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CONSTRUCTION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

OF A PELTON TURBINE
A Thesis submitted to the
Department of Mechanical & Production Engineering

AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


BY
Istiak Ahmed [11.01.08.021]
Saima Akter Liza [11.01.08.035]
Mohammad Zaber Bin Ismaeel [11.01.08.020]

Under the supervision


Of
Mr. Mahbubul Muttakin
In partial fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree
Of
Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering
June 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Since this program has been carried out as a thesis in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering of Ahsanullah
University of Science and Technology (AUST), we are thankful to our university for its support.
Offering the deepest appreciation to our supervisor, Mr. Mahbubul Muttakin for his kind
and generous guidance throughout the thesis.
We are indebted to Dr. Dewan Hasan Ahmed for his help and suggestion.
We are thankful to Md. Faysal Khan and Md. Minal Nahin for their precious
propositions.
Mr. Sirajul Islam, Mr. Abdul Awal and Md. Shorif without them the thesis might be
incomplete. Truly relieved by their help and support.
We are obliged to our friends Shafayat Sourov, Rakibul Hasan, Fahmid Hasan, Rafikur
Rahman Bijoy, Enamul Hasib who never hesitated in supporting us, morally and technically.
Encouragement, help and patience of family members which kept us inspired and hopeful
throughout the work and especially at the time of crisis; we would like to thank them, deeply and
sincerely.

ABSTRACT
The thesis includes a literature survey of Pelton turbine, incorporating a historical review. Pelton
hydraulic turbines are impulse-type turbo machines commonly used in hydroelectric plants with
medium-to-high water head and in various energy recovery applications. This turbine more
specifically Pelton wheel will be used to do lab experiment in Fluid Machinery Laboratory.
The aim of the present work is to provide detailed performance measurements on a Pelton
turbine model, along with the design and geometrical dimensions of its runner/buckets and
nozzle. The measurements include the net water head, flow rate and the torque and rotation
speed of the runner, from which the corresponding efficiency and shaft power are computed.
Flow is varied and head is measured for each variance to calculate the power in the system.
Other parameters necessary for the study are also measured and recorded for the study.
The results are presented in graphical method and the properties of the graph are used to discuss
the properties of the turbine under study.
The Pelton wheel under study is of a smaller scale though it acts as a representative of a similar
system in large scale.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................ i
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................ ii
NOMENCLATURE ........................................................................................................ vi
LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... vii
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................... ix
CHAPTER 1 ..................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 2 ..................................................................................................................... 4
LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................... 4
2.1 Water Wheels: ...................................................................................................... 4
2.1.1Types of Water Wheels:.................................................................................. 4
2.2 Turbine: ................................................................................................................ 7
2.2.1 Types of Turbine: ........................................................................................... 8
2.3 Hydraulic Turbines: ............................................................................................ 10
2.3.1Classification: ............................................................................................... 10
2.3.2 Pelton Wheel: ............................................................................................... 11
2.3.3 Background of Pelton Wheel: ...................................................................... 11
2.4 Advantages of Pelton Wheel: ............................................................................. 13
2.5 Comparison with other turbines: ........................................................................ 13
2.6 Uses of Pelton Wheel: ........................................................................................ 13

iii

Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................ 15
Theory .......................................................................................................................... 15
3.1 Working principle of pelton wheel: .................................................................... 15
3.2 Working Proportions for Design of Pelton Wheel: ............................................ 18
3.3 Pelton turbine losses and efficiencies: ................................................................ 22

CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................... 25
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP .......................................................................................... 25
4.1 Full setup: ........................................................................................................... 25
4.2 Design: ................................................................................................................ 27
4.2.1 Bucket: ......................................................................................................... 27
4.2.2 Rim:.............................................................................................................. 27
4.2.3 Shaft: ............................................................................................................ 28
4.2.4 Wheel Casing: .............................................................................................. 28
4.2.5 Brake Drum:................................................................................................. 30
4.2.6 Supporting Table:......................................................................................... 30
4.2.7 Disposal bucket: ........................................................................................... 31
4.3 Equipments: ........................................................................................................ 32
4.3.1 Pressure Gauge: ........................................................................................... 32
4.3.2 Flow Meter: .................................................................................................. 33
4.3.3 Tachometer: ................................................................................................. 34
4.3.4 Stop watch:................................................................................................... 34
4.3.5 Spring Balance: ............................................................................................ 35
4.4 Construction: ...................................................................................................... 36
4.4.1 Construction of penstock: ............................................................................ 36
iv

4.4.2 Nozzle: ......................................................................................................... 37


4.4.3 Runner: ......................................................................................................... 38
4.4.4 Wheel casing: ............................................................................................... 40
4.4.5 Torque measurement arrangement:.............................................................. 41
4.4.6 Supporting table: .......................................................................................... 42
4.4.7 Water disposal:............................................................................................. 42
CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................... 44
EXPERIMENTAL DATA COLLECTION & CALCULATION ............................... 44
5.1 Experimental procedures: ................................................................................... 44
5.2 Data Table: ......................................................................................................... 45
5.3 Calculation: ......................................................................................................... 46
5.3.1 Sample calculation: ...................................................................................... 46
CHAPTER 6 ................................................................................................................... 49
RESULT & DISCUSSION: ......................................................................................... 49
6.1 Calculation Table:............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
6.2 Graphs & Discussion: ......................................................................................... 50
6.2.1 Head vs. Flow rate: ...................................................................................... 50
6.2.2 Speed vs. Flow rate: ..................................................................................... 51
6.2.3 Torque vs. Flow rate: ................................................................................... 52
6.2.4 Output power vs. Flow rate:......................................................................... 53
6.2.5 Output power vs. Input power curve: .......................................................... 54
CHAPTER 7 ................................................................................................................... 56
CONCLUSION: ........................................................................................................... 56
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 58

NOMENCLATURE
Symbol

Description

unit

Bb

Width of the bucket

Cv

Co-efficient of velocity

N/A

Db

Depth of the bucket

Mean diameter of the wheel

Diameter of jet

Head

Lb

Length of the bucket

Jet ratio

N/A

Speed of the wheel

rpm

Ns

Specific speed

rpm

Pressure

Pa

Pi

Inlet power

Watt

Po

Outlet power

Watt

Flow rate

m3/s

Torque

N.m

Peripheral speed of rotor

m/s

Velocity

m/s

va

Actual velocity of jet

m/s

No. of buckets

N/A

Specific weight of water

N/m3

Speed ratio

N/A

Angular speed of the wheel

rad/s

Efficiency

Density of water

kg/m3

vi

LIST OF FIGURES
Page no.
Figure 1.1The configuration of the nozzle and buckets in a Pelton wheel .............................1
Figure 1.2General arrangement of the Pelton wheel ..............................................................2
Figure 1.3Water strike on Pelton wheel ..................................................................................3
Figure 2.1Overshot water wheel .............................................................................................5
Figure 2.2 Undershot water wheel ..........................................................................................6
Figure 2.3 Breast water wheel ................................................................................................7
Figure 2.4 Schematic of Impulse and Reaction turbines with pressure and velocity graph. ..9
Figure 2.5 Turbine classification ..........................................................................................10
Figure 2.6 Pelton's original patent (October 1880). ..............................................................12
Figure 3.1 Pelton wheel working procedure .........................................................................16
Figure 3.2 Velocity diagram of Pelton wheel .......................................................................17
Figure 3.3 Dimensions of Bucket. ........................................................................................20
Figure 3.4 Schematic layout of hydro plant ..........................................................................22
Figure 3.5 Efficiency vs. speed at various nozzle settings. ..................................................23
Figure 3.6 Power vs. speed of various nozzle setting. ..........................................................24
Figure 3.7 Pelton turbine losses and efficiencies ..................................................................24
Figure 4.1 Front View of upper portion of the Setup ...........................................................25
Figure 4.2 Back View of upper portion of the setup.............................................................25
Figure 4.3 Showing the torque measurement arrangement of the setup and nozzle position...26
Figure 4.4 Isometric view of full setup .................................................................................26
Figure 4.5 Bucket ..................................................................................................................27
Figure 4.6 Rim ......................................................................................................................27
Figure 4.7 Shaft .....................................................................................................................28
Figure 4.8 Front View of Casing ..........................................................................................28
Figure 4.9 Orthographic View of casing...............................................................................29
Figure 4.10 Solidworks view of casing.................................................................................29
Figure 4.11 Solidworks view of Brake drum ........................................................................30
Figure 4.12 Solidworks view of supporting table .................................................................30
vii

Figure 4.13 Solidworks view of disposal bucket ..................................................................31


Figure 4.14 Pressure gauge ...................................................................................................32
Figure 4.15 Flow Meter ........................................................................................................33
Figure 4.16 Flow error curve ................................................................................................33
Figure 4.17 Digital Tachometer ............................................................................................34
Figure 4.18 Stop watch .........................................................................................................34
Figure 4.19 Spring Balance...................................................................................................35
Figure 4.20 GI pipe ...............................................................................................................36
Figure 4.21 Different types of fittings ..................................................................................36
Figure 4.22 Penstock (pipeline) ............................................................................................37
Figure 4.23 Nozzle ................................................................................................................37
Figure 4.24 Nozzle arrangement ...........................................................................................38
Figure 4.25 Bucket ................................................................................................................39
Figure 4.26 Runner assembly ...............................................................................................39
Figure 4.27 construction of casing ........................................................................................40
Figure 4.28 Torque measurement arrangement ....................................................................41
Figure 4.29 Supporting table frame ......................................................................................42
Figure 4.30 Disposal bucket .................................................................................................43
Figure 4.31 Disposal route equipments ................................................................................43
Figure 4.32 Disposal pipeline ...............................................................................................43
Figure 5.1 Head vs. Flow rate curve .....................................................................................50
Figure 5.2 Speed vs. Flow Rate curve ..................................................................................51
Figure 5.3 Torque vs. Flow rate curve ..................................................................................52
Figure 5.4 Output power vs. Flow rate curve .......................................................................53
Figure 5.5 Output power vs. Input power .............................................................................54

viii

LIST OF TABLES
Page no.
5.1 Data Table .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
6.1 Calculation Table ...................................................................................................49

ix

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
A Pelton wheel is a tangential flow impulse hydraulic machine that is actively used for
the production of power from kinetic energy of flowing water. It is the only form of impulse
turbine in common industrial use. It is a robust and simple machine that is ideal for the
production of power from low volume water flows at a high head with reasonable efficiency.
The Pelton wheel constructed in this thesis reproduces all the characteristics of full size machines
and allows an experimental program to determine the performance of a turbine.
Impulse turbines operate through a mechanism that first converts the high head through a nozzle
into high velocity, which strikes the buckets at a single position as they pass by. These turbines
are suited for relatively low power and high head derivations. The Pelton wheel is comprised of
three basic components that include the stationary inlet nozzle, the runner and the casing. The
multiple buckets are mounted on a rotating wheel. They are shaped in a manner that divides the
flow in half and deflects the water by an angle of 180o.
The nozzle is positioned in a similar plane as the wheel and is arranged so that the jet of water
impinges tangentially on to the buckets. The nozzle is controlled by a ball valve regulator.

Figure 1.1: The configuration of the nozzle and buckets in a Pelton wheel

A friction dynamometer consists of a 8inch diameter brake wheel fitted with a fabric brake band
which is tensioned by a weight hanger and masses with the fixed end being secures via a spring
balance to the support frame. A tachometer may be used to measure the speed of the turbine.

Figure 1.2: General arrangement of the Pelton wheel

The runner of the Pelton turbine consists of double hemispherical cups fitted on its periphery.
The jet strikes these cups at the central dividing edge of the front edge. The central dividing edge
is also called a splitter. The water jet strikes edge of the splitter symmetrically and equally
distributed into the two halves of hemispherical bucket. The inlet angle of the jet is therefore
between 1o and 3o. Theoretically if the buckets are exactly hemispherical it would deflect the jet
through 180. Then the relative velocity of the jet leaving the bucket would be opposite in
direction to the relative velocity of the jet entering. This cannot be achieved practically because
the jet leaving the bucket then strikes the back of the succeeding bucket and hence overall
efficiency would decrease. Therefore in practice the angular deflection of the jet in the bucket is

united to about 165 or 170. And the bucket is slightly smaller than a hemisphere in size. The
amount of water discharges from the nozzle is regulated by a ball valve.

Figure 1.3: Water strike on Pelton wheel

Objectives:

To construct a Pelton Turbine with proper design and to analyze its performance under
different static heads.

To demonstrate about Pelton wheel for study in fluid machinery lab.

To determine the performance characteristics values using experimental procedure.

To find the performance characteristics curve i.e. to ploti.

Head vs. Flow rate

ii.

Speed vs. Flow rate

iii.

Torque vs. Flow rate

iv.

Output power vs. Flow rate

v.

Output power vs. input power

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Water Wheels:


From early times, people started using water wheels to convert hydraulic energy into
mechanical energy by water wheels. However, the efficiency of these water wheels was very low
in comparison to modern turbines. Water wheels consist of a circular frame with a number of
buckets,

the wheel

is

rotated. The speed of the wheel

is

comparatively low.

2.1.1Types of Water Wheels:


There are different types of water wheels. Some important water wheels are mentioned
below.
-Overshot water wheel
-Undershot water wheel
-Breast water wheel
Overshot water wheel:
A vertically mounted water wheel that is rotated by falling water striking paddles, blades
or buckets near the top of the wheel is said to be overshot. In true overshot wheels the water
passes over the top of the wheel, but the term is sometimes applied to backshot or pitchback
wheels where the water goes down behind the water wheel.
A typical overshot wheel has the water channeled to the wheel at the top and slightly
beyond the axle. The water collects in the buckets on that side of the wheel, making it heavier
than the other "empty" side. The weight turns the wheel, and the water flows out into the tailwater when the wheel rotates enough to invert the buckets. The overshot design can use all of the
water flow for power (unless there is a leak) and does not require rapid flow.

Unlike undershot wheels, overshot wheels gain a double advantage from gravity. Not
only is the momentum of the flowing water partially transferred to the wheel, the weight of the
water descending in the wheel's buckets also imparts additional energy. The mechanical power
derived from an overshot wheel is determined by the wheel's physical size and the
available head, so they are ideally suited to hilly or mountainous country. On average, the
undershot wheel uses 22 percent of the energy in the flow of water, while an overshot wheel uses
63 percent, as calculated by English civil engineer John Smeaton in the 18th century.

Figure 2.1: Overshot water wheel

Undershot water wheel:


An undershot wheel (also called a stream wheel) is a vertically mounted water wheel that
is rotated by water striking paddles or blades at the bottom of the wheel. The
name undershot comes from this striking at the bottom of the wheel. This type of water wheel is
the oldest type of wheel.
It is also regarded as the least efficient type, although subtypes of this water wheel (e.g.
the Poncelet wheel,Sagebien wheel and Zuppinger wheel) allow somewhat greater efficiencies
than the traditional undershot wheels. The advantages of undershot wheels are that they are
somewhat cheaper and simpler to build, and have less of an environmental impactas they do
not constitute a major change of the river. Their disadvantages areas mentioned beforeless
efficiency, which means that they generate less power and can only be used where the flow rate
is sufficient to provide torque.

Undershot wheels are also well suited to installation on floating platforms. The earliest
were probably constructed by the Byzantine general Belisarius during the siege of Rome in 537.
Later they were sometimes mounted immediately downstream from bridges where the flow
restriction of arched bridge piers increased the speed of the current.

Figure 2.2: Undershot water wheel

Breast water wheel:


A vertically mounted water wheel that is rotated by falling water striking buckets near the
center of the wheel's edge, or just above it, is said to be breastshot. Breastshot wheels are the
most common type in the United States of America and are said to have powered the
American industrial revolution.
Breastshot wheels are less efficient than overshot wheels (see below), are more efficient
than undershot wheels, and are not backshot. The individual blades of a breastshot wheel are
actually buckets, as are those of most overshot wheels, and not simple paddles like those of most
undershot wheels. A breastshot wheel requires a good trash rack and typically has a masonry
"apron" closely conforming to the wheel face, which helps contain the water in the buckets as
they progress downwards. Breastshot wheels are preferred for steady, high-volume flows such as
are found on the fall line of the North American East Coast.

Figure 2.3: Breast water wheel

2.2 Turbine:
A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and
converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a
rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so
that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples
are windmills and waterwheels.
Gas, steam, and hydraulic turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and
controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to the British
engineer Sir Charles Algernon Parsons (18541931), for invention of the reaction turbine and to
Swedish engineer Gustaf de Laval (18451913), for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern
steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying
the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery.
The word "turbine" was coined in 1822 by the French mining engineer Claude
Burdin from the Latin turbo, or vortex, in a memo, "Des turbines hydrauliques ou machines
rotatoires grande vitesse", which he submitted to the Acadmie royale des sciences in
Paris. Benot Fourneyron, a former student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water
turbine.

2.2.1 Types of Turbine:


Turbines may be of different types and are named according to the mode or media
through which they are made to rotate. Some commonly used turbines are:
1. Steam Turbine: When the turbine receives its rotating force from powerful steam jets.
2. Hydraulic Turbine: When the turbine is rotated by impact of accumulated water falling
from a high altitude (from over a dam or barrage constructed on rivers for this purpose), it is
called a hydraulic turbine.
3. Gas Turbine: When the turbine receives its rotating force from high pressure gas (by
burning coal, natural gas etc.) ejected from nozzles called a gas turbine.

Types of turbine according to working principle:


The turbine is, according to its working principle, of 2 types.
These are:
1. Impulse Turbine
2. Reaction Turbine

1. Impulse turbine:
In this type, a powerful working fluid jet from no. of nozzles, strikes the cups or buckets
on the periphery of the turbine wheel thereby causing the wheel to rotate. That means, the turbine
rotates due to impulse (force) of fluid jet.
2. Reaction turbine:
Ideally, in this type of turbine, a closed drum or a cylinder is arranged the shaft and on
the periphery of the drum some nozzles are arranged at right angles (cross) to the shaft instead of
cups or buckets, as shown in figure. High pressure fluid from a boiler enters the drum at one end
and this fluid when escaping through the nozzles exerts heavy back pressure on the body of the
nozzles. Due to this back pressure, the drum rotates (backward) along with the shaft. In other
words, this type of turbine rotates due to reaction and so is called the reaction turbine.
Practically, no pure reaction turbine exists. It may be mentioned here that the reaction type
8

turbine produces very small power and its uses and applications are limited to small power plants
only.

Figure 2.4: Schematic of Impulse and Reaction turbines with pressure and velocity graph.

2.3 Hydraulic Turbines:


Hydraulic turbines are the machines which converts the hydraulic energy into mechanical
energy. The mechanical energy produced by the hydraulic turbine can be converted into
electrical energy by coupling the turbine to an electric generator.

Turbine

Impulse

Reaction

Pelton
wheel

Radial
flow

Inward
flow

Mixed
flow

Axial
flow

Outward
flow

Kaplan
turbine

Francis
turbine
Figure 2.5: Turbine classification

2.3.1Classification:
Classification according to the following criteria:

Hydraulic action: Impulse & Reaction turbine.

Direction of flow of water: Tangential, Radial, Axial & Mixed.

Direction of flow of water: Vertical & Horizontal turbine.

Head: Low, Medium & High Head turbine.

Specific speed: Low, Medium & High Specific Speed Turbine

10

Propeller
turbine

2.3.2 Pelton Wheel:


Hydraulic action: Impulse (total head converted into K.E.),
Direction of flow of water: Tangential flow,
Direction of the shaft: Horizontal,
Head: High head (150m~2000m),
Specific speed: Low specific speed (Sp. Speed 60)

2.3.3 Background of Pelton Wheel:


Lester Allen Pelton (1829-1908) is the inventor of Pelton Water Wheel. Lester A. Pelton
was an American inventor who successfully developed a highly efficient water turbine, for a
high head, but low flow of water operating in many situations. Most notable today the hydroelectric power stations. Little is known of his early life. Pelton embarked on an adventure in
search of gold. He came to California from Ohio in 1850, he was 21 years old. In 1864, after a
failed quest for gold he was working in the gold mines as a millwright, and carpenter at Campton
Ville, Yuba County, California. It was here that he made a discovery which won for him a
permanent place in the history of water power engineering. In the mines, Pelton saw water
wheels were being used to provide mechanical power for all things mining, air compressors,
pumps, stamp mills and operating other machines. The energy to drive these wheels was supplied
by powerful jets of water which struck the base of the wheel with flat-faced vanes. These vanes
eventually evolved into hemispherical cups, with the jet striking at the center of the cup on the
wheel. Pelton further observed that one of the water wheels appeared to be rotating faster than
other similar machines. It turned out initially that this was due to the wheel had come loose, and
moved a little on its axle. He noticed the jet was striking the inside edge of the cups, and exiting
the other side of the cup. His quest for improvement resulted in an innovation. So, Pelton
reconstructed the wheel, with the cups off center only to find again that it rotated more rapidly.
Pelton also found that using split cups enhanced the effect. By 1879, he had tested a prototype at
the University of California, which was successful. He was granted his first patent in 1880.

11

By 1890, Pelton turbines were in operation, developing thousands of horsepower,


powering all kinds of equipments. In 1889, Pelton was granted a patent with the following text.
"Pelton water turbine or wheel is a rotor driven by the impulse of a jet of water upon curved
buckets fixed to its periphery; each bucket is divided in half by a splitter edge that divides the
water into two streams. The buckets have a two-curved section which completely reverses the
direction of the water jet striking them."

Figure 2.6: Pelton's original patent (October 1880).

The first wheel that Pelton put to practical use was to power the sewing machine of his
landlady, Mrs. W. G. Groves in Campton Ville. This prototype wheel is on display at a lodge in
Campton Ville. He then took his patterns to the Allan Machine Shop and Foundry in Nevada
City. Wheels of various types and sizes were made and tested. Hydro-electric plants of thousands
of horsepower running at efficiencies of more than 90 percent were generating electric power by
the time of his death in 1910. The Pelton wheel is acclaimed as the only hydraulic turbine of the
impulse type to use a large head and low flow of water in hydro-electric power stations. Pelton
wheels are still in use today all over the world in hydroelectric power plants. The Pelton Wheel
Company was so successful that it moved to larger facilities in San Francisco, in 1887.

12

2.4 Advantages of Pelton Wheel:

Most efficient of all turbines

High overall efficiency

Simple in construction and easy maintenance

Easy assembly

Flat efficiency curve

Can be Operated at low discharge

Can be operated in silted water

2.5 Comparison with other turbines:

This turbine can strictly extract energy as of any fast-moving fluid, for example
air, but almost always use water for utmost efficiency.

They can prepared out of metal, plastic, ceramic materials, while metal is
generally preferred.

To derive more power, multiple jets (2 to 6) Pelton wheel may be used.

It makes them ideal for hydro-electric power generation.

Simple in construction and easy maintenance.

As Pelton turbine is not only turbines in existence, they are absolutely the mainly
ideal impulse turbines while low flow rates or small streams are only sources of
water accessible.

While they are ideal for location in which a stream of water has a high quantity of
pressure by a low flow rate.

The quantity of energy to be extract as of small streams that would have or else
gone to dissipate.

This is not the best turbines for low-pressure streams by a high flow rate.

A lot of head loss occurs when the river discharge is low.

13

2.6 Uses of Pelton Wheel:


Pelton wheels are the preferred turbine for hydro-power, when the available water source
has relatively high hydraulic head at low flow rates, where the Pelton wheel is most efficient.
Thus, more power can be extracted from a water source with high-pressure and low-flow than
from a source with low-pressure and high-flow, even when the two flows theoretically contain
the same power. Also a comparable amount of pipe material is required for each of the two
sources, one requiring a long thin pipe, and the other a short wide pipe. Pelton wheels are made
in all sizes. There exist multi-ton Pelton wheels mounted on vertical oil pad bearings in
hydroelectric plants. The largest units can be up to 200 megawatts. The smallest Pelton wheels
are only a few inches across, and can be used to tap power from mountain streams having flows
of a few gallons per minute. Some of these systems use household plumbing fixtures for water
delivery. These small units are recommended for use with 30 feet (9.1 m) or more of head, in
order to generate significant power levels. Depending on water flow and design, Pelton wheels
operate best with heads from 495,905 feet (14.91,799.8 m), although there is no theoretical
limit.

14

Chapter 3
Theory
3.1 Working principle of pelton wheel:
The Pelton turbine is the most visually obvious example of an impulse machine. Nozzles
direct forceful, high-speed streams of water against a rotary series of spoon-shaped buckets, also
known as impulse blades, which are mounted around the circumferential rim of a drive wheel
also called a runner. As the water jet impinges upon the contoured bucket-blades, the direction of
water velocity is changed to follow the contours of the bucket. Water impulse energy exerts
torque on the bucket-and-wheel system, spinning the wheel; the water stream itself does a "uturn" and exits at the outer sides of the bucket, decelerated to a low velocity. In the process, the
water jet's momentum is transferred to the wheel and thence to a turbine. Thus, impulse energy
does work on the turbine. For maximum power and efficiency, the wheel and turbine system is
designed such that the water jet velocity is twice the velocity of the rotating buckets. A very
small percentage of the water jet's original kinetic energy will remain in the water, which causes
the bucket to be emptied at the same rate it is filled, and thereby allows the high-pressure input
flow to continue uninterrupted and without waste of energy. Typically two buckets are mounted
side-by-side on the wheel, which permits splitting the water jet into two equal streams. This
balances the side-load forces on the wheel and helps to ensure smooth, efficient transfer of
momentum of the fluid jet of water to the turbine wheel. Because water and most liquids are
nearly incompressible, almost all of the available energy is extracted in the first stage of the
hydraulic turbine. Therefore, Pelton wheels have only one turbine stage, unlike gas turbines that
operate with compressible fluid.
The operating characteristics of a turbine are often conveniently shown by
plotting torque T, brake power Pb, and overall turbine efficiency t against turbine
rotational speed n for a series of volume flow rates Qv,. It is important to note that the
efficiency reaches a maximum and then falls, whilst the torque falls constantly and linearly. The
optimum conditions for operation occur when the required duty point of head and flow coincides
with a point of maximum efficiency.
15

Figure 3.1: Pelton wheel working procedure


Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine. The runner of the Pelton turbine consists of double
hemispherical cups fitted on its periphery. The jet strikes these cups at the central dividing edge
of the front edge. The central dividing edge is also called as splitter. The water jet strikes edge of
the splitter symmetrically and equally distributed into the two halves of hemispherical bucket.
The inlet angle of the jet is therefore between 1 and 3. Theoretically if the buckets are exactly
hemispherical it would deflect the jet through 180. Then the relative velocity of the jet leaving
the bucket would be opposite in direction to the relative velocity of the jet entering. This cannot
be achieved practically because the jet leaving the bucket then strikes the back of the succeeding
bucket and hence overall efficiency would decrease. Therefore in practice the angular deflection
of the jet in the bucket is limited to about 165 or 170, and the bucket is slightly smaller than a
hemisphere in size. The amount of water discharges from the nozzle is regulated by a needle
valve provided inside the nozzle. One or more water jets can be provided with the Pelton turbine
depending on the requirement.

16

Let us consider that a jet of water issuing from the nozzle strikes the buckets of the runner of a
Pelton wheel. Velocity diagram of Pelton wheel is given below:

Figure 3.2: Velocity diagram of Pelton wheel


Here, V= absolute velocity of jet before striking the bucket
V1= absolute velocity of jet leaving the bucket
Vw= velocity of whirl at inlet
Vw1= velocity of whirl at outlet
v= peripheral velocity of the bucket at inlet
v1= peripheral velocity of the bucket at outlet
Vr= relative velocity of water and bucket at inlet
Vr1= relative velocity of water and bucket at outlet
Vf1= velocity of flow at outlet
= bucket tip angle at outlet with the tangent
= blade vane angle
17

3.2 Working Proportions for Design of Pelton Wheel:


I.

Velocity of jet: The theoretical velocity of the jet


v1 2 gH

Where,
H= net head.
Actual Velocity of Jet
va Cv 2 gH

Where,
Cv is the co-efficient of velocity of the jet which varies from 0.98 to 0.99.
II.

Power available to the turbine:


P= QH
Where,
is the specific weight of water, in N/m3,
Q is the flow rate in m3/s and
H is the head in meters.

III.

Diameter of the Jet (d):


18

The diameter of the jet is obtained if flow rate is known. For a single jet,

Q d 2va
4

Q d 2Cv 2 gH
4

4Q
d
C 2 gH
v
IV.

Speed ratio ():


The speed ratio is the ratio of the velocity (u) of the wheel at pitch circle to theoretical
velocity (v1) of the jet.

u
uv
1
2 gH

In practice the value is between 0.44 and 0.46 and the average is 0.45.

V.

Mean Diameter of the wheel (D):


It is the diameter between centers of the buckets. The diameter can be obtained from
peripheral velocity (u).

DN

Or,

60
60u
N

Where,
N = speed of the wheel in revolutions/min.
VI.

Jet ratio (m):


The ratio of mean diameter of the wheel to diameter of the jet.
19

D
d

The Jet ratio varies from 10 to 14 and average value of m is 12.

VII.

Size of the buckets:


The length, width and depth of buckets in terms of diameter of jet d is shown in figure

Figure 3.3: Dimensions of Bucket.

VIII.

Radial length of bucket

L= 2 to 3d

Axial width of bucket

B= 3 to 5d

Depth of bucket

D= 0.8 to 1.2d

Number of buckets (z):

20

The number of buckets is usually obtained from the following empirical formula given by
Taygun.

zD

2d

15 0.5m 15

Where,
m is the jet ratio.

IX.

Specific speed (Ns):


The specific speed value (radian/second) for a turbine is the speed of a geometrically
similar turbine which would produce one unit of the specific speed of a turbine is given
by the manufacturer (along with other ratings) and will always refer to the point of
maximum efficiency. This allows accurate calculations to be made of the turbine's
performance for a range of heads.
For Pelton wheel specific speed (Ns) typically around 4.

Ns

N P
H

Where,
N=rpm

21

3.3 Pelton turbine losses and efficiencies:


Head losses occur in the pipelines conveying the water to the nozzle due to friction and
bend. Losses also occur in the nozzle and are expressed by the velocity coefficient, Cv.
The jet efficiency (j) takes care of losses in the nozzle and the mechanical efficiency
(m) is meant for the bearing friction and windage losses. The overall efficiency (o) for large
Pelton turbine is about 85 90%. Following efficiency is usually used for Pelton wheel.
Pipeline transmiss ion efficiency

Energy at end of the pipe


Energy available at reservoir

Figure 3.4 shows the total headline, where the water supplies from a reservoir at a head
H1 above the nozzle. The frictional head loss, hf, is the loss as the water flows through the
pressure tunnel and penstock up to entry to the nozzle.
Then the transmission efficiency is
trans ( H 1 h f ) H 1 H H 1

The nozzle efficiency or jet efficiency is

Energy at nozzle outlet


v a2 2 gH
Energy at nozzle inlet

Figure 3.4: Schematic layout of hydro plant


22

Nozzle velocity coefficient,


Cv

Actual jet veloci ty


va
Theoretica l jet veloci ty

2 gH

Therefore the nozzle efficiency becomes

j va2 2 gH Cv2
The characteristics of an impulse turbine are shown in Fig. 3.5 and Fig 3.6
Figure 3.5 shows the curves for constant head and indicates that the peak efficiency
occurs at about the same speed ratio for any gate opening and that the peak values of efficiency
do not vary much. This happens as the nozzle velocity remaining constant in magnitude and
direction as the flow rate changes, gives an optimum value of U/C1 at a fixed speed. Due to
losses, such as windage, mechanical, and friction cause the small variation. Fig. 3.6 shows the
curves for power vs. speed. Fixed speed condition is important because generators are usually
run at constant speed.

Figure 3.5: Efficiency vs. speed at various nozzle settings.


23

Figure 3.6: Power vs. speed of various nozzle setting.

Figure 3.7: Pelton turbine losses and efficiencies


The hydraulic losses in penstock is hf , head loss in nozzle is hn. The head before the
turbine inlet is H and hydraulic power input is QH. There are l osses like eddies and leakage in
the turbine. Head available at the runner is E. There are mechanical losses and as a result shaft
power is P. There are transmission and generator losses and net electrical power generated by
generator PE.

H = H1 - (h f + h n )
24

CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
4.1 Full setup:
Different parts were designed and assembled in solidworks with proper dimensions.

Figure 4.1: Front View of upper portion of the Setup

Figure 4.2: Back View of upper portion of the setup

25

Figure 4.3: Showing the torque measurement arrangement of the setup and nozzle position.

Figure 4.4: Isometric view of full setup

26

4.2 Design:
4.2.1 Bucket:
Bucket was made of Aluminum. The length of the bucket is, Lb=2.5 inch, width, Bb=4
inch and depth, Db= 1 inch. The length of the handle of the bucket is 2 inch and the gap between
two handles is 1 inch.

Figure 4.5: Bucket

4.2.2 Rim:
The outer diameter is 9.5 inch and is has 12 buckets with equal division. Diameter for
shaft hole is 1.5 inch. The angle between two buckets is 30o. The rim is made of stainless steel
sheet metal. The thickness of the rim is 1 inch.

Figure 4.6: Rim

27

4.2.3 Shaft:
Length of the shaft is 18 inch and diameter of the shaft is 1.5 inch.
Material: stainless steel.

Figure 4.7: Shaft

4.2.4 Wheel Casing:


Wheel casing is made of 2 mm Stainless steel sheet metal. It has two holes. One is for
shaft and the other is for nozzle. Length of the casing is 24.5 inch, width is 15 inch and height is
25.5 inch. Nozzle hole is 7.25 inch and shaft hole is 13.25 inch above from bottom. Casing has a
slot at bottom for water disposal of 20 inch long and 11 inch wide.
The view from different angle is given below.

Figure 4.8: Front View of Casing


28

Figure 4.9: Orthographic View of casing

The Solidworks view of casing describes the proper alignment of casing.

Figure 4.10: Solidworks view of casing

29

4.2.5 Brake Drum:


Brake drum is of around 8 inch in diameter and for shaft alignment it got a 1.5 inch
diameter hole at the center. It has also a slot for belt alignment of 0.5 inch.

Figure 4.11: Solidworks view of Brake drum

4.2.6 Supporting Table:


The supporting table is 3.84 ft long, 3.16 ft wide and 3 ft in height. The frame of the table
was made of stainless steel hollow rectangular bar. The top part of the table is covered with 1
mm stainless steel sheet metal. There is a slot of 20 inch long and 11 inch wide on top of the
supporting table. Above all, it has supporting for disposal bucket of 1.5 ft higher from the
ground. It has also 6 caster wheels for easy movement of the setup.

Figure 4.12: Solidworks view of supporting table

30

4.2.7 Disposal bucket:


The length of the disposal bucket is 3.7 ft, width is 3 ft and height is 2 ft. It has a hole of
2 inch diameter near bottom for drain of water. The disposal bucket is also made with thickness
of 1 mm stainless steel sheet metal.

Figure 4.13: Solidworks view of disposal bucket

Figure 4.14: Full view of the setup


31

4.3 Equipments:
4.3.1 Pressure Gauge:
Pressure gauge was attached with pipeline before nozzle to measure the pressure. It is one
of the most important equipment of this setup.

Figure 4.14: Pressure gauge

Specification:
Range: (0~60) psi and (0~4) kgf/cm2
Working Pressure:
Steady: 3/4 of full scale value (recommendation 25% to 75% of full scale)
Fluctuating: 2/3 of full scale value (recommendation lower 50% of full
scale)
Short time: full scale value
Operating Temperature:
Ambient: -20 ~ 65C
Media (Fluid): -5 ~ 40C

32

4.3.2 Water Meter:


A water meter is also attached with the pipeline after pressure gauge to measure the flow.
The flow rate, Q can be measured by it with the help of stopwatch.

Figure 4.15: Flow Meter


Specification:
Technical data conform to international Standard ISO4064 Class B
Working condition:

a) Water temperature 0.140


b) Water pressure 1.0MPa

Maximum permissible error: a) In the lower zone from qmin inclusive up to but
excluding qt is 5%
b) In the upper zone from qt inclusive up to and
including qs is 2%

Figure 4.16: Flow error curve

33

4.3.3 Tachometer:
A tachometer was used to measure the RPM of the wheel.

Figure 4.17: Digital Tachometer


Specification:
Photoelectric rotation speed: 2.5~99999RPM(r/min)
Contact rotation speed: 0.5~19,999RPM(r/min)
Basic Accuracy: (0.05%+1digit)
Effective distance: 50mm~250mm
Maximum display: 99999

4.3.4 Stop watch:


To calculate flow rate, Q stopwatch is used to measure elapsed time for certain amount of
flow. Its accuracy is 30 Laps and Split Memory at 1/100 sec.

Figure 4.18: Stop watch


34

4.3.5 Spring Balance:


A spring balance was used to measure the applied load on the brake drum.

Figure 4.19: Spring Balance


Specification:
Range: 25kg/56lb
Material: Copper
Measure Method: Manual

35

4.4 Construction:
4.4.1 Construction of penstock:
The penstock was configured by GI pipe. The total length of the penstock is around 110
ft. The diameter of pipe is 1.5 inch. The penstock was constructed by the help of plumber. The
water reservoir is on top of the 10th floor. Different types of fittings were used while penstock
established. Some of them are named union, nipple, elbow, T-joint, reducer etc.

Figure 4.20: GI pipe

Figure 4.21: Different types of fittings

36

Figure 4.22: Penstock

4.4.2 Nozzle:
The nozzle is made of brass. External thread diameter is 1 inch and nozzle diameter is
0.45 inch

Figure 4.23: Nozzle

37

Figure 4.24: Nozzle arrangement

4.4.3 Runner:
It has two parts, rim and bucket. The outer diameter of rim is 9.5 inch and it can
accommodate 12 buckets with equal divisions. Diameter for shaft hole on the rim is 1.5 inch.
The angle between two buckets is 300. The rim is made of 2 mm thick stainless steel sheet metal.
Later two circular portions were TIG welded to join together. The thickness of the rim is 1 inch.
Buckets were made of Aluminum. Using the oldest method, at first bucket pattern was
made according to the design and then sand cast aluminum bucket produced. The length of the
bucket is, Lb=2.5 inch, width, Bb=4 inch and depth, Db= 1 inch. The length of the handle of the
bucket is 2 inch and the gap between two handle is 1 inch. Then Buckets were drilled with
desired dimensions and later bolted on the rim maintaining equal angle of 300.

38

Figure 4.25: Bucket

Figure 4.26: Runner assembly


39

4.4.4 Wheel casing:


Wheel casing is made of 2 mm Stainless steel sheet metal. It has two holes. One is for
shaft and the other is for nozzle. Length of the casing is 24.5 inch, width is 15 inch and height is
25.5 inch. Nozzle hole is 7.25 inch and shaft hole is 13.25 inch above from bottom. Casing has a
slot at bottom for water disposal of 20 inch long and 11 inch wide.
The different parts were joined by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) Welding process to obtain
better finishing and strength. Desired holes were created by drilling. At last hand grinder was
used to finish the weld surface.
Then the front part of the casing was covered with 8 mm thick Acrylic sheet for better
view of the wheel. After that, silicon adhesive was used between acrylic and casing to avoid
water leakage.

Figure 4.27: construction of casing

40

4.4.5 Torque measurement arrangement:


The most important part of torque measurement arrangement is the brake drum. The
material of the brake drum is nylon. It is of around 8 inch in diameter and for shaft alignment it
got a 1.5 inch diameter hole at the center. It has also a slot for belt alignment of 0.5 inch. The
length of the belt is around 70 cm.
To accommodate the brake drum a support was made using stainless steel hollow
rectangular bar and pillow bearing. On top of the support bar, two long bolts were welded and
two hooks were attached with the bolt to serve the spring balance.
Two spring balance were used to measure the applied load on the brake drum. A belt was
used to connect the spring balance with brake drum.

Figure 4.28: Torque measurement arrangement

41

4.4.6 Supporting table:


The supporting table is 3.84 ft long, 3.16 ft wide and 3.25 ft in height. The frame of the
table was made of stainless steel hollow rectangular bar. The top part of the table is covered with
1 mm stainless steel sheet metal. There is a slot of 20 inch long and 11 inch wide on top of the
supporting table. Above all, it has supporting for disposal bucket of 1.25 ft higher from the
ground. It has also 6 caster wheels for easy movement of the setup.
Above all, it accommodates the wheel casing, runner, shaft, torque measurement
arrangement and also disposal bucket.

Figure 4.29: Supporting table frame

4.4.7 Water disposal:


It consists of disposal bucket and water drainage network. The length of the disposal
bucket is 3.7 ft, width is 3 ft and height is 1.9 ft. It has a hole of 2 inch diameter near bottom for
drainage of water. The disposal bucket is also made with thickness of 1 mm stainless steel sheet
metal.
To drain the water of the setup, 50 ft long uPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride) pipe
were used. To finish the connection, some fittings and adhesive solution were also needed. By
the help of plumber the whole disposal connection were accomplished. So, the disposal water
can be drained to the underground reserve tank.

42

Figure 4.30: Disposal bucket

Figure 4.31: Disposal route equipments

Figure 4.32: Disposal pipeline

43

CHAPTER 5
EXPERIMENTAL DATA COLLECTION &
CALCULATION
5.1 Experimental procedures:
Gate valve of the main pipe line was opened at the very beginning of the experiment.
Then the belt of torque measurement arrangement with no tension was set. After that 2 lb load
applied to brake drum with the help of nut bolt which is attach with the frame. After setting the
load, ball valve was opened. As a result jet struck the buckets. For that runner began to rotate as
well as the brake drum. Pressure was set 10 psi to start the main procedure. Amount of flow
water was taken from flow meter. To calculate flow rate, Q, time was counted using stopwatch.
Tachometer was subjected to the shaft to find the speed, N of the wheel in rpm. Meanwhile the
reading from spring balance was taken. The same experiment for different pressure (12psi-30psi)
was repeated.
When the experiment was over, the load was removed from the brake drum and all the
valves closed which were provided for controlling the jet speed.

44

5.2 Data Table:

No.
of
obs.

Time
(s)

01.

Radius of the brake drum = 0.09 m

Volume
(m3)

Flow rate, Pressure,


Q
P
(m3/s)
(psi)

Pressure, P
(Pa)

Speed,
N
(rpm)

T1
(lb)

T2
(lb)

(T1-T2)
(kg)

Load for
braking
torque,
(T1-T2)
(lb)
3

113

8.8510-4

10

68.94103

190

02.

111

910-4

12

82.73103

210

5.25

3.25

1.47

03.

97

1.0310-3

14

96.52103

240

5.5

3.5

04.

93

1.0710-3

16

110.31103

235

1.81

05.

91

1.0910-3

18

124.1103

247

6.15

4.15

1.88

06.

88

1.1310-3

20

137.89103

250

6.5

4.5

2.04

07.

83

1.210-3

22

151.68103

310

2.26

08.

71

1.410-3

24

165.47103

315

7.2

5.2

2.35

09.

65

1.5410-3

26

179.2103

340

7.5

5.5

2.49

10.

60

1.6610-3

28

193.05103

410

7.8

5.8

2.63

11.

55

1.8210-3

30

206.84103

430

8.2

6.2

2.81

0.1

45

1.36

1.59

5.3 Calculation:
5.3.1 Sample calculation:
For observation no. 1:

Head, H =

68.94 103
9810

=7.02 m

Input power, Pi = QH
=9810(8.8510-4) 7.02
=60.94 Watt

Output power, Po = T1 T2 g
=1.369.81

2N
R
60
2 3.1416 190
0.09
60

=23.77 Watt

Efficiency, =
=

Po
Pi
23.77
60.94

=39%

46

Velocity, va =
=

Q
A

Q
d2

Here, d = diameter of jet


=0.45 inch
=0.01143 m
va =

4Q
d2

4 (8.85 104 )
3.1416 (0.01143)2

=8.625 ms-1

Coefficient of velocity, Cv =
=

va
2 gH
8.625
2 9.81 7.02

=0.73

Peripheral speed of the wheel, u =

DN
60

Here, D = mean diameter of the wheel


=12 inch
=0.3048 m
u

3.1416 0.3048 190


=3.04 ms-1
60

47

Speed ratio, =
=

u
va
3.04
8.625

= 0.35

Specific speed, N s =

N Po
H

[where, Po is in kW]

190 23.77 103


(7.02)

= 2.56 rpm

48

CHAPTER 6
RESULT & DISCUSSION
6.1 Calculation Table:

No.
of
Obs.

H
(m)

Q
(m3/s)

va
(ms-1)

Cv

Pi
(W)

Po
(W)

Speed
ratio,

Efficiency,
(%)

Torque,
T
(N.m)

39%

Specific
speed,
Ns
(rpm)
2.56

01.

7.02

8.8510-4

8.625

0.73

60.94

23.77

0.35

02.

8.43

910-4

8.771

0.68

74.42

28.4

0.38

38.16%

2.46

1.29

03.

9.83

1.0310-3

10.03

0.72

99.32

35.10

0.38

35.34%

2.58

1.4

04.

11.24

1.0710-3

10.42

0.70

117.98

39.13

0.36

33.16%

2.26

1.6

05.

12.65

1.0910-3

10.62

0.67

135.26

42.72

0.37

31.64%

2.13

1.65

06.

14.05

1.1310-3

11.01

0.66

155.74

46.92

0.36

30.12%

1.99

1.8

07.

15.46

1.210-3

11.69

0.67

181.99

64.45

0.42

35.41%

2.56

1.98

08.

16.86

1.410-3

13.64

0.75

231.55

68.10

0.36

29.41%

2.4

2.06

09

18.26

1.5410-3

15

0.79

275.86

77.88

0.36

28.23%

2.51

2.19

10.

19.67

1.6610-3

16.17

0.82

320.31

99.2

0.4

30.96%

3.12

2.31

11.

21.08

1.8210-3

17.73

0.87

376.36

111.2

0.38

29.53%

3.17

2.47

Results:
Mean coefficient of velocity of the nozzle, Cv = 0.73
Mean speed ratio, = 0.37
Mean specific speed, Ns = 2.52
Mean efficiency of the wheel, = 32.81%

49

1.19

6.2 Graphs & Discussion:


Following performance characteristics curves will be discussed:

Head vs. Flow rate

Speed vs. Flow rate

Torque vs. Flow rate

Output power vs. Flow rate

Output power vs. Input power

6.2.1 Head vs. Flow rate:

Figure 6.1: Head vs. Flow rate curve

From the graph of head against flow rate; head increases from 7.2 m to 21.08 m and the
volumetric flow rate was increasing from 8.8510-4 m3/s to 1.8210-34 m3/s. As the head of
water increases the pressure is increased. This increase in pressure influences the power
delivered to the wheel by the jet of water. The curve fluctuated at some point. Due to frictional
loss and some leakage of pipe line it occurred.

50

6.2.2 Speed vs. Flow rate:

Figure 6.2: Speed vs. Flow Rate curve

This graph shows the relationship between speed and flow rate from the nozzle. As the speed
increases from 190 rpm to 430 rpm, the volumetric flow rate increases from 8.8510-4 m3/s to
1.8210-34 m3/s. So the head of water increases with the increase of speed. As the speed is
correlated with head so with the increase of head, speed of wheel also increases. Fluctuation
takes place at some point. Digital tachometers instability is the hindrance of it. Again frictional
loss of pipe line and some leakage losses are also responsible for it.

51

6.2.3 Torque vs. Flow rate:

Figure 6.3: Torque vs. Flow rate curve

This graph shows the relationship between torque and flow rate from the nozzle. As the torque
increases from 3 lb to 6.2 lb, the volumetric flow rate increases from 8.8510-4 m3/s to 1.821034

m3/s. So the torque increases with the increase of speed. Increase of speed results the increase

of applied load to the brake drum. As torque is interrelated with load so with the increase of load,
torque increases gradually. Digital tachometers instability is the main reason of the seesaw of
the curve.

52

6.2.4 Output power vs. Flow rate:

Figure 6.4: Output power vs. Flow rate curve

From the graph of output power against flow rate from the nozzle, as the flow rate increases from
8.8510-4 m3/s to 1.8210-34 m3/s output power increases from 23.77 watt to 111.16 watt. As the
flow rate of water increases the load is also increased. Flow rate is the reason for increasing the
speed of the wheel. And the load of the brake drum is related with torque. So increase of speed
and torque results the increase of output power. Head loss, leakage and tachometer instability is
the reason for the fluctuation.

53

6.2.5 Output power vs. Input power curve:

Figure 6.1: Output power vs. Input power

This graph shows the relationship between output power and input power. In this graph best
fitted line is used which maintains the straight line equation y=mx. Frictional loss, leakage loss,
inaccuracy in measurement, visual errors while taking data, large fraction inaccuracy, digital
tachometer instability etc. are the main reasons behind it. From this graph, slope, m=0.276. So,
efficiency determined from the curve is, = 27.6%.

54

The main objective of this experiment is to construct Pelton Turbine with proper design
and accuracy as close as possible compared to ideal Pelton Turbine and to measure the
performance characteristics values using experimental procedure. And also to find the
performance characteristics curve. The whole construction was done with great keenness and
persistence.
According to design equation, the runner should have 21 buckets but as the main concern
of the thesis was only to demonstrate Pelton wheel for study purpose, 12 buckets were put in
work. The Jet ratio varies from 10 to 14 but for the same reason it was also overlooked. These
are some crucial points of deviation from standard values.
From result, coefficient of velocity, Cv, is 0.73. But in ideal condition it must be from
0.98 to 0.99. The reason of this error is sudden contraction of nozzle. For lack of spacing in
casing a short length of nozzle is used but the jet diameter remains same. So for this sudden
contraction coefficient of velocity is formed to be lower than the ideal one. For some losses the
values of specific speed, speed ratio differs from ideal values. Frictional loss, inaccuracy in
measurement, visual errors while taking data, round off error, leakage losses, digital tachometer
instability etc. are the main reasons behind it.
From the results, it is shown how Pelton Wheel reacts to different kinds of input.
Different flow rates give different values of work input. The slower the flow rates, the larger the
work being put into the wheel. The efficiency of the slower flow rates is also better than faster
one. The speed of the wheel is also dropped when much weight is being applied until it stopped
suddenly when the weight is too much for it to go against.

55

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION
The experiment of the thesis was carried out with an acceptable level of accuracy. It was
generally a success as the results obtained were useful for the analysis of the properties of
the machine. From the experimental results, it became possible for the real picture of the
operational basis of the machine to be displayed in such a way that the characteristics of the
turbine were visible in the graphical analysis used. The experiment was not fully accurate due to
several errors that resulted from several misdoings. The greatest being that it became really
difficult to acquire readings from the spring balance since the setup was vibrating as result of the
operation of the machine. As such, this explains the slight deviation of the results obtained in the
experiment that were later reflected in the graphs drawn to represent the work. Other errors may
have resulted from unseen leakages in the system and observational and computational errors.
The experiment was, however, carried out with a great level of keenness to reduce the
occurrence of such errors.
Some of the limitations are represented below:

Pressure must not exceed 30psi as it can be destructive for the buckets.

Initial load at the brake drum must be low for the same reason.

Vast amount of water gets wasted due to absence of recycling system design.

Due to excess rotation of the brake drum too much heat is generated which causes
the belt to cling with the brake drum.

56

There is a huge field of research in this sector for further improvement. The further
recommendations are as follows:

A DC Motor can be coupled with the shaft to generate electricity. But this
power will be very small.

Bucket material may be changed. Different materials, such as stainless steel,


carbon steel, composites or melamine can be used which may improve the
efficiency of the pelton turbine.

The disposal water can be recycled.

57

REFERENCES
1. Yassi, Y. (1999) An experimental study of improvement of a micro hydro turbine
performance. University of Glasgow.
2. Thermo fluid Lab manual, University TenagaNasional.
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelton_wheel
4. http://www.green-mechanic.com/2014/06/pelton-wheel-turbine.html
5. http://4mechtech.blogspot.com/2014/06/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-ImpulseTurbine.html
6. http://www.oldpelton.net/history/
7. https://www.scribd.com/doc/138061490/Pelton-Turbine-Report#scribd
8. http://www.wika.us/products_PM_en_us.WIKA
9. http://www.hiscoi.com/eng/product/product_main.html?parent=1
10. http://fetweb.ju.edu.jo/staff/me/jyamin/Turbomachine%20Textbook/dke672_ch3.pdf
11. http://www.learnengineering.org/2013/08/pelton-turbine-wheel-hydraulic-turbine.html
12. http://www.ijens.org/1929091%20ijet.pdf
13. http://www.lselectric.com/how-a-pelton-wheel-works/

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