of the example bridge

10.2

Design Preferences
Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Preferences command to
select the AASHTO LRFD 2007 design code. The Bridge Design Preferences
form shown in Figure 10-4 displays.

Figure 10-4 Bridge Design Preferences form

10.3

Load Combinations
For this example, the default design load combinations were activated using the
Design/Rating > Load Combinations > Add Defaults command. After the
Bridge Design option has been selected, the Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form shown in Figure 10-5 displays. The form is used
Design Preferences

10 - 3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

to specify the desired limit states. Only the Strength II limit state was selected
for this example. Normally, several limit states would be selected.

Figure 10-5 Code-Generated Load Combinations for Bridge Design form

The defined load combinations for this example are shown in Figure 10-6.

Figure 10-6 Define Load Combinations form

10 - 4

Load Combinations

Chapter 10 - Run a Bridge Design Request

The Str-II1, Str-II2 and StrIIGroup1 designations for the load combinations are
specified by the program and indicate that the limit state for the combinations
is Strength Level II.

10.4

Bridge Design Request


After the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Design Request command has been used, the Bridge Design Request form shown in Figure 10-7
displays.

Figure 10- 7 Define Load Combinations form

The name given to this example Design Request is FLEX_1, the Check Type
is for Concrete Box Flexure and the Demand Set, DSet1, specifies the combination as StrII (Strength Level II).

Bridge Design Request

10 - 5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

The only Design Request Parameter option for a Concrete Box Flexural check
type is for PhiC. A value of 0.9 for PhiC is used.

10.5

Start Design/Check of the Bridge


After an analysis has been run, the bridge model is ready for a design/check.
Use the Design/Rating > Superstructure Design > Run Super command to
start the design process. Select the design to be run using the Perform Bridge
Design form shown in Figure 10-8:

Figure 10-8 Perform Bridge Design - Superstructure

The user may select the desired Design Request(s) and click on the Design
Now button. A plot of the bridge model, similar to that shown in Figure 10-9,
will display.
If several Design Requests
have been run, the individual Design Requests can be
selected from the Design
Check options drop-down
list. This plot is described
further in Chapter 11.

Figure 10-9 Plot of flexure


check results

10 - 6

Start Design/Check of the Bridge

Chapter 11
Display Bridge Design Results

Bridge design results can be displayed on screen and as printed output. The
on-screen display can depict the bridge response graphically as a plot or in data
tables. The Advanced Report Writer can be used to create the printed output,
which can include the graphical display as well as the database tables.
This chapter displays the results for the example used in Chapter 10. The model
is a concrete box girder bridge and the code applied is AASHTO LRFD 2007.
Creation of the model is shown in a 30-minute Watch and Learn video on the
CSI website, www.csiamerica.com.

11.1

Display Results as a Plot


To view the forces, stresses, and design results graphically, click the Home >
Display > Show Bridge Superstructure Design Results command, which will
display the Bridge Object Response Display form shown in Figure 11-1.
The plot shows the design results for the FLEX_1 Design Request created using
the process described in the preceding chapters. The demand moments are enveloped and shown in the blue region, and the negative capacity moments are
shown with a brown line. If the demand moments do not exceed the capacity
moments, the superstructure may be deemed adequate in response to the flexure
Design Request. Move the mouse pointer onto the demand or capacity plot to
view the values for each nodal point. Move the pointer to the capacity moment

Display Results as a Plot

11 - 1

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

at station 1200 and 536981.722 kip-in is shown. A verification calculation that


shows agreement with this CSiBridge result is provided in Section 11.4.

Figure 11-1 Plot of flexure check results for the example bridge design model

11.1.1 Additional Display Examples


Use the Home > Display > Show Bridge Forces/Stresses command to select,
on the example form shown in Figure 11-2, the location along the top or bottom
portions of a beam or slab for which stresses are to be displayed. Figures 11-3
through 11-9 illustrate the left, middle, and right portions as they apply to Multicell Concrete Box Sections. Location 1, as an example, refers to the top left selection option while location 5 would refer to the bottom center selection option.
Locations 1, 2, and 3 refer to the top left, top center, and top right selection option while locations 4, 5, and 6 refer to the bottom left, bottom center, and bottom right selection options.

11 - 2

Display Results as a Plot

Chapter 11 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 11-2 Select the location on the beam or slab for which results are to be displayed

Top slab cut line

Bottom slab cut line

4
5
Centerline of the web

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-3 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Vertical

Display Results as a Plot

11- 3

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

1
Top

slab

cut

Bottom slab cut line

4
5

6
Centerline of the web

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-4 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped

1
Top

slab

cut

Bottom slab cut line

4
5
Centerline of the web

5
Centerline of the web

Figure 11-5 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Clipped

11 - 4

Display Results as a Plot

Chapter 11 - Display Bridge Design Results

1
Top

slab

cut

Bottom slab cut line

4
6

Centerline of the web

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-6 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders and Radius

Top slab cut line

Bottom slab cut line


4, 5

4
5

Centerline of the web


Centerline of the web

5
Centerline of the web

Figure 11-7 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - External Girders Sloped Max

Display Results as a Plot

11- 5

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Top slab cut line

Bottom slab cut line

5
Centerline of the web

Centerline of the web

Figure 11-8 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - Advanced

Top slab cut line

Bottom slab cut line

6
Centerline of the web

Figure 11-9 Bridge Concrete Box Deck Section - AASHTO - PCI - ASBI Standard

11 - 6

Display Results as a Plot

Chapter 11 - Display Bridge Design Results

11.2

Display Data Tables


To view design results on screen in tables, click the Home > Display > Show
Tables command, which will display the Choose Tables for Display form
shown in Figure 11-10. Use the options on that form to select which data results
are to be viewed. Multiple selection may be made.

Figure 11-10 Choose Tables for Display form

When all selections have been made, click the OK button and a database table
similar to that shown in Figure 11-11 will display. Note the drop-down list in
the upper right-hand corner of the table. That drop-down list will include the
various data tables that match the selections made on the Choose Tables for
Display form. Select from that list to change to a different database table.

Display Data Tables

11- 7

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 11-11 Design database table for AASHTO LRFD 2007 flexure check

The scroll bar along the bottom of the form can be used to scroll to the right to
view additional data columns.

11.3

Advanced Report Writer


The File > Report > Create Report command is a single button click output
option but it may not be suitable for bridge structures because of the size of the
document that is generated. Instead, the Advanced Report Writer feature within
CSiBridge is a simple and easy way to produce a custom output report.
To create a custom report that includes input and output, first export the files using one of the File > Export commands: Access; Excel; or Text. When this
command is executed, a form similar to that shown in Figure 11-12 displays.

11 - 8

Advanced Report Writer

Chapter 11 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 11-12 Choose Tables for Export to Access form

This important step allows control over the size of the report to be generated.
Export only those tables to be included in the final report. However, it is possible to export larger quantities of data and then use the Advanced Report Writer
to select only specific data sets for individual reports, thus creating multiple
smaller reports. For this example, only the Bridge Data (input) and Concrete
Box Flexure design (output) are exported.
After the data tables have been exported and saved to an appropriate location,
click the File > Report > Advanced Report Writer command to display a
form similar to that show in Figure 11-13. Click the appropriate button (e.g.,
Find existing DB File, Convert Excel File, Convert Text File) and locate the exported data tables. The tables within that Database, Excel, or Text file will be
listed in the List of Tables in Current Database File display box.

Advanced Report Writer

11- 9

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

Figure 11-13 Create Custom Report form

Select the tables to be included in the report from that display box. The selected
items will then display in the Items Included in Report display box. Use the various options on the form to control the order in which the selected tables appear
in the report as well as the headers (i.e., Section names), page breaks, pictures,
and blanks required for final output in .rft, .txt, or .html format.
After the tables have been selected and the headers, pictures, and other formatting items have been addressed, click the Create Report button to generate the
report. The program will request a filename and the path to be used to store the
report. Figure 11-14 shows an example of the printed output generated by the
Report Writer.

11 - 10

Advanced Report Writer

Chapter 11 - Display Bridge Design Results

Figure 11-14 An example of the printed output

11.4

Verification
As a verification check of the design results, the output at station 1200 is examined. The following output for negative bending has been pulled from the
ConBoxFlexure data table, a portion of which is shown in Figure 11-10:
Demand moment,

DemandMax (kip-in) = 245973.481

Resisting moment,

ResistingNeg (kip-in) =

Total area of prestressing steel,

AreaPTTop (in2)

20.0

Top k factor,

kFactorTop

0.2644444

Neutral axis depth, c,

CDistForNeg (in)

5.1286

Effective stress in prestressing, fps, EqFpsForNeg (kip/in2) =

266.7879

536981.722

A hand calculation that verifies the results follows:


For top k factor, from (eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2),

f
k = 2 1.04 PY
fPU

245.1

= 0.26444 (Results match)


= 2 1.04
270

Verification

11- 11

CSiBridge Bridge Superstructure Design

For neutral axis depth, from (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4),

c=

APT fPU 0.85 f c bslab bwebeq tslabeq


0.85 f c 1bwebeq + kAPT
APT fPU

c=

0.85 f c 1bwebeq + kAPT


c

fPU
YPT

fPU
YPT

, for a T-section

, when not a T-section

20.0(270)
= 5.1286 (Results match)
270
0.85(4)(0.85)(360) + 0.26444(20)

114

For effective stress in prestressing, from (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1),

c
fPS = fPU 1 k
YPT

5.1286

=266.788 (Results match)


=270 1 0.26444
144

For resisting moment, from (AASHTO LRFD eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1),

c tslabeq
c

=
M N APT f PS YPT 1 + 0.85 f c ( bSLAB bwebeq ) tslabeq 1

2
2

2
c

=
M N APT f PS YPT 1 , when the box section is not a T-section
2

5.1286(0.85)

M
=
20.0(266.788) 144
=
N
596646.5 kip-in
2

=
= 536981.8 kip-in (Results match)
M R =
M N 0.85(596646.5)
The preceding calculations are a check of the flexure design output. Other design results for concrete box stress, concrete box shear, and concrete box principal have not been included. The user is encouraged to perform a similar check
of these designs and to review Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for a detailed descriptions of
the design algorithms.

11 - 12

Verification

Bibliography

ACI, 2007. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)
and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.
Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
AASHTO, 2007. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Customary
U.S. Units, 4th Edition, 2008 Interim Revision, American Association
of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 444 North Capitol
Street, NW, Suite 249, Washington, D.C. 20001.
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