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DESIGN OF STEEL TOWERS

Presented
By,

U. C. T. Warnakulasuriya

Design of Steel Towers :

Introduction
Type of towers
Tower configuration
Tower loading
Analysis of tower members
Design of tower members
Bolt Connection
Testing of Towers
Design Example

1.0 Introduction :
The tower types used in the industry are
1.0 Transmission towers
2.0 Telecommunication and broadcasting
towers
Why do we need transmission towers
Interconnection of scattered power generating
locations to the national grid and power
distribution requires transmission lines.

2.0 Type of Transmission Towers :


Tower types used in the transmission line work are
Straight Line Towers Line deviation angle is zero
100 angle Towers Line deviation angle varies from
00 to 100 degrees
300 angle Towers Line deviation angle varies
from 110 to 300 degrees
600 angle Towers - Line deviation angle varies
from 310 to 600 degrees
Terminal towers or dead end towers.

3.0 Tower Configuration


Tower configuration depends on the following
main factors,
a. Length of insulator assembly

3.0 Tower Configuration


b. Minimum clearance from conductors to the
tower steel
c. Mid span clearance under dynamic conductor
behavior
d. Geometric mean distance between conductors
e. Economic use of tower material

Tower Figures

Tower Figures
1. Tower height considered from ground level
Minimum ground clearance
Maximum sag of lowermost conductor
Height and Location of Ground Wires
2. Length of cross arms and horizontal spacing
between conductors

Tower Figures

Tower Figures
3. Tower width at base and top width
Tower base width to height taken in the range
of 2.4 to 4.0
Tower top width to base taken in the range of
1/3 to 1/3.5
4. Bracing pattern used in the tower configuration

Tower Bracing Patterns

Tower Bracing Patterns

4.0 - Tower Loading

The loading applied on transmission line


towers are as follows,
a. Vertical loads
b. Transverse loads
c. Longitudinal loads

Vertical Loads
Dead weight of tower structure
Vertical Loads due to conductors and ground
wire

Vertical Loads

Transverse Loads
Wind on conductors and ground wire
Transverse component of cable tension in case
of angle tower
Wind on tower body

Longitudinal Loads
Unbalance pull due to broken wire condition
Pull of conductors and ground wire in case of
dead-end tower.

5.0 Analysis of Tower Members


A computer software STAAD PRO is used for
the analysis of tower members

6.0 Design of Tower Members


The designing of tower members are carried out
according to ASCE 10-97 standard (American
Society of Civil Engineers)
Permissible Axial Stress in Tension
Permissible Axial Stress in Compression

6.0 Design of Tower Members

6.0 Design of Tower Members

7.0 Bolt Connections


Bolt connection shall be designed as per ASCE
10-97 standard.
Shear capacity of bolts
Bearing capacity of bolts

8.0 Testing of Towers


Transmission line tower remains as one of the
few structures in structural engineering which
is tested full scale to destruction.

9.0 Design Example


Design calculation could be carried out in the
following steps,
Step 01 - Collection of design information
Step 02 - Load Calculation
Step 03 - Preparation of loading trees
Step 04 - Calculation of wind load on tower after
completion of tower geometry
- Wind Diagram

9.0 Design Example


Step 05 - Transfer of tower geometry to computer
program and load application
(with computer software)
Step 06 - Analysis of tower
(with computer software)
Step 07 - Grouping of analyse tower member
forces
Step 08 - Tower member design
Step 09 - Completion of final tower line diagram for
detailing