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CANADIAN COLLECTION Part 1.

Edited by

Andy Liu

University of Alberta

and

Bruce Shawyer

Memorial University of Newfoundland

and produced by the CMS ATOM Office, St. Johns, NL

Publie par la Societe mathematique du Canada, Ottawa (Ontario)

et produit par le Bureau ATOM de la SMC, St. Johns, NL

The University of Toronto Press Incorporated

ISBN 0-919558-16-X

No part of this publication may be reproduced or

transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

photocopying, recording, or any information or retrieval system now known or

to be invented, without permission in writing from the publisher: The Canadian

Mathematical Society, 577 King Edward Avenue, P.O. Box 450, Station A, Ottawa,

Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada, except so far as may be allowed by law.

Tous droits reserves.

Aucune partie de cet ouvrage ne peut etre

reproduite ou utilisee par quelque procede ou quelque facon que ce soit, y compris

les methodes electroniques ou mecaniques, les enregistrements ou les syst`emes de

mise en memoire et dinformation, sans laccord prealable ecrit de lediteur, la

Societe mathematique du Canada, 577, rue King-Edward, C.P. 450, succursale A,

Ottawa (Ontario) K1N 6N5, Canada, sauf dans les limites prescrites par la loi.

c 2005

A TASTE OF MATHEMATICS

CANADIAN COLLECTION Part 1.

Edited by

Andy Liu

University of Alberta

and

Bruce Shawyer

Memorial University of Newfoundland

The booklets in the series, A Taste of Mathematics, are published by

the Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS). They are designed as enrichment

materials for high school students with an interest in and aptitude for

mathematics. Some booklets in the series will also cover the materials useful

for mathematical competitions at national and international levels.

La collection ATOM

Publies par la Societe mathematique du Canada (SMC), les livrets

de la collection Aime-t-on les mathematiques (ATOM) sont destines au

perfectionnement des etudiants du cycle secondaire qui manifestent un interet

et des aptitudes pour les mathematiques. Certains livrets de la collection

ATOM servent egalement de materiel de preparation aux concours de

mathematiques sur lechiquier national et international.

edaction

Editor-in-Chief / Redacteur-en-chef

Bruce Shawyer

Memorial University of Newfoundland / Universite Memorial de Terre-Neuve

Edward J. Barbeau

University of Toronto / Universite de Toronto

Malgorzata Dubiel

Simon Fraser University / Universite Simon Fraser

Joseph Khoury

University of Ottawa / Universite dOttawa

Antony Thompson

Dalhousie University / Universite Dalhousie

Graham P. Wright

University of Ottawa / Universite dOttawa

iv

Table of Contents

Preface

1 Quickies

27

39

51

QUICKIES

Murray Klamkin was famous for his Quickies, problems that had

quick and neat solutions. We present all the Quickies published in CRUX

MATHEMATICORUM, with some slight editing by Bruce Shawyer.

The problems have been selected by Andy Liu and arranged into sets

according to topic.

The solutions are as published in CRUX MATHEMATICORUM, with some

slight editing by Bruce Shawyer. Solutions from pre-LATEX editions were coded

by students at Memorial University of Newfoundland, funded by the Canadian

Mathematical Society. Special thanks are due to Karelyn Davis, Alyson Ford,

Don Hender, Shawna Gammon, Paul Marshall, Shannon Sullivan and Rebecca

White.

These problems exhibit the special talents of Murray Klamkin. They cover

a very wide range of topics, and show a great deal of insight into what is possible

in there areas. They demonstrate that Murray Klamin was a problem setter par

excellence. We are very greatful to have known him and to have been inspired by

him.

Problem numbers and references are to [year : page number] are as in CRUX

MATHEMATICORUM. When a problem number is followed by a star ?, this

means that the problem was proposed without a solution.

Andy Liu

Department of Mathematics

University of Alberta

Edmonton

Alberta

Bruce Shawyer

Department of Mathematics

Memorial University of Newfoundland

St. Johns

Newfoundland and Labrador

Unless otherwise stated, these problems were proposed by Murray Klamkin alone.

Quickies

Part 1

154

Combinatorics and Number Theory

Part 1

429, 1456, 2054, 1863, 1027, 969, 1561, 2034, 1752, 1434.

Vectors and Matrices

Part 4

1200, 1721, 1482, 1693, 2005, 398, 1314, 3024, 1207, 1242.

Functions and Polynomials

Part 1

299, 254, 1423, 2014, 1110, 1283.

Expressions and Identities.

Part 1

1304, 287, 1594, 1522, 830, 1996, 1362.

Numerical Approximations

Part 4

1003, 1213, 1371.

Algebraic Inequalities.

Part 2

347, 1642, 2615, 1703, 1734, 1445, 2064, 2095, 2044, 1652,

1742, 1674, 1774, 323, 805, 1394, 2734, 2839, 1662.

Trigonometric Inequalities.

Part 3

1414, 908, 1352, 1712, 1542, 1613, 1503, 2084, 1332, 1801,

1271, 1060, 958, 1962.

Geometric Inequalities.

Part 4

1165, 1473, 1574, 1764, 1296, 506, 1131, 1985, 1945.

The Triangle.

Part 3

1872, 1605, 1385, 2848, 210, 1076, 1532, 2618.

Cevian Lines.

Part 4

2614, 548, 485, 2613, 1621, 1631.

Central Symmetry.

Part 3

1062, 1348, 1513.

Conic Sections.

Part 2

2616, 1975, 1935, 1405, 520.

Solid Geometry.

Part 2

375, 1784, 1553, 1581, 330, 478, 2617, 1261.

Higher Dimensions.

Part 2

2651, 224, 1086, 1465, 2733, 2024, 1793.

Calculus.

Part 4

1178, 1494, 1322, 1147, 273.

Problems dedicated to Murray Klamkin

Part 4

1241, 2619, 2620, 2621

Klamkin Problems of September 2005

Part 4

K01 through K15

Quickies

1.

h3 , h4 are the four altitudes of a given tetrahedron T and r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 are the

corresponding signed perpendicular distances from any point in the space of T to

the faces.

2.

P = (1 + x1 + y1 )(1 + x2 + y2 ) . . . (1 + xn + yn )

where xi , yi 0, and x1 x2 . . . xn = y1 y2 . . . yn = an .

3.

a convex function of x, y, z.

4.

values of

(ii) |a b| + |b c| + |c a|,

5. If A, B, C are three dihedral angles of a trihedral angle, show that sin A, sin B,

sin C satisfy the triangle inequality.

6.

(x y z)3 = 27xyz

7.

(x y z)(x y + z)(x + y z) = 8xyz

8.

its derivative P 0 (x), then P (x) must be of the form a(x r)n . Starting from the

known result that

P 0 (x) X 1

=

P (x)

x ri

where the sum is over all the zeros ri of P (x) counting multiplicities, give a

non-calculus proof of the above result.

9.

x2 (y + z) = 1,

y 2 (z + x) = 8,

z 2 (x + y) = 13.

10.

(s b)(s c) =

a

,

h

(s c)(s a) =

b

,

k

(s a)(s b) =

c

,

l

11.

Prove that

3(x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x)(xy 2 + yz 2 + zx2 ) xyz(x + y + z)2

where x, y, z 0.

12.

(x8 + y 8 + z 8 ) = 2(x16 + y 16 + z 16 ).

13.

31x5 + 165x4 + 310x3 + 330x2 + 155x + 33 = 0.

14.

If F (x) and G(x) are polynomials with integer coefficients such that

F (k)/G(k) is an integer for k = 1, 2, 3, . . ., prove that G(x) divides F (x).

15. Given that ABCDEF is a skew hexagon such that each pair of opposite sides

are equal and parallel. Prove that the midpoints of the six sides are coplanar.

16.

a

b

c

d

,

,

,

,

(4 + a)

(4

+

c)

(4 + b)

(4 + d)

17.

Determine the maximum value of the sum of the cosines of the six dihedral

angles of a tetrahedron.

18.

19.

Which is larger

3

( 2 1)1/3

or

Prove that

3 min

p

3

a b

c b

c a

+ + , + +

b

c a a b

c

1/9

p

p

3

2/9 + 3 4/9?

(a + b + c)

1 1 1

+ +

a b

c

20.

21.

1

1

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2w2 and x4 + y 4 + z 4 = 2w4 .

22.

Prove that if the line joining the incentre to the centroid of a triangle

is parallel to one of the sides of the triangle, then the sides are in arithmetic

progression and, conversely, if the sides of a triangle are in arithmetic progression

then the line joining the incentre to the centroid is parallel to one of the sides of

the triangle.

23.

xy yz

zw wx

+

+

+

=0

x+y y+z

z+w w+x

24.

x

1

1

1+

,

(i) 1 +

(x + 1)

x(x + 2)

(ii) [(x + y)(x + z)]x [(y + z)(y + x)]y [(z + x)(z + y)]z [4xy]x [4yz]y [4zx]z .

25.

joining each vertex to the nine point centre of the triangle formed by the other

three vertices are concurrent.

26.

How many six digit perfect squares are there each having the property that

if each digit is increased by one, the resulting number is also a perfect square?

27.

are concurrent at an interior point P of the tetrahedron. Prove that

P W1 + P W2 + P W3 + P W4 max Vi Wi longest edge.

lengths of successive tangents from the vertices of the quadrilateral to the circle

are a, a, b, b, c, c, d, d, respectively.

29.

30.

31.

32.

Prove that the smallest regular ngon which can be inscribed in a given

regular ngon is one whose vertices are the mid-points of the sides of the given

regular ngon.

Determine the minimum value of

S =

p

p

(a + 1)2 + 2(b 2)2 + (c + 3)2 + (b + 1)2 + 2(c 2)2 + (d + 3)2 ) +

p

p

(c + 1)2 + 2(d 2)2 + (a + 3)2 + (d + 1)2 + 2(a 2)2 + (b + 3)2

33. A set of 500 real numbers is such that any number in the set is greater than

one-fifth the sum of all the other numbers in the set. Determine the least number

of negative numbers in the set.

34.

Prove that

a+b+c

b2 + c2 a 2 +

p

p

c2 + a 2 b2 + a2 + b2 c2 ,

35. Determine the extreme values of the area of a triangle ABC given the lengths

of the two altitudes ha , hb and the side BC = a.

36. Determine the maximum area of a triangle ABC given the perimeter p and

the angle A.

37.

X a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 1/2

a1

38.

to C and C 0 . Prove that BB 0 , CC 0 and DD0 are possible sides of a triangle.

39.

where 1 a, b, c, d 0.

40.

(i)

ab

bc

cd

da

c + d + a + b

2

2

2

a + b + c + d,

41. Determine all the points P (x, y, z), if any, such that all the points of tangency

of the enveloping (tangent) cone from P to the ellipsoid

b > c), are coplanar.

x2

a2

y2

b2

z2

c2

= 1 (a >

42. Determine whether or not there exists a set of 777 distinct positive integers

such that for every seven of them, their product is divisible by their sum.

better rational approximation.

44.

orthogonal lines. Determine the distance D between the point of concurrence

and the centre of the sphere.

45.

real x, y, z, t satisfying x2 + y 2 + z 2 t2 = 0, prove that P (x, y, z, t) is divisible by

x2 + y 2 + z 2 t 2 .

segments P Q and P R are drawn terminating on the circle such that the angles

QP A and RP B are equal to a given angle . Determine the maximum length of

the chord QR.

(rs)!

47. Using that s!(r!)

is an integer, where r, s are positive integers, prove that

s

(rst)!

is an integer for positive integers r, s, t.

t!(s!)t (r!)ts

48.

tan(x + y)

given that

tan x

sin y = 2 sin(2x + y) .

49.

A, B, C are acute angles such that sin2 A + sin2 B + sin2 C = 2. Prove that

A + B + C < 180 .

50.

p

p

a2 cos2 + b2 sin2 + a2 sin2 + b2 cos2 ,

51.

52.

53.

tan 3x

for x in [0, 2].

tan x

How large can the sum of the angles of a spherical right triangle be?

whose mid-points of the sides are A0 , B 0 ,

and C 0 . If B 0 C 0 is a quadrant

, find the maximum value of A0 B 0 + A0 C 0 .

2

54.

Let ABC be a triangle with centroid G. Determine the point P in the plane

of ABC such that AP AG + BP BG + CP CG is a minimum and express this

minimum value in terms of the side lengths of ABC.

1.

h3 , h4 are the four altitudes of a given tetrahedron T and r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 are the

corresponding signed perpendicular distances from any point in the space of T to

the faces.

Solution. If the face areas and volume of the tetrahedron are F1 , F2 , F3 , F4 , and

V respectively, then

r1 F1 + r2 F2 + r3 F3 + r4 F4 = 3V,

and h1 F1 = h2 F2 = h3 F3 = h4 F4 = 3V . Now eliminating the Fi s, we get

r1 /h1 + r2 /h2 + r3 /h3 + r4 /h4 = 1 (a constant).

2.

P = (1 + x1 + y1 )(1 + x2 + y2 ) . . . (1 + xn + yn )

where xi , yi 0, and x1 x2 . . . xn = y1 y2 . . . yn = an .

Solution. More generally, consider

P = (1 + x1 + y1 + + w1 )(1 + x2 + y2 + + w2 ) . . . (1 + xn + yn + + wn )

where x1 x2 . . . xn = n , y1 y2 . . . yn = n , . . . , w1 w2 . . . wn

xi , yi , . . . , wi 0. Then by H

olders inequality,

n

Y 1/n Y 1/n

Y 1/n o

P 1/n 1 +

xi +

yi + . . . +

wi

n , and

or

P (1 + + + . . . + )n .

In this case = = a, so

P (1 + 2a)n .

3.

a convex function of x, y, z.

Solution. More generally G(F ) is a convex function where G is a convex decreasing

function. By convexity of G,

G{F (x1 , y1 , z1 )}+(1)G{F (x2 , y2 , z2 )} G{F (x1 , y1 , z1 )+(1)F (x2 , y2 , z2 )}.

By concavity of F ,

F (x1 , y1 , z1 )+(1)F (x2 , y2 , z2 ) F ([x1 +(1)x2 ], [y1 +(1)y2 ], [z1 +(1)z2 ]).

Finally, since G is decreasing,

G{F (x1 , y1 , z1 )} + (1 )G{F (x2 , y2 , z2 )}

More generally and more precisely, we have the following known result: if F (X)

is a concave function of X = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) and G(y) is a convex decreasing

function of y where y is a real variable and the domain of G contains the range of

F , then G{F (X)} is a convex function of X.

4.

values of

(ii) |a b| + |b c| + |c a|,

P

P

Solution. (i) (a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 = 2( a2 bc) kp2 .

2(

reduces to

a2

bc)

1

(a + b + c)2

2

The LHS is 16 times the square of the area of a triangle of sides

a,

b,

c or

There is equality iff the triangle is degenerate with one side 0.

(ii) |a b| + |b c| + |c a| kp.

|a b| + |b c| + |c a| = 2a 2c a + b + c

(iii) |a b| |b c| + |b c| |c a| + |c a| |a b| kp2 .

Letting c = 0, k 1/4. To show that k = 1/4 suffices, let a = y + z, b = z + x,

c = x + y where z y x 0. Our inequality then becomes

|x y| |z y| + |y z| |z x| + |z x| |x y| (x + y + z)2

or

x2 y 2 + z 2 + yz 3zx + xy x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2yz + 2zx + 2xy

or

2y 2 + 5zx + 1xy + 1yz 0.

There is equality iff x = y = 0 or equivalently, a = b, and c = 0.

5. If A, B, C are three dihedral angles of a trihedral angle, show that sin A, sin B,

sin C satisfy the triangle inequality.

Solution. Let a, b, c be the face angles of the trihedral angle opposite to A, B, C

respectively. Since

sin a

sin b

sin c

=

=

sin A

sin B

sin C

by the Law of Sines for spherical triangles, it suffices to show that sin b + sin c >

sin a, or

1

1

1

1

2 sin (b + c) cos (b c) > 2 sin a cos a,

2

2

2

2

for any labelling of the angles. We now use the following properties of a, b, c:

(i) they satisfy the triangle inequality, (ii) 0 < a + b + c < 2.

Hence, cos 12 (b c) > cos 21 a. To complete the proof, we show that

1

1

sin (b + c) > sin a.

2

2

This follows immediately if b + c ; if b + c > , then

1

1

1

b+c

a

sin (b + c) = sin (b + c) > sin a

since

>

.

2

2

2

2

2

Comment: More generally, if a1 , a2 , . . . , an are the sides of a spherical n-gon

(convex), it then follows by induction over n that

sin a1 + sin a2 + + sin an > 2 sin ai ,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

| sin a1 | + | sin a2 | + + | sin an | > | sin(a1 + a2 + + an )|

for any angles a1 , a2 , . . . , an .

6.

(x y z)3 = 27xyz

Solution. Let x = u3 , y = v 3 , z = w3 , so that u3 v 3 w3 = 3uvw or equivalently

(u v w)((u + v)2 + (u + w)2 + (v w)2 ) = 0.

Hence an infinite class of non-trivial solutions is given by

x = (v + w)3 ,

y = v3,

z = w3 .

10

7.

(x y z)(x y + z)(x + y z) = 8xyz

Solution. By inspection, we have the trivial solutions

(x, y, z) = (1, 1, 0)

and permutations thereof.

equations

x y z = 2 yz,

x y + z = 2 xz,

x + y z = 2 xy

solutions

y = m2 , z = n2 , x = (m + n)2 where (m, n) = 1.

It is an open problem whether or not there are any other infinite sets of relatively

prime solutions.

8.

its derivative P 0 (x), then P (x) must be of the form a(x r)n . Starting from the

known result that

P 0 (x) X 1

=

P (x)

x ri

where the sum is over all the zeros ri of P (x) counting multiplicities, give a

non-calculus proof of the above result.

X 1

P 0 (x)

1

=

=

.

P (x)

a(x r)

x ri

Now letting x any ri it follows that r = ri . Hence all the zeros of P (x) must

be the same.

9.

x2 (y + z) = 1,

y 2 (z + x) = 8,

z 2 (x + y) = 13.

respectively. Then by addition of the three equations and by multiplication of the

three equations, we respectively get

X

x2 y = a 3 + b 3 + c 3 ,

h

i

X

(xyz)2 2xyz +

x2 y = (abc)3 ,

11

2t3 + t2 (a3 + b3 + c3 ) = (abc)3

(1)

a3

1 1

= 0,

tx y z

1 b3

1

+

= 0,

x

ty z

1 1 c3

+

= 0.

x

y

tz

These latter homogeneous equations are consistent since the eliminant is equation

(1). Solving the last two equations for y and z, we get

y=

x(b1 c1 1)

,

c1 + 1

z=

x(b1 c1 2)

b1 + 1

and then x, y, z.

10.

(s b)(s c) = a/h,

(s c)(s a) = b/k,

(s a)(s b) = c/l,

Solution.

h=

a

1

1

=

+

,

(s b)(s c)

(s b) (s c)

k =

1

1

+

,

(s c) (s a)

l =

1

1

+

.

(s a) (s b)

Hence, h, k, l must satisfy the triangle inequality. Letting 2s0 = h+k +l, it follows

by addition that

1

1

1

s0 =

+

+

(s a) (s b) (s c)

and then

sa=

(s0

1

,

h)

sb=

(s0

1

,

k)

sc=

(s0

1

.

l)

s=

1

1

1

+

+

.

(s0 h) (s0 k) (s0 l)

(

= {s(s a)(s b)(s c)}

1/2

1

1

1

(s0 h) + (s0 k) + (s0 l)

(s0 h)(s0 k)(s0 l)

)1/2

12

11.

Prove that

3(x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x)(xy 2 + yz 2 + zx2 ) xyz(x + y + z)2

where x, y, z 0.

Hence it suffices to show that

3

2

(x + y + z)

3

3

But this follows immediately from the power mean inequality. There is equality

iff x = y = z.

12.

(x8 + y 8 + z 8 ) = 2(x16 + y 16 + z 16 ).

(x2n + y 2n + z 2n )2 = 2(x4n + y 4n + z 4n ),

(2)

have any integer solutions for particular values of n > 2 chosen.

Equation (2) can be rewritten as

(xn + y n + z n )(y n + z n xn )(z n + xn y n )(xn + y n z n ) = 0.

(3)

The trivial solutions occur for (x, y, z) = (a, a, 0) and permutations thereof.

For n = 1, any factor of the left hand side of (3) can be zero.

For n = 2, (x, y, z) can be the sides of any integral right triangle (2mn, m2 n2 ,

m2 + n2 ) in any order.

Since Fermats equation is at least known not to have any non-trivial solutions for

all n > 2 and < 100 and integral multiples thereof, there are not any non-trivial

solutions for at least these cases.

13.

31x5 + 165x4 + 310x3 + 330x2 + 155x + 33 = 0.

x1

= 2 r ,

x+1

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

13

x=

1 + 2 r

,

1 2 r

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.

ax6 + 5bcx4 + 10ac2 x3 + 10bc3x2 + 5ac4 x + bc5 = 0

is the same as

(b a)(x c)5 = (b + a)(x + c)5 .

14.

If F (x) and G(x) are polynomials with integer coefficients such that

F (k)/G(k) is an integer for k = 1, 2, 3 . . . , prove that G(x) divides F (x).

Solution.

By taking k sufficiently large it follows that the degree of F

is the degree of G. Then by the remainder theorem,

F (x)

Q(x) R(x)

=

+

G(x)

a

G(x)

whose degree is less than that of G(x). Now R(x) must identically vanish otherwise

by taking k sufficiently large, we can make R(k)/G(k) arbitrarily small and this

cannot add with Q(k)/a to be an integer.

15. Given that ABCDEF is a skew hexagon such that each pair of opposite sides

are equal and parallel. Prove that the midpoints of the six sides are coplanar.

Solution. Since each pair of opposite sides form a parallelogram whose diagonals

bisect each other, all three different diagonals are concurrent say at point P . We

now let A, B, C, A, B, C be vectors from P to A, B, C, D, E, F , respectively.

The successive midpoints (multiplied by 2) are given by

A + B,

B + C,

C A,

A B,

B C,

C + A

to note that (A + B) (B + C) + (C A) = 0.

16.

a

b

c

d

,

,

,

,

(4 + a)

(4

+

c)

(4 + b)

(4 + d)

Solution. More generally one can show that if a1 , a2 , . . . , an are the lengths of sides

of an n-gon, then F (a1 ), F (a2 ), . . . , F (an ) are possible lengths of sides of another

n-gon where F (x) is an increasing concave function of x for x 0 and F (0) = 0.

If a1 is the largest of the ai s, then it suffices to show that

14

F (a2 ) + F (a3 ) + + F (an ) F (a2 + a3 + + an ) + (n 2)F (0).

Finally, F (a2 + a3 + + an ) F (a1 ).

F (x) = x

and

x

k 2 + x

2

x

, 1 ek x , tanh x.

(x + k 2 )

17.

Determine the maximum value of the sum of the cosines of the six dihedral

angles of a tetrahedron.

Solution. Let A, B, C, D be unit outward vectors normal to the faces of a

tetrahedron ABCD. Then

(xA + yB + zC + wD)2 0.

Expanding out and noting that A B = cos CD (here CD denotes the dihedral

angle of which the side CD is an edge), etc., we get

x2 + y 2 + z 2 + w2 2xy cos CD + 2xz cos BD + 2xw cos BC

(1)

Setting x = y = z = w, we get that the sum of the cosines of the 6 dihedral angles

is 2. There is equality iff A + B + C + D = 0. Since as known

Fa A + F b B + F c C + F d D = 0

where Fa denotes the area of the face of the tetrahedron opposite A, etc., it follows

that there is equality iff the four faces have equal area or that the tetrahedron is

isosceles.

Comment. In a similar fashion one can extend inequality (1) to n dimensions

and then show that the sum of the cosines of the n(n + 1)/2 dihedral angles

of an n-dimensional simplex is (n + 1)/2. Here the dihedral angles are the

angles between pairs of (n 1)-dimensional faces and there is equality iff all the

(n 1)-dimensional faces have the same volume.

18.

Which is larger

3

( 2 1)1/3

or

p

3

1/9

p

p

3

2/9 + 3 4/9?

p

p

Letting x = 3 1/3 and y = 3 2/3, it suffices to show that

3

(x + y)( 2 1)1/3 = x3 + y 3 = 1,

or equivalently that

3

3

( 2 + 1)3 ( 2 1) = 3,

15

For other related radical identities of Ramanujan, see Susan Landau,

How to tangle with a nested radical, Math.

Intelligencer, 16 (1994),

pp. 4954.

19.

Prove that

3 min

a b

c b

c a

+ + , + +

b

c a a b

c

(a + b + c)

1 1 1

+ +

a

b

c

Solution. Each of the inequalities

a b

c

1 1 1

3

+ +

(a + b + c)

+ +

,

b

c a

a b

c

b

c a

1 1 1

3

+ +

(a + b + c)

+ +

,

a b

c

a b

c

follow from their equivalent forms (which follow by expansion):

(b + a c)(c a)2 + (c + b a)(a b)2 + (a + c b)(b c)2 0,

(b + c a)(c a)2 + (c + a b)(a b)2 + (a + b c)(b c)2 0.

20.

1

1

Solution. We have

2

(1 13 )

=

= 1 + + 2 + + 12 ,

(1 )

(1 )

(1 + 13 )

= 1 + 2 + 12 .

0=

(1 + )

Adding or subtracting, we get

1

= 1 + 2 + 4 + + 12

(1 )

= + 3 + + 11 .

1

= 1 + 2 + 4 + + 2n .

(1 )

21.

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2w2 and x4 + y 4 + z 4 = 2w4 .

Solution. Eliminating w we get

2y 2 z 2 + 2z 2 x2 + 2x2 y 2 x4 y 4 z 4 = 0

16

or

(x + y + z)(y + z x)(z + x y)(x + y z) = 0,

so that in general we can take z = x + y. Note that if (x, y, z, w) is a solution, so

is (x, y, z, w) and permutations of the x, y, z. Substituting back, we get

x2 + xy + y 2 = w2 .

Since (x, y, w) = (1, 1, 1) is one solution, the general solution is obtained by

the method of Desboves, that is, we set x = r + p, y = r + q and w = r.

2

+pq+q 2 )

This gives r = (p (qp)

. On rationalizing the solutions (since the equation is

homogeneous), we get

x = p2 + pq + q 2 + p(q p) = q 2 + 2pq,

y = p2 + pq + q 2 q(q p) = p2 + 2pq,

w = p2 + pq + q 2 ,

z = q 2 p2 .

22.

Prove that if the line joining the incentre to the centroid of a triangle

is parallel to one of the sides of the triangle, then the sides are in arithmetic

progression and, conversely, if the sides of a triangle are in arithmetic progression

then the line joining the incentre to the centroid is parallel to one of the sides of

the triangle.

Solution. Let A, B, C denote vectors to the respective vertices A, B, C of the

triangle from a point outside the plane of the triangle. Then the incentre I and

the centroid G have the respective vector representations I and G, where

I=

(aA + bB + cC)

,

(a + b + c)

G=

(A + B + C)

,

3

out

(b + c 2a k 0 )A + (a + c 2b + k 0 )B + (a + b 2c)C = 0,

where k 0 = 3k(a + b + c). Since A, B, C are linearly independent, the coefficient

of C must vanish so that the sides are in arithmetic progression. Also then k 0 =

b + c 2a = 2b a c.

Conversely, if 2c = a + b, then G I =

side AB.

3(AB)(ba)

,

6(a+b+c)

17

23.

xy yz

zw wx

+

+

+

=0

x+y y+z

z+w w+x

Solution. It follows by inspection that x = z and y = w are two solutions. To find

the remaining solution(s), we multiply the given equation by the least common

denominator to give

P (x, y, z, w) = 0,

where P is the 4th degree polynomial in x, y, z, w which is skew symmetric in x

and z and also in y and w. Hence,

P (x, y, z, w) = (x z)(y w)Q(x, y, z, w),

where Q is a quadratic polynomial. On calculating the coefficient of x2 in P , we

get 2z(y w). Similarly the coefficient of y 2 is 2w(x z), so that

P (x, y, z, w) = 2(x z)(y w)(xz yw).

Hence, the third and remaining solution is given by xz = yw.

24.

x

1

1

(i) 1 +

1+

,

(x + 1)

x(x + 2)

(ii) [(x + y)(x + z)]x [(y + z)(y + x)]y [(z + x)(z + y)]z [4xy]x [4yz]y [4zx]z .

arithmetic-geometric mean inequality (WA.M.G.M.) which for three weights is

au + bv + cw

u v w

a+b+c

a b

a+b+c

where a, b, c, u, v, w 0.

x

x+1

1

1

1+

1+

,

x

x+1

)x+1

x (

x+1

1 + x 1 + x1

1

1

1+

= 1+

.

x

1+x

x+1

(ii) Also, the inequality here can be rewritten in the more attractive form

z+x

x+y

y+z

2x

2y

2z

1.

z+x

x+y

y+z

18

X

2x X

1=

[z + x]

[z + x].

z+x

25.

joining each vertex to the nine point centre of the triangle formed by the other

three vertices are concurrent.

Solution. The given result still holds if we replace the nine point centres by either

the orthocentres or the centroids.

A vector representation is particularly a

` propos here, since (with the circumcentre

O as an origin and F denoting the vector from O to any point F ) the orthocentre

Ha , the nine point centre Na , the centroid Ga of 4BCD are given simply by

Ha = B + C + D, Na = (B + C + D)/2, Ga = (B + C + D)/3, respectively, and

similarly for the other three triangles. Since the proofs for each of the three cases

are practically identical, we just give the one for the orthocentres. The vector

equation of the line La joining A to Ha is given by La = A + a [B + C + D A]

where a is a real parameter. By letting a = 1/2, one point on the line is

[A + B + C + D]/2 and similarly this point is on the other three lines. For the

nine point centres, the point of concurrency will be 2[A + B + C + D]/3, while

for the centroids, the point of concurrency will be 3[A + B + C + D]/4.

26.

How many six digit perfect squares are there each having the property that

if each digit is increased by one, the resulting number is also a perfect square?

m2 = a 105 + b 104 + c 103 + d 102 + e 10 + f,

then

n2 = (a + 1) 105 + (b + 1) 104 + (c + 1) 103 + (d + 1) 102 + (e + 1) 10 + (d + 1),

so that

n2 m2 = 111, 111 = (111)(1, 001) = (3 37)(7 11 13).

Hence,

n + m = di

where di is one of the divisors of 111, 111. Since 111, 111 is a product of five primes

it has 32 different divisors. But since we must have di > 111, 111/di, there are at

most 16 solutions given by the form lm = 21 (di 111, 111/di). Then since m2 is a

six digit number, we must have

On checking the various divisors, there are four solutions. One of them corresponds

to di = 3 13 37 = 1, 443 so that m = 21 (1, 443 7 11) = 683 and m2 = 466, 489.

19

Then, 466, 489 + 111, 111 = 577, 600 = 7602 . The others are given by the table

m

m2

317 100, 489

565 319, 225

445 198, 025

di

3 7 37 = 777

3 11 37 = 1, 221

7 11 13 = 1, 001

n2

n

211, 600 460

430, 336 656

309, 136 556

27.

are concurrent at an interior point P of the tetrahedron. Prove that

pw1 + pw2 + pw3 + pw4 max vi wi longest edge.

Solution. We choose an origin, o, outside of the space of the tetrahedron and use

the set of 4 linearly independent vectors Vi = ovi as a basis. Also the vector

from o to any point q will be denoted by Q. The interior

point p is then given by

P

P = x1 V1 + x2 V2 + x3 V3 + x4 V4 where xi > 0 and i xi = 1. It now follows that

i Vi

Wi = Px

(for other properties of concurrent cevians via vectors, see [1987:

1xi

274275]) and then that

xi (P Vi ) X Vj Vi

P x i Vi

,

pwi =

P =

= xi

xj

1 xi

1 xi

1

x

i

j

Summing

P x i Vi

P V i X Vj V i

.

vi wi =

Vi =

=

xj

1 xi

1 xi j

1 xi

X

i

X X Vj Vi X

xi

=

pwi =

xj

xi (vi wi ) max vi wi ,

i

1 xi

i

j

i

X xj

vi wi

max |Vr Vi | = max |Vr Vi |.

r

r

1 xi

j6=i

Finally,

i

r,s

to n-dimensional simplexes. The results for triangles are due to Paul Erd

os,

Amer. Math. Monthly, Problem 3746, 1937, p. 400; Problem 3848, 1940, p. 575.

20

lengths of successive tangents from the vertices of the quadrilateral to the circle

are a, a, b, b, c, c, d, d, respectively.

Solution. Let 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D denote the angles between successive pairs of radii

vectors to the points of tangency and let r be the inradius. Then

r=

a

b

c

d

=

=

=

.

tan A

tan B

tan C

tan D

tan A + tan B

tan C + tan D

+

= 0,

1 tan A tan B

1 tan C tan D

so that

r(a + b) r(c + d)

+ 2

= 0.

r2 ab

r cd

Finally,

r2 =

29.

.

a+b+c+d

Solution. Since

x4 + 16x 12 = (x2 + 2)2 4(x 2)2 = (x2 + 2x 2)(x2 2x + 6) = 0,

the four roots are 1

30.

3 and 1 i 5.

Prove that the smallest regular n-gon which can be inscribed in a given

regular n-gon is one whose vertices are the midpoints of the sides of the given

regular n-gon.

Solution. The circumcircle of the inscribed regular n-gon must intersect each side

of the given regular n-gon. The smallest that such a circle can be is the inscribed

circle of the given n-gon, and it touches each of its sides at its midpoints.

31.

Solution. If one calculates 12 , 22 , . . . , 302 mod 31 one finds that the sum of no two

of these equals 0 mod 31. Hence, a = 31a1 and b = 31b1 so that 311993 divides

a21 + b21 . Then, a1 = 31a2 and b1 = 31b2 . Continuing in this fashion (with p = 31),

we must have a = p998 m and b = p998 n so that ab is divisible by p1996 .

More generally, if a prime p = 4k + 3 divides a2 + b2 , then both a and b must be

divisible by p. This follows from the result that a natural n is the sum of squares

of two relatively prime natural numbers if and only if n is divisible neither by 4 nor

by a natural number of the form 4k + 3 (see J.W. Sierpi

nski, Elementary Theory

of Numbers, Hafner, NY, 1964, p. 170).

21

32.

S=

p

p

(a + 1)2 + 2(b 2)2 + (c + 3)2 + (b + 1)2 + 2(c 2)2 + (d + 3)2 )

p

p

+ (c + 1)2 + 2(d 2)2 + (a + 3)2 + (d + 1)2 + 2(a 2)2 + (b + 3)2

S

4s2 + 288

a = b = c = d = 0.

33. A set of 500 real numbers is such that any number in the set is greater than

one-fifth the sum of all the other numbers in the set. Determine the least number

of negative numbers in the set.

Solution. Letting a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . denote the numbers of the set and S the sum of all

the numbers in the set, we have

a1 >

S a1

,

5

a2 >

S a2

,

5

...,

a6 >

S a6

.

5

numbers in the set, the right hand side of the inequality could be positive. Hence,

there must be at least seven negative numbers.

Comment. This problem where the 5 is replaced by 1 is due to Mark

Kantrowitz, CarnegieMellon University.

34.

Prove that

a+b+c

b2 + c2 a 2 +

p

p

c2 + a 2 b2 + a2 + b2 c2 ,

Solution. By the power mean inequality

p

p

b2 + c2 a2 + c2 + a2 b2 2c ,

and similarly two other such inequalities. Then, adding, we get the desired result.

35. Determine the extreme values of the area of a triangle ABC, given the lengths

of the two altitudes hc , hb . [Correction to question made.]

Solution. Let D and E be the feet of the altitudes hb and hc . Then by the Law

hb

hc

of Sines applied to triangles ABD and ACE, c = sin

A and b = sin A . Twice the

hb hc

hb hc

area is given by 2[ABC] = sin A . Hence, the minimum area is 2 occuring for

A = 2 . Also, by letting A approach , the area becomes unbounded. In this case

a would be arbitrarily large.

22

36. Determine the maximum area of a triangle ABC given the perimeter p and

the angle A.

Solution. Since 2[ABC] = bc sin A, we have to maximize bc subject to

p = a + b + c, and a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A .

value of a. Thus, we have

p = a + 2b

and

b =

p 1 + sin A

2

2 cos2

so that

max[ABC] =

37.

p2 tan A

2

A

2

1 + sin A

2

4 cos2

A

2

2

X (a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 ) 1/2

a1

Solution. Applying the AMGM Inequality to each term of the sum, the given

sum is greater than or equal to

X a2 a3 a4 a5 1/8

2

a41

(where again the sum is cyclic). Finally applying the AMGM Inequality again,

the latter sum is greater than or equal to 10. There is equality in the given

inequality if and only if the ai s are equal. In a similar fashion it follows that if

we increase the number of variables to n + 1 and change the 1/2 power to any

positive number p, the minimum here would be (n + 1)p .

38.

to C and C 0 . Prove that BB 0 , CC 0 and DD0 are possible sides of a triangle.

Solution. Let the vectors from A to B and A to D be denoted by U1 and U2 , and

the vectors from A to B 0 and A to D0 be denoted by V1 and V2 . Then

BB0 = V1 U1 , DD0 = V2 U2 , and CC0 = V1 + V2 U1 U2 ,

so that CC0 = BB0 +DD0 . The rest follows from the triangle inequality |PQ|

|P| + |Q| and with equality only if P and Q have the same direction.

23

solutions for the quickies, noting a problem with problem 2. He points out that

he gave problem 1 to a group of students in 1988.

39.

where 1 a, b, c, d 0.

Solution.

S 4(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) (a2 b2 c2 + b2 c2 d2 + c2 d2 a2 + d2 a2 b2 )

(a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 d2 + d2 a2 ).

and d2 , it takes on its maximum at the endpoints 0, 1 for each variable.

By inspection, Smax = 9 and is taken on for a = b = c = 1 and d = 0.

40.

(i)

ab

bc

cd

da

c + d + a + b

2

2

2

a + b + c + d,

(ii) Just consider the case: a = 2, b = 1, c = 8 and d is very small.

41. Determine all the points P (x, y, z), if any, such that all the points

of tangency of the enveloping (tangent) cone from P to the ellipsoid

y2

x2

z2

a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 (a > b > c), are coplanar.

Solution. Consider the affine transformation x0 = xa , y 0 = yb , z 0 = zc which takes

the ellipsoid into a sphere. Under this transformation, lines go to lines, planes go

to planes, and tangency is preserved. Consequently, any enveloping cone of the

ellipsoid goes into an enveloping cone of the sphere and which by symmetry is a

right circular one and its points of tangency are a circle (coplanar) of the sphere.

Thus, P can be any exterior point of the ellipsoid.

42. Determine whether or not there exists a set of 777 distinct positive integers

such that for every seven of them, their product is divisible by their sum.

Solution. Just take any 777 distinct positive integers and multiply each one by the

product of the sums of every 7 of them.

better rational approximation.

aR+b

Solution. Assuming the better approximation has the form cR+d

where a, b, c, d

are rational, we must satisfy

aR + b

< |R 5| .

5

(2)

cR + d

5+b

If R 5, the left hand side must 0. Thus, we must have ca5+d

= 5, so

that d = a and b = 5c. Then substituting these values in (2) and dividing both

24

5|, we get

|cR + a| > |c 5 a|

and which can easily be satisfied by letting a = 2 and c = 1. Finally, our better

approximation is 2R+5

R+2 .

44.

orthogonal lines. Determine the distance D between the point of concurrence

and the centre of the sphere.

Solution. Let the three lines be the x, y, and zaxes of a rectilinear coordinate

system and the equation of the sphere be (x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = R2 . The

required distance squared is a2 + b2 + c2 . Since the distance from the centre of the

sphere to each of the lines is R, we have

R 2 = b2 + c2 = c2 + a2 = a2 + b2 .

Hence, D2 = 3R2 /2.

x2 + y 2 + z 2 t 2 .

Solution. By the Remainder Theorem,

P (x, y, z, t) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 t2 )Q(x, y, z, t) + R(x, y, z)t + S(x, y, z)

where Q, R and S are polynomials.

Now, letting t be successively

(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 , it follows that R = S = 0.

segments P Q and P R are drawn terminating on the circle such that the angles

QP A and RP B are equal to a given angle . Determine the maximum length of

the chord QR.

Solution. Extend the chords QP and RP to intersect the circle again at points Q0

and R0 . It now follows that the arcs QR and Q0 R0 are congruent and thus, their

measures are 2. Then if O is the centre, triangle OQR is isosceles whose

vertex angle is also 2. Hence, QR = 2r cos , which is the same for all P .

(rs)!

47. Using that s!(r!)

is an integer, where r, s are positive integers, prove that

s

(rst)!

is an integer for positive integers r, s, t.

t!(s!)t (r!)ts

Solution. It follows from the given relation that both

(r(st))!

(st)!(r!)st

and

(st)!

t!(s!)t

25

48.

tan(x + y)

given that

tan x

sin y = 2 sin(2x + y) .

Solution. Since

sin y

sin(2x + y)

so that

tan(x + y)

tan x

sin(x + y) cos x + cos(x + y) sin x

tan(x + y) tan x

=

= 2,

tan(x + y) + tan x

= 3 2 2 = a constant.

49.

A, B, C are acute angles such that sin2 A + sin2 B + sin2 C = 2. Prove that

A + B + C < 180 .

Solution. Equivalently, cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C = 1. Then, using the identity for

arbitrary angles A, B, C,

cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C 1 + 2 cos A cos B cos C

= cos(S) cos(S A) cos(S B) cos(S C) ,

where 2S = A + B + C, we have

cos A cos B cos C = 2 cos(S) cos(S A) cos(S B) cos(S C) .

Since the left-hand-side is positive, it follows that 2S < .

50.

p

p

a2 cos2 + b2 sin2 + a2 sin2 + b2 cos2

p

p

Solution. Let S =

a2 cos2 + b2 sin2 + a2 sin2 + b2 cos2 . Squaring we

get,

q

S 2 = a2 + b2 + 2

Since cos4 + sin4 = 1 2 sin2 cos2 , the expression inside the radical can be

written as

(a2 b2 )2 (sin2 2)

+ a 2 b2 .

4

Hence, the maximum and minimum are taken on for = 4 and 0, respectively,

p

giving Smax = 2(a2 + b2 ) and Smin = a + b.

51.

(tan 3x)

=

tan x

tan 3x

tan x

1+

8

(13 tan2 x)

Since tan x lies in the interval [0, ), the range consists of all values

1

3

and 3.

26

52.

How large can the sum of the angles of a spherical right triangle be?

Solution. Consider a lune with angle 2 . Now draw a very small arc across it near

one of its vertices producing a right triangle of area nearly equal to (for a unit

sphere). Hence the spherical excess A + B + C = . Hence the sum must

be less than 2.

53.

and C 0 . If B 0 C 0 is a quadrant 2 , find the maximum value of A0 B 0 + A0 C 0 .

Solution. Let A , B , C be unit vectors from the centre of the sphere to the

A +B

vertices A, B, C of the spherical triangle. Then C 0 and B 0 are given by

A +C

and

.

A + C

A + B

We now have that cos B 0 C 0 = 0 = A + B A + C

=

1 + cos a + cos b + cos c where a, b, c are the sides of ABC. Since this is symmetric

2

54.

Let ABC be a triangle with centroid G. Determine the point P in the plane

of ABC such that AP AG + BP BG + CP CG is a minimum and express this

minimum value in terms of the side lengths of ABC.

Then

AP AG

+

BG + CP CG

BP

= A A P + B B P + C C P

A A P +B B P +C C P

2

2

2

=

A

+ B

+ C

P A +B +C

2

2

2

=

A

+ B

+ C

since A + B + C = 0 .

4(m2 + m2 + m2 )

(a2 + b2 + c2 )

a

c

b

=

,

Hence the minimum is

9

3

attained when P coincides with G (ma is the median from A, etc.).

and

is

Comment. This was a short-listed problem for the 2001 IMO. It was eliminated

after I gave the above Quickie solution.

27

429.

Edmonton, Alberta, and Andy Liu, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

unit squares of the board) until no more n 1 polyominoes can be accommodated.

What is the maximum number of squares that can be left vacant?

This problem generalizes CRUX 282 [1978 : 114].

Solution by Murray S. Klamkin and Andy Liu, University of Alberta,

Edmonton, Alberta. [1980 : 51]

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the case n = 6 and can easily be

generalized) shows that the 2n 2n

board can be blocked by 2n+1 n1

polyominoes (so that no more can

be accommodated).

To show that 2n+1 is minimal,

assume that the board is blocked by

2n polyominoes. Clearly, not all of

them can be of the same orientation

(horizontal or vertical).

We now state the evident fact that if, for any k , the k th line (row or column)

from an edge of the board contains a polyomino, then so also must the ith line

from the same edge for all i < k. Hence, the lines not containing a polyomino

must be consecutive if parallel.

Let there be p rows and q columns that do not contain a polyomino. Note

that p 1 and q 1. Then there is a p q rectangle on the board which is

uncovered. Since there are 2n polyominoes and 4n lines altogether, we must have

p + q 2n and either p n or q n. This shows that an additional polyomino

can be accommodated and provides the needed contradiction.

It is clear that the number of squares left vacant is maximum when the

number of polyominoes used is minimum. Hence, the maximum number of squares

left vacant is

28

1456.

[1989 : 178]

x13 233x 144 and x15 + ax + b

have a common (non-constant) polynomial factor.

2.? Is the solution unique?

I. Solution to (a) by Mathew Englander, Kitchener, Ontario. [1990 : 250]

Consider the Fibonacci sequence f0 = f1 = 1, fn+2 = fn+1 + fn . For n 0

let pn be the polynomial

xn + xn1 + 2xn2 + 3xn3 + 5xn4 + + fn1 x + fn .

Then

(x2 x 1)pn

(xn + xn1 + 2xn2 + + fn1 x + fn )

= xn+2 fn+1 x fn .

Observe that f11 = 144, f12 = 233, f13 = 377, f14 = 610. Thus,

(x2 x 1)p11 = x13 233x 144

and

(x2 x 1)p13 = x15 610x 377.

Thus, (a, b) = (610, 377) is one solution to the problem.

[1990 : 251]

[Of course, Rabinowitz first answered part (a). Ed.]

My computer tells me that x13 233x 144 factors as

x2 x 1 x11 + x10 + 2x9 + 3x8 + 5x7 + 8x6

+13x5 + 21x4 + 34x3 + 55x2 + 89x + 144 , (1)

numbers, can be found in Charles R. Wall, Problem B55, Fibonacci Quarterly

3 (1965) 158, and Russel Euler, Problem 8, Missouri Journal of Math. Sciences 1

(1989) 4445.) If x15 + ax + b has a (non-constant) polynomial factor in common

with x13 233x 144, then this common factor must be one of the two factors in

(1) (or their product).

29

Case (i).

Suppose that x15 + ax + b is divisible by x2 x 1. Then since

15

x 610x 377 is also divisible by x2 x 1, the difference between these two

fifteenth degree polynomials must also be divisible by x2 x 1. In other words,

(a + 610)x + (b + 377) would be divisible by x2 x 1. The only way this could

happen is if a = 610 and b = 377.

Case (ii).

x11 + x10 + 2x9 + 3x8 + 5x7 + 8x6 + 13x5 + 21x4 + 34x3 + 55x2 + 89x + 144.

In this case we have

x15 + ax + b = (x4 + px3 + qx2 + rx + s)

or

,

x2 x 1

But this equation cannot hold, since the coefficient of x5 is 0 on the left and 233

on the right.

Thus, the solution in part (a) is unique.

Editors comment. [1990 : 252]

In addition Richard I. Hess, Rancho Palos Verdes, California, USA, and

Robert E. Shafer, Berkeley, California gave almostcomplete proofs of part (b).

Hesss dealt with the stronger problem of showing that no integers (a, b) 6=

(610, 377) exist such that x15 +ax+b has a root in common with x13 233x144.

Shafers solution was like Rabinowitzs but without his computer, and thus, was

much longer. Shafer also wonders about the irreducibility of the polynomial

xn Fn+1 x Fn

= xn2 + xn3 + 2xn4 + + Fn1 x + Fn ,

x2 x 1

where Fn is the nth Fibonacci number. A computer verifies that these are all

irreducible for n 13. Can anyone come up with further information?

2054.

[1995 : 202]

Are there any integral solutions of the Diophantine equation

(x + y + z)3 = 9 x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x

Ontario. [1996 : 188]

No, there are no integral solutions other than (x, y, z) = (n, n, n).

Without loss of generality, let x y and x z. Let y = x + a and z = x + b,

where a and b are non-negative integers. Then the given equation becomes

(3x + a + b)3 = 9 x2 (x + a) + (x + a)2 (x + b) + (x + b)2 x .

30

a3 6a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 = 0.

(1)

b3 (k 3 6k 2 + 3k + 1) = 0.

By the Rational Roots Theorem, k 3 6k 2 + 3k + 1 = 0 does not have any rational

roots. Thus, since k is rational, k 3 6k 2 + 3k + 1 6= 0. Therefore, b = 0 and a = 0,

so that x = y = z.

II. Solution by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton,

Alberta. [1996 : 188]

Letting y = x + u and z = x + v, the equation reduces to

(u + v)3 = 9u2 v,

(2)

where u and v are integers. We now show that the only solution to (2) is u = v = 0

so that (x, y, z) = (n, n, n) is the only solution of the given equation. Letting

u + v = w, (2) becomes

w3 = 9u2 (w u).

(3)

Hence, w = 3w1 where w1 is an integer, and (3) is 3w13 = u2 (3w1 u). It follows

that u = 3u1 for some integer u1 , and we get

w13 = 9u21 (w1 u1 ).

Comparing this equation to (3), we see by infinite descent that the only solution

to (3) is u = w = 0, which gives the negative result.

1863.

[1993 : 203]

Are there any integer solutions of the equation

(x + y + z)5 = 80xyz(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )

Solution by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

[1994 : 173]

No. The identity

(x + y + z)5 (x + y + z)5 (x y + z)5 (x + y z)5 = 80xyz(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )

follows by expanding out. Hence, the given equation is equivalent to

(x + y + z)5 + (x y + z)5 + (x + y z)5 = 0.

(1)

Since Fermats Last Theorem is known to be valid for exponent 5, there are only

the trivial solutions x = 0, y + z = 0 and symmetrically. [For if x + y + z = 0,

(1) becomes 05 + (2z)5 + (2y)5 = 0, which implies z = y, so that x = 0 = y + z.]

31

as the one above seems to be unavailable to the rest of us! Just two readers guessed

that the answer to the problem was no, and neither had a complete proof.

P. Penning, Delft, the Netherlands, investigated when the number 80 of the

problem can be replaced by a positive integer N so that the resulting equation has

an all non-zero integer solution. Via a computer search, he found only two such

values of N : N = 81, with solutions x = y = z; and N = 108, with solutions

4x = 4y = z. Any others?

1027.

Determine all quadruples (a, b, c, d) of non-zero integers satisfying the

Diophantine equation

abcd

1 1 1 1

+ + +

a b

c d

2

= (a + b + c + d)2

Solution par C. FestraetsHamoir, Bruxelles, Belgique. [1986 : 160]

2

1 1 1 1

+ + +

= (a + b + c + d)2

a b

c d

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

= abcd 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 +

+

+

+

+

+

a

b

c

d

ab ac ad bc bd cd

abcd

bcd acd abd abc

=

+

+

+

= a2 + b2 + c2 + d2

a

b

c

d

= b2 c2 d2 + a2 c2 d2 + a2 b2 d2 + a2 b2 c2 = abcd(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ).

Posons a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = p (p premier). On a

b2 c2 d2 + a2 c2 d2 + a2 b2 d2 + a2 b2 c2 0 (mod p)

b2 c2 (d2 + a2 ) + a2 d2 (c2 + b2 ) 0 (mod p)

b2 c2 (b2 c2 ) + a2 d2 (c2 + b2 ) 0 (mod p)

(a2 d2 b2 c2 )(b2 + c2 ) 0 (mod p)

a2 d2 b2 c2 0 (mod p) car (b2 + c2 ,p) = 1.

De m

eme, on a

a2 c2 b2 d2 0 (mod p).

Do`

u, par addition

a2 d2 b2 c2 + a2 c2 b2 d2 0 (mod p)

(a2 b2 )(d2 + c2 ) 0 (mod p)

a2 b2 0 (mod p) car (d2 + c2 ,p) = 1.

32

a2 b2 c2 d2 (mod p)

p = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 4a2 (mod p),

a2 = 0 ou a2 = p

ce qui est impossible. Donc, il nexiste aucun quadruple dentiers positifs non nuls

(a,b,c,d) satisfaisant les conditions donnees.

969.

[1984 : 217]

Find a 3-parameter solution of the Diophantine equation

x

y

z

2w2

p

+

+

=

.

x2 + w 2

y 2 + w2

z 2 + w2

(x2 + w2 )(y 2 + w2 )(z 2 + w2 )

(1)

(revised by the editor) [1985 : 300]

It is clear that (x, y, z, w) is a solution of (1) if and only if (kx, ky, kz, kw) is a

solution for any k > 0, so that it will suffice for our problem to find a 3parameter

family of primitive solutions, corresponding to k = 1.

We first show that (1) is satisfied by infinitely many solutions of

yz + zx + xy = w 2 ,

(2)

so that it will make sense to look for solutions of (1) among those of (2). It is

clear that (1) is satisfied by any solution of (2) in which w = 0 and xyz 6= 0. For

solutions of (2) with w 6= 0, we can choose x, y, z, such that

x

= cot A,

w

y

= cot B,

w

z

= cot C,

w

(3)

where A, B, C, are angles of a triangle. This can be done in infinitely many ways

for each w 6= 0. Substituting (3) into (2) and then into (1) gives

cot B cot C + cot C cot A + cot A cot B = 1

and

sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C = 4 sin A sin B sin C,

respectively, both of which are valid triangle identities. Hence, every solution (3)

satisfies (2) and (1).

To solve (2), we use the method of Desboves and assume that

x = a + p,

y = a + q,

z = r,

w = a + t,

=

a(2t p q 2r)

.

qr + rp + pq t2

(4)

33

x

y

z

w

= a(qr + rp + pq t2 ) + aq(2t p q 2r),

=

ar(2t p q 2r),

x = ar(m n) m2 ,

y = ar(n m) n2 ,

z

w

= ar(m + n 2r),

= amn r(m + n).

It will be found that these values satisfy (2) for all a, m, n, r, but they satisfy (1)

for all m, n, r, if and only if a < 0. [To facilitate the latter verification process,

we note that

x2 + w 2

y 2 + w2

z 2 + w2

= a2 (m2 + n2 )(n2 2rn + 2r2 ),

solution set of (1):

x = m2 r(m n),

y

z

= n2 r(n m),

= r(2r m n),

= r(m + n) mn.

Equation (2) is extensively discussed in L.J. Mordell, Diophantine Equations,

Academic Press, New York, 1969, pp. 291292.

1561.

[1990 : 204]

Determine an infinite class of integer triples (x, y, z) satisfying the Diophantine

equation

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2yz + 2zx + 2xy 3.

Solution by Hayo Ahlburg, Benidorm, Spain. [1991 : 252]

The well-publicized identity (see Leo Sauves footnote on [1976 : 176])

12 + (n2 n + 1)2 + (n2 + n + 1)2

= 2(n2 n + 1) + 2(n2 n + 1)(n2 + n + 1)

+2(n2 + n + 1) 3

(1)

34

is one answer to this problem if we choose n to be any integer. To find all solutions,

we rearrange the original equation and get

z 2 2(x + y)z + (x y)2 + 3 = 0

and

z = x+y

4xy 3.

is, 4n2 + 4n + 1 = 4xy 3 or

n2 + n + 1 = xy,

where n can be any integer. We can choose x and y as factors of n2 + n + 1 (this

can sometimes be done in several ways), and with

z = x + y (2n + 1)

this solves the original equation. Due to the symmetry of the problem, any

permutation of the values for x, y and z is also a solution. n, x, y and z can of

course also have negative values. Using both signs for x, y, z, and for 2n + 1 in the

expression for z leads to duplications. But using + signs throughout already gives

an infinite number of solutions. Factoring n2 + n + 1 into x = 1 and y = n2 + n + 1,

and with z = x + y (2n + 1), we get equation (1).

A nice special group is the series

where each term has the form F2n+1 Fn Fn+1 made up of Fibonacci numbers.

Any three consecutive numbers of this series form a solution.

2034. [1995 : 130, 157] Murray S. Klamkin and M.V. Subbarao, University of

Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

(a) Find all sequences p1 < p2 < < pn of distinct prime numbers such that

1

1

1

1+

1+

1+

p1

p2

pn

is an integer.

(b) Can

1+

1

a21

1+

1

a22

1

1+ 2

an

Solution to (a), by Heinz-J

urgen Seiffert, Berlin, Germany. [1996 : 138]

If the considered product is an integer, then pn |(pi + 1) for some i {1, 2,

. . ., n 1}. Since pi + 1 pn , it then follows that pn = pi + 1, which implies

pi = 2 and pn = 3. Thus, n = 2, p1 = 2, p2 = 3. This is indeed a solution since

1 + 21 1 + 31 = 2.

35

In the following, we present four different solutions submitted by eight solvers

and the proposers. In all of them, p denotes the given product, and it is shown

that 1 < p < 2 and thus, p cannot be an integer. Clearly one may assume, without

loss of generality, that 1 < a1 < a2 < . . . < an .

Solution I, by Carl Bosley, student, Washburn Rural High School, Topeka, KS,

USA; Kee-Wai Lau, Hong Kong; and Kathleen E. Lewis, SUNY, Oswego, New

York. [1996 : 138]

Since 1 + x < ex for x > 0, we have

1

1

1

1 < p < exp

+ 2 +... + 2

a2

a2

a

n

1

1

1

+ 2 +...

< exp

22

3

2

= exp

1 1.90586 < 2.

6

Solution II, by Toby Gee, student, the John of Gaunt School, Trowbridge,

England. [1996 : 138]

Since a1 2, we have

n+1

Y

n+1

n+1

Y k2 + 1

Y k2

1

1 < p

1+ 2 =

<

k

k2

k2 1

k=2

k=2

k=2

!

!

n+1

n+1

Y k

Y k

2(n + 1)

=

=

< 2.

k+1

k1

n+2

k=2

k=2

V

aclav Kone

ny

, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI, USA; Heinz-J

urgen

Seiffert, Berlin, Germany; and Murray S. Klamkin and M.V. Subbarao, University

of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. [1996 : 138]

Y

1

1Y

1

sinh

1<p<

1+ 2 =

1+ 2 =

1.838 < 2.

t

2

t

2

t=2

t=1

[1996 : 138]

Y

1

Let p =

1 + 2 . Then clearly 1 < p < p = Q R where Q =

h

k=2

10

Y

Y

1

1

1 + 2 1.6714 and R =

1+ 2 .

h

k

k=2

k=11

Z

Z

X

1

1

dx

1

Now, ln R =

ln 1 + 2 <

ln 1 + 2 dx <

=

. (Ed: This

2

k

x

10

10

10 x

k=11

36

1

is because f (x) = ln 1 + 2 is strictly decreasing on (0, ) and ln(1 + t) < t

x

for t > 0).

Therefore, R < e0.1 1.1052, and thus, p < (1.68)(1.11) = 1.8648 < 2.

1752?.

[1992 : 175]

If A and B are positive integers and p is a prime such that p | A, p2 6 | A and

p2 | B, then the arithmetic progression

A, A + B, A + 2B, A + 3B, . . .

contains no terms which are perfect powers (squares, cubes, etc.). Are there any

infinite non-constant arithmetic progressions of positive integers, with no term a

perfect power, which are not of this form?

I. Solution by Margherita Barile, student, Universit

at Essen, Germany.

[1993 L 149]

The answer is in the affirmative. Let p be a prime, p > 2. Since

12 (p 1)2 1 (mod p), there is an r satisfying 0 < r < p, such that a2 6 r

(mod p) for all a = 0, . . . , p 1. Let A = p2 rp , B = p3 . Then, for all k, we have

A + kB = p2 rp + kp3 = p2 (rp + kp).

The greatest power of p dividing A + kB is p2 . Hence, if A + kB is a perfect power,

it is a square. Then there is an integer s such that

rp + kp = s2 .

But then, by Fermat,

s2 r p r

(mod p),

. . ., contains no perfect powers. But it is not of the given form. In fact, our proof

shows how to construct infinitely many such arithmetic progressions. We give one

example. For p = 3, one gets r = 2; then A = 72, and B = 27.

II. Solution by Leroy F. Meyers, Ohio State University, Ohio, USA. [1993 : 150]

For each non-negative integer m let xm = A + mB.

The proof of the first statement of the problem is trivial. (In fact, it may not

have been intended to be part of the problem.) Suppose that p is a prime and

that p | A, p2 6 | A, and p2 | B. Then xm A 6 0 (mod p2 ), so that p | xm and

p2 6 | xm . But if xm is a perfect k th power, then pk must divide xm , which is

impossible if k > 1.

Two cases of the converse are considered.

If no prime dividing A occurs to a higher power in B than in A, then A is

relatively prime to C = B/ gcd(A, B). By Eulers theorem we have

A(C) 1 (mod C),

37

so that

A1+(C) A (mod AC).

but AC = AB/ gcd(A, B) = lcm(A, B), and thus, B | AC. Hence,

A1+(C) A (mod B),

and A1+(C) is the required perfect power in the arithmetic sequence.

However, if A is divisible by a prime which occurs to a higher power in B, then

there may be no perfect power in the sequence. For example, let A = 12 = 22 3

and B = 16 = 24 . If

12 + 16m = sk

impossible if k > 2. However, if k = 2 and s = 2t, then

3 + 4m = t2 ,

which also is impossible, since a perfect square must be congruent to either 0

or 1 modulo 4. Thus, there can be a non-constant perfect-power-free arithmetic

sequence not of the specified form.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

It is known that

(3m)!(3n)!

,

m!n!(m + n)!(n + m)!

(4m)!(4n)!

,

m!n!(2m + n)!(2n + m)!

(5m)!(5n)!

m!n!(3m + n)!(3n + m)!

are all integers for positive integers m, n.

1. Find positive integers m, n such that

I(m, n) =

(6m)!(6n)!

m!n!(4m + n)!(4n + m)!

is not an integer.

2. Let A be the set of pairs (m, n), with n m, for which I(m, n) is not an

integer, and let A(x) be the number of pairs in A satisfying 1 n m x.

Show that A has positive lower density in the sense that

lim inf

A(x)

> 0.

x2

38

The clue to (ii) is the observation that the set

Q = {(x, y) : 0 y x 1, b6xc+c6yc < b4x + yc + b4y + xc}

(1)

(2)

1 1

11 1

7 2

1 1

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

2 6

24 6

15 15

2 8

(There is no need to verify that the sets (1) and (2) are equal; it suffices for the

sequel to take (2) as the definition of Q.) What follows is routine. Choose a prime

p > 2 and suppose (m, n) is a lattice point in

pQ = {(px, py) : (x, y) Q}.

By (2)

6n

4m + n

4n + m

6m

< 3,

< 1,

2,

1.

p

p

p

p

Thus, p enters the denominator of I(m, n) with the exponent

n

4m + n

4n + m

m

+

+

+

3

p

p

p

p

n < m,

(3)

6m

6n

+

2

p

p

[

(Z2 pQ) A.

p prime

The claim thus follows immediately: denoting by p(x) the greatest prime less than

or equal to x, we have asymptotically p(x) x and thus,

A(x)

A(p(x))

|Z p(x)Q|

1

Area

Q

=

x2

x2

x2

720

as x .

An example of (i) would be m = 11, n = 3, which satisfy (3) for p = 23.

The proposers ask whether lim (A(x)/x2 ) exists.

x

(5m)!(5n)!

m!n!(3m + n)(3n + m)!

is integral occurred in the 1975 U.S.A. Mathematical Olympiad (and was suggested

by Klamkin).

39

299.

[1976 : 298]

If

F1

F2

F3

+ 4rt(x2 + y 2 ),

= 2rs(x2 y 2 2xy) + (r2 s2 2t2 )(x2 y 2 + 2xy)

+ 4st(x2 + y 2 ),

= 2rt(x2 y 2 2xy) 2st(x2 y 2 + 2xy)

+ (r2 + s2 + 2t2 )(x2 + y 2 ),

show that F1 , F2 and F3 are functionally dependent and find their functional

relationship. Also, reduce the five-parameter representation of F1 , F2 , and F3 to

one of two parameters.

Solution de F.G.B. Maskell, Coll`ege Algonquin, Ottawa Ontario. [1978 : 170]

Posons

A = x(r t) + y(s + t),

B = x(s t) y(r + t).

On verifie, avec un peu de patience, que

(

F3 + F2 = 2A(A B),

F3 F1 = 2A(A + B),

F3 F2 = 2B(A + B),

F3 + F1 = 2B(A B).

(1)

On a donc

(F3 + F2 ) (F3 F2 ) + (F3 + F1 ) (F3 F1 ) = 0,

ce qui am`ene

F12 + F22 = 2F32 .

(2)

On verra que les deux param`etres A et B suffisent pour representer les trois

fonctions donnees. En effet, de

2F3 F1 + F2 = 4A2 et 2F3 + F1 F2 = 4B 2 ,

on obtient

F1 + F2 = 2(A2 B 2 )

(3)

F3 = A 2 + B 2 .

(4)

et

Portons maintenant dans (2) les valeurs de F2 et F3 de (3) et (4); il resulte

F12 + 2 A2 B 2 F1 + A4 6A2 B 2 + B 4 = 0,

40

do`

u F1 = A2 2AB + B 2 . Ici il faut prendre

F1 = A2 2AB + B 2 ,

car lautre choix, avec la valeur de F2 qui decoule alors de (3), ne verifie aucune

des relations (1). La representation recherchee est donc

F1 = A2 2AB + B 2 , F2 = A2 2AB B 2 , F3 = A2 + B 2 .

Editors comment.[1978 : 171]

The proposer mentioned that the problem arose in applying the method of

Desboves in obtaining the general solution of the Diophantine equation F12 +

F22 = 2F32 from the knowledge of one particular solution. An analogous but

more complicated set of equations would arise if we started with the general

homogeneous quadratic Diophantine equation in n variables and one particular

solution.

254.

[1976 : 155]

P (1000) = 1000,

P (2000) = 2000,

P (3000) = 4000,

2. Prove that there is no such polynomial if

P (1000) = 1000,

P (2000) = 2000,

P (3000) = 1000.

[1978 : 50]

A generalization yielding both parts is proved.

Let a, b, c, d, k be integers, with k 6= 0. Suppose P is a polynomial with

integral coefficients such that

P (d k) = ak,

P (d) = bk,

and

P (d + k) = ck.

and

Q(k) = ak, Q(0) = bk, and Q(k) = ck.

Now the polynomial Q1 of lowest degree such that

Q1 (k) = ak,

Q1 (0) = bk,

and

Q1 (k) = ck

Q1 (x) =

.

2k

41

Q(x) Q1 (x) = (x + k)x(x k)R(x)

for some polynomial R, or

2kQ(x) (a 2b + c)x2 (c a)kx 2bk 2

=

x3 k 2 x S(x),

(1)

coefficients by a polynomial with integral coefficients and leading coefficient 1,

must itself have integral coefficients. Equating the coefficients of x2 on the two

sides of (1) yields

2kq (a 2b + c) = k 2 s,

where q and s are the coefficients of x2 in Q(x) and x in S(x), respectively, and it

follows that

a 2b + c is divisible by k.

(2)

(1) we now have

kQ(x)

a 2b + c 2 c a

x

kx bk 2 =

2

2

x3 k 2 x S(x),

(1)

where now S = kR. Then, as before, S has integral coefficients and, after

comparing the coefficients of x2 , we obtain

kq

a 2b + c

= k 2 s,

2

and thus,

a 2b + c

is divisible by k.

2

(2)

Note that (2) and (2) are independent of d, which can therefore be any integer.

In part (a) we have a = 1, b = 2, c = 4, so that a 2b + c = 1. Hence, by (2),

k is a divisor of 1, that is, k = 1.

= 1. Since c a is

In part (b) we have a = 1, b = 2, c = 1, so that a2b+c

2

even, we can now use (2) to conclude that k is a divisor of 1, that is, k = 1.

Since k = 1000 in both parts of the proposal, each part yields a contradiction.

Hence, there is no polynomial with integral coefficients which satisfies either of the

given conditions, and thus, none of the zeros of P can be integers; also, all of them

must be integers. (For an analogous situation, see Problem 138 [1976 : 157]).

42

1423?.

[1989 : 73]

Given positive integers k, m, n, find a polynomial p(x) with real coefficients

such that

(x 1)n | (p(x))m xk .

What is the least possible degree of p (in terms of k, m, n)?

Solution by Robert P. Israel, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

[1990 : 145]

If p is a polynomial in x, pm xk is divisible by (x 1)n if and only if

pm = xk + O((x 1)n ) as x 1.

[Editors note: This means that pm = xk + r(x), where

|r(x)| M |x 1|n

(1)

for some constant M and for x sufficiently close to 1.] This is true if and only if

p = xk/m + O((x 1)n ).

[Editors note: Len Bos contributes the following elaboration for the editor, who

regrets not paying more attention as a student during analysis class. We have

"

#

1/m

r(x)

p = xk/m +

1+ k

1 xk/m .

(2)

x

Applying the Mean Value Theorem to the function f (t) = (1 + t)1/m , t > 1,

yields that

1

|(1 + t)1/m 1| = |t| (1 + c)1/m 1

m

for some c, |c| < |t|, so that with t = r(x)/xk we get

1/m

r(x)

|r(x)| 1

1 =

(1 + c)1/m 1

1+ k

x

xk

m

for some c between 0 and r(x)/xk . For x sufficiently close to 1 this means

1/m

r(x)

1 xk/m K|x 1|n

1+ k

x

for some constant K, by (1). Thus, from (2) we get the result.]

This means that p consists of the terms of the Taylor series of xk/m about

x = 1 up to order (x 1)n1 , plus any combination of higher powers of x 1.

That Taylor series is

1+

n1

X

j=1

k/m(k/m 1) (k/m j + 1)

(x 1)j .

j!

(3)

43

that the least degree of p is n1. If k is divisible by m, the coefficients for j > k/m

are zero, so that the least degree of p is min(n 1, k/m).

Editors comment. [1990 : 146]

It appears that the series (3) can also be written as

ni

n1 (1)

k(k m)(k 2m) (k (n 1)m) X

i

xi ;

n1

(n 1)!m

k

im

i=0

n1i

II. Comment by Rex Westbrook, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

[1991 : 83]

This is in response to the editors request for a proof that the published answer

1+

n1

X k(k

m m

j=1

k

1) ( m

j + 1)

(x 1)j

j!

can be written as

k k

m(m

n1

k

1) ( m

n + 1) X (1)n1i n 1 i

x.

k

(n 1)!

i

m i

i=0

Set the former expression equal to fn (x) and the latter equal to gn (x). The

asked equality obviously holds if k/m = t n 1, where t is an integer, because

then both expressions reduce to xt . Otherwise, consider

k

d k/m

k

[x

fn (x)] = x( m +1)

dx

m

n1

X k ( k 1) ( k j + 1)

k

k

m m

m

+

j(x 1)j1 xk/m (x 1)j x m 1

j!

m

j=1

n1

k

k

k

X

( 1) ( m j + 1)

k +1)

k

k

( m

j1

m m

+

(x 1)

jx (x 1)

= x

m

j!

m

j=1

n1

k

k

X

( m j + 1)

k +1)

k

k

( m

j

j1

m

= x

+

j (x 1) + j(x 1)

m

j!

m

j=1

n1

X k ( k j + 1)

k

k

m

m

= x( m +1) +

(x 1)j1

m

(j 1)!

j=1

n1

X k ( k j + 1)( k j)

j

m

m

m

(x 1)

j!

j=1

" k k

#

k

m ( m 1) ( m

(n 1))

k +1)

( m

n1

= x

(x 1)

(n 1)!

44

and

"

#

k

X (1)n1i n1

1) ( m

(n 1)) d n1

i

ik/m

x

k

(n 1)!

dx i=0

i

m

n1

k k

k

X n 1

(

1)

(n

1))

k

m

(1)x( m +1)

= m m

(1)n1i xi

(n 1)!

i

i=0

" k k

#

k

(n 1))

m ( m 1) ( m

k

= x( m +1)

(x 1)n1 .

(n 1)!

d k/m

[x

gn (x)] =

dx

k k

(

m m

Therefore,

i

d h k/m

x

(gn (x) fn (x)) = 0,

dx

so that

xk/m (gn (x) fn (x)) = constant.

If either k/m is not an integer, or is an integer n, then since gn fn is a

polynomial (of degree at most n 1) the above constant must be 0; that is,

gn f n .

2014.

[1995 : 52]

2 x7 + y 7 + z 7 7xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

has x + y + z as a factor.

I. Solution to (a) by Jayabrata Das, Calcutta, India. [1996 : 45]

Let f (x, y, z) = 2 x7 + y 7 + z 7 7xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4 . If we can show that

f (x, y, z) = z when x + y + z = 0, we are done.

We know, for x + y + z = 0, that x3 + y 3 + z 3 = 3xyz. Thus,

so that

x7 + y 7 + z 7 + x 3 y 4 + x 3 z 4 + y 3 z 4 + y 3 x4 + z 3 y 4 + z 3 x4

= x3 + y 3 + z 3 x4 + y 4 + z 4

= 3xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

x7 + y 7 + z 7

= 3xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

x3 y 4 x3 z 4 y 3 z 4 y 3 x4 z 3 y 4 z 3 x4

45

Therefore,

f (x, y, z) = 2 x7 + y 7 + z 7 7xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

= 6xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

2 x3 y 4 + x3 z 4 + y 3 z 4 + y 3 x4 + z 3 y 4 + z 3 x4

7xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

= xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

2x3 y 3 (x + y) 2y 3 z 3 (y + z) 2z 3 x3 (z + x)

= xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4 + 2x3 y 3 z + 2xy 3 z 2 + 2x3 yz 3

= xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4 2x2 y 2 2y 2 z 2 2z 2 x2

2

= xyz x2 + y 2 + z 2 4 x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2 .

2

f (x, y, z) = xyz 4 (xy + yz + zx) 4 x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2

= 4xyz 2x2 yz + 2xy 2 z + 2xyz 2

= 8xyz xyz(x + y + z) = 0.

Ontario. [1996 : 45]

Consider the sequence an = xn + y n + z n . The characteristic equation with

roots x, y, z, is

a3 Aa2 + Ba C = 0,

where A = x + y + z, B = xy + yz + zx and C = xyz.

The sequence {an } follows the recurrence relation:

an+3 = A an+2 B an+1 + C an .

Now, we have

a0

= x0 + y 0 + z 0 = 3,

a1

a2

= x1 + y 1 + z 1 = A,

= x2 + y 2 + z 2 = (x + y + z)2 2(xy + yz + zx) = A2 2B.

a3

= A a2 B a1 + C a0

= A3 2AB AB + 3C

= A k3 + 3C,

46

Similarly

a4

a5

a6

a7

= A k5 5BC, where k5 is some term in x, y and z,

= A k7 + 7B 2 C, where k7 is some term in x, y and z.

Thus,

2 x7 + y 7 + z 7 7xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4

= 2a7 7C a4

= a A k7 + 7B 2 C 7C A k4 + 2B 2

= A k,

x + y + z divides 2 x7 + y 7 + z 7 7xyz x4 + y 4 + z 4 .

1110?.

[1986 : 13]

How many different polynomials P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ) of degree n are there for

which the coefficients of all the terms are 0s or 1s and

P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ) = 1 whenever x1 + x2 + + xm = 1 ?

There has been only one response to this problem, and it was incorrect. It

did note the easy case m = 1, where P (x) = xn is the only solution for each

n. Equally easy is the case n = 1 which has unique solution P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ) =

x1 + x2 + + xm for each m. I would not like to see this problem abandoned at

this point. Can anyone find all such polynomials for any other values of m and/or

n? Can anyone show that there is at least one such polynomial for each m and n?

I. Partial solution by Len Bos and Bill Sands, University of Calgary, Calgary,

Alberta. [1988 : 13]

Let f (n, m) be the required number of polynomials. We will investigate the

case m = 2 and will show that

1

2n

f (n, 2)

,

n+1 n

the nCatalan number.

Let P (x, y) be a polynomial of degree n with the required properties. Then

P (x, y) = 1 whenever x + y = 1, so that it must be true that

P (x, y) = (x + y 1) q(x, y) + 1

(1)

for some polynomial q(x, y) with integer coefficients. We shall count all those

possible q(x, y) whose coefficients are also all 0 or 1.

47

Let q be such a polynomial. Then its terms are monomials of the form xi y j ,

where i, j {0, 1, . . ., n 1} and i + j n 1. We will identify the collection of

these monomials with the corresponding subset of lattice points

Rq = {(i, j)|xi y j is a monomial in q}.

Thus, Rq is a subset of {(i, j) Z 2 |0 i, 0 j, i + j n 1} and contains

at least one (i, j) with i + j = n 1. The next two lemmas establish important

properties of Rq .

Lemma 1. If (i, j) Rq where i + j > 0, then either (i 1, j) Rq or

(i, j 1) Rq (or both). In particular, if (i, 0) Rq then (i 1, 0) Rq for i > 0,

and similarly for (0, j).

Proof. If (i, j) Rq and i + j > 0 then xi y j is a monomial in q. Thus,

(x + y 1)q(x, y), when multiplied out, will contain a term xi y j .

By (1), it must therefore also contain at least one term +xi y j , which can only

happen if xi1 y j or xi y j1 were monomials in q; that is, if (i1, j) or (i, j1) Rq .

In terms of lattice points, this lemma says that if a lattice point is in Rq , then

at least one of its neighbours to the left of or below it must also be in Rq .

Our other lemma is a sort of converse.

q

(i q1, j)

(i,qj)

(i, j 1)

Proof. We have that xi1 y j and xi y j1 are both monomials in q. Then (x +

y 1)q(x, y) when multiplied out will contain two terms xi y j . By (1), it must also

contain a term xi y j , which implies that (i, j) Rq .

Now suppose (i, j) Rq . By applying Lemma 1 repeatedly, we obtain a

descending path of lattice points in Rq from (i, j) to (0, 0). By always moving left

from a lattice point rather than down, whenever we have a choice, we obtain what

we call the left path of (i, j). Similarly by moving down instead of left whenever

possible, we obtain the right path of (i, j). The diagram shows a possible left path

of (4, 3). All lattice points on the path are in Rq , but the position of the path tells

48

q

q

..................................................

...

..

..

....

...

...

...

...

...

(2, 2)

...

...

...

...

.

.....................................................................................................................................................

....

..

.....

..

...

...

.

(2, 3)

(0, 0)

(4, 3)

Clearly the left path and right path of (i, j) do not cross, although they may

meet (and do, at their end-points at least).

q

(i, j)

...

...

..

.

..........................

.

...

...

...

...

....

...

....

...

..

....

.................................................

..

.

..

...

.

...

....

...

................................................

...

...

....

....

..

..

.......................................................................

...

...

...

...

...

..

..

.......................................................................

(0, 0)

(k, j)

(k, `)

Let (i, j) and (k, `) be in Rq , where we assume that i < k and j < `. Consider

the left path of (i, j) and the right path of (k, `). Extend them to paths beginning

at (k, j) by adding horizontal and vertical edges, respectively. The extended paths

then enclose a region of lattice points.

Claim:

of the region and working up and to the right.

Now it can easily be seen that Rq must coincide with the region of lattice points

bounded by the left and right paths of some lattice point (i, j), where i+j = n1.

Furthermore we claim than any such region corresponds to a polynomial q(x, y)

such that P (x, y), defined by (1), is a polynomial satisfying the problem. We need

only show that P (x, y) has coefficients 0 or 1. Multiplying out (x + y 1)q(x, y),

we need only show that any negative term xi y j , i + j > 0, is offset by at least

one term +xi y j , and that if two terms xi y j occur then also a term xi y j will

occur. But this follows from the construction of the region much as in the proofs

of Lemmas 1 and 2.

q q q ...q

...

q q q ........q

..

...

q ....q..............P

......q..`

.....................q

...

....

.

q .......q q ........q Pr

...

...

..

..

..q.....................q....................q.....................q

(0, 0)

q q q q

(i, j)

(0, 0)

q q q ...q q

...

q q q ........q ....q

..

..

...

...

...q

q ....q..............P

.......q.`

...................q

....

.

....

.

.

q .....q q q ........q

...

...

..

q q .......q Pr

..q....................q

.

..

q ..q.....................q....................q........................q

(i, j)

49

Thus, to count all the polynomials q(x, y) we must count the number of pairs

of lattice paths P` and Pr from (0, 0) to (i, j), i + j = n 1, which do not cross

and have length n 1. By moving path Pr one unit to the right and one unit

down, adding in new common end-points as shown, and moving both paths to

start at (0, 0) again, we see that such pairs of paths correspond to those pairs of

paths from (0, 0) to (i, j), where i + j = n + 1, which do not meet (except at their

end-points), and which have length n + 1. The number of such pairs of paths, over

all choices of i, j satisfying i 0, j 0, i + j = n + 1, is known to be the Catalan

number

1

2n

n+1 n

(see J. Levine, Note on the number of pairs of non-intersecting routes, Scripta

Mathematica 24 (1959) 335338). This number is then a lower bound for f (n, 2).

Unfortunately it is not the exact answer, since putting

q(x, y) = 1 + x + y + 2xy + x2 y + xy 2 + x2 y 2

(which has a coefficient not equal to 0 or 1) into (1) yields

P (x, y) = x2 + y 2 + x2 y + xy 2 + x3 y + xy 3 + x2 y 2 + x3 y 2 + x2 y 3 ,

a polynomial with all coefficients 0 or 1. We do believe, however, that f (n, 2) can

be calculated, and, as a possible first step, make the following conjecture:

any q(x, y) suitable for (1) has all coefficients 0, 1 or 2.

II. Partial solution by P. Penning, Delft, the Netherlands. [1988 : 16] (Adapted

by the editor to refer to I above.)

We show that

f (n, m) mn1 ,

thus, answering the editors request [1987 : 170] for a proof that f (n, m) 1 for

each n and m.

A special case of the allowable regions in part I is that of a single path from

(0, 0) to (i, j), where i + j = n 1. A similar argument to that in I shows more

generally that P

if P is a path of length n 1 from (0, 0, . . . , 0) to (i1 , i2 , . . . , im )

m

in Z m , where j=1 ij = n 1, then the lattice points on P will correspond to

monomials whose sum is a polynomial q(x1 , . . . , xm ) such that

P (x1 , . . . , xm ) = (x1 + . . . + xm 1) q(x1 , . . . , xm ) + 1

has all coefficients 0 or 1. To construct such a path, we merely choose a sequence

of n 1 elements from x1 , . . ., xm , repetition allowed, each corresponding to one

of the m directions the path can take (starting at (0, . . . , 0)). The number of

these sequences is mn1 .

Example: m = 5, n = 4. Choose sequence x2 , x4 , x3 . Then

q(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 ) = 1 + x2 + x2 x4 + x2 x4 x3 ,

50

so that

P (x1 , . . . , x5 ) = (1 + x2 + x2 x4 + x2 x4 x3 )(x1 + x2

+x3 + x4 + x5 1) + 1

= x1 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x2 (x1 + x2 + x3 + x5 )

+x2 x4 (x1 + x2 + x4 + x5 )

+x2 x3 x4 (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 ).

1283.

[1987 : 289]

Show that the polynomial

Solution by Jorg Herterich, student, Winnenden, Federal Republic of Germany.

[1988 : 306]

This can be seen by writing the expression another way:

(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3 (x3 + y 3 + z 3 )2

(x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x)2 (xy 2 + yz 2 + zx2 )2

= 2x4 y 2 + 2x4 z 2 + 2y 4 x2 + 2y 4 z 2 + 2z 4 x2 + 2z 4 y 2

+ 6x2 y 2 z 2 2x3 y 3 2y 3 z 3 2x3 z 3 2x3 z 2 y

2x3 y 2 z 2y 3 x2 z 2y 3 z 2 x 2z 3 x2 y 2z 3 y 2 x

= (x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + x2 z 2 )(2x2 + 2y 2 + 2z 2 2xy 2yz 2xz)

It is obvious that this is non-negative for all real x, y, z.

51

1304.

[1988 : 12]

If p, q, r are the real roots of

x3 6x2 + 3x + 1 = 0,

p2 q + q 2 r + r2 p,

and write them in a simple form.

Solution by Sam Baethge, Science Academy, Austin, Texas, USA. [1989 : 30]

Let

A = p2 q + q 2 r + r2 p,

B = p2 r + q 2 p + r2 q,

the only two possible values of expressions of the given type. We also have

p + q + r = 6,

pq + qr + rp = 3,

pqr = 1.

In the equations that follow, all summations are symmetric over p, q and r.

X

X

18 = (p + q + r)(pq + qr + rp) =

p2 q + 3pqr =

p2 q 3

or

A+B =

216 = (p + q + r)3 =

or

X

X

AB

p3 q 3 = 27 6(1) 3pqr

p2 q = 21.

p3 + 3

p2 q + 6pqr

27 = (pq + qr + rp)3 =

or

(1)

p4 qr +

p3 q 3 + 3

p2 q = 21 3(1)(21) = 84.

p3 q 3 + 3p2 q 2 r2 = pqr

= (1)(159) + 87 = 72.

Using (1) and (2), A and B are the roots of

y 2 21y 72 = 0,

so that the possible values are 24 and 3.

p3 q 2 r + 6p2 q 2 r2

p3 + 84 + 3

(2)

52

287.

[1976 : 251]

Determine a real value of x satisfying

p

p

p

2ab + 2ax + 2bx a2 b2 x2 =

ax a2 + bx b2

if x > a, b > 0.

Composite of the solutions received from Gali Salvatore, Perkins, Quebec; and

Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. [1978 : 135]

The restriction 0 < a, b < x is equivalent to

b < x.

(1)

0 < a,

The radicand on the left of the given equation can be factored by inspection, giving

r

a+

b+ x

b+ x a

x+ a b

a+ b x

ax a2 +

bx b2 .

(2)

Now (1) ensures that the right side of (2) and the first three factors of the radicand

on the left are all positive; hence, for a solution to exist the fourth factor must

also be positive, and we require

x < a + b.

(3)

Thus, with (1) and (3) the given equation is equivalent to the one obtained by

squaring both sides. This procedure gives, after simplification,

np

o

x(a + b x) = 2 ab

(x a)(x b) ab

2x ab(x a b)

.

= p

(4)

(x a)(x b) + ab

One solution of (4) is clearly x = a + b; and it is the only one since x 6= a + b

makes one side of (4) positive and the other side negative.

Since x = a + b also satisfies both (1) and (3), it is the unique solution to the

given equation.

Editors comment.[1978 : 136]

A ....................................................x

M

x

......................................................................................................... C

...

..

.....

...

..

.....

...

.....

..

....

.....

.

..

.

...

.

.

.

..

.....

.....

......

....

.....

2 a .........

x ....

..... 2 b

....

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

..

..

...

.....

..

...

....

... .... .........

.... ... .....

...........

....

The restrictions

(1) and (3) ensure

that a, b, x (or any constant

multiple thereof) are the lengths of

the sides of a triangle. In fact,

the proposer pointed out that the

given equation can be interpreted

geometrically by the following area

relationship (see figure):

53

This is most easily verified from (2) by Herons formula.

Thus, the given equation and its solution could be used to give us another

proof, if one were needed, of the following theorem:

If the mid-point of longest side of a triangle is equidistant from the three

vertices, then the triangle is rightangled.

Conversely, this theorem itself can be used to provide an unexpected solution

to the given equation.

1594.

[1990 : 298]

Express

x41 + x42 + x43 + x44 4x1 x2 x3 x4

as a sum of squares of rational functions with real coefficients. (By the AMGM

Inequality, this polynomial is non-negative for all real values of its variables, and

therefore, by a theorem of Hilbert, it can be so expressed.)

Solution by Iliya Bluskov, Technical University, Gabrovo, Bulgaria. [1992 : 22]

x41 + x42 + x43 + x44 4x1 x2 x3 x4

= x41 + x42 2x21 x22 + x43 + x44 2x23 x24 + 2x21 x22 + 2x23 x24 4x1 x2 x3 x4

2

2(x1 x2 x3 x4 ) .

= (x21 x22 )2 + (x23 x24 )2 +

Editors note.

It is known more generally that, for any even n,

an1 + an2 + + ann na1 a2 an

can be expressed as a sum of squares; see p. 55, section 2.23 of Hardy, Littlewood,

and P

olya, Inequalities, Cambridge Univ. Press.

1522.

[1990 : 74]

Show that if a, b, c, d, x, y > 0 and

xy = ac + bd,

then

x

ad + bc

=

,

y

ab + cd

abx

cdx

ady

bcy

+

=

+

.

a+b+x c+d+x

a+d+y b+c+y

Note that, from the given expressions for xy and x/y,

ab(c + d + x) + cd(a + b + x) = ad(b + c + y) + bc(a + d + y)

54

and

x(a + d + y)(b + c + y) = ((a + d)x + ac + bd)(b + c + y)

= (ac + bd)y + (a + d)(b + c)x

+(b + c)(ac + bd) + (a + d)(ac + bd)

= (ac + bd)x + (a + b)(c + d)y

+(c + d)(ac + bd) + (a + b)(ac + bd)

= ((a + b)y + ac + bd)(c + d + x)

= y(a + b + x)(c + d + x).

It follows that

x

ab

cd

+

a+b+x c+d+x

= y

ad

bc

+

a+d+y b+c+y

Brazil, and Francisco Bellot Rosado, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain.

[1991 : 127]

It is well known (see p. 111, no. 207 of N. Altshiller-Court, College Geometry)

that it is possible to construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD of sides AB = a,

BC = b, CD = c, DA = d [provided that a < b + c + d, etc. Ed.] and also

that, from Ptolemys Theorem, its diagonals x = AC, y = BD satisfy

xy = ac + bd,

ad + bc

x

=

.

y

ab + cd

s4 be the areas and semiperimeters of the triangles ABC, BCD, CDA, DAB,

respectively. Then

cdx

bcy

ady

abx

+

=

+

a+b+x c+d+x

b+c+y a+d+y

is equivalent to

F1 4R F3 4R

F2 4R F4 4R

+

=

+

,

2s1

2s3

2s2

2s4

or

r1 + r 3 =

F1

F3

F2

F4

+

=

+

= r2 + r4 ,

s1

s3

s2

s4

where r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 are, respectively, the inradii of the above triangles. The relation

r1 + r3 = r2 + r4 is true and has been shown by H. Forder in An ancient Chinese

theorem, Math Note 2128, p. 68 of Mathematical Gazette 34, no. 307 (1950). It

was also part (b) of Crux 1226 [1988 : 147].

55

830.

[1983 : 80]

Determine all real such that

= |(z2 z3 )(z3 z1 )(z1 z2 )| ,

where z1 , z2 , z3 are given distinct complex numbers and z1 6= 0.

(revised by the editor). [1984 : 202]

Consider the triangle (assumed to be non-degenerate) whose affixes in the

complex plane are z1 , z2 , z3 , oriented in the sense of increasing subindices, and

let , R, denote its signed area, circumradius, and affix of its circumcentre,

respectively. It is known that

=

4i

and

R =

.

4||

+ z1 = R.

4

(1)

z1

= z

4

(2)

for some point z on the circumcircle, and then that is real if and only if z = z1

or z = z4 where z4 is the point where the line through the origin and z1 meets the

circumcircle again. For z = z1 , we obtain from (2)

= 1 = 4.

To obtain the value of when z = z4 in (2), we first note that the power of the

origin with respect to the circumcircle is given, in both magnitude and sign, by

the real number z 1 z4 = ||2 R2 . Hence, z = z4 in (2) when

4 ||2 R2

= 2 =

.

|z1 |2

Editors comment [1984 : 203]

Henderson found the values of 1 and 2 explicitly in terms of z1 , z2 , z3 :

1 = i

z 1 (z2 z3 ),

2 =

i

|z1 |2

z 1 z 2 z3 (z2 z1 ),

56

1996.

[1994 : 285]

(a) Find positive integers a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 such that

(1 + a1 )(1 + a2 )(1 + a3 )(1 + a4 )

is an integer, where is a complex cube root of unity.

(b)? Are there positive integers a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , a6 so that

(1 + a1 )(1 + a2 )(1 + a3 )(1 + a4 )(1 + a5 )(1 + a6 )

is an integer, where is a complex fifth root of unity?

I. Solution by Kee-Wai Lau, Hong Kong. [1995 : 311]

1 + 2 = 3 i.]

(b) We shall answer in the negative. We first show that if A, B, C, D are integers

such that

A + B + C 2 + D 3 = 0,

(1)

as the proofs for other choices of are similar. The real part and imaginary part

of the left hand side of (1) both vanish and thus,

and

A + B cos 72 (C + D) cos 36 = 0

(2)

B sin 72 + (C D) sin 36 = 0.

(3)

2B cos 36 + (C D) = 0. Since cos 36 is irrational [in

A 2C cos 36 = 0 and thus, A = C = 0. [Editors note. Alternatively, this result

is true because the polynomial 1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 is irreducible and thus, must be

the polynomial of smallest degree (with integer coefficients) that has as a root.

See the (first) Editors Note in Solution III below.]

Now suppose, on the contrary, that the answer is in the affirmative. Using the

fact that 4 = (1 + + 2 + 3 ) and 5 = 1, we see that the given product

equals P + Q + R 2 + T 3 , where P , Q, R, T are integers and R = S2 S4 ,

T = S3 S4 where Sk stands for the k th elementary symmetric function of a1 , a2 ,

. . ., a6 , k = 1, 2, 3, 4. Using the above result we see that R = T = 0 and thus,

S2 S3 = 0. However, since ak 1 we have

a1 a2 a 1 a2 a3 ,

a1 a3 a 1 a3 a4 ,

a1 a4 a 1 a4 a5 ,

a1 a5 a 1 a5 a6 ,

a1 a6 a 1 a2 a6 ,

a2 a3 a 2 a3 a4 ,

a2 a4 a 2 a4 a5 ,

a2 a5 a 2 a5 a6 ,

a2 a6 a 2 a3 a6 ,

a3 a4 a 3 a4 a5 ,

a3 a5 a 2 a3 a5 ,

a3 a6 a 3 a4 a6 ,

a4 a5 a 4 a5 a6 ,

a4 a6 a 2 a4 a6 ,

a5 a6 a 3 a5 a6 .

57

[Editors note. If the editor may put on his combinatorial hat for a minute,

what is going on here is just a demonstration of the known fact that there is a

complete matching from the 2element subsets to the 3element subsets of the

set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}; that is, a one-to-one function from the 2element subsets to

the 3element subsets such that each 2element subset is mapped to a 3element

subset containing it. In fact there is a complete matching from the kelement

subsets of an nelement set to the (k + 1)element subsets whenever k < n/2. See,

for example, Corollary 13.3 on page 688 of [2], or (for the whole story and more)

Chapters 1 to 3, especially Exercise 2.4 on page 23, of [1].] Therefore,

S2 S3 (a1 a2 a4 + a1 a2 a5 + a1 a3 a5 + a1 a3 a6 + a1 a4 a6 ) < 0,

a contradiction.

References:

[1] Ian Anderson, Combinatorics of Finite Sets, Oxford University Press, 1987.

[2] Ralph P. Grimaldi, Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics (3rd Edition),

AddisonWesley, 1994.

II. Solution to part (a) by Shawn Godin, St. Joseph Scollard Hall, North Bay,

Ontario. [1995 : 311]

We show that the only solutions (up to permutations) are

(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ) = (1, 2, 3, 5) and (2, 2, 2, 2).

The given product equals A + B, where

A = 1 + (a1 a2 a3 + a1 a2 a4 + a1 a3 a4 + a2 a3 a4 ) 3

= 1 + (a1 a2 a3 + a1 a2 a4 + a1 a3 a4 + a2 a3 a4 ),

which is an integer, and

B

= (a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 )

+(a1 a2 + a1 a3 + a1 a4 + a2 a3 + a2 a4 + a3 a4 ) 2 + a1 a2 a3 a4 4

= (a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 )

+(a1 a2 + a1 a3 + a1 a4 + a2 a3 + a2 a4 + a3 a4 ) + a1 a2 a3 a4 .

Now to get rid of any imaginary parts the coefficients of and must be the

same. (And note that since the real parts of and are 1/2, if these coefficients

are equal, B, and thus, the given product, will be an integer.) Thus, we need

a1 + a 2 + a 3 + a 4 + a 1 a2 a3 a4

= a 1 a2 + a 1 a3 + a 1 a4 + a 2 a3 + a 2 a4 + a 3 a4 .

Without loss of generality assume 1 a1 a2 a3 a4 . If a1 a2 6, then

(4)

58

a1 + a 2 + a 3 + a 4 + a 1 a2 a3 a4

> 6a3 a4 a1 a2 + a1 a3 + a1 a4 + a2 a3 + a2 a4 + a3 a4 ;

Case 1: a1 = 1. Then (4) reduces to

1 + a 2 a3 a4 = a 2 a3 + a 2 a4 + a 3 a4 .

(5)

If a2 3 then

1 + a2 a3 a4 > 3a3 a4 a2 a3 + a2 a4 + a3 a4 ;

so that a2 = 1 or 2. If a2 = 1, (5) reduces to 1 = a3 + a4 which has no positive

solution. If a2 = 2, (5) reduces to 1 + a3 a4 = 2(a3 + a4 ) which has solution a3 = 3,

a4 = 5. [Editors note. We borrow from Janouss solution and write this equation

as

(a3 2)(a4 2) = 3,

which makes it clear that a3 = 3, a4 = 5 is the only possibility.]

which has a3 = 2, a4 = 2 as its only positive solution.

III. Generalization of part (b) by Gerd Baron, Technische Universit

at Wien,

Austria. [1995 : 311]

We will consider the following more general situation: for n, m positiveQintegers

n

and m = 1, determine all sets {a1 , . . ., an } of positive integers such that i=1 (1+

ai ) is an integer. We will prove:

THEOREM. If m > 3 is prime and is a complex mth root of unity, then,

for

Qn m n 2m 3 and a1 , a2 , . . ., an non-negative integers, the product

i=1 (1 + ai ) is an integer only if some ai = 0.

Note that for m = 5 and 5 n 7, we get no solutions and (b) is done.

n

Y

(1 + ai ) =

i=1

n

X

pk k =: P ()

k=0

X

Y

p0 = 1, p1 =

ai , and pn =

ai .

Q() =

m1

X

k=nm+1

pk k +

nm

X

(pk + pk+m ) k .

k=0

and Q() = u is an integer exactly if the polynomial Q()u is an integer multiple

of R(); that is, all coefficients of Q() but the constant term are equal.

59

+ x + 1 is irreducible; that is, it cannotbe factored into polynomials of smaller

degree with integer coefficients. For example, see exercise 19, page 84 of Ed

Barbeaus Polynomials (SpringerVerlag, 1989), or most any text on abstract

algebra. Now since is a root of the polynomials R() and Q() u, it will

be a root of their greatest common divisor, which must be R() since R() is

irreducible; thus, Q() u must be a multiple of R(), and a constant multiple

since they both have degree m 1.]

If we can show that pk 6= pk+1 for some k with n m < k < m 1, we are done

and there is no solution with all ai > 0. We claim that if m is a prime greater than

3, and m n 2m 3, then there is such a k with pk+1 pk > 0. To prove this

we take ai = 1 + bi and let q0 , q1 , . . . , qn be the elementary symmetric functions in

the bi s. To calculate the pk s in terms of the qj s, note that

n

Y

n

Y

(x + ai ) =

i=1

(x + 1 + bi )

i=1

gives

n

X

pk xnk

n

X

qj (x + 1)nj

j=0

k=0

n

X

qj

j=0

nj

X

k=0

n

n

X

X

nj k

n j nk

x =

qj

x

;

k

nk

j=0

k=j

pk =

k

X

nj

j=0

nk

rj

=

=

qj =

k

X

nj

j=0

Pk+1

j=0

kj

qj .

rj qj , where

nj

nj

nj

nk

1

=

k+1j

kj

kj

k+1j

n j n 2k + j 1

kj+1

kj

(6)

and therefore, qj 0 and q0 = 1 > 0. If m n < 2m 3, then 0 < n m + 1 <

m 2 < m 1; therefore, we can set k = n m + 1, and n m < k < m 1 will

hold. Moreover 2k + 1 = 2(n m + 1) + 1 < n, so that, from (6) all rj are positive

[in particular, r0 > 0], and therefore, pk+1 pk r0 q0 > 0.For n = 2m3, putting

k = nm+1 = m2 again satisfies nm < k < m1. Also, 2k+1 = 2m3 = n,

so that, by (6) r0 = 0 but rj > 0 for j 1. Hence, pk+1 pk > 0 unlessq

j = 0 for

all j 1; that is, bi = 0 for all i. But then all ai = 1, so that pk = nk for all k.

60

and and shows it is non-zero, which finishes the proof. But it is easier to

compare the coefficients of m2 and m3 : we get (since m 3 = n m) that

these coefficients are respectively pm2 and pm3 + p2m3 ; that is,

2m 3

2m 3

2m 3

2m 3

and

+

=

+1;

m2

m3

2m 3

m3

however it is known (and easy to see) that consecutive binomial coefficients nk

n

and k1

for n > 2 never differ by only 1, so that we are done.

Baron then proves part (a) separately (finding both solutions), since his

theorem does not apply to m = 3. He also states that if we allow some of the a i s

to be zero,there are two more solutions to (a), namely (0, 1, 1, 1) and (0, 0, 2, 2).

1362.

[1988 : 202]

Determine the sum

n X

n

X

n

n n j2k

,

j

+

k

j

k

j=0

k=0

Solution by G.P. Henderson, Campbellcroft, Ontario. [1989 : 249]

The coefficient of tn in

(1 + xt)a (1 + yt)b (1 + zt)c

is

X a b

c

xi y k z njk .

j

k

njk

j+kn

the coefficient of tn in

n

t

t

(1 + t) 1 +

1+ 2

= [(1 + t)( + t)( 2 + t)]n

= (1 + t2 )n .

n

n/3

ATOM

A Taste Of Mathematics / Aime-T-On les Mathematiques

1. Edward J. Barbeau

(1995-1996 )

2. Bruce L.R. Shawyer

Algebra Intermediate Methods

for Mathematics Leagues

4. Edward J. Barbeau, and Bruce L.R. Shawyer

5. Richard Hoshino, and John Grant McLoughlin

Problems

Inequalities

Combinatorial Explorations

for Mathematics Leagues II

Problems

Canadian Collection Part 1

Canadian Collection Part 2

Canadian Collection Part 3

10. Andy Liu and Bruce L.R. Shawyer (Editors) The Murray Klamkin Problems

Canadian Collection Part 4

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