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1. There + be + noun
S+ have/ has/ had + noun
Ex1: There are 100 classrooms in this school This school has 100 classrooms.
2. S + V + amount It + be + compound noun
Ex1: The train from Nha Trang City to HCM City takes 9 hours.
Its a 9 - hour- train from Nha Trang City to HCM City
to HCM
3. both + (adv) and (adv) not only + (adv)
but also + (adv)
Ex1: The boy is both smart and careful The boy is not only smart but also careful
Ex2: Minh does his performance both quickly and wonderfully
Minh does his performance not only quickly but also wonderfully
Ex3: Hai is both an engineer and a boss of this company
Hai is not only an engineer but also a boss of this company
4. S+ be (not) + EITHER + adj + OR+ be + (not) + adj
S + be + NEITHER + adj + NOR + adj
Ex1: The theatre was not clean and not comfortable.
The theatre was neither clean nor comfortable.
5. S+ V + such + (a/an) + adj + noun + that S+ V + so + adj/ adv + that
Ex1: It was such a beautiful girl that everybody loved her.
The girl was so beautiful that everybody loved her.
Ex2: It was such bad weather that we cannot go out for a picnic.
The weather was so bad that we
6. S + V + so + adj/adv + that+ (it/them..) S + V+ too + adj/adv + to-inf (it/them)
Ex1: The film is so boring that I cant watch it.
The film is too boring for me to watch it.
He ran so slowly that he could not keep pace with his friends.
He ran too slowly to keep pace with his friends.

S+ V + too + adj/adv + (for +S.O.) + to inf

S + V +not + adj/adv+ enough + (for S.O.) + to inf
Ex1: The water is too hot for me to drink.
The water is not warm enough for me to drink.
He spoke too quickly for us to listen.
He did not speak slow enough for us to listen.

Because + S + V Because of + noun/ noun phrase/ V-ing


Ex1: We didn't go to school because it rained heavily.

We didn't go to school because of the heavy rain

(not) to-inf/
S+ V + so that
+ S + V (not) S + V +
so as (not) to
in order that
in order (not) to
Mary went shopping because she wanted to buy some jeans
Mary went shopping in order to/ so as to/ to buy some jeans
Ex2: Mary disguised herself so that no one could recognize her
Mary disguised herself not to be recognized
10. In spite of / Despite + n / n.phrase Despite the fact that + S+ V
Ex1: In spite of getting high salary, he isn't happy
Despite the fact that he gets high salary, he
11. Although/ Even though + S +V In spite of/ despite + noun /noun phrase
Ex1: Although/Even though she was ill, she tried to go to school
In spite of her illness / In spite of her being ill, she tried to ..
Despite her illness / Despite her being ill, she tried to ..
12. To-inf / V-ing + be + adj It + be + adj + to-inf
Ex1: Playing computer games is really exciting It is really exciting to play computer
Having + pp + After + S + had+ pp
Having finished her English course, she applied for a job
After she had finished her English course, she applied for a job
14. S +V + allow + S.O. + to -inf let S.O. + bare- inf
Ex1: My mother allows me to eat out My mother lets me eat out
15. S + V+ find + it + easy/ difficult + to-inf
S + V + find + no difficulty/ ease in + V-ing
Carol finds it easy to make friends
Carol finds no difficulty in making friends
Tom found it difficult to learn Russian grammar
Tom found no ease in learning .
16. S1+ be + superlative + S2 + have/ has ever + pp
S2 + have/has + never + pp + such (a/an) + adj+noun + (like+ noun)
Mary is the most intelligent girl I have ever met
I have never met such an intelligent girl like Mary
17. I would like/ want+ S.O + to- inf Do you mind if +S+V (present simple)
Would you mind + V-ing

Would you mind if +S+V(simple past)+?

Ex1: I would like you to open the window
Do you mind if you open the window?
Would you mind if you opened the window? Would you mind opening?
18. S+ like/prefer + V-ing to + V-ing
S+ would rather + V (bare-inf ) + than+ V (bare-inf )
Ex1: She prefers watching TV to playing football
Shed rather watch TV than play football
Henry like going fishing better than going swimming
Henry would rather go fishing than go swimming
19. S + advise + S.O. + to-inf S.O. +
had beter + bare- inf
Ex1: My mother advised me to travel by train I had better travel by train
20. S + like/ love + S +be + fond of/ interested in/keen on + sth. / V-ing
Ex1: I love fishing I am interested in fishing / I am fond of/ keen on fishing
21. Would you like + to-inf? S + invite + S.O. + to-inf
+ noun?
offer + noun
< Invitation >
Ex1: Would you like to go swimming with me? She invited me to go swimming
Ex2: Would you like a cup of coffee?
She offered me a cup of coffee.
22. Causative form
Active: Ask/ Request / Get/ Want
Passive: Ask/ Request / Get/ Want

S.O.(people) + to-inf
S.O.(thing) + bare-inf
S.Th. + pp + (by

I asked/am going to ask the boy to polish my shoes (to-inf)

I had the boy polish my shoes (bare-inf)
I asked/ am going to ask/wanted/ had my shoes polished by the boy

23. Whose + noun + be + this/ that/? Who + do/does/did/ + noun + belong to?
Ex1: Whose book is this? Who does this book belong to?
If + S+ V + (not) Unless + S+ V
Ex1: If you dont work hard, you wont pass the exam Unless you work hard, you....
Ex2: If you miss the bus, you wont arrive at the school on time.
Unless you miss the bus, you will arrive at the school on time
25. S+ V + not anymore/ any longer No longer + V + S


She wasnt a famous singer anymore/any longer

No longer was she a famous singer.

26. S+ have/ has never + pp..+ before Its the first time + S + have/ has + ever + pp
Ex1: I have never eaten pizza before Its the first time I have ever eaten......

27. Active:

People say/ think/tell + ( that) + S +V


It +be + said / thought.that + S2 + V2

S2 + V2 + be + said/ thought to-inf
Ex1: People say/think that he is 150 years old.
Its said/thought that he is 150 years old / He is said/thought to be 90 years old.
Ex2: They said that John was living in London.
It was said that John was living in London/ John was said to be living in London
28. This is the first time+ have/has + pp S +V (TO BE) + not used to + V-ing
Ex1: This is the first time I have ever travelled by plane
I am not used to traveling by plane
It + be+ time + since + S +V (past tense) S + V + have/ has +pp + for + time
Its 5 years since we started learning English
I have started learning English for 5 years



S+ V (past tense) + time + ago It + be + time + since + S + V (past tense)

Ex1: I went to Hue 6 months ago Its 6 months since I went to Hue
31. The last time+ S+V (past tense) + be + time
S+ have/ has + not + pp + for /since + time / S+ last + V (past tense) + time
Ex1: The last time I met her four years ago/ I last met her four years ago
I have not met her for four years
Mary last met her husband yesterday
The last time Mary met her husband was yesterday
Mary has not met her husband since yesterday.
32. It + be + (high) time + for S.O. + to-inf It + be + (high) time + S + V (S.past)


Its time for us to go home Its time we went home.

Remember + to-inf Don't forget to-inf
Ex1: Remember to send me a letter Don't forget to send me a letter
34. S+ V + comparative + THAN + S+ V S + V + AS + adj/ adv + AS + S + V
Ex1: My mother cooks better than I do

I dont cook as well as my mother (does)

Ex2: He is handsomer than his brother
His brother is not as handsome as he is
35. If + clause+ comparative





The more + long adj.

The more + noun
The+ short adj. + ER

If you are happier, you look younger

The happier you are, the younger you look
If there are more people, it will be better
The more people there are, the better it will
If he works harder, the boss will give him more money
The harder he works, the more money he get
If she is more beautiful, more people love her
The more beautiful she is, the more people love her


S + V + superlative

No other + noun + V + AS + adj/adv + AS / S+ V + comparative

Ex1: The Mekong river is the longest one in Vietnam
No other river in Vietnam is as long as the Mekong river
The Mekong river is longer than any other river in Vietnam

S + V (do something) in + time/ S+ spend + time + on doing something

It take someone + time + to-inf < a period of time to last >
Ex1: Lan washes her clothes in 30 minutes / Lan spends 30 minutes on washing..

It takes Lan 30 minutes to wash her clothes.

38. It + be + ones duty + to-inf S+ be + supposed + to-inf
Ex1: Its your duty to obey orders You are supposed to obey the orders.
39. As soon as / Just Immediately No sooner + had + pp + Than + S+V (S.past)

Hardly / Scarely + had + pp + When + S+V (S.past)

Ex1: The bomb went off as soon as the police got out of the house
No sooner
had the police gone than the bomb.
Scarely/ hardly had the police gone when the bomb.
40. S+ be + sorry that + S + V S + apologize (to S.O) + for + V-ing

Ex1: Im sorry that I broke that vase I apologized for breaking that vase.